Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1840

Search results for: Deuk Young Kim

1840 Dependence of Photocurrent on UV Wavelength in ZnO/Pt Bottom-Contact Schottky Diode

Authors: Byoungho Lee, Changmin Kim, Youngmin Lee, Sejoon Lee, Deuk Young Kim

Abstract:

We fabricated the bottom-contacted ZnO/Pt Schottky diode and investigated the dependence of its photocurrent on the wavelength of illuminated ultraviolet (UV) light source. The bottom-contacted Schottky diode was devised by growing (000l) ZnO on (111) Pt, and the fabricated device showed a strong dependence on the UV wavelength for its photo-response characteristics. When longer-wavelength-UV (e.g., UV-A) was illuminated on the device, the photo-current was increased by a factor of 200, compared to that under illumination of shorter-wavelength-UV (e.g., UV-C). The behavior is attributed to the wavelength-dependent UV penetration depth for ZnO.

Keywords: ZnO, UV, Schottky diode, photocurrent

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1839 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: Cr-doped ZnO, ferromagnetic properties, magnetization, sputtering, thin film

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1838 Influences of Victimization Experiences on Delinquency: Comparison between Young Offenders and Non-Offenders

Authors: Yoshihiro Horio

Abstract:

Many young offenders grow up in difficult environments. It has often been suggested that many young offenders are victims of abuse. However, there were restricted to abuse or family’s problem. Little research has examined data on ‘multiple victimization’ experiences of young offenders. Thus, this study investigated the victimization experiences of young offenders, including child abuse at home, bullying at school, and crime in the community. Specifically, the number of victimization experiences of young offenders was compared with those of non-delinquents at home, school, and in the community. It was found that young offenders experienced significantly more victimization than non-delinquents. Additionally, the influence of childhood victimization on later misconduct and/or delinquency was examined, then it was founded that victimization experiences to be a risk factor for subsequent delinquency. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that young offenders who had a strong emotional reaction to their experience of abuse began their misconduct at an earlier age. If juveniles start their misconduct early, the degree of delinquency will increase. The anger of young offenders was stronger than that of non-delinquents. A strong emotion of anger may be related to juvenile delinquency.

Keywords: abuse, bullying, delinquency, victimization, young offenders

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1837 Assessment of Analytical Equations for the Derivation of Young’s Modulus of Bonded Rubber Materials

Authors: Z. N. Haji, S. O. Oyadiji, H. Samami, O. Farrell

Abstract:

The prediction of the vibration response of rubber products by analytical or numerical method depends mainly on the predefined intrinsic material properties such as Young’s modulus, damping factor and Poisson’s ratio. Such intrinsic properties are determined experimentally by subjecting a bonded rubber sample to compression tests. The compression tests on such a sample yield an apparent Young’s modulus which is greater in magnitude than the intrinsic Young’s modulus of the rubber. As a result, many analytical equations have been developed to determine Young’s modulus from an apparent Young’s modulus of bonded rubber materials. In this work, the applicability of some of these analytical equations is assessed via experimental testing. The assessment is based on testing of vulcanized nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR70) samples using tensile test and compression test methods. The analytical equations are used to determine the intrinsic Young’s modulus from the apparent modulus that is derived from the compression test data of the bonded rubber samples. Then, these Young’s moduli are compared with the actual Young’s modulus that is derived from the tensile test data. The results show significant discrepancy between the Young’s modulus derived using the analytical equations and the actual Young’s modulus.

Keywords: bonded rubber, quasi-static test, shape factor, apparent Young’s modulus

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1836 A Comparative Research on the Development Level of Left-Behind and Non-Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas of Henan Province

Authors: Yuying Zhu

Abstract:

Left-behind children in rural areas are vulnerable groups with the course of our country’s urbanization. Left-behind young children in rural area separate from their parents in their early childhood, vicegerent guardian’s care are less sensitive and careful than children’s parents; they give less concern to children’s verbal development, this makes the verbal problem of the left-behind children to be ubiquitous problem. This study chooses four kindergartens from the east the middle and the west of the Henan Province, explore the verbal development differences between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children through the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) and self-made questionnaires. The study shows that there is no significant difference between the left-behind young children and the non-left-behind young rural children in the verbal development, though the marks in primary class and middle class the non-left-behind young rural children is higher, but, the top class in the kindergarten is not. What’s more, the emergent reading and the economy have significant influence on young children’s verbal ability.

