Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 292

Search results for: fluctuations

292 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev


Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to the occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.

Keywords: current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise

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291 The Contribution of Density Fluctuations in Ultrasound Scattering in Cancellous Bone

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans


An understanding of the interaction between acoustic waves and cancellous bone is needed in order to realize the full clinical potential of ultrasonic bone measurements. Scattering is likely to be of central importance but has received little attention to date. Few theoretical approaches have been described to explain scattering of ultrasound from bone. In this study, a scattering model based on velocity and density fluctuations in a binary mixture (marrow fat and cortical matrix) was used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in cancellous bone as a function of volume fraction. Predicted attenuation and backscatter coefficient were obtained for a range of porosities and scatterer size. At 600 kHZ and for different scatterer size the effect of velocity and density fluctuations in the predicted attenuation was approximately 60% higher than velocity fluctuations.

Keywords: ultrasound scattering, sound speed, density fluctuations, attenuation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
290 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies

Authors: Chinsuk Hong


This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.

Keywords: wall pressure fluctuation, boundary layer flow, transition, turbulent flow, axisymmetric body, flow noise

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
289 The Influence of Disturbances Generated by Arc Furnaces on the Power Quality

Authors: Z. Olczykowski


The paper presents the impact of work on the electric arc furnace. Arc equipment is one of the largest receivers powered by the power system. Electric arc disturbances arising during melting process occurring in these furnaces are the cause of an abrupt change of the passive power of furnaces. Currents drawn by these devices undergo an abrupt change, which in turn cause voltage fluctuations and light flicker. The quantitative evaluation of the voltage fluctuations is now the basic criterion of assessment of an influence of unquiet receiver on the supplying net. The paper presents the method of determination of range of voltage fluctuations and light flicker at parallel operation of arc devices. The results of measurements of voltage fluctuations and light flicker indicators recorded in power supply networks of steelworks were presented, with different number of parallel arc devices. Measurements of energy quality parameters were aimed at verifying the proposed method in practice. It was also analyzed changes in other parameters of electricity: the content of higher harmonics, asymmetry, voltage dips.

Keywords: power quality, arc furnaces, propagation of voltage fluctuations, disturbances

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
288 On an Experimental Method for Investigating the Dynamic Parameters of Multi-Story Buildings at Vibrating Seismic Loadings

Authors: Shakir Mamedov, Tukezban Hasanova


Research of dynamic properties of various materials and elements of structures at shock affecting and on the waves so many scientific works of the Azerbaijani scientists are devoted. However, Experimental definition of dynamic parameters of fluctuations of constructions and buildings while carries estimated character. The purpose of the present experimental researches is definition of parameters of fluctuations of installation of observations. In this case, a mockup of four floor buildings and sixteen floor skeleton-type buildings built in the Baku with the stiffening diaphragm at natural vibrating seismic affectings.

Keywords: fluctuations, seismoreceivers, dynamic experiments, acceleration

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
287 Hydrodynamics of Selected Ethiopian Rift Lakes

Authors: Kassaye Bewketu Zellelew


The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes suffer from water level fluctuations due to several natural and anthropocentric factors. Lakes located at terminal positions are highly affected by the fluctuations. These fluctuations are disturbing the stability of ecosystems, putting very serious impacts on the lives of many animals and plants around the lakes. Hence, studying the hydrodynamics of the lakes was found to be very essential. The main purpose of this study is to find the most significant factors that contribute to the water level fluctuations and also to quantify the fluctuations so as to identify lakes that need special attention. The research method included correlations, least squares regressions, multi-temporal satellite image analysis and land use change assessment. The results of the study revealed that much of the fluctuations, specially, in Central Ethiopian Rift are caused by human activities. Lakes Abiyata, Chamo, Ziway and Langano are declining while Abaya and Hawassa are rising. Among the studied lakes, Abiyata is drastically reduced in size (about 28% of its area in 1986) due to both human activities (most dominant ones) and natural factors. The other seriously affected lake is Chamo with about 11% reduction in its area between 1986 and 2010. Lake Abaya was found to be relatively stable during this period (showed only a 0.8% increase in its area). Concerned bodies should pay special attention to and take appropriate measures on lakes Abiyata, Chamo and Hawassa.

