Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1657

Search results for: wobbled laser beam welding

1657 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer

Abstract:

Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation, micro welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1656 Laser Micro-Welding of an Isomorphous System with Different Geometries: An Investigation on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of the Joint

Authors: Mahdi Amne Elahi, Marcus Koch, Peter Plapper

Abstract:

Due to the demand of miniaturizing in automotive industry, the application of laser welding is quite promising. The current study focused on laser micro-welding of CuSn6 bronze and nickel wire for a miniature electromechanical hybrid component. Due to the advantages of laser welding, the welding can be tailored specifically for the requirements of the part. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were implemented to study the microstructure and tensile-shear test was selected to represent the mechanical properties. Different welding sides, beam oscillations, and speeds have been investigated to optimize the tensile-shear load and microstructure. The results show that the mechanical properties and microstructure of the joint is highly under the influence of the mentioned parameters. Due to the lack of intermetallic compounds, the soundness of the joint is achievable by manipulating the geometry of the weld seam and minimize weld defects.

Keywords: bronze, laser micro-welding, microstructure, nickel, tensile shear test

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1655 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”.

Keywords: flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1654 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, P. Plapper

Abstract:

Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
1653 Self-Action Effects of a Non-Gaussian Laser Beam Through Plasma

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Naveen Gupta

Abstract:

The propagation of the Non-Gaussian laser beam results in strong self-focusing as compare to the Gaussian laser beam, which helps to achieve a prerequisite of the plasma-based electron, Terahertz generation, and higher harmonic generations. The theoretical investigation on the evolution of non-Gaussian laser beam through the collisional plasma with ramped density has been presented. The non-uniform irradiance over the cross-section of the laser beam results in redistribution of the carriers that modifies the optical response of the plasma in such a way that the plasma behaves like a converging lens to the laser beam. The formulation is based on finding a semi-analytical solution of the nonlinear Schrodinger wave equation (NLSE) with the help of variational theory. It has been observed that the decentred parameter ‘q’ of laser and wavenumber of ripples of medium contribute to providing the required conditions for the improvement of self-focusing.

Keywords: non-Gaussian beam, collisional plasma, variational theory, self-focusing

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1652 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh

Abstract:

This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1651 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Joining Processes for Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: M.St. Węglowski, D. Miara, S. Błacha, J. Dworak, J. Rykała, K. Kwieciński, J. Pikuła, G. Ziobro, A. Szafron, P. Zimierska-Nowak, M. Richert, P. Noga

Abstract:

In the paper the results of welding of car’s air-conditioning elements are presented. These systems based on, mainly, the environmental unfriendly refrigerants. Thus, the producers of cars will have to stop using traditional refrigerant and to change it to carbon dioxide (R744). This refrigerant is environmental friendly. However, it should be noted that the air condition system working with R744 refrigerant operates at high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high pressure (up to 130 bar). These two parameters are much higher than for other refrigerants. Thus new materials, design as well as joining technologies are strongly needed for these systems. AISI 304 and 316L steels as well as aluminium alloys 5xxx are ranked among the prospective materials. As a joining process laser welding, plasma welding, electron beam welding as well as high rotary friction welding can be applied. In the study, the metallographic examination based on light microscopy as well as SEM was applied to estimate the quality of welded joints. The analysis of welding was supported by numerical modelling based on Sysweld software. The results indicated that using laser, plasma and electron beam welding, it is possible to obtain proper quality of welds in stainless steel. Moreover, high rotary friction welding allows to guarantee the metallic continuity in the aluminium welded area. The metallographic examination revealed that the grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ) in laser and electron beam welded joints were not observed. It is due to low heat input and short welding time. The grain growth and subgrains can be observed at room temperature when the solidification mode is austenitic. This caused low microstructural changes during solidification. The columnar grain structure was found in the weld metal. Meanwhile, the equiaxed grains were detected in the interface. The numerical modelling of laser welding process allowed to estimate the temperature profile in the welded joint as well as predicts the dimensions of welds. The agreement between FEM analysis and experimental data was achieved.  