Keywords: left-behind children, non-left-behind children, regional difference, verbal development

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1835 The Correlation between of Medicine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)

Authors: Dian Ariyawati, Romi Sukoco, Sinung Agung Joko

Abstract:

Background: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of orthostatic intolerance caused by autonomic dysfunction. POTS predominantly occurs in young women. Regular exercise has proven to improve the organ system functions, including autonomous systems. The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Method: 510 young women (16-23 years of age) were screened. They were obtained by interview and physical examination. The diagnosis of POTS was performed with Active Stand Test (AST) and heart rate measurement using a pulsemeter. There were 29 young women who suffered from POTS. The exercise frequency was obtained by interview. Data was statistically analyzed using Spearman Correlation test. Result: The subjects’, who tested positive for POTS didn’t perform regular exercise. The Spearman correlation test showed there was a moderate negative correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women (r = -0.487, p < 0.00). Conclusion: There is a moderate reverse correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Further studies are suggested to develop an exercise program for young who suffered from POTS.

Keywords: POTS, autonomic dysfunction, exercise frequency, young woman

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1834 A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver’s Behavior towards Road Safety

Authors: Sadia Afroza, Rakiba Rouf

Abstract:

Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers in UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young driver’s at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies such as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.

Keywords: driving behavior, Graduated Driver Licensing System (GLDS), road safety, UAE drivers, young drivers

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1833 An Overview of the Risk for HIV/AIDS among Young Women in South Africa: Gender Based Violence

Authors: Shaneil Taylor

Abstract:

Gender-based violence is a reflection of the inequalities that are associated within a society between the men and women that affects the health, dignity, security and autonomy of its victims. There are various determinants that contribute to the health risk of young women who have experienced sexual violence, in countries that have a high prevalence rate for HIV. For instance, in South Africa, where the highest prevalence rate for HIV is among young women, their susceptibility to the virus has been increased by sexual violence and cultural inequalities. Therefore, this study is a review of literature that explores how gender-based violence increases the possibility for HIV/AIDS among young women in South Africa.

Keywords: gender-based violence, HIV/AIDS transmission, risky sexual behavior, young women

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1832 Stereotypes and Glass Ceiling Barriers for Young Women’s Leadership

Authors: Amna Khaliq

Abstract:

In this article, the phenomena of common stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers in women’s career advancement in men dominating society are explored. A brief background is provided on the misconception for women as soft, delicate, polite and compassionate at a workplace in the place of strong head and go-getter. Then, the literature review supports that stereotypes and glass ceiling barriers are still in existence for young women’s leadership. Increased encouragement, emotional intelligence, and better communication skills are recommended to parents, educators, and employers to prepare young women for senior leadership roles. Young women need mentorship from other women with no competition.

Keywords: Gender inequality, Glass ceiling, Stereotypes, Leadership

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1831 Teaching Young Learners How to Work Together: Pedagogical Ideas for Language Teachers

Authors: Tomas Kos

Abstract:

An increasing body of research has explored patterns of interaction and peer support among young learners. Although some studies suggest that young learners can collaborate and support each other, other studies indicate that young learners may lack the ability to work together and support one another when interacting on classroom tasks. Moreover, despite the claims that peer collaboration is conducive to learning, studies have not paid enough attention to the “how” to enhance peer collaboration on classroom tasks. To fill this gap, this “how-to” article proposes that teaching young learners how to work together is a powerful pedagogical tool that can greatly improve collaborative behavior and a sense of mutuality among young learners. This article will pay particular attention to primary schools and the context of English as a foreign language. It will first review literature related to patterns of interaction and peer support conducted in the cognitive and sociocultural framework. It will then address what it actually means to collaborate. At the heart of the article, it will discuss some practical pedagogical ideas for language teachers, which entail teaching collaborative principles and strategies that will help their students to support each other and engage in communication with each other.

