Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 185

Search results for: Schottky diode

185 Dependence of Photocurrent on UV Wavelength in ZnO/Pt Bottom-Contact Schottky Diode

Authors: Byoungho Lee, Changmin Kim, Youngmin Lee, Sejoon Lee, Deuk Young Kim


We fabricated the bottom-contacted ZnO/Pt Schottky diode and investigated the dependence of its photocurrent on the wavelength of illuminated ultraviolet (UV) light source. The bottom-contacted Schottky diode was devised by growing (000l) ZnO on (111) Pt, and the fabricated device showed a strong dependence on the UV wavelength for its photo-response characteristics. When longer-wavelength-UV (e.g., UV-A) was illuminated on the device, the photo-current was increased by a factor of 200, compared to that under illumination of shorter-wavelength-UV (e.g., UV-C). The behavior is attributed to the wavelength-dependent UV penetration depth for ZnO.

Keywords: ZnO, UV, Schottky diode, photocurrent

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184 Electrical Characterization of Hg/n-bulk GaN Schottky Diode

Authors: B. Nabil, O. Zahir, R. Abdelaziz


We present the results of electrical characterizations current-voltage and capacity-voltage implementation of a method of making a Schottky diode on bulk gallium nitride doped n. We made temporary Schottky contact of Mercury (Hg) and an ohmic contact of silver (Ag), the electrical characterizations current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) allows us to determine the difference parameters of our structure (Hg /n-GaN) as the barrier height (ΦB), the ideality factor (n), the series resistor (Rs), the voltage distribution (Vd), the doping of the substrate (Nd) and density of interface states (Nss).

Keywords: Bulk Gallium nitride, electrical characterization, Schottky diode, series resistance, substrate doping

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183 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev


Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to the occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.

Keywords: current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise

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182 Characterization of current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) features of Au/GaN Schottky diodes

Authors: Abdelaziz Rabehi


The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Au/GaN Schottky diodes were measured at room temperature. In addition, capacitance–voltage–frequency (C–V–f) characteristics are investigated by considering the interface states (Nss) at frequency range 100 kHz to 1 MHz. From the I–V characteristics of the Schottky diode, ideality factor (n) and barrier height (Φb) values of 1.22 and 0.56 eV, respectively, were obtained from a forward bias I–V plot. In addition, the interface states distribution profile as a function of (Ess − Ev) was extracted from the forward bias I–V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier height (Φe) for the Schottky diode. The C–V curves gave a barrier height value higher than those obtained from I–V measurements. This discrepancy is due to the different nature of the I–V and C–V measurement techniques.

Keywords: Schottky diodes, frequency dependence, barrier height, interface states

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181 SiC Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) Power Diodes Electrothermal Modeling in SPICE

Authors: A. Lakrim, D. Tahri


This paper sets out a behavioral macro-model of a Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) diode based on silicon carbide (SiC). This model holds good for both static and dynamic electrothermal simulations for industrial applications. Its parameters have been worked out from datasheets curves by drawing on the optimization method: Simulated Annealing (SA) for the SiC MPS diodes made available in the industry. The model also adopts the Analog Behavioral Model (ABM) of PSPICE in which it has been implemented. The thermal behavior of the devices was also taken into consideration by making use of Foster’ canonical network as figured out from electro-thermal measurement provided by the manufacturer of the device.

Keywords: SiC MPS diode, electro-thermal, SPICE model, behavioral macro-model

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180 Fabrication of High-Power AlGaN/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode with Field Plate Design

Authors: Chia-Jui Yu, Chien-Ju Chen, Jyun-Hao Liao, Chia-Ching Wu, Meng-Chyi Wu


In this letter, we demonstrate high-performance AlGaN/GaN planar Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on the silicon substrate with field plate structure for increasing breakdown voltage VB. A low turn-on resistance RON (3.55 mΩ-cm2), low reverse leakage current (< 0.1 µA) at -100 V, and high reverse breakdown voltage VB (> 1.1 kV) SBD has been fabricated. A virgin SBD exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 615 V, and with the field plate technology device exhibited a breakdown voltage (measured at 1 mA/mm) of 1525 V (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 40 µm). Devices without the field plate design exhibit a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 60.2 MW/cm2, whereas devices with the field plate design show a Baliga’s figure of merit of VB2/ RON = 340.9 MW/cm2 (the anode–cathode distance was LAC = 20 µm).

