Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 727

Search results for: laser diod

727 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz

Abstract:

A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air and also has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light, being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction and Sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, Finesse, Linewidth, Transmission and so on that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diod, reflectance, semiconductor

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726 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer

Abstract:

Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

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725 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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724 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
723 Hole Characteristics of Percussion and Single Pulse Laser-Incised Radiata Pine and the Effects of Wood Anatomy on Laser-Incision

Authors: Subhasisa Nath, David Waugh, Graham Ormondroyd, Morwenna Spear, Andy Pitman, Paul Mason

Abstract:

Wood is one of the most sustainable and environmentally favourable materials and is chemically treated in timber industries to maximise durability. To increase the chemical preservative uptake and retention by the wood, current limiting incision technologies are commonly used. This work reports the effects of single pulse CO2 laser-incision and frequency tripled Nd:YAG percussion laser-incision on the characteristics of laser-incised holes in the Radiata Pine. The laser-incision studies were based on changing laser wavelengths, energies and focal planes to conclude on an optimised combination for the laser-incision of Radiata Pine. The laser pulse duration had a dominant effect over laser power in controlling hole aspect ratio in CO2 laser-incision. A maximum depth of ~ 30 mm was measured with a laser power output of 170 W and a pulse duration of 80 ms. However, increased laser power led to increased carbonisation of holes. The carbonisation effect was reduced during laser-incision in the ultra-violet (UV) regime. Deposition of a foamy phase on the laser-incised hole wall was evident irrespective of laser radiation wavelength and energy. A maximum hole depth of ~20 mm was measured in the percussion laser-incision in the UV regime (355 nm) with a pulse energy of 320 mJ. The radial and tangential faces had a significant effect on laser-incision efficiency for all laser wavelengths. The laser-incised hole shapes and circularities were affected by the wood anatomy (earlywoods and latewoods in the structure). Subsequently, the mechanism of laser-incision is proposed by analysing the internal structure of laser-incised holes.

Keywords: CO2 Laser, Nd: YAG laser, incision, drilling, wood, hole characteristics

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722 Enhancing of Laser Imaging by Using Ultrasound Effect

Authors: Hayder Raad Hafuze, Munqith Saleem Dawood, Jamal Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The effect of using both ultrasounds with laser in medical imaging of the biological tissue has been studied in this paper. Different wave lengths of incident laser light (405 nm, 532 nm, 650 nm, 808 nm and 1064 nm) were used with different ultrasound frequencies (1MHz and 3.3MHz). The results showed that, the change of acoustic intensity enhance the laser penetration of the tissue for different thickness. The existence of the ideal Raman-Nath diffraction pattern were investigated in terms of phase delay and incident angle.

Keywords: tissue, laser, ultrasound, effect, imaging

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721 Comparative Study of Bending Angle in Laser Forming Process Using Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System

Authors: M. Hassani, Y. Hassani, N. Ajudanioskooei, N. N. Benvid

Abstract:

Laser Forming process as a non-contact thermal forming process is widely used to forming and bending of metallic and non-metallic sheets. In this process, according to laser irradiation along a specific path, sheet is bent. One of the most important output parameters in laser forming is bending angle that depends on process parameters such as physical and mechanical properties of materials, laser power, laser travel speed and the number of scan passes. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic System were used to predict of bending angle in laser forming process. Inputs to these models were laser travel speed and laser power. The comparison between artificial neural network and fuzzy logic models with experimental results has been shown both of these models have high ability to prediction of bending angles with minimum errors.

Keywords: artificial neural network, bending angle, fuzzy logic, laser forming

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720 Optimum Er: YAG Laser Parameters for Orthodontic Composite Debonding: An in vitro Study

Authors: Mohammad Zamzam, Wesam Bachir, Imad Asaad

Abstract:

Several studies have produced estimates of Er:YAG laser parameters and specifications but there is still insufficient data for reliable selection of laser parameters. As a consequence, there is a heightened need for ideal specifications of Er:YAG laser to reduce the amount of enamel ablation. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of Er:YAG laser parameters, energy level and pulse duration, on orthodontic composite removal after bracket debonding. The sample consisted of 45 cuboids of orthodontic composite made by plastic moulds. The samples were divided into three groups, each was irradiated with Er:YAG laser set at different energy levels and three values for pulse durations (50 µs, 100 µs, and 300 µs). Geometrical parameters (depth and area) of cavities formed by laser irradiation were determined. ANCOVA test showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.0.5) between the groups indicating a potential effect of laser pulse duration on the geometrical parameters after controlling laser energy level. A post-hoc Bonferroni test ranked the 50µ Er:YAG laser pulse as the most influential factor for all geometrical parameters in removing remnant composite from enamel surface. Also, 300 mJ laser pulses caused the largest removal of the composite. The results of the present study demonstrated the efficacy of 50 µs and 300 mJ Er:YAG laser pulse for removal of remnant orthodontic composite.