Keywords: young learners, peer collaboration, peer interaction, peer support, patterns of interaction

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1830 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

Abstract:

Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children

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1829 A Study on Adult Attachment Styles and Romantic Relationship Quality among Young Adults

Authors: Kaliammah Kumaran, Thilaagheswary Thangadurai

Abstract:

This study examined the relationship between anxious attachment and avoidant attachment among young adult romantic relationship quality. Our survey was administered to 300 young adult participants (126 males and 174 females) aged 18-24 years old (M= 20.85, SD=1.89), accomplished the English version of the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) used to measure adult attachment and Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS). All the participants were tertiary level students. Findings of our study indicated that young adults experienced anxious attachment style is negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality as well as young adult from avoidant attachment also negatively correlated with romantic relationship quality among young adults. The results showed that insecure adult attachment styles which are anxious and avoidance adult attachment styles links with reduced quality of romantic relationship.

Keywords: adult attachment style, anxious attachment style, avoidant attachment style, romantic relationship quality

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1828 Real, Ideal, or False Self- Presentation among Young Adult and Middle Adult Facebook Users

Authors: Maria Joan Grafil, Hannah Wendam, Christine Joyce Yu

Abstract:

The use of social networking sites had been a big part of life of most people. One of the most popular among these is Facebook. Users range from young adults to late adults. While it is more popular among emerging and young adults, this social networking site gives people opportunities to express the self. Via Facebook, people have the opportunity to think about what they prefer to show others. This study identified which among the multiple facets of the self (real self, false self or ideal self) is dominantly presented by young adults and middle adults in using the social networking site Facebook. South Metro Manila was the locale of this study where 100 young adult participants (aged 18-25) were students from nearby universities and the 100 middle adult participants (aged 35-45) were working residents within the area. Participants were comprised of 53% females and 47% males. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire to determine which online self-presentation (real self-presentation, false self-presentation, or ideal self-presentation) of the participants has greater extent when engaging in the social networking site Facebook. Using means comparison, results showed that both young adults and middle adults engaged primarily in real self-presentation.

Keywords: false self, ideal self, middle adult, real self, self presentation, young adult

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1827 EPD as Technical Competencies Acceleration Program in Developing New Talent at HR Directorate, Pertamina Ltd.

Authors: A. A. A. Indira Pratyaksa, Achmad Zaki

Abstract:

In every organization, there would be a demographic of young employees. They see themselves are the future leaders of the company. A special program needs to be prepared for them as a form of retention programs. Early Professional Program (EPD) must address challenges in the future. Aspects of the development of competence of young employees also become one of the answers in accelerating existing business processes. The role of the supervisor is the key success of EPD. Pertamina, thus, is better prepared to realize the vision and mission.

Keywords: young employee, competencies, development, leader, coaching

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1826 Factors Influencing the Uptake of Family Planning Services among Young People (18-24 Years) at Community Level in Rural Budaka District, Uganda

Authors: Mathew Nyashanu, George K. Kiggundu, Mandu S. Ekpenyong

Abstract:

There is an increased number of young people engaging in early sexual relationships worldwide. Furthermore, statistics for early pregnancy among young people have also increased, especially in low and middle-income countries. This has health implications for both the parents and the baby. High uptake in family planning contraception among young people can reduce early pregnancy and subsequent negative health outcomes on the young parents and the baby. This study was set to explore the factors influencing the uptake of family planning contraceptive services among young people (18-24 years) at a community level in rural Budaka district, Uganda. The study utilised an explorative qualitative approach. The study found out that religion, partner resistance; perceived loss of libido, perceived barren, long waiting time and distance from the health facility, lack of privacy/confidentiality, excessive menstrual bleeding, cancer, and fear of having disabled babies, limited the utilisation of family planning contraceptive services while contraception as HIV prevention and child spacing encouraged young people to use family planning contraceptive services. There is a need for a culturally orientated community-based contraceptive health promotion approach to increase the uptake of family planning contraception services among young people.