Keywords: AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, silicon substrate, Schottky barrier diode (SBD), high breakdown voltage, Baliga’s figure-of-merit, field plate

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179 Semiconductor Nanofilm Based Schottky-Barrier Solar Cells

Authors: Mariyappan Shanmugam, Bin Yu


Schottky-barrier solar cells are demonstrated employing 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 semiconductor nanofilms as photo-active material candidates synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method. Large area MoS2 and WS2 nanofilms are stacked by layer transfer process to achieve thicker photo-active material studied by atomic force microscopy showing a thickness in the range of ~200 nm. Two major vibrational active modes associated with 2D-layered MoS2 and WS2 are studied by Raman spectroscopic technique to estimate the quality of the nanofilms. Schottky-barrier solar cells employed MoS2 and WS2 active materials exhibited photoconversion efficiency of 1.8 % and 1.7 % respectively. Fermi-level pinning at metal/semiconductor interface, electronic transport and possible recombination mechanisms are studied in the Schottky-barrier solar cells.

Keywords: two-dimensional nanosheet, graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, solar cell, Schottky barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
178 Barrier Lowering in Contacts between Graphene and Semiconductor Materials

Authors: Zhipeng Dong, Jing Guo


Graphene-semiconductor contacts have been extensively studied recently, both as a stand-alone diode device for potential applications in photodetectors and solar cells, and as a building block to vertical transistors. Graphene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, which differs from conventional metal. In this work, image-charge-induced barrier lowering (BL) in graphene-semiconductor contacts is studied and compared to that in metal Schottky contacts. The results show that despite of being a semimetal with vanishing density-of-states at the Dirac point, the image-charge-induced BL is significant. The BL value can be over 50% of that of metal contacts even in an intrinsic graphene contacted to an organic semiconductor, and it increases as the graphene doping increases. The dependences of the BL on the electric field and semiconductor dielectric constant are examined, and an empirical expression for estimating the image-charge-induced BL in graphene-semiconductor contacts is provided.

Keywords: graphene, semiconductor materials, schottky barrier, image charge, contacts

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177 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir


In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power

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176 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, V. S. Tripathi, Shivesh Tripathi


A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: ITS, multiband antenna, PIN-diode, reconfigurable

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
175 A Small Signal Model for Resonant Tunneling Diode

Authors: Rania M. Abdallah, Ahmed A. S. Dessouki, Moustafa H. Aly


This paper has presented a new simple small signal model for a resonant tunnelling diode device. The resonant tunnelling diode equivalent circuit elements were calculated and the results led to good agreement between the calculated equivalent circuit elements and the measurement results.

Keywords: resonant tunnelling diode, small signal model, negative differential conductance, electronic engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
174 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim


The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

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173 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen


This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: graphene, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction, solar cells

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172 Study on Concentration and Temperature Measurement with 760 nm Diode Laser in Combustion System Using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

Authors: Miyeon Yoo, Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee


It is important to measure the internal temperature or temperature distribution precisely in combustion system to increase energy efficiency and reduce the pollutants. Especially in case of large combustion systems such as power plant boiler and reheating furnace of steel making process, it is very difficult to measure those physical properties in detail. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy measurement and analysis can be attractive method to overcome the difficulty. In this paper, TDLAS methods are used to measure the oxygen concentration and temperature distribution in various experimental conditions.