Keywords: car’s air–conditioning, microstructure, numerical modelling, welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1650 Preparation and Sealing of Polymer Microchannels Using EB Lithography and Laser Welding

Authors: Ian Jones, Jonathan Griffiths

Abstract:

Laser welding offers the potential for making very precise joints in plastics products, both in terms of the joint location and the amount of heating applied. These methods have allowed the production of complex products such as microfluidic devices where channels and structure resolution below 100 µm is regularly used. However, to date, the dimension of welds made using lasers has been limited by the focus spot size that is achievable from the laser source. Theoretically, the minimum spot size possible from a laser is comparable to the wavelength of the radiation emitted. Practically, with reasonable focal length optics the spot size achievable is a few factors larger than this, and the melt zone in a plastics weld is larger again than this. The narrowest welds feasible to date have therefore been 10-20 µm wide using a near-infrared laser source. The aim of this work was to prepare laser absorber tracks and channels less than 10 µm wide in PMMA thermoplastic using EB lithography followed by sealing of channels using laser welding to carry out welds with widths of the order of 1 µm, below the resolution limit of the near-infrared laser used. Welded joints with a width of 1 µm have been achieved as well as channels with a width of 5 µm. The procedure was based on the principle of transmission laser welding using a thin coating of infrared absorbent material at the joint interface. The coating was patterned using electron-beam lithography to obtain the required resolution in a reproducible manner and that resolution was retained after the transmission laser welding process. The joint strength was ratified using larger scale samples. The results demonstrate that plastics products could be made with a high density of structure with resolution below 1 um, and that welding can be applied without excessively heating regions beyond the weld lines. This may be applied to smaller scale sensor and analysis chips, micro-bio and chemical reactors and to microelectronic packaging.

Keywords: microchannels, polymer, EB lithography, laser welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1649 Laser Welding Technique Effect for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Cheng-Hong Liu, Wen-Lin Wang

Abstract:

A complete fuel cell stack comprises several single cells with end plates, bipolar plates, gaskets and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Electrons generated from cells are conducted through bipolar plates. The amount of cells' components increases as the stack voltage increases, complicating the fuel cell assembly process and mass production. Stack assembly error influence cell performance. PEM fuel cell stack importing laser welding technique could eliminate transverse deformation between bipolar plates to promote stress uniformity of cell components as bipolar plates and MEA. Simultaneously, bipolar plates were melted together using laser welding to decrease interface resistance. A series of experiments as through-plan and in-plan resistance measurement test was conducted to observe the laser welding effect. The result showed that the through-plane resistance with laser welding was a drop of 97.5-97.6% when the contact pressure was about 1MPa to 3 MPa, and the in-plane resistance was not significantly different for laser welding.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, laser welding, through-plan, in-plan, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
1648 Development of Orbital TIG Welding Robot System for the Pipe

Authors: Dongho Kim, Sung Choi, Kyowoong Pee, Youngsik Cho, Seungwoo Jeong, Soo-Ho Kim

Abstract:

This study is about the orbital TIG welding robot system which travels on the guide rail installed on the pipe, and welds and tracks the pipe seam using the LVS (Laser Vision Sensor) joint profile data. The orbital welding robot system consists of the robot, welder, controller, and LVS. Moreover we can define the relationship between welding travel speed and wire feed speed, and we can make the linear equation using the maximum and minimum amount of weld metal. Using the linear equation we can determine the welding travel speed and the wire feed speed accurately corresponding to the area of weld captured by LVS. We applied this orbital TIG welding robot system to the stainless steel or duplex pipe on DSME (Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd.,) shipyard and the result of radiographic test is almost perfect. (Defect rate: 0.033%).

Keywords: adaptive welding, automatic welding, pipe welding, orbital welding, laser vision sensor, LVS, welding D/B

Procedia PDF Downloads 567
1647 Numerical Simulation of Laser ‎Propagation through Turbulent ‎Atmosphere Using Zernike ‎Polynomials

Authors: Mohammad Moradi ‎

Abstract:

In this article, propagation of a laser beam through turbulent ‎atmosphere is evaluated. At first the laser beam is simulated and then ‎turbulent atmosphere will be simulated by using Zernike polynomials. ‎Some parameter like intensity, PSF will be measured for four ‎wavelengths in different Cn2.

Keywords: laser beam propagation, phase screen, turbulent atmosphere, Zernike ‎polynomials

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
1646 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1645 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
1644 Intermetallic Phases in the Fusion Weld of CP Ti to Stainless Steel

Authors: Juzar Vohra, Ravish Malhotra, Tim Pasang, Mana Azizi, Yuan Tao, Masami Mizutani

Abstract:

In this paper, dissimilar welding of titanium to stainless steels is reported. Laser Beam Welding (LBW) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) were employed to join CPTi to SS304. The welds were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). FeTi, Ti2Cr and Fe2Ti dendrites are formed along with beta phase titanium matrix. The hardness values of these phases are high which makes them brittle and leading to cracking along the weld pool. However, it is believed that cracking, hence, fracturing of this weld joint is largely due to the difference in thermal properties of the two alloys.