Keywords: Young people, Family Planning, Contraceptives, Black sub-Sahara African

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1825 Infertility Awareness: Knowledge and Attitude of Medical & Non-Medical Moroccan Young People

Authors: Sana El Adlani, Yassir Ait Ben Kaddour, Abdelhafid Benksim, Abderraouf Soummani, Mohamed Cherkaoui

Abstract:

Background: Infertility in all countries of the word is on an increase, it’s why the World Health Organization included an investigation into young people's fertility. In this sense, it’s important to increase efforts to improve the knowledge about fertility for the young population. The aim of this study is to describe the difference between knowledge and attitude of medical and non-medical Moroccan young people. Materials and Methods: 100 medical Moroccan students (group 1) participated in the study, between 18 and 30 years, by a simple random sampling method, during 2020 and using a previously validated questionnaire. The answers were confronted to the result of our same study among 355 non-medical Moroccan young people (group 2) in 2019. Statistical analyses were performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 10). Result: Medical students had a significantly higher level of knowledge about infertility than non-medical young people. However, both groups were aware of the impact of lifestyle on infertility. The knowledge state of the first group about infertility management was higher than the second group. Moreover, all non-medical Moroccan young people believed that it is easier to conceive if the couples had already their first baby, whereas, among medical students, only 53% had confirmed this belief. The results showed that 65% of medical students had proposed to try fertility treatments more than one time if treatment fails. Besides, the first advice of the second group was polygamy and adoption. Conclusion: Following the result of our study, the investigation of young people is the measure to optimize reproductive health. So, it’s crucial that the government increase efforts to improve the knowledge about infertility not only for medical universities but for all scholar programs.

Keywords: attitude, infertility, knowledge, medical, non-medical, young people

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1824 A Study of Language Choice and Use among Young Thai in Malaysia

Authors: Din Eak Arathai

Abstract:

The purpose of this research report is to investigate the language choice and use among the young generation of Malaysian Thais community. Besides that, it aims to investigate if there is a difference in language choice across the different domains. It will also examine if there has been a language shift from Thai to other languages by the young generation of Thai community in Malaysia. First the study focuses on the proficiency of Thai and other languages used by hundred (100) respondents belonging to young generation of Malaysian Thais aged range from 18-35. Next, language use and choice will be presented with a focus on the domains of family, friendship, entertainment and social. Finally, based on the findings and data collected, we will be able to see if language shift from Thai to other languages has occurred among the young Thai generation in Malaysia. The instrument used in this study was a 30-item questionnaire and the findings of the data analysis were presented in the form of frequency counts and percentages. The findings found that Thai language remains the most preferred language of choice among young Malaysian Thais but usage of other languages, such as Malay, English and Mandarin has increased and begun to influence the language choice of young Malaysian Thais and their proficiency of their mother tongue.In all the domains studied, Thai is almost exclusively the preferred language used when communicating with family. Malay is the most preferred language in communicating with friends while English is the most preferred language when communicating with colleagues. With regards to social and entertainment activities, young Malaysian Thais show great affinity for entertainment in the Thai language. In conclusion, the result of the study showed the beginning of young Malaysian Thais shifting to other languages, especially English and Malay through their daily choices when communicating with friends and family and especially through their language preferences in entertainment.