Keywords: correlations, hydrodynamics, lake level fluctuation, landsat satellite images

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286 Evaluating the Relationship between Overconfidence of Senior Managers and Abnormal Cash Fluctuations with Respect to Financial Flexibility in Companies Listed in Tehran Stock Exchange

Authors: Hadi Mousavi, Majid Davoudi Nasr


Executives can maximize profits by recognizing the factors that affect investment and using them to obtain the optimal level of investment. Inefficient markets have shortcomings that can impact the optimal level of investment, leading to the process of over-investment or under-investment. In the present study, the relationship between the overconfidence of senior managers and abnormal cash fluctuations with respect to financial flexibility in companies listed in the Tehran stock exchange from 2009 to 2013 were evaluated. In this study, the sample consists of 84 companies selected by a systematic elimination method and 420 year-companies in total. In this research, EVIEWS software was used to test the research hypotheses by linear regression and correlation coefficient and after designing and testing the research hypothesis. After designing and testing research hypotheses that have been used to each hypothesis, it was concluded that there was a significant relationship between the overconfidence of senior managers and abnormal cash fluctuations, and this relationship was not significant at any level of financial flexibility. Moreover, the findings of the research showed that there was a significant relationship between senior manager’s overconfidence and positive abnormal cash flow fluctuations in firms, and this relationship is significant only at the level of companies with high financial flexibility. Finally, the results indicate that there is no significant relationship between senior managers 'overconfidence and negative cash flow abnormalities, and the relationship between senior managers' overconfidence and negative cash flow fluctuations at the level of companies with high financial flexibility was confirmed.

Keywords: abnormal cash fluctuations, overconfidence of senior managers, financial flexibility, accounting

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
285 Dynamic Effects of Charitable Giving in a Ramsey Model

Authors: Riham Barbar


This paper studies the dynamic effects of charitable giving in a Ramsey model à la Becker and Foias (1994), such that heterogeneity is reduced to two types of agents: rich and poor. It is assumed that rich show a great concern for poor and enjoy giving. The introduction of charitable giving in this paper is inspired from the notion of Zakat (borrowed from the Islamic Economics) and is defined according to the warm-glow of Andreoni (1990). In this framework, we prove the existence of a steady state where only the patient agent holds capital. Furthermore, we show that local indetermincay appears. While moderate values of charitable-giving elasticity makes the appearance of endogenous fluctuations due to self-fulfilling expectations more likely, high values of this elasticity stabilizes endogenous fluctuations, by narrowing down the range of parameter values compatible with local indeterminacy and may rule out expectations-driven fluctuations if it exceeds certain threshold. Finally, cycles of period two emerge. However, charitable-giving makes it less likely for these cycles to emerge.

Keywords: charitable giving, warm-glow, bifurcations, heterogeneous agents, indeterminacy, self-fulfilling expectations, endogenous fluctuations

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284 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: P. Selyshchev


We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

Keywords: irradiation, primary defects, interaction, fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
283 Electric Arc Furnaces as a Source of Voltage Fluctuations in the Power System

Authors: Zbigniew Olczykowski


The paper presents the impact of work on the electric arc furnace power grid. The arc furnace operating will be modeled at different power conditions of steelworks. The paper will describe how to determine the increase in voltage fluctuations caused by working in parallel arc furnaces. The analysis of indicators characterizing the quality of electricity recorded during several cycles of measurement made at the same time at three points grid, with different power and different short-circuit rated voltage, will be carried out. The measurements analysis presented in this paper were conducted in the mains of one of the Polish steel. The indicators characterizing the quality of electricity was recorded during several cycles of measurement while making measurements at three points of different power network short-circuit power and various voltage ratings. Measurements of power quality indices included the one-week measurement cycles in accordance with the EN-50160. Data analysis will include the results obtained during the simultaneous measurement of three-point grid. This will determine the actual propagation of interference generated by the device. Based on the model studies and measurements of quality indices of electricity we will establish the effect of a specific arc on the mains. The short-circuit power network’s minimum value will also be estimated, this is necessary to limit the voltage fluctuations generated by arc furnaces.