Keywords: dissimilar metals, fusion welding, intermetallics, brittle

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
1643 A Simple Device for Characterizing High Power Electron Beams for Welding

Authors: Aman Kaur, Colin Ribton, Wamadeva Balachandaran

Abstract:

Electron beam welding due to its inherent advantages is being extensively used for material processing where high precision is required. Especially in aerospace or nuclear industries, there are high quality requirements and the cost of materials and processes is very high which makes it very important to ensure the beam quality is maintained and checked prior to carrying out the welds. Although the processes in these industries are highly controlled, however, even the minor changes in the operating parameters of the electron gun can make large enough variations in the beam quality that can result in poor welding. To measure the beam quality a simple device has been designed that can be used at high powers. The device consists of two slits in x and y axis which collects a small portion of the beam current when the beam is deflected over the slits. The signals received from the device are processed in data acquisition hardware and the dedicated software developed for the device. The device has been used in controlled laboratory environments to analyse the signals and the weld quality relationships by varying the focus current. The results showed matching trends in the weld dimensions and the beam characteristics. Further experimental work is being carried out to determine the ability of the device and signal processing software to detect subtle changes in the beam quality and to relate these to the physical weld quality indicators.

Keywords: electron beam welding, beam quality, high power, weld quality indicators

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1642 Laser-TIG Welding-Brazing for Dissimilar Metals between Aluminum Alloy and Steel

Authors: Xiangfang Xu, Bintao Wu, Yugang Miao, Duanfeng Han

Abstract:

Experiments were conducted on 5A06 aluminum alloy and Q235 steel using the laser-TIG hybrid heat source welding-brazing method to realize the reliable connection of Al/Fe dissimilar metals and the welding characteristics were analyzed. It was found that the joints with uniform seam and high tensile strength could be obtained using such a method, while the welding process demanded special welding parameters. Spectrum measurements showed that the Al and Fe atoms diffused more thoroughly at the brazing interface and formed a 3μm-thick intermetallic compound layer at the Al/Fe joints brazed connection interface. Shearing tests indicated that the shearing strength of the Al/Fe welding-brazed joint was 165MPa. The fracture occurred near the melting zone of aluminum alloy, which belonged to the mixed mode with the ductile fracture as the base and the brittle fracture as the supplement.

Keywords: Al/Fe dissimilar metals, laser-TIG hybrid heat source, shearing strength, welding-brazing method

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
1641 Simulations of Welding and Heat Treatment through Steel Production Process

Authors: He Gao, Ellen Vd Aa, Tony Vd Veldt

Abstract:

After liquid steel is cast and hot-rolled, welding is extensively applied at different production lines, e.g. pickling, cold rolling, galvanising and packaging. However, welding problems are inevitable and frequently reported from production, which leads to a line stop associated with considerable costs. In this work, a thorough numerical process model is created to simulate a laser welding, heat treatment and external tension process. The welding model is firstly validated with thermocouple and weld fusion measurements. Then the weld history is predefined to a heat treatment model to study stress relaxation and redistribution. The welded and heat-treated workpiece is subsequently subject to external tension, and a critical condition for a safe process is determined.

Keywords: laser welding, heat treatment, FEM, AHSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1640 Hybrid Laser-Gas Metal Arc Welding of ASTM A106-B Steel Pipes

Authors: Masoud Mohammadpour, Nima Yazdian, Radovan Kovacevic

Abstract:

The Oil and Gas industries are vigorously looking for new ways to increase the efficiency of their pipeline constructions. Besides the other approaches, implementing of new welding methods for joining pipes can be the best candidate on this regard. Hybrid Laser Arc Welding (HLAW) with the capabilities of high welding speed, deep penetration, and excellent gap bridging ability can be a possible alternative method in pipeline girth welding. This paper investigates the feasibility of applying the HLAW to join ASTM A106-B as the mostly used piping material for transporting high-temperature and high-pressure fluids and gases. The experiments were carried out on six-inch diameter pipes with the wall thickness of 10mm. AWS ER 70 S6 filler wire with diameter of 1.2mm was employed. Relating to this welding procedure, characterization of welded samples such as hardness, tensile testing and Charpy V-notch testing were performed and the results will be reported in this paper. In order to have better understanding about the thermal history and the microstructural alterations caused by the welding heat cycle, a comprehensive Finite Element (FE) model was also conducted. The obtained results have shown that the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) procedure with the minimum number of 5 passes to complete the wall thickness, was reduced to only single pass by using the HLAW process with the welding time less than 15s.

