Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6140

Search results for: visual analogue scale

6140 Effect of Low-Intensity Laser on Severe Tinnitus in Idiopathic Sudden Hearing Loss Patients

Authors: Z. Mowafy Emam Mowafy, Ahmed R. Sayed, M. El Sayed Mohmmed Hassan

Abstract:

Purpose: to evaluate the effect of low intensity laser on severe tinnitus in idiopathic sudden hearing loss patients. Methods of evaluation (Visual analogue scale and tinnitus handicap inventory scale):- Thirty patients who had unilateral tinnitus with sensorineural hearing loss were participated in the study. Subjects aged from 40 to 50 were randomly divided into two equal groups: group (A): composed of 15 patients who received the routine medical care (Systemic steroids) in addition to the low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) while group (B): composed of 15 patients who received only the routine medical care. Continuous 632.8nm He-Ne laser was used with 5mW power for 15 min\day, 3 days per week for 3 months. Results and conclusion: Results showed that application of the LILT had a valuable effect on severe tinnitus in idiopathic sudden hearing loss patients as evidenced by the highly decreased visual analogue scale and tinnitus handicap inventory scale.

Keywords: idiopathic sudden hearing loss, low intensity laser, tinnitus, tinnitus handicap inventory scale and visual analogue scale

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6139 Correlates of Coping in Individuals with Tinnitus

Authors: Antonio Oliveira, Rute F. Meneses, Nuno Trigueiros-Cunha

Abstract:

Tinnitus is commonly defined as an aberrant perception of sound without external stimulus. It is a chronic condition, with consequences on the QOL. The coping strategies used were not always effective and coping was identified as a predictor of QOL in individuals with tinnitus, which reinforces the idea that in health the use of effective coping styles should be promoted. This work intend to verify relations between coping strategies assessed by BriefCope in subjects with tinnitus and variables such as gender, age and severity of tinnitus measured by THI and the Visual Analogue Scale and also hearing and hyperacusis. The results indicate that there are any statistically significant relationships between the variables assessed in relation to the results of BriefCope except in the Visual Analogue Scale. These results, indicating no relationship between almost all variables, reinforce the need for further study of coping strategies use by these patients.

Keywords: Brief Cope, coping strategies, quality of live, THI, Tinnitus

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6138 Correlation between Cephalometric Measurements and Visual Perception of Facial Profile in Skeletal Type II Patients

Authors: Choki, Supatchai Boonpratham, Suwannee Luppanapornlarp

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to find a correlation between cephalometric measurements and visual perception of facial profile in skeletal type II patients. In this study, 250 lateral cephalograms of female patients from age, 20 to 22 years were analyzed. The profile outlines of all the samples were hand traced and transformed into silhouettes by the principal investigator. Profile ratings were done by 9 orthodontists on Visual Analogue Scale from score one to ten (increasing level of convexity). 37 hard issue and soft tissue cephalometric measurements were analyzed by the principal investigator. All the measurements were repeated after 2 weeks interval for error assessment. At last, the rankings of visual perceptions were correlated with cephalometric measurements using Spearman correlation coefficient (P < 0.05). The results show that the increase in facial convexity was correlated with higher values of ANB (A point, nasion and B point), AF-BF (distance from A point to B point in mm), L1-NB (distance from lower incisor to NB line in mm), anterior maxillary alveolar height, posterior maxillary alveolar height, overjet, H angle hard tissue, H angle soft tissue and lower lip to E plane (absolute correlation values from 0.277 to 0.711). In contrast, the increase in facial convexity was correlated with lower values of Pg. to N perpendicular and Pg. to NB (mm) (absolute correlation value -0.302 and -0.294 respectively). From the soft tissue measurements, H angles had a higher correlation with visual perception than facial contour angle, nasolabial angle, and lower lip to E plane. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that the correlation of cephalometric measurements with visual perception was less than expected. Only 29% of cephalometric measurements had a significant correlation with visual perception. Therefore, diagnosis based solely on cephalometric analysis can result in failure to meet the patient’s esthetic expectation.