Keywords: arc furnaces, long-term flicker, measurement and modeling of power quality, voltage fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
282 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream

Authors: Ratul Das


The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.

Keywords: acoustic doppler velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
281 Development of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Wall-pressure Fluctuations Power Spectrum Model Using a Stepwise Regression Algorithm

Authors: Zachary Huffman, Joana Rocha


Wall-pressure fluctuations induced by the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) developed over aircraft are a significant source of aircraft cabin noise. Since the power spectral density (PSD) of these pressure fluctuations is directly correlated with the amount of sound radiated into the cabin, the development of accurate empirical models that predict the PSD has been an important ongoing research topic. The sound emitted can be represented from the pressure fluctuations term in the Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). Therefore, early TBL empirical models (including those from Lowson, Robertson, Chase, and Howe) were primarily derived by simplifying and solving the RANS for pressure fluctuation and adding appropriate scales. Most subsequent models (including Goody, Efimtsov, Laganelli, Smol’yakov, and Rackl and Weston models) were derived by making modifications to these early models or by physical principles. Overall, these models have had varying levels of accuracy, but, in general, they are most accurate under the specific Reynolds and Mach numbers they were developed for, while being less accurate under other flow conditions. Despite this, recent research into the possibility of using alternative methods for deriving the models has been rather limited. More recent studies have demonstrated that an artificial neural network model was more accurate than traditional models and could be applied more generally, but the accuracy of other machine learning techniques has not been explored. In the current study, an original model is derived using a stepwise regression algorithm in the statistical programming language R, and TBL wall-pressure fluctuations PSD data gathered at the Carleton University wind tunnel. The theoretical advantage of a stepwise regression approach is that it will automatically filter out redundant or uncorrelated input variables (through the process of feature selection), and it is computationally faster than machine learning. The main disadvantage is the potential risk of overfitting. The accuracy of the developed model is assessed by comparing it to independently sourced datasets.

Keywords: aircraft noise, machine learning, power spectral density models, regression models, turbulent boundary layer wall-pressure fluctuations

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280 Battery State of Charge Management Algorithm for Photovoltaic Ramp Rate Control

Authors: Nam Kyu Kim, Hee Jun Cha, Jae Jin Seo, Dong Jun Won


Output power of a photovoltaic (PV) generator depends on incident solar irradiance. If the clouds pass or the climate condition is bad, the PV output fluctuates frequently. When PV generator is connected to the grid, these fluctuations adversely affect power quality. Thus, ramp rate control with battery energy storage system (BESS) is needed to reduce PV output fluctuations. At the same time, for effective BESS operation and sizing the optimal BESS capacity, managing state of charge (SOC) is the most important part. In addition, managing SOC helps to avoid violating the SOC operating range of BESS when performing renewable integration (RI) continuously. As PV and BESS increase, the SOC management of BESS will become more important in the future. This paper presents the SOC management algorithm which helps to operate effectively BESS, and has focused on method to manage SOC while reducing PV output fluctuations. A simulation model is developed in PSCAD/EMTDC software. The simulation results show that the SOC is maintained within the operating range by adjusting the output distribution according to the SOC of the BESS.

Keywords: battery energy storage system, ramp rate control, renewable integration, SOC management

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279 Predicting Aggregation Propensity from Low-Temperature Conformational Fluctuations