Keywords: finite element modeling, high-temperature service, hybrid laser/arc welding, welding pipes

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1639 A New Approach to the Boom Welding Technique by Determining Seam Profile Tracking

Authors: Muciz Özcan, Mustafa Sacid Endiz, Veysel Alver

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new approach to the boom welding related to the mobile cranes manufacturing, implementing a new method in order to get homogeneous welding quality and reduced energy usage during booms production. We aim to get the realization of the same welding quality carried out on the boom in every region during the manufacturing process and to detect the possible welding errors whether they could be eliminated using laser sensors. We determine the position of the welding region directly through our system and with the help of the welding oscillator we are able to perform a proper boom welding. Errors that may occur in the welding process can be observed by monitoring and eliminated by means of an operator. The major modification in the production of the crane booms will be their form of the booms. Although conventionally, more than one welding is required to perform this process, with the suggested concept, only one particular welding is sufficient, which will be more energy and environment-friendly. Consequently, as only one welding is needed for the manufacturing of the boom, the particular welding quality becomes more essential. As a way to satisfy the welding quality, a welding manipulator was made and fabricated. By using this welding manipulator, the risks of involving dangerous gases formed during the welding process for the operator and the surroundings are diminished as much as possible.

Keywords: boom welding, seam tracking, energy saving, global warming

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
1638 Welding Technology Developments for Stringer-Skin Joints with Al-Li Alloys

Authors: Egoitz Aldanondo, Ekaitz Arruti, Amaia Iturrioz, Ivan Huarte, Fidel Zubiri

Abstract:

Manufacturing aeronautic structures joining extruded profiles or stringers to sheets or skins of aluminium is a typical manufacturing procedure in aeronautic structures. Although riveting is the conventional manufacturing technology to produce such joints, the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technologies have also demonstrated their potential for this kind of applications. Therefore, FSW and LBW technologies have the potential to continue their development as manufacturing processes for aeronautic structures showing benefits such as time-saving, light-weighting and overall cost reduction. In addition to that, new aluminium-lithium based alloy developments represent great opportunities for advanced aeronautic structure manufacturing with potential benefits such as lightweight construction or improved corrosion resistance. This work presents the main approaches by FSW and LBW to develop those technologies to produce stiffened panel structures such as fuselage by stringer-skin joints and using innovative aluminium-lithium alloys. Initial welding tests were performed in AA2198-T3S aluminium alloys for LBW technology and with AA2198-T851 for FSW. Later tests for both FSW and LBW have been carried out using AA2099-T83 alloy extrusions as stringers and AA2060-T8E30 as skin materials. The weld quality and properties have been examined by metallographic analysis and mechanical testing, including shear tensile tests and pull-out tests. The analysis of the results have shown the relationships between processing conditions, micro-macrostructural properties and the mechanical strength of the welded joints. The effects produced in the different alloys investigated have been observed and particular weld formation mechanics have been studied for each material and welding technology. Therefore, relationships between welding conditions and the obtained weld properties for each material combination and welding technology will be discussed in this presentation.

Keywords: AA2060-T8E30, AA2099-T83, AA2198-T3S, AA2198-T851, friction stir welding, laser beam welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
1637 Micro-Study of Dissimilar Welded Materials

Authors: Ezzeddin Anawa, Abdol-Ghane Olabi

Abstract:

The dissimilar joint between aluminum /titanium alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) alloys were successfully achieved by CO2 laser welding with a single pass and without filler material using the overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was result in three distinct regions fusion area (FA), heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the unaffected base metal (BM) in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly affecting the welding quality. The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime. In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.

Keywords: microharness , microstructure, laser welding and dissimilar jointed materials.