Keywords: cephalometric measurements, facial profile, skeletal type II, visual perception

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6137 Impact of 99mTc-MDP Bone SPECT/CT Imaging in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Authors: Ching-Yuan Chen, Lung-Kwang Pan

Abstract:

Objective: Back pain is a major health problem costing billions of health budgets annually in Taiwan. Thousands of back pain surgeries are performed annually with up to 40% of patients complaining of back pain at time of post-surgery causing failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), although diagnosis in these patients may be complex. The aim of study is to assess the feasibility of using bone SPECT-CT imaging to localize the active lesions causing persistent, recurrent or new backache after spine surgery. Materials and Methods: Bone SPECT-CT imaging was performed after the intravenous injection of 20 mCi of 99mTc-MDP for all the patients with diagnosis of FBSS. Patients were evaluated using status of subjectively pain relief, functional improvement and degree of satisfaction by reviewing the medical records and questionnaires in a 2 more years’ follow-up. Results: We enrolled a total of 16 patients were surveyed in our hospital from Jan. 2015 to Dec. 2016. Four people on SPEC/CT imaging ensured significant lesions were undergone a revised surgery (surgical treatment group). The mean visual analogue scale (VAS) decreased 5.3 points and mean Oswestry disability index (ODI) improved 38 points in the surgical group. The remaining 12 on SPECT/CT imaging were diagnosed as no significant lesions then received drug treatment (medical treatment group). The mean VAS only decreased 2 .1 point and mean ODI improved 12.6 points in the medical treatment group. In the posttherapeutic evaluation, the pain of the surgical treatment group showed a satisfactory improvement. In the medical treatment group, 10 of the 12 were also satisfied with the symptom relief while the other 2 did not improve significantly. Conclusions: Findings on SPECT-CT imaging appears to be easily explained the patients' pain. We recommended that SPECT/CT imaging was a feasible and useful clinical tool to improve diagnostic confidence or specificity when evaluating patients with FBSS.

Keywords: failed back surgery syndrome, oswestry disability index, SPECT-CT imaging, 99mTc-MDP, visual analogue scale

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6136 Secure Message Transmission Using Meaningful Shares

Authors: Ajish Sreedharan

Abstract:

Visual cryptography encodes a secret image into shares of random binary patterns. If the shares are exerted onto transparencies, the secret image can be visually decoded by superimposing a qualified subset of transparencies, but no secret information can be obtained from the superposition of a forbidden subset. The binary patterns of the shares, however, have no visual meaning and hinder the objectives of visual cryptography. In the Secret Message Transmission through Meaningful Shares a secret message to be transmitted is converted to grey scale image. Then (2,2) visual cryptographic shares are generated from this converted gray scale image. The shares are encrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. Two separate color images which are of the same size of the shares, taken as cover image of the respective shares to hide the shares into them. The encrypted shares which are covered by meaningful images so that a potential eavesdropper wont know there is a message to be read. The meaningful shares are transmitted through two different transmission medium. During decoding shares are fetched from received meaningful images and decrypted using A Chaos-Based Image Encryption Algorithm Using Wavelet Transform. The shares are combined to regenerate the grey scale image from where the secret message is obtained.

Keywords: visual cryptography, wavelet transform, meaningful shares, grey scale image

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6135 The Efficacy of Class IV Diode Laser in the Treatment of Patients with Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Mohamed Salaheldien Mohamed Alayat, Ahmed Mohamed Elsoudany, Roaa Abdulghani Sroge, Bayan Muteb Aldhahwani

Abstract:

Background: Neck pain is a common illness that could affect individual’s daily activities. Class IV laser with longer wavelength can stimulate tissues and penetrate more than the classic low-level laser therapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of class IV diode laser in the treatment of patients with chronic neck pain (CNP). Methods: Fifty-two patients participated and completed the study. Their mean age (SD) was 50.7 (6.2). Patients were randomized into two groups and treated with laser plus exercise (laser + EX) group and placebo laser plus exercise (PL+EX) group. Treatment was performed by Class IV laser in two phases; scanning and trigger point phases. Scanning to the posterior neck and shoulder girdle region with 4 J/cm2 with a total energy of 300 J applied to 75 cm2 in 4 minutes and 16 seconds. Eight trigger points on the posterior neck area were treated by 4 J/cm2 and the time of application was in 30 seconds. Both groups received exercise two times per week for 4 weeks. Exercises included range of motion, isometric, stretching, isotonic resisted exercises to the cervical extensors, lateral bending and rotators muscles with postural correction exercises. The measured variables were pain level using visual analogue scale (VAS), and neck functional activity using neck disability index (NDI) score. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. The level of statistical significance was set as p < 0.05. Results: There were significant decreases in post-treatment VAS and NDI in both groups as compared to baseline values. Laser + EX effectively decreased VAS (mean difference -6.5, p = 0.01) and NDI scores after (mean difference -41.3, p = 0.01) 4 weeks of treatment compared to PL + EX. Conclusion: Class IV laser combined with exercise is effective treatment for patients with CNP as compared to PL + EX therapy. The combination of laser + EX effectively increased functional activity and reduced pain after 4 weeks of treatment.