Authors: Hamza Javar Magnier, Robin Curtis


There have been rapid advances in the upstream processing of protein therapeutics, which has shifted the bottleneck to downstream purification and formulation. Finding liquid formulations with shelf lives of up to two years is increasingly difficult for some of the newer therapeutics, which have been engineered for activity, but their formulations are often viscous, can phase separate, and have a high propensity for irreversible aggregation1. We explore means to develop improved predictive ability from a better understanding of how protein-protein interactions on formulation conditions (pH, ionic strength, buffer type, presence of excipients) and how these impact upon the initial steps in protein self-association and aggregation. In this work, we study the initial steps in the aggregation pathways using a minimal protein model based on square-well potentials and discontinuous molecular dynamics. The effect of model parameters, including range of interaction, stiffness, chain length, and chain sequence, implies that protein models fold according to various pathways. By reducing the range of interactions, the folding- and collapse- transition come together, and follow a single-step folding pathway from the denatured to the native state2. After parameterizing the model interaction-parameters, we developed an understanding of low-temperature conformational properties and fluctuations, and the correlation to the folding transition of proteins in isolation. The model fluctuations increase with temperature. We observe a low-temperature point, below which large fluctuations are frozen out. This implies that fluctuations at low-temperature can be correlated to the folding transition at the melting temperature. Because proteins “breath” at low temperatures, defining a native-state as a single structure with conserved contacts and a fixed three-dimensional structure is misleading. Rather, we introduce a new definition of a native-state ensemble based on our understanding of the core conservation, which takes into account the native fluctuations at low temperatures. This approach permits the study of a large range of length and time scales needed to link the molecular interactions to the macroscopically observed behaviour. In addition, these models studied are parameterized by fitting to experimentally observed protein-protein interactions characterized in terms of osmotic second virial coefficients.

Keywords: protein folding, native-ensemble, conformational fluctuation, aggregation

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
278 Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components

Authors: Jaimala Ghambir, Tilak Thakur, Puneet Chawla


As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code requirements such as grid stability, fault ride through (FRT), power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc. Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in view of different grid disturbances.

Keywords: DFIG, dynamic modeling, DPC, sag, swell, voltage fluctuations, FRT

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277 Numerical Investigation of Supertall Buildings and Using Aerodynamic Characteristics to Create New Wind Power Sources

Authors: Mohammad A. Masoumi, Mohammad Zare, Soroush Sabouki


This study investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of supertall buildings to evaluate wind turbine installation at high altitudes. Most recent studies have investigated supertall buildings at a horizontal plane, while a vertical plan could be as important, especially to install wind turbines. A typical square-plan building with a height of 500 m is investigated numerically at horizontal and vertical plans to evaluate wind power generation potentials. The results show good agreement with experimental data and past studies. Then four new geometries are proposed to improvise regions at high altitudes to install wind turbines. Evaluating the simulations shows two regions with high power density, which have the possibility to install wind turbines. Results show that improvised regions to install wind turbines at high altitudes contain significant power density while higher power density is found behind buildings in a far distance. In addition, power density fluctuations behind buildings are investigated, which show decreasing fluctuations by reaching 50 m altitude while altitudes lower than 20 m have the most fluctuations.

Keywords: wind power, supertall building, power density, aerodynamic characteristics, wind turbine mobile, quality assurance, testing, applications

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276 Dynamic Performance Analysis of Distribution/ Sub-Transmission Networks with High Penetration of PV Generation

Authors: Cristian F.T. Montenegro, Luís F. N. Lourenço, Maurício B. C. Salles, Renato M. Monaro


More PV systems have been connected to the electrical network each year. As the number of PV systems increases, some issues affecting grid operations have been identified. This paper studied the impacts related to changes in solar irradiance on a distribution/sub-transmission network, considering variations due to moving clouds and daily cycles. Using MATLAB/Simulink software, a solar farm of 30 MWp was built and then implemented to a test network. From simulations, it has been determined that irradiance changes can have a significant impact on the grid by causing voltage fluctuations outside the allowable thresholds. This work discussed some local control strategies and grid reinforcements to mitigate the negative effects of the irradiance changes on the grid.

Keywords: reactive power control, solar irradiance, utility-scale PV systems, voltage fluctuations

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275 Identification of the Main Transition Velocities in a Bubble Column Based on a Modified Shannon Entropy

Authors: Stoyan Nedeltchev, Markus Schubert


The gas holdup fluctuations in a bubble column (0.15 m in ID) have been recorded by means of a conductivity wire-mesh sensor in order to extract information about the main transition velocities. These parameters are very important for bubble column design, operation and scale-up. For this purpose, the classical definition of the Shannon entropy was modified and used to identify both the onset (at UG=0.034 m/s) of the transition flow regime and the beginning (at UG=0.089 m/s) of the churn-turbulent flow regime. The results were compared with the Kolmogorov entropy (KE) results. A slight discrepancy was found, namely the transition velocities identified by means of the KE were shifted to somewhat higher (0.045 and 0.101 m/s) superficial gas velocities UG.