Keywords: enamel, Er:YAG, geometrical parameters, orthodontic composite, remnant composite

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719 To Study the Effect of Optic Fibre Laser Cladding of Cast Iron with Silicon Carbide on Wear Rate

Authors: Kshitij Sawke, Pradnyavant Kamble, Shrikant Patil

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect on wear rate of laser clad of cast iron with silicon carbide. Metal components fail their desired use because they wear, which causes them to lose their functionality. The laser has been used as a heating source to create a melt pool over the surface of cast iron, and then a layer of hard silicon carbide is deposited. Various combinations of power and feed rate of laser have experimented. A suitable range of laser processing parameters was identified. Wear resistance and wear rate properties were evaluated and the result showed that the wear resistance of the laser treated samples was exceptional to that of the untreated samples.

Keywords: laser clad, processing parameters, wear rate, wear resistance

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718 Effect of Laser Input Energy on the Laser Joining of Polyethylene Terephthalate to Titanium

Authors: Y. J. Chen, T. M. Yue, Z. N. Guo

Abstract:

This paper reports the effects of laser energy on the characteristics of bubbles generated in the weld zone and the formation of new chemical bonds at the Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)/Ti joint interface in laser joining of PET to Ti. The samples were produced by using different laser energies ranging from 1.5 J – 6 J in steps of 1.5 J, while all other joining parameters remained unchanged. The types of chemical bonding at the joint interface were analysed by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth-profiling method. The results show that the characteristics of the bubbles and the thickness of the chemically bonded interface, which contains the laser generated bonds of Ti–C and Ti–O, increase markedly with increasing laser energy input. The tensile failure load of the joint depends on the combined effect of the amount and distribution of the bubbles formed and the chemical bonding intensity of the joint interface.

Keywords: laser direct joining, Ti/PET interface, laser energy, XPS depth profiling, chemical bond, tensile failure load

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717 Laser Irradiated GeSn Photodetector for Improved Infrared Photodetection

Authors: Patrik Scajev, Pavels Onufrijevs, Algirdas Mekys, Tadas Malinauskas, Dominykas Augulis, Liudvikas Subacius, Kuo-Chih Lee, Jevgenijs Kaupuzs, Arturs Medvids, Hung Hsiang Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, we focused on the optoelectronic properties of the photodiodes prepared by using 200 nm thick Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ epitaxial layers on Ge/n-Si substrate with aluminum contacts. Photodiodes were formed on non-irradiated and Nd: YAG laser irradiated Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ layers. The samples were irradiated by pulsed Nd: YAG laser with 136.7-462.6 MW/cm² intensity. The photodiodes were characterized by using short laser pulses with the wavelength in the 2.0-2.6 μm range. The laser-irradiated diode was found more sensitive in the long-wavelength range due to laser-induced Sn atoms redistribution providing formation of graded bandgap structure. Sub-millisecond photocurrent relaxation in the diodes revealed their suitability for image sensors. Our findings open the perspective for improving the photo-sensitivity of GeSn alloys in the mid-infrared by pulsed laser processing.

Keywords: GeSn, laser processing, photodetector, infrared

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716 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

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715 Simulation of Laser Structuring by Three Dimensional Heat Transfer Model

Authors: Bassim Shaheen Bachy, Jörg Franke

Abstract:

In this study, a three dimensional numerical heat transfer model has been used to simulate the laser structuring of polymer substrate material in the Three-Dimensional Molded Interconnect Device (3D MID) which is used in the advanced multi-functional applications. A finite element method (FEM) transient thermal analysis is performed using APDL (ANSYS Parametric Design Language) provided by ANSYS. In this model, the effect of surface heat source was modeled with Gaussian distribution, also the effect of the mixed boundary conditions which consist of convection and radiation heat transfers have been considered in this analysis. The model provides a full description of the temperature distribution, as well as calculates the depth and the width of the groove upon material removal at different set of laser parameters such as laser power and laser speed. This study also includes the experimental procedure to study the effect of laser parameters on the depth and width of the removal groove metal as verification to the modeled results. Good agreement between the experimental and the model results is achieved for a wide range of laser powers. It is found that the quality of the laser structure process is affected by the laser scan speed and laser power. For a high laser structured quality, it is suggested to use laser with high speed and moderate to high laser power.