Keywords: chronic neck pain, class IV laser, exercises, neck disability index, visual analogue scale

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6134 A Ferutinin Analogue with Enhanced Potency and Selectivity against Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cells in vitro

Authors: Remi Safi, Aline Hamade, Najat Bteich, Jamal El Saghir, Mona Diab Assaf, Marwan El-Sabban, Fadia Najjar

Abstract:

Estrogen is considered a risk factor for breast cancer since it promotes breast-cell proliferation. The jaesckeanadiol-3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoate, a hemi-synthetic analogue of the natural phytoestrogen ferutinin (jaesckeanadiol-p-hydroxybenzoate), is designed to be devoid of estrogenic activity. This analogue induces a cytotoxic effect 30 times higher than that of ferutinin towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. We compared these two compounds with respect to their effect on proliferation, cell cycle distribution and cancer stem-like cells in the MCF-7 cell line. Treatment with ferutinin (30 μM) and its analogue (1 μM) produced a significant accumulation of cells at the pre G0/G1 cell cycle phase and triggered apoptosis. Importantly, this compound retains its anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer stem/progenitor cells that are naturally insensitive to ferutinin at the same dose. These results position ferutinin analogue as an effective compound inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells and consistently targeting their stem-like cells.

Keywords: ferutinin, hemi-synthetic analogue, breast cancer, estrogen, stem/progenitor cells

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6133 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang

Abstract:

In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: visual culture, contemporary, images, literacy

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6132 A Comparison of Anger State and Trait Anger Among Adolescents with and without Visual Impairment

Authors: Sehmus Aslan, Sibel Karacaoglu, Cengiz Sevgin, Ummuhan Bas Aslan

Abstract:

Objective: Anger expression style is an important moderator of the effects on the person and person’s environment. Anger and anger expression have become important constructs in identifying individuals at high risk for psychological difficulties. To our knowledge, there is no information about anger and anger expression of adolescents with visual impairment. The aim of this study was to compare anger and anger expression among adolescents with and without visual impairment. Methods: Thirty-eight adolescents with visual impairment (18 female, 20 male) and 44 adolescents without visual impairment (22 female, 24 male), in totally 84 adolescents aged between 12 to 15 years, participated in the study. Anger and anger expression of the participants assessed with The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS). STAS, a self-report questionnaire, is designed to measure the experience and expression of anger. STAS has four subtitles including continuous anger, anger in, anger out and anger control. Reliability and validity of the STAS have been well established among adolescents. Mann-Whitney U Test was used for statistical analysis. Results: No significant differences were found in the scores of continuous anger and anger out between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p < 0.05). On the other hand, there were differences in scores of anger control and anger in between adolescents with and without visual impairment (p>0.05). The score of anger control in adolescents with visual impairment were higher compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Meanwhile, the adolescents with visual impairment had lower score for anger in compared with adolescents without visual impairment. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is no difference in anger level among adolescents with and without visual impairment meanwhile there is difference in anger expression.

Keywords: adolescent, anger, impaired, visual

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6131 The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages

Authors: Xiaoying Guo, Xiangyun Wang

Abstract:

Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.

Keywords: visual fluency, cognitive fluency, visual complexity, usability

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6130 Visual Thing Recognition with Binary Scale-Invariant Feature Transform and Support Vector Machine Classifiers Using Color Information

Authors: Wei-Jong Yang, Wei-Hau Du, Pau-Choo Chang, Jar-Ferr Yang, Pi-Hsia Hung

Abstract:

The demands of smart visual thing recognition in various devices have been increased rapidly for daily smart production, living and learning systems in recent years. This paper proposed a visual thing recognition system, which combines binary scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT), bag of words model (BoW), and support vector machine (SVM) by using color information. Since the traditional SIFT features and SVM classifiers only use the gray information, color information is still an important feature for visual thing recognition. With color-based SIFT features and SVM, we can discard unreliable matching pairs and increase the robustness of matching tasks. The experimental results show that the proposed object recognition system with color-assistant SIFT SVM classifier achieves higher recognition rate than that with the traditional gray SIFT and SVM classification in various situations.