Keywords: tunable diode laser absorption Spectroscopy, temperature distribution, gas concentration

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171 Powerful Laser Diode Matrixes for Active Vision Systems

Authors: Dzmitry M. Kabanau, Vladimir V. Kabanov, Yahor V. Lebiadok, Denis V. Shabrov, Pavel V. Shpak, Gevork T. Mikaelyan, Alexandr P. Bunichev


This article is deal with the experimental investigations of the laser diode matrixes (LDM) based on the AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures (lasing wavelength 790-880 nm) to find optimal LDM parameters for active vision systems. In particular, the dependence of LDM radiation pulse power on the pulse duration and LDA active layer heating as well as the LDM radiation divergence are discussed.

Keywords: active vision systems, laser diode matrixes, thermal properties, radiation divergence

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170 New Design of a Broadband Microwave Zero Bias Power Limiter

Authors: K. Echchakhaoui, E. Abdelmounim, J. Zbitou, H. Bennis, N. Ababssi, M. Latrach


In this paper a new design of a broadband microwave power limiter is presented and validated into simulation by using ADS software (Advanced Design System) from Agilent technologies. The final circuit is built on microstrip lines by using identical Zero Bias Schottky diodes. The power limiter is designed by Associating 3 stages Schottky diodes. The obtained simulation results permit to validate this circuit with a threshold input power level of 0 dBm until a maximum input power of 30 dBm.

Keywords: Limiter, microstrip, zero-biais, ADS

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169 Enhanced Thermal and Electrical Properties of Terbium Manganate-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Film

Authors: Monalisa Halder, Amit K. Das, Ajit K. Meikap


Polymer nanocomposites are very significant materials both in academia and industry for diverse potential applicability in electronics. Polymer plays the role of matrix element which has low density, flexibility, good mechanical strength and electrical properties. Use of nanosized multiferroic filler in the polymer matrix is suitable to achieve nanocomposites with enhanced magneto-dielectric effect and good mechanical properties both at the same time. Multiferroic terbium manganate (TbMnO₃) nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method using chloride precursors. Terbium manganate-polyvinyl alcohol (TbMnO₃-PVA) nanocomposite film has been prepared by solution casting method. Crystallite size of TbMnO₃ nanoparticle has been calculated to be ~ 40 nm from XRD analysis. Morphological study of the samples has been done by scanning electron microscopy and a well dispersion of the nanoparticles in the PVA matrix has been found. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) exhibits enhancement of thermal stability of the nanocomposite film with the inclusion of TbMnO₃ nanofiller in PVA matrix. The electrical transport properties of the nanocomposite film sample have been studied in the frequency range 20Hz - 2MHz at and above room temperature. The frequency dependent variation of ac conductivity follows universal dielectric response (UDR) obeying Jhonscher’s sublinear power law. Correlated barrier hopping (CBH) mechanism is the dominant charge transport mechanism with maximum barrier height 19 meV above room temperature. The variation of dielectric constant of the sample with frequency has been studied at different temperatures. Real part of dielectric constant at 1 KHz frequency at room temperature of the sample is found to be ~ 8 which is higher than that of the pure PVA film sample (~ 6). Dielectric constant decreases with the increase in frequency. Relaxation peaks have been observed in the variation of imaginary part of electric modulus with frequency. The relaxation peaks shift towards higher frequency as temperature increases probably due to the existence of interfacial polarization in the sample in presence of applied electric field. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the nanocomposite film have been studied under ±40 V applied at different temperatures. I-V characteristic exhibits temperature dependent rectifying nature indicating the formation of Schottky barrier diode (SBD) with barrier height 23 meV. In conclusion, using multiferroic TbMnO₃ nanofiller in PVA matrix, enhanced thermal stability and electrical properties can be achieved.

Keywords: correlated barrier hopping, nanocomposite, schottky diode, TbMnO₃, TGA

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168 Analytical Terahertz Characterization of In0.53Ga0.47As Transistors and Homogenous Diodes

Authors: Abdelmadjid Mammeri, Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani, H. Marinchoi


We propose an analytical model for the admittance and the noise calculations of the InGaAs transistor and diode. The development of the small-signal admittance takes into account the longitudinal and transverse electric fields through a pseudo two-dimensional approximation of the Poisson equation. The frequency-dependent of the small-signal admittance response is determined by the total currents and the potentials matrix relation between the gate and the drain terminals. The noise is evaluated by using the real part of the transistor/diode admittance under a small-signal perturbation. The analytical results show that the admittance spectrum exhibits a series of resonant peaks corresponding to the excitation of plasma waves. The appearance of the resonance is discussed and analyzed as functions of the channel length and the temperature. The model can be used, on one hand; to control the appearance of the plasma resonances, and on other hand; can give significant information about the noise frequency dependence in the InGaAs transistor and diode.

