Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 851

Search results for: laser diode

851 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power

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850 Study on Concentration and Temperature Measurement with 760 nm Diode Laser in Combustion System Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

Authors: Miyeon Yoo, Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee

Abstract:

It is important to measure the internal temperature or temperature distribution precisely in combustion system to increase energy efficiency and reduce the pollutants. Especially in case of large combustion systems such as power plant boiler and reheating furnace of steel making process, it is very difficult to measure those physical properties in detail. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement and analysis can be attractive method to overcome the difficulty. In this paper, TDLAS methods are used to measure the oxygen concentration and temperature distribution in various experimental conditions.

Keywords: tunable diode laser absorption Spectroscopy, temperature distribution, gas concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
849 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev

Abstract:

This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence

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848 Study of the Energy Levels in the Structure of the Laser Diode GaInP

Authors: Abdelali Laid, Abid Hamza, Zeroukhi Houari, Sayah Naimi

Abstract:

This work relates to the study of the energy levels and the optimization of the Parameter intrinsic (a number of wells and their widths, width of barrier of potential, index of refraction etc.) and extrinsic (temperature, pressure) in the Structure laser diode containing the structure GaInP. The methods of calculation used; - method of the empirical pseudo potential to determine the electronic structures of bands, - graphic method for optimization. The found results are in concord with those of the experiment and the theory.

Keywords: semi-conductor, GaInP/AlGaInP, pseudopotential, energy, alliages

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847 A Compact Extended Laser Diode Cavity Centered at 780 nm for Use in High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy

Authors: J. Alvarez, J. Pimienta, R. Sarmiento

Abstract:

Diode lasers working in free mode present different shifting and broadening determined by external factors such as temperature, current or mechanical vibrations, and they are not more useful in applications such as spectroscopy, metrology, and cooling of atoms, among others. Different configurations can reduce the spectral width of a laser; one of the most effective is to extend the optical resonator of the laser diode and use optical feedback either with the help of a partially reflective mirror or with a diffraction grating; this latter configuration is not only allowed to reduce the spectral width of the laser line but also to coarsely adjust its working wavelength, within a wide range typically ~ 10nm by slightly varying the angle of the diffraction grating. Two settings are commonly used for this purpose, the Littrow configuration and the Littmann Metcalf. In this paper, we present the design, construction, and characterization of a compact extended laser cavity in Littrow configuration. The designed cavity is compact and was machined on an aluminum block using computer numerical control (CNC); it has a mass of only 380 g. The design was tested on laser diodes with different wavelengths, 650nm, 780nm, and 795 nm, but can be equally efficient at other wavelengths. This report details the results obtained from the extended cavity working at a wavelength of 780 nm, with an output power of around 35mW and a line width of less than 1Mhz. The cavity was used to observe the spectrum of the corresponding Rubidium D2 line. By modulating the current and with the help of phase detection techniques, a dispersion signal with an excellent signal-to-noise ratio was generated that allowed the stabilization of the laser to a transition of the hyperfine structure of Rubidium with an integral proportional controller (PI) circuit made with precision operational amplifiers.

Keywords: Littrow, Littman-Metcalf, line width, laser stabilization, hyperfine structure

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846 Laser Irradiated GeSn Photodetector for Improved Infrared Photodetection

Authors: Patrik Scajev, Pavels Onufrijevs, Algirdas Mekys, Tadas Malinauskas, Dominykas Augulis, Liudvikas Subacius, Kuo-Chih Lee, Jevgenijs Kaupuzs, Arturs Medvids, Hung Hsiang Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, we focused on the optoelectronic properties of the photodiodes prepared by using 200 nm thick Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ epitaxial layers on Ge/n-Si substrate with aluminum contacts. Photodiodes were formed on non-irradiated and Nd: YAG laser irradiated Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ layers. The samples were irradiated by pulsed Nd: YAG laser with 136.7-462.6 MW/cm² intensity. The photodiodes were characterized by using short laser pulses with the wavelength in the 2.0-2.6 μm range. The laser-irradiated diode was found more sensitive in the long-wavelength range due to laser-induced Sn atoms redistribution providing formation of graded bandgap structure. Sub-millisecond photocurrent relaxation in the diodes revealed their suitability for image sensors. Our findings open the perspective for improving the photo-sensitivity of GeSn alloys in the mid-infrared by pulsed laser processing.