Keywords: color moments, visual thing recognition system, SIFT, color SIFT

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6129 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

Abstract:

The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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6128 The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Vigilance, Fatigue, and Performance during Simulated Train Driving

Authors: Clara Theresia, Hardianto Iridiastadi

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Drowsiness is one of the main factors that contribute to the occurrence of accidents, particularly in the transportation sector. While the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive functions have been reported, the exact relationships remain a critical issue. This study aimed at quantifying the effects of extreme sleep deprivation on vigilance, fatigue, and performance during simulated train driving. A total of 12 participants were asked to drive a train simulator continuously for 4 hours, either in a sleep deprived condition (2-hr of sleep) or normal (8-hr of sleep) condition. Dependent variables obtained during the task included Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) parameters, degree of fatigue (assessed via Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) and sleepiness (reported using Karolinska Sleepiness Scale/KSS), and driving performance (the number of speed limit violations). Findings from this study demonstrated substantial decrements in vigilance in the sleep-deprived condition. This condition also resulted in 75% increase in speed violation and a two-fold increase in the degree of fatigue and sleepiness. Extreme sleep deprivation was clearly associated with substantially poorer response. The exact effects, however, were dependent upon the types of responses.

Keywords: cognitive function, psychomotor vigilance task, sleep deprivation, train simulator

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6127 Analgesic Efficacy of Opiorphin and Its Analogue

Authors: Preet Singh, Kavitha Kongara, Dave Harding, Neil Ward, Paul Chambers

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of opiorphin and its analogue with a mu-receptor agonist; morphine. Opiorphins (Gln-Arg-Phe-Ser-Arg) belong to the family of endogenous enkephalinase inhibitors, found in saliva of humans. They are inhibitors of two Zinc metal ectopeptidases (Neutral endopeptidase NEP, and amino-peptidase APN) which are responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous opioids; endorphins and enkephalins. Morphine and butorphanol exerts their analgesic effects by mimicking the actions of endorphins and enkephalins. The opiorphin analogue was synthesized based on the structure activity relationship of the amino acid sequence of opiorphin. The pharmacological profile of the analogue was tested by replacing Serine at position 4 with Proline. The hot plate and tail flick test were used to demonstrate the analgesic efficacy. There was a significant increase in the time for the tail flick response after an injection of opiorphin, which was similar to the morphine effect. There was no increase in time in the hot plate test after an injection of opiorphin. The results suggest that opiorphin works at spinal level only rather than both spinal and supraspinal. Further work is required to confirm our results. We did not find analgesic activity of the opiorphin analogue. Thus, Serine at position 4 is also important for its pharmacological action. Further work is required to illustrate the role of serine at position 4 in opiorphin.

Keywords: analgesic peptides, endogenous opioids, morphine, opiorphin

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6126 Visual Identity Components of Tourist Destination

Authors: Petra Barisic, Zrinka Blazevic

Abstract:

In the world of modern communications, visual identity has predominant influence on the overall success of tourist destinations, but despite of these, the problem of designing thriving tourist destination visual identity and their components are hardly addressed. This study highlights the importance of building and managing the visual identity of tourist destination, and based on the empirical study of well-known Mediterranean destination of Croatia analyses three main components of tourist destination visual identity; name, slogan, and logo. Moreover, the paper shows how respondents perceive each component of Croatia’s visual identity. According to study, logo is the most important, followed by the name and slogan. Research also reveals that Croatian economy lags behind developed countries in understanding the importance of visual identity, and its influence on marketing goal achievements.

Keywords: components of visual identity, Croatia, tourist destination, visual identity

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6125 To Estimate the Association between Visual Stress and Visual Perceptual Skills

Authors: Vijay Reena Durai, Krithica Srinivasan

Abstract:

Introduction: The two fundamental skills involved in the growth and wellbeing of any child can be categorized into visual motor and perceptual skills. Visual stress is a disorder which is characterized by visual discomfort, blurred vision, misspelling words, skipping lines, letters bunching together. There is a need to understand the deficits in perceptual skills among children with visual stress. Aim: To estimate the association between visual stress and visual perceptual skills Objective: To compare visual perceptual skills of children with and without visual stress Methodology: Children between 8 to 15 years of age participated in this cross-sectional study. All children with monocular visual acuity better than or equal to 6/6 were included. Visual perceptual skills were measured using test for visual perceptual skills (TVPS) tool. Reading speed was measured with the chosen colored overlay using Wilkins reading chart and pattern glare score was estimated using a 3cpd gratings. Visual stress was defined as change in reading speed of greater than or equal to 10% and a pattern glare score of greater than or equal to 4. Results: 252 children participated in this study and the male: female ratio of 3:2. Majority of the children preferred Magenta (28%) and Yellow (25%) colored overlay for reading. There was a significant difference between the two groups (MD=1.24±0.6) (p<0.04, 95% CI 0.01-2.43) only in the sequential memory skills. The prevalence of visual stress in this group was found to be 31% (n=78). Binary logistic regression showed that odds ratio of having poor visual perceptual skills was OR: 2.85 (95% CI 1.08-7.49) among children with visual stress. Conclusion: Children with visual stress are found to have three times poorer visual perceptual skills than children without visual stress.