Keywords: InGaAs transistors, InGaAs diode, admittance, resonant peaks, plasma waves, analytical model

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167 The Nonlinear Optical Properties Analysis of AlPc-Cl Organic Compound

Authors: M. Benhaliliba, A. Ben Ahmed, C.E. Benouis, A.Ayeshamariam


The properties of nonlinear optical NLOs are examined, and the results confirm the 2.19 eV HOMO-LUMO mismatch. In the Al-Pc cluster, certain functional bond lengths and bond angles have been observed. The Quantum chemical method (DFT and TD-DFT) and Vibrational spectra properties of AlPc are studied. X-ray pattern reveals the crystalline structure along with the (242) orientation of the AlPc organic thin layer. UV-Vis shows the frequency selective behavior of the device. The absorbance of such layer exhibits a high value within the UV range and two consecutive peaks within visible range. Spin coating is used to make an organic diode based on the Aluminium-phthalocynanine (AlPc-Cl) molecule. Under dark and light conditions, electrical characterization of Ag/AlPc/Si/Au is obtained. The diode's high rectifying capability (about 1x104) is subsequently discovered. While the height barrier is constant and saturation current is greatly reliant on light, the ideality factor of such a diode increases to 6.9 which confirms the non-ideality of such a device. The Cheung-Cheung technique is employed to further the investigation and gain additional data such as series resistance and barrier height.

Keywords: AlPc-Cl organic material, nonlinear optic, optical filter, diode

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166 Electrocatalytic Properties of Ru-Pd Bimetal Quantum Dots/TiO₂ Nanotube Arrays Electrodes Composites with Double Schottky Junctions

Authors: Shiying Fan, Xinyong Li


The development of highly efficient multifunctional catalytic materials towards HER, ORR and Photo-fuel cell applications in terms of combined electrochemical and photo-electrochemical principles have currently confronted with dire challenges. In this study, novel palladium (Pd) and ruthenium (Ru) Bimetal Quantum Dots (BQDs) co-anchored on Titania nanotube (NTs) arrays electrodes have been successfully constructed by facial two-step electrochemical strategy. Double Schottky junctions with superior performance in electrocatalytic (EC) hydrogen generations and solar fuel cell energy conversions (PE) have been found. Various physicochemical techniques including UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM/EDX/HRTEM, SPV/TRV and electro-chemical strategy including EIS, C-V, I-V, and I-T, etc. were chronically utilized to systematically characterize the crystal-, electronic and micro-interfacial structures of the composites with double Schottky junction, respectively. The characterizations have implied that the marvelous enhancement of separation efficiency of electron-hole pairs generations is mainly caused by the Schottky-barriers within the nanocomposites, which would greatly facilitate the interfacial charge transfer for H₂ generations and solar fuel cell energy conversions. Moreover, the DFT calculations clearly indicated that the oriented growth of Ru and Pd bimetal atoms at the anatase (101) surface is mainly driven by the interaction between Ru/Pd and surface atoms, and the most active site for bimetal Ru and Pd adatoms on the perfect TiO₂ (101) surface is the 2cO-6cTi-3cO bridge sites and the 2cO-bridge sites with the highest adsorption energy of 9.17 eV. Furthermore, the electronic calculations show that in the nanocomposites, the number of impurity (i.e., co-anchored Ru-Pd BQDs) energy levels near Fermi surface increased and some were overlapped with original energy level, promoting electron energy transition and reduces the band gap. Therefore, this work shall provide a deeper insight for the molecular design of Bimetal Quantum Dots (BQDs) assembled onto Tatiana NTs composites with superior performance for electrocatalytic hydrogen productions and solar fuel cell energy conversions (PE) simultaneously.