Keywords: GeSn, laser processing, photodetector, infrared

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845 Scope of Lasers in Periodontics

Authors: Atmaja Patel

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Since the development of lasers in 1951, the first medical application was reported by Goldman in 1962. In 1960, T.H. Maiman produced the first Ruby laser and was used in cardiovascular surgery by McGuff in 1963. After a long time of investigations and new developments in laser technology first clinical applications were performed by Choy and Ginsburg in 1983. Introduction of the first true dental laser was in 1989. This paper is to highlight the various treatments and prevention of periodontal diseases. Lasers have become more predictable and effective form of treatment for periodontal diseases. The advantages of lasers include reduced use of anaesthesia, coagulation that yields a dry surgical field and hence better visibility, reduced need of sutures, minimal swelling and scarring, less pain and medication, faster healing and increased patient acceptance.

Keywords: lasers, periodontal surgery, diode laser, healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
844 The Efficacy of Class IV Diode Laser in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed Alayat, Ahmed Mohamed Elsoudany, Roaa Abdulghani Sroge, Bayan Muteb Aldhahwani

Abstract:

Background: Neck pain is a common illness that could affect individual’s daily activities. Class IV laser with longer wavelength can stimulate tissues and penetrate more than the classic low-level laser therapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of class IV diode laser in the treatment of patients with chronic neck pain (CNP). Methods: Fifty-two patients participated and completed the study. Their mean age (SD) was 50.7 (6.2). Patients were randomized into two groups and treated with laser plus exercise (laser + EX) group and placebo laser plus exercise (PL+EX) group. Treatment was performed by Class IV laser in two phases; scanning and trigger point phases. Scanning to the posterior neck and shoulder girdle region with 4 J/cm2 with a total energy of 300 J applied to 75 cm2 in 4 minutes and 16 seconds. Eight trigger points on the posterior neck area were treated by 4 J/cm2 and the time of application was in 30 seconds. Both groups received exercise two times per week for 4 weeks. Exercises included range of motion, isometric, stretching, isotonic resisted exercises to the cervical extensors, lateral bending and rotators muscles with postural correction exercises. The measured variables were pain level using visual analogue scale (VAS), and neck functional activity using neck disability index (NDI) score. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. The level of statistical significance was set as p < 0.05. Results: There were significant decreases in post-treatment VAS and NDI in both groups as compared to baseline values. Laser + EX effectively decreased VAS (mean difference -6.5, p = 0.01) and NDI scores after (mean difference -41.3, p = 0.01) 4 weeks of treatment compared to PL + EX. Conclusion: Class IV laser combined with exercise is effective treatment for patients with CNP as compared to PL + EX therapy. The combination of laser + EX effectively increased functional activity and reduced pain after 4 weeks of treatment.

Keywords: chronic neck pain, class IV laser, exercises, neck disability index, visual analogue scale

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843 Passively Q-Switched 914 nm Microchip Laser for LIDAR Systems

Authors: Marco Naegele, Klaus Stoppel, Thomas Dekorsy

Abstract:

Passively Q-switched microchip lasers enable the great potential for sophisticated LiDAR systems due to their compact overall system design, excellent beam quality, and scalable pulse energies. However, many near-infrared solid-state lasers show emitting wavelengths > 1000 nm, which are not compatible with state-of-the-art silicon detectors. Here we demonstrate a passively Q-switched microchip laser operating at 914 nm. The microchip laser consists of a 3 mm long Nd:YVO₄ crystal as a gain medium, while Cr⁴⁺:YAG with an initial transmission of 98% is used as a saturable absorber. Quasi-continuous pumping enables single pulse operation, and low duty cycles ensure low overall heat generation and power consumption. Thus, thermally induced instabilities are minimized, and operation without active cooling is possible while ambient temperature changes are compensated by adjustment of the pump laser current only. Single-emitter diode pumping at 808 nm leads to a compact overall system design and robust setup. Utilization of a microchip cavity approach ensures single-longitudinal mode operation with spectral bandwidths in the picometer regime and results in short laser pulses with pulse durations below 10 ns. Beam quality measurements reveal an almost diffraction-limited beam and enable conclusions concerning the thermal lens, which is essential to stabilize the plane-plane resonator. A 7% output coupler transmissivity is used to generate pulses with energies in the microjoule regime and peak powers of more than 600 W. Long-term pulse duration, pulse energy, central wavelength, and spectral bandwidth measurements emphasize the excellent system stability and facilitate the utilization of this laser in the context of a LiDAR system.

Keywords: diode-pumping, LiDAR system, microchip laser, Nd:YVO4 laser, passively Q-switched

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842 In vitro Study of Laser Diode Radiation Effect on the Photo-Damage of MCF-7 and MCF-10A Cell Clusters

Authors: A. Dashti, M. Eskandari, L. Farahmand, P. Parvin, A. Jafargholi

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Breast Cancer is one of the most considerable diseases in the United States and other countries and is the second leading cause of death in women. Common breast cancer treatments would lead to adverse side effects such as loss of hair, nausea, and weakness. These complications arise because these cancer treatments damage some healthy cells while eliminating the cancer cells. In an effort to address these complications, laser radiation was utilized and tested as a targeted cancer treatment for breast cancer. In this regard, tissue engineering approaches are being employed by using an electrospun scaffold in order to facilitate the growth of breast cancer cells. Polycaprolacton (PCL) was used as a material for scaffold fabricating because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and supporting cell growth. The specific breast cancer cells have the ability to create a three-dimensional cell cluster due to the spontaneous accumulation of cells in the porosity of the scaffold under some specific conditions. Therefore, we are looking for a higher density of porosity and larger pore size. Fibers showed uniform diameter distribution and final scaffold had optimum characteristics with approximately 40% porosity. The images were taken by SEM and the density and the size of the porosity were determined with the Image. After scaffold preparation, it has cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. Then, it has been washed with glycine and phosphate buffer saline (PBS), in order to neutralize the residual glutaraldehyde. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromidefor (MTT) results have represented approximately 91.13% viability of the scaffolds for cancer cells. In order to create a cluster, Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7, breast cancer cell line) and Michigan Cancer Foundation-10A (MCF-10A, human mammary epithelial cell line) cells were cultured on the scaffold in 24 well plate for five days. Then, we have exposed the cluster to the laser diode 808 nm radiation to investigate the effect of laser on the tumor with different power and time. Under the same conditions, cancer cells lost their viability more than the healthy ones. In conclusion, laser therapy is a viable method to destroy the target cells and has a minimum effect on the healthy tissues and cells and it can improve the other method of cancer treatments limitations.

Keywords: breast cancer, electrospun scaffold, polycaprolacton, laser diode, cancer treatment

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841 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, V. S. Tripathi, Shivesh Tripathi

Abstract:

A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: ITS, multiband antenna, PIN-diode, reconfigurable

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840 A Small Signal Model for Resonant Tunneling Diode

Authors: Rania M. Abdallah, Ahmed A. S. Dessouki, Moustafa H. Aly

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This paper has presented a new simple small signal model for a resonant tunnelling diode device. The resonant tunnelling diode equivalent circuit elements were calculated and the results led to good agreement between the calculated equivalent circuit elements and the measurement results.

Keywords: resonant tunnelling diode, small signal model, negative differential conductance, electronic engineering

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839 Dependence of Photocurrent on UV Wavelength in ZnO/Pt Bottom-Contact Schottky Diode

Authors: Byoungho Lee, Changmin Kim, Youngmin Lee, Sejoon Lee, Deuk Young Kim

Abstract:

We fabricated the bottom-contacted ZnO/Pt Schottky diode and investigated the dependence of its photocurrent on the wavelength of illuminated ultraviolet (UV) light source. The bottom-contacted Schottky diode was devised by growing (000l) ZnO on (111) Pt, and the fabricated device showed a strong dependence on the UV wavelength for its photo-response characteristics. When longer-wavelength-UV (e.g., UV-A) was illuminated on the device, the photo-current was increased by a factor of 200, compared to that under illumination of shorter-wavelength-UV (e.g., UV-C). The behavior is attributed to the wavelength-dependent UV penetration depth for ZnO.