Keywords: bubble column, gas holdup fluctuations, modified Shannon entropy, Kolmogorov entropy

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
274 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma


The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), localization, turbulence, turbulent spectrum

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273 Study of Aqueous Solutions: A Dielectric Spectroscopy Approach

Authors: Kumbharkhane Ashok


The time domain dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (TDRS) probes the interaction of a macroscopic sample with a time-dependent electrical field. The resulting complex permittivity spectrum, characterizes amplitude (voltage) and time scale of the charge-density fluctuations within the sample. These fluctuations may arise from the reorientation of the permanent dipole moments of individual molecules or from the rotation of dipolar moieties in flexible molecules, like polymers. The time scale of these fluctuations depends on the sample and its relative relaxation mechanism. Relaxation times range from some picoseconds in low viscosity liquids to hours in glasses, Therefore the DRS technique covers an extensive dynamical process, its corresponding frequency range from 10-4 Hz to 1012 Hz. This inherent ability to monitor the cooperative motion of molecular ensemble distinguishes dielectric relaxation from methods like NMR or Raman spectroscopy which yield information on the motions of individual molecules. An experimental set up for Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique from 10 MHz to 30 GHz has been developed for the aqueous solutions. This technique has been very simple and covers a wide band of frequencies in the single measurement. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy is especially sensitive to intermolecular interactions. The complex permittivity spectra of aqueous solutions have been fitted using Cole-Davidson (CD) model to determine static dielectric constants and relaxation times for entire concentrations. The heterogeneous molecular interactions in aqueous solutions have been discussed through Kirkwood correlation factor and excess properties.

Keywords: liquid, aqueous solutions, time domain reflectometry

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272 Magnetic Fluctuations in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath

Authors: Alexandre Gurchumelia, Luca Sorriso-Valvo, David Burgess, Khatuna Elbakidze, Oleg Kharshiladze, Diana Kvaratskhelia


The terrestrial magnetosheath is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of magnetic1field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These often include an inertial range where a2magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade is observed. The multifractal properties of the turbulent3cascade, strictly related to intermittency, are observed here during the transition from quasi-parallel to4quasi-perpendicular magnetic field with respect to the bow-shock normal. The different multifractal5behavior in the two regions is analyzed. A standard coarse-graining technique has been used6to evaluate the generalized dimensions and the corresponding multifractal spectrumf(α). A7p-model fit provided a quantitative measure of multifractality and intermittency, to be compared with8standard indicators: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling9exponent. Results show a clear transition and sharp differences in the intermittency properties for the two regions.

Keywords: magnetos heath, turbulence, multifractal, instabilities

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271 The Influence of Oil Price Fluctuations on Macroeconomics Variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Mujaljal, Hassan Alhajhoj


This paper empirically investigates the influence of oil price fluctuations on the key macroeconomic variables of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using unrestricted VAR methodology. Two analytical tools- Granger-causality and variance decomposition are used. The Granger-causality test reveals that almost all specifications of oil price shocks significantly Granger-cause GDP and demonstrates evidence of causality between oil price changes and money supply (M3) and consumer price index percent (CPIPC) in the case of positive oil price shocks. Surprisingly, almost all specifications of oil price shocks do not Granger-cause government expenditure. The outcomes from variance decomposition analysis suggest that positive oil shocks contribute about 25 percent in causing inflation in the country. Also, contribution of symmetric linear oil price shocks and asymmetric positive oil price shocks is significant and persistent with 25 percent explaining variation in world consumer price index till end of the period.