Keywords: language choice, language use, language shift, language maintenance, young Malaysian Thais, code switching, code mixing

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1823 Comparing of Compete Motivation between Young and Adult Elite Volleyball Players

Authors: Hassan Hamidi, Fereshteh Zarei

Abstract:

In this study, we compared amount of compete motivation between young and adult volleyball players. Compete motivation has three sections: success achieves score, defeat avoiding score and ability score. For measuring motivation, we used sports attitude inventory of Willis and Layne. The statistical population was elite's men volleyball players in range of young and adult and the study subjects were randomly selected from participant teams in volleyball professional league. In total, 65 adult and 75 young were selected. For collecting the required information, the research inventories were distributed in practice's locations and then were collected after being completed by players. For analyzing the data, we used descriptive statistics including mean, standard deviation and frequency tables. We also used conceptual statistics such as independent sample t-student and Pierson correlation. The results showed a significant difference between young and adult volleyball players in success achieve score and ability score. However, there was no significant difference between young and adult volleyball players in defeat avoiding score and compete motivation. In addition, there was not significant relationship between the length of activities and motivations' sections in adult and young volleyball player. The application of this study to other sports will be discussed.

Keywords: compete motivation, volleyball player, statistical analysis, sport psychology

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1822 Features of Annual Junior Men's Kayak Training Loads in China

Authors: Liu Haitao, Wang Hengyong

Abstract:

This paper attempts to kayak, Zhaoqing City, the annual training program for young men, the deconstruction and analysis, describe the characteristics of their training load, Young people to extract the key issues for training kayak, kayak training young people to clarify in Zhaoqing City, and the cause of the bottlenecks. On one hand, scientifically arranging for the coaches to adjust training load and provide the basis for periodic structure, for young people to provide practical reference kayak athletes. On the other hand, through their training load research, enrich the theoretical system kayak training project for junior kayak athletes to provide a theoretical basis.

Keywords: juniors, kayak, training programs, full year

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1821 Health, Social Integration and Social Justice: The Lived Experiences of Young Middle-Eastern Refugees in Australia

Authors: Pranee Liamputtong, Hala Kurban

Abstract:

Based on the therapeutic landscape theory, this paper examines how young Middle-Eastern refugee individuals perceive their health and well-being and address the barriers they face in their new homeland and the means that helped them to form social connections in their new social environment. Qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and mapping activities) were conducted with ten young people from refugee backgrounds. Thematic analysis method was used to analyse the data. Findings suggested that the young refugees face various structural and cultural inequalities that significantly influenced their health and well-being. Mental health well-being was their greatest health concern. All reported the significant influence the English language had on their ability to adapt and form connections with their social environment. The presence of positive social support in their new social environment had a great impact on the health and well-being of the participants. The findings of this study have implications for social justice among refugees. They also contributed to the role of therapeutic landscapes and social support in helping young refugees to feel that they belonged to the society, and hence assisted them to adapt to their new living situation.

Keywords: young refugees, Middle-Eastern, social support, social justice

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1820 A Phenomenological Inquiry on the Spirituality of Young Filipino Gay Men Living with HIV

Authors: Dela Cruz Abraham, Bachoco Janine

Abstract:

Spirituality plays a central role among patients dealing with HIV mostly on the LGBT community in the world today particularly in the Philippines. This study seeks to contribute to the growing body of knowledge in LGBT psychology particularly on gay men living with HIV and their spiritual aspect. In line with this, the researchers aim to describe (1) how young Filipino gay men relate their experiences as an HIV-positive in relations to their self and significant others (partners, family, friends and community); (2) how young Filipino gay men make sense of their experiences as an HIV-positive, in connection to God, this also includes their meaning making and purpose of their life experiences. To recruit participants, the researchers will employ purposive sampling using snowball technique, and conduct a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcriptions of the participant will be analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Keywords: interpretative phenomenological analysis, living with HIV, spirituality, young Filipino gay men

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1819 Making Sense of Cyber Pornography among Young Adult Couples

Authors: Marianne Lumacang, Jessarine Dultra, Joana Fenol

Abstract:

Filipinos are known to be conservative, sex or pornography is not discussed openly in the Philippines, topic of sex, when raised, will most likely elicit snickers, jokes, and blushes in most Filipino or expressions of disgust. However, a lot of Filipinos are still engaging into this kind of activity for some reasons. The study aims to determine young adult’s point of view about cyber pornography viewing, as well as their reasons for engagement, and its effects on them and their relationship with their partner. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to explore how young adults make sense of cyber pornography viewing. The study focused on Filipino young adults who are in a romantic or married relationship, engage in cyber pornography viewing, and currently residing in Cavite, Philippines. A total of four young adult couples, four females and four males participated in the study as research participants. Data gathered from a total of four young adult couples resulted to a total of nine superordinate themes focusing on (1) exploring young adult couple’s rationales for cyber pornography viewing, (2) experiences of positive effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (3) experiences of negative effects in engaging to cyber pornography viewing, (4) experience of infidelity, (5) experience of necessity, (6) females perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (7) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards self, (8) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards romantic partner, and (9) males perception about cyber pornography viewing towards others.

Keywords: cyberpornography, Filipino, interpretative phenomenological analysis, making sense of cyberpornography, young adult

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1818 Correlation Studies in Nutritional Intake, Health Status and Clinical Examination of Young Adult Girls

Authors: Sonal Tuljaram Kame

Abstract:

Growth and development is based on proper diet. A balanced diet contains all the nutrients in required quantum. Although physical growth is completed by young adulthood, the body tissues remain in a dynamic state with catabolism slightly exceeding anabolism, resulting in a net decrease in the number of cells. After the years of adolescence which cause upheavals in the life of the person, the individual struggle to emerge as an adult who know who he is and what his goals are. During this period nutrients are needed for maintaining the health and energy is required for physical functions and physical activities. The nutritional requirement in young adulthood differs from other periods of life. Iron is needed for haemoglobin synthesis and necessitates by the considerable examination of blood volume. Young adult girls need to ensure adequate intake of iron as they loose 0.5 mg/day by way of menstruation. This is complete awareness about nutritional and health on the other side there is widespread ignorance about nutrition and health among young adult girls. The young adult girls who are aware about nutrition and health seem to be very conscious about nutritional intake and health. Figure consciousness and fear of obesity leads to self imposed intake of nutrients. It may result in various health problems. The study was planned to investigate nutrient intake, find relation between nutritional intake, clinical examination score and health status of young adult girls. The present study is based on the data collected from 120 young adult girls studying in four different competitive exams coaching academies in Akola city of Maharashtra. It was found that nutritional intake of these young adult girls was below the recommended level, nutritional knowledge level and nutritional intake are associated attributes, calories, calcium and protein intake is positively correlated with clinical examination and health status. It was concluded that well planned nutritional counseling for the young adult girls can help prevent nutritional deficiency diseases and disorders which may lead to anaemic condition in young adult girls. Girls need to be educated on intake of iron and vitamin B12.

Keywords: nutritional intake, health status, young adult girls, correlation studies

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1817 Understanding Risky Borrowing Behavior among Young Consumers: An Empirical Study

Authors: T. Hansen

Abstract:

Many consumers are uncertain of what financial borrowing behavior may serve their interests in the best way. This is important since consumers’ risky financial decisions may not only negatively affect their short-term liquidity but may haunt them for years after they are made. Obviously, this is especially critical for young adults who often carry large amounts of student loans or credit card debt, which in turn may hinder their future ability to obtain financial healthiness. Even though factors such as financial knowledge, attitudes towards risk, gender, and motivations of borrowing, among others, are known to influence consumer borrowing behavior, no existing model comprehensibly describes the mechanisms behind young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. This is unfortunate since a better understanding of the relationships between such factors and young adults’ risky borrowing behavior may be of value to financial service providers and financial authorities aiming to improve young adults’ borrowing behavior. This research extends prior research by developing a conceptual framework for the purpose of understanding young adults’ risky borrowing behavior. The study is based on two survey samples comprising 488 young adults aged 18-25 who have not obtained a risky loan (sample 1) and 214 young adults aged 18-25 who already have obtained a risky loan (sample 2), respectively. The results suggest several psychological, sociological, and behavioral factors that may influence young adults’ intentional risky borrowing behavior, which in turn is shown to affect actualized risky borrowing behavior. We also found that the relationship between intentional risky borrowing behavior and actualized risky borrowing behavior is negatively moderated by perceived risk – but not by perceived complexity. In particular, the results of this study indicate that public policy makers, banks and financial educators should seek to eliminate less desirable social norms on how to behave financially. In addition, they should seek to enhance young adults’ risky borrowing perceived risk, thereby preventing that intentional risky borrowing behavior translates into actualized risky behavior.