Keywords: ZnO, UV, Schottky diode, photocurrent

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838 A Rotating Facility with High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Particle Image Velocimetry System to Investigate the Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow

Authors: Ruquan You, Haiwang Li, Zhi Tao

Abstract:

A time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the boundary layer flow with the effect of rotating Coriolis and buoyancy force. This time-resolved PIV system consists of a 10 Watts continuous laser diode and a high-speed camera. The laser diode is able to provide a less than 1mm thickness sheet light, and the high-speed camera can capture the 6400 frames per second with 1024×1024 pixels. The whole laser and the camera are fixed on the rotating facility with 1 radius meters and up to 500 revolutions per minute, which can measure the boundary flow velocity in the rotating channel with and without ribs directly at rotating conditions. To investigate the effect of buoyancy force, transparent heater glasses are used to provide the constant thermal heat flux, and then the density differences are generated near the channel wall, and the buoyancy force can be simulated when the channel is rotating. Due to the high temporal and spatial resolution of the system, the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) can be developed to analyze the characteristic of the turbulent boundary layer flow at rotating conditions. With this rotating facility and PIV system, the velocity profile, Reynolds shear stress, spatial and temporal correlation, and the POD modes of the turbulent boundary layer flow can be discussed.

Keywords: rotating facility, PIV, boundary layer flow, spatial and temporal resolution

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837 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Ahmed Bakry, Moustafa Ahmed

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We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser

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836 Selective and Highly Sensitive Measurement of ¹⁵NH₃ Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Environmental Applications

Authors: Emily Awuor, Helga Huszar, Zoltan Bozoki

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Isotope analysis has found numerous applications in the environmental science discipline, most common being the tracing of environmental contaminants on both regional and global scales. Many environmental contaminants contain ammonia (NH₃) since it is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and its largest sources are from agricultural and industrial activities. NH₃ isotopes (¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃) are therefore important and can be used in the traceability studies of these atmospheric pollutants. The goal of the project is the construction of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system that is capable of measuring ¹⁵NH₃ isotope selectively in terms of its concentration. A further objective is for the system to be robust, easy-to-use, and automated. This is provided by using two telecommunication type near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers and a laser coupler as the light source in the photoacoustic measurement system. The central wavelength of the lasers in use was 1532 nm, with the tuning range of ± 1 nm. In this range, strong absorption lines can be found for both ¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃. For the selective measurement of ¹⁵NH₃, wavelengths were chosen where the cross effect of ¹⁴NH₃ and water vapor is negligible. We completed the calibration of the photoacoustic system, and as a result, the lowest detectable concentration was 3.32 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁵NH₃ and 0.44 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁴NH₃. The results are most useful in the environmental pollution measurement and analysis.

Keywords: ammonia isotope, near-infrared DFB diode laser, photoacoustic spectroscopy, environmental monitoring

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835 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer

Abstract:

Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

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834 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev

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Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to the occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.

Keywords: current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise

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833 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

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This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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832 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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831 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz

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A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air and also has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light, being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction and Sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, Finesse, Linewidth, Transmission and so on that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diod, reflectance, semiconductor

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830 Hole Characteristics of Percussion and Single Pulse Laser-Incised Radiata Pine and the Effects of Wood Anatomy on Laser-Incision

Authors: Subhasisa Nath, David Waugh, Graham Ormondroyd, Morwenna Spear, Andy Pitman, Paul Mason

Abstract:

Wood is one of the most sustainable and environmentally favourable materials and is chemically treated in timber industries to maximise durability. To increase the chemical preservative uptake and retention by the wood, current limiting incision technologies are commonly used. This work reports the effects of single pulse CO2 laser-incision and frequency tripled Nd:YAG percussion laser-incision on the characteristics of laser-incised holes in the Radiata Pine. The laser-incision studies were based on changing laser wavelengths, energies and focal planes to conclude on an optimised combination for the laser-incision of Radiata Pine. The laser pulse duration had a dominant effect over laser power in controlling hole aspect ratio in CO2 laser-incision. A maximum depth of ~ 30 mm was measured with a laser power output of 170 W and a pulse duration of 80 ms. However, increased laser power led to increased carbonisation of holes. The carbonisation effect was reduced during laser-incision in the ultra-violet (UV) regime. Deposition of a foamy phase on the laser-incised hole wall was evident irrespective of laser radiation wavelength and energy. A maximum hole depth of ~20 mm was measured in the percussion laser-incision in the UV regime (355 nm) with a pulse energy of 320 mJ. The radial and tangential faces had a significant effect on laser-incision efficiency for all laser wavelengths. The laser-incised hole shapes and circularities were affected by the wood anatomy (earlywoods and latewoods in the structure). Subsequently, the mechanism of laser-incision is proposed by analysing the internal structure of laser-incised holes.

Keywords: CO2 Laser, Nd: YAG laser, incision, drilling, wood, hole characteristics

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829 Raman Tweezers Spectroscopy Study of Size Dependent Silver Nanoparticles Toxicity on Erythrocytes

Authors: Surekha Barkur, Aseefhali Bankapur, Santhosh Chidangil

Abstract:

Raman Tweezers technique has become prevalent in single cell studies. This technique combines Raman spectroscopy which gives information about molecular vibrations, with optical tweezers which use a tightly focused laser beam for trapping the single cells. Thus Raman Tweezers enabled researchers analyze single cells and explore different applications. The applications of Raman Tweezers include studying blood cells, monitoring blood-related disorders, silver nanoparticle-induced stress, etc. There is increased interest in the toxic effect of nanoparticles with an increase in the various applications of nanoparticles. The interaction of these nanoparticles with the cells may vary with their size. We have studied the effect of silver nanoparticles of sizes 10nm, 40nm, and 100nm on erythrocytes using Raman Tweezers technique. Our aim was to investigate the size dependence of the nanoparticle effect on RBCs. We used 785nm laser (Starbright Diode Laser, Torsana Laser Tech, Denmark) for both trapping and Raman spectroscopic studies. 100 x oil immersion objectives with high numerical aperture (NA 1.3) is used to focus the laser beam into a sample cell. The back-scattered light is collected using the same microscope objective and focused into the spectrometer (Horiba Jobin Vyon iHR320 with 1200grooves/mm grating blazed at 750nm). Liquid nitrogen cooled CCD (Symphony CCD-1024x256-OPEN-1LS) was used for signal detection. Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers in vacutainer tubes and centrifuged to separate the blood components. 1.5 ml of silver nanoparticles was washed twice with distilled water leaving 0.1 ml silver nanoparticles in the bottom of the vial. The concentration of silver nanoparticles is 0.02mg/ml so the 0.03mg of nanoparticles will be present in the 0.1 ml nanoparticles obtained. The 25 ul of RBCs were diluted in 2 ml of PBS solution and then treated with 50 ul (0.015mg) of nanoparticles and incubated in CO2 incubator. Raman spectroscopic measurements were done after 24 hours and 48 hours of incubation. All the spectra were recorded with 10mW laser power (785nm diode laser), 60s of accumulation time and 2 accumulations. Major changes were observed in the peaks 565 cm-1, 1211 cm-1, 1224 cm-1, 1371 cm-1, 1638 cm-1. A decrease in intensity of 565 cm-1, increase in 1211 cm-1 with a reduction in 1224 cm-1, increase in intensity of 1371 cm-1 also peak disappearing at 1635 cm-1 indicates deoxygenation of hemoglobin. Nanoparticles with higher size were showing maximum spectral changes. Lesser changes observed in case of 10nm nanoparticle-treated erythrocyte spectra.