Keywords: Granger causality, oil prices changes, Saudi Arabian economy, variance decomposition

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270 Investment Adjustments to Exchange Rate Fluctuations Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Tunisia

Authors: Mourad Zmami Oussema BenSalha


The current research aims to assess empirically the reaction of private investment to exchange rate fluctuations in Tunisia using a sample of 548 firms operating in manufacturing industries between 1997 and 2002. The micro-econometric model we estimate is based on an accelerator-profit specification investment model increased by two variables that measure the variation and the volatility of exchange rates. Estimates using the system the GMM method reveal that the effects of the exchange rate depreciation on investment are negative since it increases the cost of imported capital goods. Turning to the exchange rate volatility, as measured by the GARCH (1,1) model, our findings assign a significant role to the exchange rate uncertainty in explaining the sluggishness of private investment in Tunisia in the full sample of firms. Other estimation attempts based on various sub samples indicate that the elasticities of investment relative to the exchange rate volatility depend upon many firms’ specific characteristics such as the size and the ownership structure.

Keywords: investment, exchange rate volatility, manufacturing firms, system GMM, Tunisia

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269 Numerical Study of a Butterfly Valve for Vibration Analysis and Reduction

Authors: Malik I. Al-Amayreh, Mohammad I. Kilani, Ahmed S. Al-Salaymeh


This works presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a butterfly valve used to control the flow of combustible gas mixture in an industrial process setting. The work uses CFD simulation to analyze the flow characteristics in the vicinity of the valve, including the velocity distributions, streamlines and path lines. Frequency spectrum of the pressure pulsations downstream the valves, and the vortex shedding allow predicting the torque fluctuations acting on the valve shaft and the possibility of generating mechanical vibration and resonance. These fluctuations are due to aerodynamic torque resulting from fluid turbulence and vortex shedding in the valve vicinity. The valve analyzed is located in a pipeline between two opposing 90o elbows, which exposes the valve and the surrounding structure to the turbulence generated upstream and downstream the elbows at either end of the pipe. CFD simulations show that the best location for the valve from a vibration point of view is in the middle of the pipe joining the elbows.

Keywords: butterfly valve vibration analysis, computational fluid dynamics, fluid flow circuit design, fluctuation

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268 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy


The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems.

Keywords: Gibbs energy, mixing energy, salinity gradient energy, thermodynamics

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267 Investments in Petroleum Industry Abnormally Normal: A Case Study Based on Petroleum and Natural Gas Companies in India

Authors: Radhika Ramanchi


The oil market during 2014-2015 in India with large price fluctuations is very confusing to individual investor. The drop in oil prices supported stocks of some oil marketing companies (OMCs) like Bharat Petroleum Corporation, Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and Indian Oil Corporation etc their shares rose 84.74%, 128.63% and 59.16%, respectively. Lower oil prices, and lower current account, a smaller subsidy burden are the reasons for outperformance. On the other hand, lower crude prices giving downward pressure on upstream companies like Oil and Natural Gas Corp. Ltd (ONGC) and Reliance Petroleum (RIL) Oil India Ltd (OIL). Not having clarity on a subsidy sharing mechanism is the reason for downward trend on these stocks. Shares of ONGC and RIL have underperformed so far in 2015. When the oil price fall profits of the companies will effect, generate less money and may cut their dividends in Long run. In this situation this paper objective is to study investment strategies in oil marketing companies, by applying CAPM and Security Market Line.

Keywords: petrol industry, price fluctuations, sharp single index model, SML, Markowitz model

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
266 Aggregate Fluctuations and the Global Network of Input-Output Linkages

Authors: Alexander Hempfing


The desire to understand business cycle fluctuations, trade interdependencies and co-movement has a long tradition in economic thinking. From input-output economics to business cycle theory, researchers aimed to find appropriate answers from an empirical as well as a theoretical perspective. This paper empirically analyses how the production structure of the global economy and several states developed over time, what their distributional properties are and if there are network specific metrics that allow identifying structurally important nodes, on a global, national and sectoral scale. For this, the World Input-Output Database was used, and different statistical methods were applied. Empirical evidence is provided that the importance of the Eastern hemisphere in the global production network has increased significantly between 2000 and 2014. Moreover, it was possible to show that the sectoral eigenvector centrality indices on a global level are power-law distributed, providing evidence that specific national sectors exist which are more critical to the world economy than others while serving as a hub within the global production network. However, further findings suggest, that global production cannot be characterized as a scale-free network.