Keywords: eletrocatalytic, Ru-Pd bimetallic quantum dots, titania nanotube arrays, double Schottky junctions, hydrogen production

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165 Reconfigurable Multiband Meandered Line Antenna

Authors: D. Rama Krishna, Y. Pandu Rangaiah


This paper presents the design of multiband reconfigurable antenna using PIN diodes for four iterations and all the four iterations have been validated by measuring return loss and pattern measurements of developed prototype antenna. The simulated and experimental data have demonstrated the concepts of a multiband reconfigurable antenna by switching OFF and ON of PIN diodes for multiple band frequencies. The technique has taken the advantage of a different number of radiating lengths with the use of PIN diode switches, each configuration resonating at multiband frequencies.

Keywords: frequency reconfigurable, meandered line multiband antenna, PIN diode, multiband frequencies

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164 High Efficiency Double-Band Printed Rectenna Model for Energy Harvesting

Authors: Rakelane A. Mendes, Sandro T. M. Goncalves, Raphaella L. R. Silva


The concepts of energy harvesting and wireless energy transfer have been widely discussed in recent times. There are some ways to create autonomous systems for collecting ambient energy, such as solar, vibratory, thermal, electromagnetic, radiofrequency (RF), among others. In the case of the RF it is possible to collect up to 100 μW / cm². To collect and/or transfer energy in RF systems, a device called rectenna is used, which is defined by the junction of an antenna and a rectifier circuit. The rectenna presented in this work is resonant at the frequencies of 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz. Frequencies at 1.8 GHz band are e part of the GSM / LTE band. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) is a frequency band of mobile telephony, it is also called second generation mobile networks (2G), it came to standardize mobile telephony in the world and was originally developed for voice traffic. LTE (Long Term Evolution) or fourth generation (4G) has emerged to meet the demand for wireless access to services such as Internet access, online games, VoIP and video conferencing. The 2.45 GHz frequency is part of the ISM (Instrumentation, Scientific and Medical) frequency band, this band is internationally reserved for industrial, scientific and medical development with no need for licensing, and its only restrictions are related to maximum power transfer and bandwidth, which must be kept within certain limits (in Brazil the bandwidth is 2.4 - 2.4835 GHz). The rectenna presented in this work was designed to present efficiency above 50% for an input power of -15 dBm. It is known that for wireless energy capture systems the signal power is very low and varies greatly, for this reason this ultra-low input power was chosen. The Rectenna was built using the low cost FR4 (Flame Resistant) substrate, the antenna selected is a microfita antenna, consisting of a Meandered dipole, and this one was optimized using the software CST Studio. This antenna has high efficiency, high gain and high directivity. Gain is the quality of an antenna in capturing more or less efficiently the signals transmitted by another antenna and/or station. Directivity is the quality that an antenna has to better capture energy in a certain direction. The rectifier circuit used has series topology and was optimized using Keysight's ADS software. The rectifier circuit is the most complex part of the rectenna, since it includes the diode, which is a non-linear component. The chosen diode is the Schottky diode SMS 7630, this presents low barrier voltage (between 135-240 mV) and a wider band compared to other types of diodes, and these attributes make it perfect for this type of application. In the rectifier circuit are also used inductor and capacitor, these are part of the input and output filters of the rectifier circuit. The inductor has the function of decreasing the dispersion effect on the efficiency of the rectifier circuit. The capacitor has the function of eliminating the AC component of the rectifier circuit and making the signal undulating.

Keywords: dipole antenna, double-band, high efficiency, rectenna

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163 Characterization of the in 0.53 Ga 0.47 as n+nn+ Photodetectors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Mahi, Luca Varani


We present an analytical model for the calculation of the sensitivity, the spectral current noise and the detectivity for an optically illuminated In0.53Ga0.47As n+nn+ diode. The photocurrent due to the excess carrier is obtained by solving the continuity equation. Moreover, the current noise level is evaluated at room temperature and under a constant voltage applied between the diode terminals. The analytical calculation of the current noise in the n+nn+ structure is developed. The responsivity and the detectivity are discussed as functions of the doping concentrations and the emitter layer thickness in one-dimensional homogeneous n+nn+ structure.