Keywords: erythrocytes, nanoparticle-induced toxicity, Raman tweezers, silver nanoparticles

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828 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

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827 Evaluation of Heterogeneity of Paint Coating on Metal Substrate Using Laser Infrared Thermography and Eddy Current

Authors: S. Mezghani, E. Perrin, J. L. Bodnar, J. Marthe, B. Cauwe, V. Vrabie

Abstract:

Non contact evaluation of the thickness of paint coatings can be attempted by different destructive and nondestructive methods such as cross-section microscopy, gravimetric mass measurement, magnetic gauges, Eddy current, ultrasound or terahertz. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive and non-invasive method that can be envisaged as a useful tool to measure the surface thickness variations by analyzing the temperature response. In this paper, the thermal quadrupole method for two layered samples heated up with a pulsed excitation is firstly used. By analyzing the thermal responses as a function of thermal properties and thicknesses of both layers, optimal parameters for the excitation source can be identified. Simulations show that a pulsed excitation with duration of ten milliseconds allows to obtain a substrate-independent thermal response. Based on this result, an experimental setup consisting of a near-infrared laser diode and an Infrared camera was next used to evaluate the variation of paint coating thickness between 60 µm and 130 µm on two samples. Results show that the parameters extracted for thermal images are correlated with the estimated thicknesses by the Eddy current methods. The laser pulsed thermography is thus an interesting alternative nondestructive method that can be moreover used for non conductive substrates.

Keywords: non destructive, paint coating, thickness, infrared thermography, laser, heterogeneity

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826 Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System

Authors: M. Hassani, Y. Hassani, N. Ajudanioskooei, N. N. Benvid

Abstract:

Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.

Keywords: artificial neural network, bending angle, fuzzy logic, laser forming

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825 Optimum Er: YAG Laser Parameters for Orthodontic Composite Debonding: An in vitro Study

Authors: Mohammad Zamzam, Wesam Bachir, Imad Asaad

Abstract:

Several studies have produced estimates of Er:YAG laser parameters and specifications but there is still insufficient data for reliable selection of laser parameters. As a consequence, there is a heightened need for ideal specifications of Er:YAG laser to reduce the amount of enamel ablation. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of Er:YAG laser parameters, energy level and pulse duration, on orthodontic composite removal after bracket debonding. The sample consisted of 45 cuboids of orthodontic composite made by plastic moulds. The samples were divided into three groups, each was irradiated with Er:YAG laser set at different energy levels and three values for pulse durations (50 µs, 100 µs, and 300 µs). Geometrical parameters (depth and area) of cavities formed by laser irradiation were determined. ANCOVA test showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.0.5) between the groups indicating a potential effect of laser pulse duration on the geometrical parameters after controlling laser energy level. A post-hoc Bonferroni test ranked the 50µ Er:YAG laser pulse as the most influential factor for all geometrical parameters in removing remnant composite from enamel surface. Also, 300 mJ laser pulses caused the largest removal of the composite. The results of the present study demonstrated the efficacy of 50 µs and 300 mJ Er:YAG laser pulse for removal of remnant orthodontic composite.

Keywords: enamel, Er:YAG, geometrical parameters, orthodontic composite, remnant composite

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824 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

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823 Semiconductor Variable Wavelength Generator of Near-Infrared-to-Terahertz Regions

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

Power characteristics are obtained for laser beams of near-infrared and terahertz wavelengths when produced by difference-frequency generation with a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) waveguide made of gallium phosphide (GaP). A refractive-index change of the QPM GaP waveguide is included in computations with Sellmeier’s formula for varying input wavelengths, where optical loss is also included. Although the output power decreases with decreasing photon energy as the beam wavelength changes from near-infrared to terahertz wavelengths, the beam generation with such greatly different wavelengths, which is not achievable with an ordinary laser diode without the replacement of semiconductor material with a different bandgap one, can be made with the same semiconductor (GaP) by changing the QPM period, where a way of changing the period is provided.

Keywords: difference-frequency generation, gallium phosphide, quasi-phase-matching, waveguide

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822 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

Procedia PDF Downloads 134