Keywords: laser structuring, simulation, finite element analysis, thermal modeling

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714 Development of 3D Laser Scanner for Robot Navigation

Authors: Ali Emre Öztürk, Ergun Ercelebi

Abstract:

Autonomous robotic systems needs an equipment like a human eye for their movement. Robotic camera systems, distance sensors and 3D laser scanners have been used in the literature. In this study a 3D laser scanner has been produced for those autonomous robotic systems. In general 3D laser scanners are using 2 dimension laser range finders that are moving on one-axis (1D) to generate the model. In this study, the model has been obtained by a one-dimensional laser range finder that is moving in two –axis (2D) and because of this the laser scanner has been produced cheaper. Furthermore for the laser scanner a motor driver, an embedded system control board has been used and at the same time a user interface card has been used to make the communication between those cards and computer. Due to this laser scanner, the density of the objects, the distance between the objects and the necessary path ways for the robot can be calculated. The data collected by the laser scanner system is converted in to cartesian coordinates to be modeled in AutoCAD program. This study shows also the synchronization between the computer user interface, AutoCAD and the embedded systems. As a result it makes the solution cheaper for such systems. The scanning results are enough for an autonomous robot but the scan cycle time should be developed. This study makes also contribution for further studies between the hardware and software needs since it has a powerful performance and a low cost.

Keywords: 3D laser scanner, embedded system, 1D laser range finder, 3D model

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713 Probabilistic Modeling Laser Transmitter

Authors: H. S. Kang

Abstract:

Coupled electrical and optical model for conversion of electrical energy into coherent optical energy for transmitter-receiver link by solid state device is presented. Probability distribution for travelling laser beam switching time intervals and the number of switchings in the time interval is obtained. Selector function mapping is employed to regulate optical data transmission speed. It is established that regulated laser transmission from PhotoActive Laser transmitter follows principal of invariance. This considerably simplifies design of PhotoActive Laser Transmission networks.

Keywords: computational mathematics, finite difference Markov chain methods, sequence spaces, singularly perturbed differential equations

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712 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”.

Keywords: flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron

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711 Novel Ferroelectric Properties as Studied by Boson Mean Field Laser Radiation Induced from a Beer Bottle

Authors: Tadeus Atraskevic, Asch Dalbajobas, Mazahistas Pukuotukas

Abstract:

The novel ferroelectric properties appeared in the recent ten years. Many scientists consider them as non-statement science. Nevertheless, many papers are published. The Mean field theory takes an important place in the theory of ferroelectric materials which can be applied for Boson induced laser systems for ‘Star Track’ soldiers. The novel Laser, which was produced in The Vilnius Bambalio University is a ‘now-how’ among other laser systems. The laser can produce power of 30 kW during 15 seconds. Its size and compatibility distinguishes it among other devices and safety gadgets. Scientists of Bambalio University have already patented the device. The most interesting in this innovations is the process of operation. Merely it may be operated through a bottle a beer what makes the measurement so convenient, that an ordinary scientist can process all stuff without significant effort just by taking pleasure by drinking a bottle of beer. Here we would like to report on the laser system and present our unique developments.

Keywords: laser, boson, ferroelectrics, mean field theory

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710 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: laser cleavage, glass, fracture, stress analysis

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709 Dimensional Accuracy of CNTs/PMMA Parts and Holes Produced by Laser Cutting

Authors: A. Karimzad Ghavidel, M. Zadshakouyan

Abstract:

Laser cutting is a very common production method for cutting 2D polymeric parts. Developing of polymer composites with nano-fibers makes important their other properties like laser workability. The aim of this research is investigation of the influence different laser cutting conditions on the dimensional accuracy of parts and holes from poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) material. Experiments were carried out by considering of CNTs (in four level 0,0.5, 1 and 1.5% wt.%), laser power (60, 80, and 100 watt) and cutting speed 20, 30, and 40 mm/s as input variable factors. The results reveal that CNTs adding improves the laser workability of PMMA and the increasing of power has a significant effect on the part and hole size. The findings also show cutting speed is effective parameter on the size accuracy. Eventually, the statistical analysis of results was done, and calculated mathematical equations by the regression are presented for determining relation between input and output factor.

Keywords: dimensional accuracy, PMMA, CNTs, laser cutting

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708 Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser

Authors: Liang Zhang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuming Dong, Guohua Jiao, Wei Chen, Jiancheng Lv

Abstract:

We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.