Keywords: detectivity, photodetectors, continuity equation, current noise

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162 Study of the Energy Levels in the Structure of the Laser Diode GaInP

Authors: Abdelali Laid, Abid Hamza, Zeroukhi Houari, Sayah Naimi


This work relates to the study of the energy levels and the optimization of the Parameter intrinsic (a number of wells and their widths, width of barrier of potential, index of refraction etc.) and extrinsic (temperature, pressure) in the Structure laser diode containing the structure GaInP. The methods of calculation used; - method of the empirical pseudo potential to determine the electronic structures of bands, - graphic method for optimization. The found results are in concord with those of the experiment and the theory.

Keywords: semi-conductor, GaInP/AlGaInP, pseudopotential, energy, alliages

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161 An Improved Visible Range Absorption Spectroscopy on Soil Macronutrient

Authors: Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof, Khairunnisa Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Safuan Abdul Rashid


Soil fertility is commonly evaluated by soil macronutrients such as nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus contents. Optical spectroscopy is an emerging technology which is rapid and simple has been widely used in agriculture to measure soil fertility. For visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy, the absorbed light level in is useful for soil macro-nutrient measurement. This is because the absorption of light in a soil sample influences sensitivity of the measurement. This paper reports the performance of visible and near infrared absorption spectroscopy in the 400–1400 nm wavelength range using light-emitting diode as the excitation light source to predict the soil macronutrient content of nitrate, potassium, and phosphorus. The experimental results show an improved linear regression analysis of various soil specimens based on the Beer–Lambert law to determine sensitivity of soil spectroscopy by evaluating the absorption of characteristic peaks emitted from a light-emitting diode and detected by high sensitivity optical spectrometer. This would denote in developing a simple and low-cost soil spectroscopy with light-emitting diode for future implementation.

Keywords: macronutrients absorption, optical spectroscopy, soil, absorption

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160 Simulation of I–V Characteristics of Lateral PIN Diode on Polysilicon Films

Authors: Abdelaziz Rabhi, Mohamed Amrani, Abderrazek Ziane, Nabil Belkadi, Abdelraouf Hocini


In this paper, a bedimensional simulation program of the electric characteristics of reverse biased lateral polysilicon PIN diode is presented. In this case we have numerically solved the system of partial differential equations formed by Poisson's equation and both continuity equations that take into account the effect of impact ionization. Therefore we will obtain the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of the reverse-biased structure which may include the effect of breakdown.The geometrical model assumes that the polysilicon layer is composed by a succession of defined mean grain size crystallites, separated by lateral grain boundaries which are parallel to the metallurgic junction.

Keywords: breakdown, polycrystalline silicon, PIN, grain, impact ionization

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159 Flip-Chip Bonding for Monolithic of Matrix-Addressable GaN-Based Micro-Light-Emitting Diodes Array

Authors: Chien-Ju Chen, Chia-Jui Yu, Jyun-Hao Liao, Chia-Ching Wu, Meng-Chyi Wu


A 64 × 64 GaN-based micro-light-emitting diode array (μLEDA) with 20 μm in pixel size and 40 μm in pitch by flip-chip bonding (FCB) is demonstrated in this study. Besides, an underfilling (UF) technology is applied to the process for improving the uniformity of device. With those configurations, good characteristics are presented, operation voltage and series resistance of a pixel in the 450 nm flip chip μLEDA are 2.89 V and 1077Ω (4.3 mΩ-cm²) at 25 A/cm², respectively. The μLEDA can sustain higher current density compared to conventional LED, and the power of the device is 9.5 μW at 100 μA and 0.42 mW at 20 mA.