Keywords: visual stress, visual perceptual skills, colored overlay, pattern glare

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6124 The Relation between Learning Styles and English Achievement in the Language Training Centre

Authors: Nurul Yusnita

Abstract:

Many studies have been developed to help the students to get good achievement in English learning. They can be from the teaching method or psychological ones. One of the psychological studies in educational research is learning style. In some ways, learning style can affect the achievement of the students. This study aimed to examine 4 (four) learning styles and their relations to English achievement among the students learning English in Language Training Center of Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (LTC UMY). The method of this study was descriptive analytical. The sample consisted of 39 Accounting students in LTC UMY. The data was collected through questionnaires with Likert-scale. The achievement was obtained from the grade of the students. To analyze the questionnaires and to see the relation between the learning styles and the student achievement, SPSS statistical software of correlational analysis was used. The result showed that both visual and auditory had the same percentage of 35.9% (14 students). 3 students (7.7%) had kinaesthetic learning style and 8 students (20.5%) had visual and auditory ones. Meanwhile, there were 5 students (12.8%) who had visual learning style could increase their grades. Only 1 student (2.5%) who had visual and auditory could improve his grade. Besides grade increase, there were also grade decrease. Students with visual, auditory, visual and auditory, and kinaesthetic learning styles were 3 students (7.7%), 5 students (12%), 4 students (10.2%) and 1 student (2.5%) respectively. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between learning style and English achievement. Most of the good achievers were the students with visual and auditory learning styles and most of them preferred visual method. The implication is the teachers and material designers could improve their method through visual things to achieve effective English teaching learning.

Keywords: accounting students, English achievement, language training centre, learning styles

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6123 Bag of Words Representation Based on Weighting Useful Visual Words

Authors: Fatma Abdedayem

Abstract:

The most effective and efficient methods in image categorization are almost based on bag-of-words (BOW) which presents image by a histogram of occurrence of visual words. In this paper, we propose a novel extension to this method. Firstly, we extract features in multi-scales by applying a color local descriptor named opponent-SIFT. Secondly, in order to represent image we use Spatial Pyramid Representation (SPR) and an extension to the BOW method which based on weighting visual words. Typically, the visual words are weighted during histogram assignment by computing the ratio of their occurrences in the image to the occurrences in the background. Finally, according to classical BOW retrieval framework, only a few words of the vocabulary is useful for image representation. Therefore, we select the useful weighted visual words that respect the threshold value. Experimentally, the algorithm is tested by using different image classes of PASCAL VOC 2007 and is compared against the classical bag-of-visual-words algorithm.

Keywords: BOW, useful visual words, weighted visual words, bag of visual words

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6122 Comparative Study of Active Release Technique and Myofascial Release Technique in Patients with Upper Trapezius Spasm

Authors: Harihara Prakash Ramanathan, Daksha Mishra, Ankita Dhaduk

Abstract:

Relevance: This qualitative study will educate the clinician in putting into practice the advanced method of movement science in restoring the function. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Active Release Technique and myofascial release technique on range of motion, neck function and pain in patients with upper trapezius spasm. Methods/Analysis: The study was approved by the institutional Human Research and Ethics committee. This study included sixty patients of age group between 20 to 55 years with upper trapezius spasm. Patients were randomly divided into two groups receiving Active Release Technique (Group A) and Myofascial Release Technique (Group B). The patients were treated for 1 week and three outcome measures ROM, pain and functional level were measured using Goniometer, Visual analog scale(VAS), Neck disability Index Questionnaire(NDI) respectively. Paired Sample 't' test was used to compare the differences of pre and post intervention values of Cervical Range of motion, Neck disability Index, Visual analog scale of Group A and Group B. Independent't' test was used to compare the differences between two groups in terms of improvement in cervical range of motion, decrease in visual analogue scale(VAS), decrease in Neck disability index score. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant improvements in cervical ROM, reduction in pain and in NDI scores. However, mean change in Cervical flexion, cervical extension, right side flexion, left side flexion, right side rotation, left side rotation, pain, neck disability level showed statistically significant improvement (P < 0. 05)) in the patients who received Active Release Technique as compared to Myofascial release technique. Discussion and conclusions: In present study, the average improvement immediately post intervention is significantly greater as compared to before treatment but there is even more improvement after seven sessions as compared to single session. Hence, this proves that several sessions of Manual techniques are necessary to produce clinically relevant results. Active release technique help to reduce the pain threshold by removing adhesion and promote normal tissue extensibility. The act of tensioning and compressing the affected tissue both with digital contact and through the active movement performed by the patient can be a plausible mechanism for tissue healing in this study. This study concluded that both Active Release Technique (ART) and Myofascial release technique (MFR) are equally effective in managing upper trapezius muscle spasm, but more improvement can be achieved by Active Release Technique (ART). Impact and Implications: Active Release Technique can be adopted as mainstay of treatment approach in treating trapezius spasm for faster relief and improving the functional status.