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1636 A Method to Predict the Thermo-Elastic Behavior of Laser-Integrated Machine Tools

Authors: C. Brecher, M. Fey, F. Du Bois-Reymond, S. Neus

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing has emerged into a fast-growing section within the manufacturing technologies. Established machine tool manufacturers, such as DMG MORI, recently presented machine tools combining milling and laser welding. By this, machine tools can realize a higher degree of flexibility and a shorter production time. Still there are challenges that have to be accounted for in terms of maintaining the necessary machining accuracy - especially due to thermal effects arising through the use of high power laser processing units. To study the thermal behavior of laser-integrated machine tools, it is essential to analyze and simulate the thermal behavior of machine components, individual and assembled. This information will help to design a geometrically stable machine tool under the influence of high power laser processes. This paper presents an approach to decrease the loss of machining precision due to thermal impacts. Real effects of laser machining processes are considered and thus enable an optimized design of the machine tool, respective its components, in the early design phase. Core element of this approach is a matched FEM model considering all relevant variables arising, e.g. laser power, angle of laser beam, reflective coefficients and heat transfer coefficient. Hence, a systematic approach to obtain this matched FEM model is essential. Indicating the thermal behavior of structural components as well as predicting the laser beam path, to determine the relevant beam intensity on the structural components, there are the two constituent aspects of the method. To match the model both aspects of the method have to be combined and verified empirically. In this context, an essential machine component of a five axis machine tool, the turn-swivel table, serves as the demonstration object for the verification process. Therefore, a turn-swivel table test bench as well as an experimental set-up to measure the beam propagation were developed and are described in the paper. In addition to the empirical investigation, a simulative approach of the described types of experimental examination is presented. Concluding, it is shown that the method and a good understanding of the two core aspects, the thermo-elastic machine behavior and the laser beam path, as well as their combination helps designers to minimize the loss of precision in the early stages of the design phase.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, laser beam machining, machine tool, thermal effects

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1635 Axiomatic Design of Laser Beam Machining Process

Authors: Nikhil Deshpande, Rahul Mahajan

Abstract:

Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is a non-traditional machining process that has inherent problems like dross, striation, and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) which reduce the quality of machining. In the present day scenario, these problems are controlled only by iteratively adjusting a large number of process parameters. This paper applies Axiomatic Design principles to design LBM process so as to eliminate the problem of dross and striation and minimize the effect of HAZ. Process parameters and their ranges are proposed to set-up the LBM process, execute the cut and finish the workpiece so as to obtain the best quality cut.

Keywords: laser beam machining, dross, striation, heat affected zone, axiomatic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1634 Investigation of Beam Defocusing Impact in Millisecond Laser Drilling for Variable Operational Currents

Authors: Saad Nawaz, Yu Gang, Baber Saeed Olakh, M. Bilal Awan

Abstract:

Owing to its exceptional performance and precision, laser drilling is being widely used in modern manufacturing industries. This experimental study mainly addressed the defocusing of laser beam along with different operational currents. The performance has been evaluated in terms of tapering phenomena, entrance and exit diameters etc. The operational currents have direct influence on laser power which ultimately affected the shape of the drilled hole. Different operational currents in low, medium and high ranges are used for laser drilling of 18CrNi8. Experiment results have depicted that there is an increase in entrance diameter with an increase in defocusing distance. However, the exit diameter first decreases and then increases with respect to increasing defocusing length. The evolution of drilled hole from tapered to straight hole has been explained with defocusing at different levels. The optimum parametric combinations for attaining perfect shape of drilled hole is proposed along with lower heat treatment effects for higher process efficiency.

Keywords: millisecond laser, defocusing beam, operational current, keyhole profile, recast layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1633 The Effect of Simultaneous Application of Laser Beam and Magnet in Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation

Authors: Alireza Moghtaderi, Negin Khakpour

Abstract:

Disc Herniation is a common complication in the society and it is one of the main reasons for referring to physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics. Despite of various methods proposed for treatingthis disease, still there is disagreement on success of these methods especially in non-surgical methods, and thus current study aims at determining effect of laser beam and magnet on treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation. During a clinical trial study, 80 patients with Intervertebral Disc Herniation underwent a combined package of treatment including magnet, laser beam, PRP and Prolotherapy during 6 months. Average age of patients was 51.25 ± 10.7 with range of 25 – 71 years. 30 men (37.5%) and 50 women (62.5%) took part in the study. average weight of patients was 64.3 ± 7.2 with range of 49 – 79 kg. highest level of Disc Herniation was L5 – S1 with frequency of 17 cases (21.3%). Disc Herniation was severe in 30 cases before treatment, but it reduced to 3 casesafter treatment. This study indicates effect of combined treatment using non-invasive laser beam and magnet therapy on disco genic diseases and mechanical pains of spine is highly effective.