Keywords: economic integration, industrial organization, input-output economics, network economics, production networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
265 Time Domain Dielectric Relaxation Microwave Spectroscopy

Authors: A. C. Kumbharkhane


Time domain dielectric relaxation microwave spectroscopy (TDRMS) is a term used to describe a technique of observing the time dependant response of a sample after application of time dependant electromagnetic field. A TDRMS probes the interaction of a macroscopic sample with a time dependent electrical field. The resulting complex permittivity spectrum, characterizes amplitude (voltage) and time scale of the charge-density fluctuations within the sample. These fluctuations may arise from the reorientation of the permanent dipole moments of individual molecules or from the rotation of dipolar moieties in flexible molecules, like polymers. The time scale of these fluctuations depends on the sample and its relative relaxation mechanism. Relaxation times range from some picoseconds in low viscosity liquids to hours in glasses, Therefore the TDRS technique covers an extensive dynamical process. The corresponding frequencies range from 10-4 Hz to 1012 Hz. This inherent ability to monitor the cooperative motion of molecular ensemble distinguishes dielectric relaxation from methods like NMR or Raman spectroscopy, which yield information on the motions of individual molecules. Recently, we have developed and established the TDR technique in laboratory that provides information regarding dielectric permittivity in the frequency range 10 MHz to 30 GHz. The TDR method involves the generation of step pulse with rise time of 20 pico-seconds in a coaxial line system and monitoring the change in pulse shape after reflection from the sample placed at the end of the coaxial line. There is a great interest to study the dielectric relaxation behaviour in liquid systems to understand the role of hydrogen bond in liquid system. The intermolecular interaction through hydrogen bonds in molecular liquids results in peculiar dynamical properties. The dynamics of hydrogen-bonded liquids have been studied. The theoretical model to explain the experimental results will be discussed.

Keywords: microwave, time domain reflectometry (TDR), dielectric measurement, relaxation time

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
264 Prediction of Trailing-Edge Noise under Adverse-Pressure Gradient Effect

Authors: Li Chen


For an aerofoil or hydrofoil in high Reynolds number flows, broadband noise is generated efficiently as the result of the turbulence convecting over the trailing edge. This noise can be related to the surface pressure fluctuations, which can be predicted by either CFD or empirical models. However, in reality, the aerofoil or hydrofoil often operates at an angle of attack. Under this situation, the flow is subjected to an Adverse-Pressure-Gradient (APG), and as a result, a flow separation may occur. This study is to assess trailing-edge noise models for such flows. In the present work, the trailing-edge noise from a 2D airfoil at 6 degree of angle of attach is investigated. Under this condition, the flow is experiencing a strong APG, and the flow separation occurs. The flow over the airfoil with a chord of 300 mm, equivalent to a Reynold Number 4x10⁵, is simulated using RANS with the SST k-ɛ turbulent model. The predicted surface pressure fluctuations are compared with the published experimental data and empirical models, and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of the APG on the trailing edge noise is discussed, and the associated trailing edge noise is calculated.

Keywords: aero-acoustics, adverse-pressure gradient, computational fluid dynamics, trailing-edge noise

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263 Numerical Investigation of Flow Characteristics inside the External Gear Pump Using Urea Liquid Medium

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


In selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, the injection system is provided with unique dosing pump to govern the urea injection phenomenon. The urea based operating liquid from the AdBlue tank links up directly with the dosing pump unit to furnish appropriate high pressure for examining the flow characteristics inside the liquid pump. This work aims in demonstrating the importance of external gear pump to provide pertinent high pressure and respective mass flow rate for each rotation. Numerical simulations are conducted using immersed solid method technique for better understanding of unsteady flow characteristics within the pump. Parametric analyses have been carried out for the gear speed and mass flow rate to find the behavior of pressure fluctuations. In the simulation results, the outlet pressure achieves maximum magnitude with the increase in rotational speed and the fluctuations grow higher.

Keywords: AdBlue tank, external gear pump, immersed solid method, selective catalytic reduction

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