Keywords: fiber sensing, interferometric demodulation, mode-locked fiber laser, vernier effect

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707 Nonlinear Optical Properties for Three Level Atoms at Resonance and Off-Resonance with Laser Coupled Beams

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, Eman O. Mafaa

Abstract:

For three level atom interacts with a laser beam, the effect of changing resonance and off-resonance frequencies has been studied. Furthermore, a clear distortion has been seen in both the real and imaginary parts of the electric susceptibility with increasing the frequency of the coupled laser beams so that reaching the off-resonance interaction. With increasing the Rabi frequency of the laser pulse that in resonance with the lower transition the distortion will produce a new peak in the electric susceptibility parts, in both the real and imaginary ones.

Keywords: electric susceptibility, resonance frequency off-resonance frequency, three level atom, laser

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706 Numerical Simulation of Laser ‎Propagation through Turbulent ‎Atmosphere Using Zernike ‎Polynomials

Authors: Mohammad Moradi ‎

Abstract:

In this article, propagation of a laser beam through turbulent ‎atmosphere is evaluated. At first the laser beam is simulated and then ‎turbulent atmosphere will be simulated by using Zernike polynomials. ‎Some parameter like intensity, PSF will be measured for four ‎wavelengths in different Cn2.

Keywords: laser beam propagation, phase screen, turbulent atmosphere, Zernike ‎polynomials

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705 The Laser Line Detection for Autonomous Mapping Based on Color Segmentation

Authors: Pavel Chmelar, Martin Dobrovolny

Abstract:

Laser projection or laser footprint detection is today widely used in many fields of robotics, measurement, or electronics. The system accuracy strictly depends on precise laser footprint detection on target objects. This article deals with the laser line detection based on the RGB segmentation and the component labeling. As a measurement device was used the developed optical rangefinder. The optical rangefinder is equipped with vertical sweeping of the laser beam and high quality camera. This system was developed mainly for automatic exploration and mapping of unknown spaces. In the first section is presented a new detection algorithm. In the second section are presented measurements results. The measurements were performed in variable light conditions in interiors. The last part of the article present achieved results and their differences between day and night measurements.

Keywords: color segmentation, component labelling, laser line detection, automatic mapping, distance measurement, vector map

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704 Laser Additive Manufacturing: A Literature Review

Authors: Pranav Mohan Parki, C. Mallika Parveen, Tahseen Ahmad Khan, Mihika Shivkumar

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the several manufacturing processes in use today. AM comprises of techniques such as ‘Selective Laser Sintering’ and ‘Selective Laser Melting’ etc. along with other equipment and materials has been developed way back in 1980s, although major use of these methods has risen during the last decade. AM seems to be the most efficient way when compared to the traditional machining procedures. Still many problems continue to hinder its progress to becoming the most widely used of all. This paper contributes to the better understanding of AM and also aims at providing viable solutions to these problems, which may further help in enabling AM to become the most flaw free production method.

Keywords: additive manufacturing (AM), 3D printing, prototype, laser sintering

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703 Developing Laser Spot Position Determination and PRF Code Detection with Quadrant Detector

Authors: Mohamed Fathy Heweage, Xiao Wen, Ayman Mokhtar, Ahmed Eldamarawy

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested in modeling, simulation, and measurement of the laser spot position with a quadrant detector. We enhance detection and tracking of semi-laser weapon decoding system based on microcontroller. The system receives the reflected pulse through quadrant detector and processes the laser pulses through a processing circuit, a microcontroller decoding laser pulse reflected by the target. The seeker accuracy will be enhanced by the decoding system, the laser detection time based on the receiving pulses number is reduced, a gate is used to limit the laser pulse width. The model is implemented based on Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) technique with two microcontroller units (MCU). MCU1 generates laser pulses with different codes. MCU2 decodes the laser code and locks the system at the specific code. The codes EW selected based on the two selector switches. The system is implemented and tested in Proteus ISIS software. The implementation of the full position determination circuit with the detector is produced. General system for the spot position determination was performed with the laser PRF for incident radiation and the mechanical system for adjusting system at different angles. The system test results show that the system can detect the laser code with only three received pulses based on the narrow gate signal, and good agreement between simulation and measured system performance is obtained.