Keywords: trapezius spasm, myofascial release, active release technique, pain

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6121 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz

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Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

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6120 Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation: Comparing the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale/Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, Numerical Verbal Rating Scale, Categorization Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

Authors: Roya Yumul, Chse, Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra

Abstract:

Background: Preoperative anxiety has been shown to be caused by the fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting, given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item extensive questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgment, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparative analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceeds VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%), or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusions: Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: preoperative anxiety, visual facial anxiety scale, numerical verbal anxiety scale, state-trait anxiety inventory

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6119 The Involvement of Visual and Verbal Representations Within a Quantitative and Qualitative Visual Change Detection Paradigm

Authors: Laura Jenkins, Tim Eschle, Joanne Ciafone, Colin Hamilton

Abstract:

An original working memory model suggested the separation of visual and verbal systems in working memory architecture, in which only visual working memory components were used during visual working memory tasks. It was later suggested that the visuo spatial sketch pad was the only memory component at use during visual working memory tasks, and components such as the phonological loop were not considered. In more recent years, a contrasting approach has been developed with the use of an executive resource to incorporate both visual and verbal representations in visual working memory paradigms. This was supported using research demonstrating the use of verbal representations and an executive resource in a visual matrix patterns task. The aim of the current research is to investigate the working memory architecture during both a quantitative and a qualitative visual working memory task. A dual task method will be used. Three secondary tasks will be used which are designed to hit specific components within the working memory architecture – Dynamic Visual Noise (visual components), Visual Attention (spatial components) and Verbal Attention (verbal components). A comparison of the visual working memory tasks will be made to discover if verbal representations are at use, as the previous literature suggested. This direct comparison has not been made so far in the literature. Considerations will be made as to whether a domain specific approach should be employed when discussing visual working memory tasks, or whether a more domain general approach could be used instead.

Keywords: semantic organisation, visual memory, change detection

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6118 Coconut Shells as the Alternative Equipment for Foot Reflexology

Authors: Nichanant Sermsri, Chananchida Yuktirat

Abstract:

This research was the experimental research. Its purpose was to find out how coconut shells can be adapted to be equipment for foot and calf reflexology. The sample group was 58 female street vendors in Thewet Market, Dusit District, Bangkok, selected by selection criteria and voluntary. The data collecting tool in this research was the Visual Analogue Scale. The massaging tool made from coconut shells (designed and produced by the research team) was the key equipment for this research. The duration of the research was 1 month. The research team assessed the level of exhaustion and heart rate among sample group before and after the massage, then analyzed the data by mean, standard deviation and paired sample t-test. We found out from the research that 1) The level of exhaustion decreased 4.529 levels after the massage. The standard deviation was 1.6195. The heart rates went down 11.67 times/minute. The standard deviation was 6.742. 2) The level of exhaustion and heart rate after the massage decreased with the statistically significance at 0.01.

Keywords: foot reflexology, massaging plate, coconut shells, ecological sciences

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6117 Effects of Milk Fat Sustitution by Margarine on Iranian uf Brine Cheese

Authors: Mahnaz Manafi Dizaj Yekan, Mostafa Mazaheri Tehrani, Javad Hesari

Abstract:

Physicochemical properties of Ultrafiltered White cheese analogues made with substituting 1/3 and 2/3 of the dairy fat with vegetable fat, margarine, were studied during ripening. Results showed replacement of milk fat by margarine made to more hardness and springiness in cheese samples and overcome to softening of texture as one of the main defects of UF white cheeses. Analysis of Fatty acids Profiles of samples fat by Gas Chromatography revealed cheese analogues samples had higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and can led to improve nutritional quality of product. Sensorial characteristics of analogue cheeses were similar to control samples with respect to color but better than control samples in stiffness, while overall acceptance of analogues with 1/3 fat replacement was similar to control cheeses and better than analogue cheeses with 2/3 fat replacement.