Keywords: GaN, micro-light-emitting diode array(μLEDA), flip-chip bonding, underfilling

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158 The Structural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Implanted Silicon Diodes at Room Temperature

Authors: J. O. Bodunrin, S. J. Moloi


This study reports on the x-ray crystallography (XRD) structure of cadmium-implanted p-type silicon, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of unimplanted and cadmium-implanted silicon-based diodes. Cadmium was implanted at the energy of 160 KeV to the fluence of 10¹⁵ ion/cm². The results obtained indicate that the diodes were well fabricated, and the introduction of cadmium results in a change in behavior of the diodes from normal exponential to ohmic I-V behavior. The C-V measurements, on the other hand, show that the measured capacitance increased after cadmium doping due to the injected charge carriers. The doping density of the p-Si material and the device's Schottky barrier height was extracted, and the doping density of the undoped p-Si material increased after cadmium doping while the Schottky barrier height reduced. In general, the results obtained here are similar to those obtained on the diodes fabricated on radiation-hard material, indicating that cadmium is a promising metal dopant to improve the radiation hardness of silicon. Thus, this study would assist in adding possible options to improve the radiation hardness of silicon to be used in high energy physics experiments.

Keywords: cadmium, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, high energy physics experiment, x-ray crystallography, XRD

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157 The Effects of Addition of Chloride Ions on the Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Electrochemical Deposition

Authors: L. Mentar, O. Baka, A. Azizi


Zinc oxide as a wide band semiconductor materials, especially nanostructured materials, have potential applications in large-area such as electronics, sensors, photovoltaic cells, photonics, optical devices and optoelectronics due to their unique electrical and optical properties and surface properties. The feasibility of ZnO for these applications is due to the successful synthesis of diverse ZnO nanostructures, including nanorings, nanobows, nanohelixes, nanosprings, nanobelts, nanotubes, nanopropellers, nanodisks, and nanocombs, by different method. Among various synthesis methods, electrochemical deposition represents a simple and inexpensive solution based method for synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures. In this study, the electrodeposition method was used to produce zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated conducting glass substrate as TCO from chloride bath. We present a systematic study on the effects of the concentration of chloride anion on the properties of ZnO. The influence of KCl concentrations on the electrodeposition process, morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures was examined. In this research electrochemical deposition of ZnO nanostructures is investigated using conventional electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and Mott-Schottky), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The potentials of electrodeposition of ZnO were determined using the cyclic voltammetry. From the Mott-Schottky measurements, the flat-band potential and the donor density for the ZnO nanostructure are determined. SEM images shows different size and morphology of the nanostructures and depends greatly on the KCl concentrations. The morphology of ZnO nanostructures is determined by the corporated action between [Zn(NO3)2] and [Cl-].Very netted hexagonal grains are observed for the nanostructures deposited at 0.1M of KCl. XRD studies revealed that the all deposited films were polycrystalline in nature with wurtzite phase. The electrodeposited thin films are found to have preferred oriented along (002) plane of the wurtzite structure of ZnO with c-axis normal to the substrate surface for sample at different concentrations of KCl. UV-Visible spectra showed a significant optical transmission (~80%), which decreased with low Cl-1 concentrations. The energy band gap values have been estimated to be between 3.52 and 3.80 eV.

Keywords: electrodeposition, ZnO, chloride ions, Mott-Schottky, SEM, XRD

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156 High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD) Analysis of Naproxen and Omeprazole Active Isomers

Authors: Marwa Ragab, Eman El-Kimary


Chiral separation and analysis of omeprazole and naproxen enantiomers in tablets were achieved using high-performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Kromasil Cellucoat chiral column was used as a stationary phase for separation and the eluting solvent consisted of hexane, isopropanol and trifluoroacetic acid in a ratio of: 90, 9.9 and 0.1, respectively. The chromatographic system was suitable for the enantiomeric separation and analysis of active isomers of the drugs. Resolution values of 2.17 and 3.84 were obtained after optimization of the chromatographic conditions for omeprazole and naproxen isomers, respectively. The determination of S-isomers of each drug in their dosage form was fully validated.

Keywords: chiral analysis, esomeprazole, S-Naproxen, HPLC-DAD

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