Keywords: four quadrant detector, pulse code detection, laser guided weapons, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), Atmega 32 microcontrollers

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702 Synchronization of Semiconductor Laser Networks

Authors: R. M. López-Gutiérrez, L. Cardoza-Avendaño, H. Cervantes-de Ávila, J. A. Michel-Macarty, C. Cruz-Hernández, A. Arellano-Delgado, R. Carmona-Rodríguez

Abstract:

In this paper, synchronization of multiple chaotic semiconductor lasers is achieved by appealing to complex system theory. In particular, we consider dynamical networks composed by semiconductor laser, as interconnected nodes, where the interaction in the networks are defined by coupling the first state of each node. An interesting case is synchronized with master-slave configuration in star topology. Nodes of these networks are modeled for the laser and simulated by Matlab. These results are applicable to private communication.

Keywords: chaotic laser, network, star topology, synchronization

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701 Applications of Nanoparticles via Laser Ablation in Liquids: A Review

Authors: Fawaz M. Abdullah, Abdulrahman M. Al-Ahmari, Madiha Rafaqat

Abstract:

Laser ablation of any solid target in the liquid leads to fabricate nanoparticles (NPs) with metal or different compositions of materials such as metals, alloys, oxides, carbides, hydroxides. The fabrication of NPs in liquids based on laser ablation has grown up rapidly in the last decades compared to other techniques. Nowadays, laser ablation has been improved to prepare different types of NPs with special morphologies, microstructures, phases, and sizes, which can be applied in various fields. The paper reviews and highlights the different sizes, shapes and application field of nanoparticles that are produced by laser ablation under different liquids and materials. Also, the paper provides a case study for producing a titanium NPs produced by laser ablation submerged in distilled water. The size of NPs is an important parameter, especially for their usage and applications. The size and shape have been analyzed by SEM, (EDAX) was applied to evaluate the oxidation and elements of titanium NPs and the XRD was used to evaluate the phase composition and the peaks of both titanium and some element. SEM technique showed that the synthesized NPs size ranges were between 15-35 nm which can be applied in various field such as annihilator for cancerous cell etc.

Keywords: nanoparticles, laser ablation, titanium NPs, applications

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700 A Tunable Long-Cavity Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on Nonlinear Amplifier Loop Mirror

Authors: Pinghe Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable long-cavity passive mode-locked fiber laser. The mode locker is a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM). The cavity frequency of the laser is 465 kHz because that 404m SMF is inserted in the cavity. A tunable bandpass filter with ~1nm 3dB bandwidth is inserted into the cavity to realize tunable mode locking. The passive mode-locked laser at a fixed wavelength is investigated in detail. The experimental results indicate that the laser operates in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser generates the rectangular pulses with 10.58 ns pulse duration, 70.28nJ single-pulse energy. When the pump power is 400mW, the laser keeps stable mode locking status in the range from 1523.4nm to 1575nm. During the whole tuning range, the SNR, the pulse duration, the output power and single pulse energy have a little fluctuation because that the gain of the EDF changes with the wavelength.

Keywords: fiber laser, dissipative soliton resonance, mode locking, tunable

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699 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power

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698 Laser-Hole Boring into Overdense Targets: A Detailed Study on Laser and Target Properties

Authors: Florian Wagner, Christoph Schmidt, Vincent Bagnoud

Abstract:

Understanding the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with overcritical targets is of major interest for many applications such as laser-driven ion acceleration, fast ignition in the frame of inertial confinement fusion or high harmonic generation and the creation of attosecond pulses. One particular aspect of this interaction is the shift of the critical surface, where the laser pulse is stopped and the absorption is at maximum, due to the radiation pressure induced by the laser pulse, also referred to as laser hole boring. We investigate laser-hole boring experimentally by measuring the backscattered spectrum which is doppler-broadened because of the movement of the reflecting surface. Using the high-power, high-energy laser system PHELIX in Darmstadt, we gathered an extensive set of data for different laser intensities ranging from 10^18 W/cm2 to 10^21 W/cm2, two different levels of the nanosecond temporal contrast (10^6 vs. 10^11), elliptical and linear polarization and varying target configurations. In this contribution we discuss how the maximum velocity of the critical surface depends on these parameters. In particular we show that by increasing the temporal contrast the maximum hole boring velocity is decreased by more than a factor of three. Our experimental findings are backed by a basic analytical model based on momentum and mass conservation as well as particle in cell simulations. These results are of particular importance for fast ignition since they contribute to a better understanding of the transport of the ignitor pulse into the overdense region.

Keywords: laser-hole boring, interaction of ultra-intense lasers with overcritical targets, fast ignition, relativistic laser motter interaction

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