Keywords: analogue cheese, uf white cheese, margarine, stiffness, springiness, fatty acids profiles

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6116 Effects of Additional Pelvic Floor Exercise on Sexual Function, Quality of Life and Pain Intensity in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Emel Sonmezer, Hayri Baran Yosmaoglu

Abstract:

The negative impact of chronic pain syndromes on sexual function has been reported in several studies; however, the influences of treatment strategies on sexual dysfunction have not been evaluated widely. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of pelvic floor exercise on sexual dysfunction in female patients with chronic low back pain. Forty-two patient with chronic low back pain were enrolled this study. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 received conventional physiotherapy consist of heat therapy, ergonomic education, William flexion exercise during 6 weeks. Group 2 received pelvic floor exercises in addition to conventional physiotherapy. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used for the assessment of sexual function. Pain intensity was assessed with Visual Analogue Scale. Quality of life was assessed with World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale. All measurements were taken before and after treatment. In conventional physiotherapy group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,003), physical health (p=0,011), psychological health (p=0,042) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,042), lubrication (p=0,028) and pain (p= 0,034) subscales of FSFI. In additional pelvic floor exercise group; there were significant improvement in pain intensity (p= 0,005), physical health (p=0,012) psychological health (p=0,039) subscales of quality of life scale, arousal (p=0,024), lubrication (p=0,011), orgasm (p=0,035) and pain (p= 0,015) subscales and total score (p=0,016) of FSFI. Total FSFI score (p=0,025) and orgasm (p=0,017) subscale of FSFI were significantly higher for the additional pelvic floor exercise group than the conventional physiotherapy group.The outcome of this study suggested that conventional physiotherapy may contribute to improve pain, quality of life and some parameters of the sexual function in patients with low back pain. Although additional pelvic floor exercise did not reveal more treatment effect in terms of quality of life and pain intensity, it caused significant improvement in sexual function. It is recommended that pelvic floor exercise should be added to treatment programs in order to manage sexual dysfunction more effectively in patients with chronic low back pain.

Keywords: physiotherapy, chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, pelvic floor

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6115 Prevalence of Anxiety among End Stage Renal Disease Patients and Its Association with Patient Compliance to Hemodialysis and Physician Instructions

Authors: Mohammed Asiri, Saleh Alsuwayt, Mohammed Bin Mugren, Abdulmalik Almufarrih, Tariq Alotaibi, Saad Almodameg

Abstract:

Background: End-stage renal disease is a major public health concern with high incidence and mortality rate. Most of ESRD patients are on hemodialysis therapy which is a long-term treatment that disturbs patients’ lifestyle. As a result, he will be susceptible to develop psychiatric disorders like anxiety that may direct him to non-compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. Although there are studies conducted on psychiatric issues in hemodialysis patients, but few studies focused on the effect of anxiety disorder and the patient’s compliance. Hence, we are interested in determining the prevalence of anxiety disorder among hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia, as well as in defining the correlation between anxiety disorder and compliance on physician instructions and hemodialysis therapy. We hypothesize that our study will show a higher prevalence of anxiety in hemodialysis patients than in general population. Also, we expect the anxiety to have a negative impact on their compliance. Methodology: We used a cross-sectional study design carried out at dialysis unit of four major hospitals in Riyadh, KSA. We interviewed 235 End Stage Renal Disease male and female patients who are on hemodialysis. We divided the patients into two categories according to their compliance. we used modified general questionnaire to get their demographic data, then we used a psychometric response scale called visual analog scale (VAS) to assess patient’s compliance to hemodialysis and physician’s instructions. Also, we used the Arabic validated version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD scale) used mainly for anxiety assessment. Results: The overall response rate was 54%. Respondents included 147 (62.6%) males and 88 (37.4%) females. The prevalence of anxiety among hemodialysis patients is 13.3%. According to visual analog scale, we found that 189 compliant patients and 45 non-compliant patients. For HAD scale, the mean ± standard deviation of the total score for females was (4.44 ± 4.7) and it’s higher than males which was 2.65 ± 3.08 (P-value= 0.002). The mean ± standard deviation of HAD score in the non-compliant group was (5.88  4.88) and it was higher than the compliant group (2.7  3.32) (P-value= 0.004). Among non-complaint group, 33.3% of anxious patients were males and 66.6% were females. There was a negative correlation between HAD score of anxiety and visual analog scale (R= - 0.285). Conclusion: We conclude that there is a high prevalence of anxiety among patients with End Stage Renal Disease that was higher in females with association of non-compliance to physician’s instructions and hemodialysis therapy.