Keywords: financial services, risky borrowing behavior, young adults, financial knowledge, social norms, perceived risk, financial trust, public financial policy

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1816 Deceptive Behaviors of Young Children in a Guessing Game

Authors: Desiderio S. Camitan IV

Abstract:

The standard view of lay people in the Philippine society is that young children do not lie and that if they do, their lies are easily detectable. The present study investigated the deceptive behaviors of 373 children aged 2-8 using the temptation resistance paradigm. Children were instructed that they will participate in a game where they are to guess the color of a candy placed inside a downward facing cup. After the instruction was given to them, they are left alone in a room with the cup on top of a table for 15 minutes. The researcher observed the number of children who peeked at the card as well as number of those who confessed to the said act. Age, gender, IQ, and having autism seem to influence the frequency of peeking and confession of the participants.

Keywords: cheating, lying, dishonesty, young children, guessing game, autism

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1815 Leveraging on Youth Agricultural Extension Outreach: Revisiting Young Farmer’s Club in Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Christopher A. Igene, Jonathan O. Ighodalo

Abstract:

Youths play a critical role in the agricultural transformation of any developing nation such as Nigeria. Hence, the preparation of any nation for productive life depends on the policies and programmes designed for its youths. Studies have shown that children and youths contribute significantly in agricultural activities. Youths have vigour and prone to physical work, they constitute a great percentage of labour force in the country. It is of necessity that every policy on national development must of necessity take cognizance of the youths. Hence, the focus on youths in agricultural extension outreaches most especially, the young farmers club. It is an out-of-school education in agriculture and home economics for rural youth through learning by doing. Young farmers club in schools enables the young to learn and acquire those attributes that will enable them grown into useful and mature adult. There appears to be numerous constrains in the use of youths in extension, they are inadequate personnel, poor funding of agricultural sector, poor marketing channels, lack of good roads, others are poor input and lack of information. However, there is a need for Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) to organize workshop for secondary students and agricultural science teachers, schools to organize seminars and workshops for secondary schools who are members of Young Farmers Club (YFC). ADP should also organize agricultural show to encourage students to be members of Young Farmers Club (YFC).

Keywords: agricultural extension, agricultural role, students, youths, young farmers club (YFC)

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1814 A Multicriteria Model for Sustainable Management in Agriculture

Authors: Basil Manos, Thomas Bournaris, Christina Moulogianni

Abstract:

The European agricultural policy supports all member states to apply agricultural development plans for the development of their agricultural sectors. A specific measure of the agricultural development plans refers to young people in order to enter into the agricultural sector. This measure helps the participating young farmers in achieving maximum efficiency, using methods and environmentally friendly practices, by altering their farm plans. This study applies a Multicriteria Mathematical Programming (MCDA) model for the young farmers to find farm plans that achieve the maximum gross margin and the minimum environmental impacts (less use of fertilizers and irrigation water). The analysis was made in the region of Central Macedonia, Greece, among young farmers who have participated in the “Setting up Young Farmers” measure during 2007-2010. The analysis includes the implementation of the MCDA model for the farm plans optimization and the comparison of selected environmental indicators with those of the existent situation.