Keywords: anxiety, end-stage renal disease, renal failure, anxiety disorder

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6114 Effects of Occupational Therapy on Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Sedef Şahin, Meral Huri

Abstract:

Cerebral Palsy (CP) represents the most frequent cause of physical disability in children with a rate of 2,9 per 1000 live births. The activity-focused intervention is known to improve function and reduce activity limitations and barriers to participation of children with disabilities. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of occupational therapy on level of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction in children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Twenty-two children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (mean age: 9,3 ± 2.1years; Gross Motor Function Classification System ( GMFCS) level from I to V (I = 54%, II = 23%, III = 14%, IV= 9%, V= 0%), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) level from I to V (I = 40%, II = 32%, III = 14%, IV= 10%, V= 4%), were assigned to occupational therapy program for 6 weeks.Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used for intensity of the fatigue they experienced at the time on a 10 point Likert scale (1-10).Activity performance and satisfaction were measured with Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM).A client-centered occupational therapy intervention was designed according to results of COPM. The results were compared with nonparametric Wilcoxon test before and after the intervention. Thirteen of the children were right-handed, whereas nine of the children were left handed.Six weeks of intervention showed statistically significant differences in level of fatigue, compared to first assessment(p<0,05). The mean score of first and the second activity performance scores were 4.51 ± 1.70 and 7.35 ± 2.51 respectively. Statistically significant difference between performance scores were found (p<0.01). The mean scores of first and second activity satisfaction scores were of 2.30± 1.05 and 5.51 ± 2.26 respectively. Statistically significant difference between satisfaction assessments were found (p<0.01). Occupational therapy is an evidence-based approach and occupational therapy interventions implemented by therapists were clinically effective on severity of fatigue, activity performance and satisfaction if implemented individually during 6 weeks.

Keywords: activity performance, cerebral palsy, fatigue, occupational therapy

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6113 Short Term Effects of Mobilization with Movement in a Patient with Fibromyalgia: A Case Report

Authors: S. F. Kanaan, Fatima Al-Kadi, H. Khrais

Abstract:

Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic condition that is characterized by chronic pain that limits physical and functional activities. To our best knowledge, there is currently no key physiotherapy approach recommended to reduce pain and improve function. In addition, there are scarce studies that investigated the effect of manual therapy in the management of Fibromyalgia, and no study investigated the efficacy of Mulligan´s mobilization with movement (MWM) in particular. Methods: A 51-year-old female diagnosed with Fibromyalgia for more than a year. The patient was complaining of generalized pain including neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees. In addition, the patient reported severe limitation in activities and inability to complete her work as a lawyer. The Intervention provided for the patient consisted of 4 sessions (in two weeks) of MWM for neck, lower back, shoulders, elbows, sacroiliac joint, hips, and knees. The Visual Analogue Scale of pain (VAS), Range of Motion (ROM), 10-minute walk test, Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (DASH) were collected at the baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: Average improvement of ROM in the neck, lower back, shoulder, elbows, hips, and knees was 45%. VAS scale changed from pre-treatment to post-treatment as the following: neck pain (9 to 0), lower back pain (8 to 1), shoulders pain (8 to 2), elbows pain (7 to 1), and knees pain (9 to 0). The patient demonstrated improvement in all functional scale from pre-intervention to post-intervention: 10-meter walk test (9.8 to 4.5 seconds), RMQ (21 to 11/24), and DASH (88.7% to 40.5%). The patient did not report any side effect of using this approach. Conclusion: Fibromyalgia can cause joint 'faulty position' leading to pain and dysfunction, which can be reversed by using MWM. MWM showed to have clinically significant improvement in ROM, pain, and ability to walk and a clinically significant reduction in disability in only 4 sessions. This work can be expanded in a larger sample.

Keywords: mobilization, fibromyalgia, dysfunction, manual therapy

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6112 Effect of Therapeutic Exercises with or without Positional Release Technique in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain Patients a Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Mohamed N. Mohamed, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Chronic mechanical Low back dysfunction (CMLBD) is the most common problem of the working-age population in modern industrial sociaty; it causes a substantial economic burden due to the wide use of medical services and absence from work. Aim of work: the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of positional release technique on patients with chronic mechanical low back pain. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients from both sexes were diagnosed with CMLBP, aged 20 to 45 years and were divided randomly into two equal groups; sixteen patients each; group A (control group) received therapeutic exercises that include (Stretch and Strength exercises for back and abdominal muscles). Group B (experimental group) received therapeutic exercises with positional release technique; treatment was applied 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Pain was measured by Visual Analogue Scale, Lumbar range of motion was measured by Inclinometer and Functional disability was measured by Oswestry disability scale. Measurements were taken at two intervals pre-treatment and post-treatment. Results: Data obtained was analyzed via paired and unpaired t-Test. There were statistical differences between the 2 groups, where the experimental group showed greater improvement than control group. Conclusion: Positional release technique is considered as an effective treatment for reducing pain, functional disability and increasing lumbar range of motion in individuals with chronic mechanical low back pain.

Keywords: chronic mechanical low back pain, traditional physical therapy program, positional release technique, randomized controlled trial

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6111 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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