Keywords: multicriteria, optimum farm plans, environmental impacts, sustainable management

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1813 Youth and Radicalization: Main Causes Who Lead Young People to Radicalize in a Context with Background of Radicalization

Authors: Zineb Emrane

Abstract:

This abstract addresses the issue of radicalization of young people in a context with background of radicalization, in North of Morocco, 5 terrorist of Madrid's Attacts on 11th March, were coming from this context. It were developed a study pilot that describing young people perception about the main causes that lead and motivate for radicalization. Whenever we talk about this topic, we obtain information from studies and investigations by specialists in field, but we don’t give voice to the protagonists who in many cases are victims, specifically, young people at social risk because of social factors. Extremist radicalization is an expanding phenomenon, that affect young people, in north of Morocco. They live in a context with radical background and at risk of social exclusion, their social, economic and familiar needs make them vulnerable. The extremist groups take advantage of this vulnerability to involve them in a process of radicalization, offering them an alternative environment where they can found all they are looking for. This study pilot approaches the main causes that lead and motivates young people to become radicals, analyzing their context with emphasis on influencing factors, and bearing in mind the analysis of young people about how the radical background affect them and their opinion this phenomenon. The pilot study was carried out through the following actions: - Group dynamics with young people to analyze the process of violent radicalization of young people. -A participatory workshop with members of organizations that work directly with young people at risk of radicalization. -Interviews with institutional managers -Participant observation. The implementation of actions has led to the conclusion that young people define violent radicalization as a sequential process, depending on the stage, it can be deconstructed. Young people recognize that they stop feeling belonging to their family, school and neighborhood when they see behavior contrary to what they consider good and evil. The emotional rupture and the search for references outside their circle, push them to sympathize with groups that have an extremist ideology and that offer them what they need. The radicalization is a process with different stages, the main causes and the factors which lead young people to use extremist violence are related their low level of belonging feeling to their context, and lack of critical thinking about important issues. The young people are in a vulnerable stage, searching their identity, a space in which they can be accepted, and when they don't find it they are easily manipulated and susceptible to being attracted by extremist groups.

Keywords: exclusion, radicalization, vulnerability, youth

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1812 Questioning the Relationship Between Young People and Fake News Through Their Use of Social Media

Authors: Marion Billard

Abstract:

This paper will focus on the question of the real relationship between young people and fake news. Fake news is one of today’s main issues in the world of information and communication. Social media and its democratization helped to spread false information. According to traditional beliefs, young people are more inclined to believe what they read through social media. But, the individuals concerned, think that they are more inclined to make a distinction between real and fake news. This phenomenon is due to their use of the internet and social media from an early age. During the 2016 and 2017 French and American presidential campaigns, the term fake news was in the mouth of the entire world and became a real issue in the field of information. While young people were informing themselves with newspapers or television until the beginning of the ’90s, Gen Z (meaning people born between 1997 and 2010), has always been immersed in this world of fast communication. They know how to use social media from a young age and the internet has no secret for them. Today, despite the sporadic use of traditional media, young people tend to turn to their smartphones and social networks such as Instagram or Twitter to stay abreast of the latest news. The growth of social media information led to an “ambient journalism”, giving access to an endless quantity of information. Waking up in the morning, young people will see little posts with short texts supplying the essential of the news, without, for the most, many details. As a result, impressionable people are not able to do a distinction between real media, and “junk news” or Fake News. This massive use of social media is probably explained by the inability of the youngsters to find connections between the communication of the traditional media and what they are living. The question arises if this over-confidence of the young people in their ability to distinguish between accurate and fake news would not make it more difficult for them to examine critically the information. Their relationship with media and fake news is more complex than popular opinion. Today’s young people are not the master in the quest for information, nor inherently the most impressionable public on social media.

Keywords: fake news, youngsters, social media, information, generation

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1811 Young Children’s Use of Representations in Problem Solving

Authors: Kamariah Abu Bakar, Jennifer Way

Abstract:

This study investigated how young children (six years old) constructed and used representations in mathematics classroom; particularly in problem solving. The purpose of this study is to explore the ways children used representations in solving addition problems and to determine whether their representations can play a supportive role in understanding the problem situation and solving them correctly. Data collection includes observations, children’s artifact, photographs and conversation with children during task completion. The results revealed that children were able to construct and use various representations in solving problems. However, they have certain preferences in generating representations to support their problem solving.

Keywords: young children, representations, addition, problem solving

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