Keywords: hallux, valgus, botulinum toxin a, pain

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1632 Beam Spatio-Temporal Multiplexing Approach for Improving Control Accuracy of High Contrast Pulse

Authors: Ping Li, Bing Feng, Junpu Zhao, Xudong Xie, Dangpeng Xu, Kuixing Zheng, Qihua Zhu, Xiaofeng Wei

Abstract:

In laser driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the control of the temporal shape of the laser pulse is a key point to ensure an optimal interaction of laser-target. One of the main difficulties in controlling the temporal shape is the foot part control accuracy of high contrast pulse. Based on the analysis of pulse perturbation in the process of amplification and frequency conversion in high power lasers, an approach of beam spatio-temporal multiplexing is proposed to improve the control precision of high contrast pulse. In the approach, the foot and peak part of high contrast pulse are controlled independently, which propagate separately in the near field, and combine together in the far field to form the required pulse shape. For high contrast pulse, the beam area ratio of the two parts is optimized, and then beam fluence and intensity of the foot part are increased, which brings great convenience to the control of pulse. Meanwhile, the near field distribution of the two parts is also carefully designed to make sure their F-numbers are the same, which is another important parameter for laser-target interaction. The integrated calculation results show that for a pulse with a contrast of up to 500, the deviation of foot part can be improved from 20% to 5% by using beam spatio-temporal multiplexing approach with beam area ratio of 1/20, which is almost the same as that of peak part. The research results are expected to bring a breakthrough in power balance of high power laser facility.

Keywords: inertial confinement fusion, laser pulse control, beam spatio-temporal multiplexing, power balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
1631 Stimulated Raman Scattering of Ultra Intense Hollow Gaussian Beam

Authors: Prerana Sharma

Abstract:

Effect of relativistic nonlinearity on stimulated Raman scattering of the propagating laser beam carrying null intensity in center (hollow Gaussian beam) by excited plasma wave are studied in a collisionless plasma. The construction of the equations is done employing the fluid theory which is developed with partial differential equation and Maxwell’s equations. The analysis is done using eikonal method. The phenonmenon of Stimulated Raman scattering is shown along with the excitation of seed plasma wave. The power of plasma wave and back reflectivity is observed for higher order of hollow Gaussian beam. Back reflectivity is studied numerically for various orders of HGLB with different value of plasma density, laser power and beam radius. Numerical analysis shows that these parameters play vital role on reflectivity characteristics.

Keywords: Hollow Gaussian beam, relativistic nonlinearity, plasma physics, Raman scattering

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1630 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

Abstract:

This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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1629 Empirical Modeling and Optimization of Laser Welding of AISI 304 Stainless Steel

Authors: Nikhil Kumar, Asish Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

Laser welding process is a capable technology for forming the automobile, microelectronics, marine and aerospace parts etc. In the present work, a mathematical and statistical approach is adopted to study the laser welding of AISI 304 stainless steel. A robotic control 500 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser source with 1064 nm wavelength has been used for welding purpose. Butt joints are made. The effects of welding parameters, namely; laser power, scanning speed and pulse width on the seam width and depth of penetration has been investigated using the empirical models developed by response surface methodology (RSM). Weld quality is directly correlated with the weld geometry. Twenty sets of experiments have been conducted as per central composite design (CCD) design matrix. The second order mathematical model has been developed for predicting the desired responses. The results of ANOVA indicate that the laser power has the most significant effect on responses. Microstructural analysis as well as hardness of the selected weld specimens has been carried out to understand the metallurgical and mechanical behaviour of the weld. Average micro-hardness of the weld is observed to be higher than the base metal. Higher hardness of the weld is the resultant of grain refinement and δ-ferrite formation in the weld structure. The result suggests that the lower line energy generally produce fine grain structure and improved mechanical properties than the high line energy. The combined effects of input parameters on responses have been analyzed with the help of developed 3-D response surface and contour plots. Finally, multi-objective optimization has been conducted for producing weld joint with complete penetration, minimum seam width and acceptable welding profile. Confirmatory tests have been conducted at optimum parametric conditions to validate the applied optimization technique.

Keywords: ANOVA, laser welding, modeling and optimization, response surface methodology

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1628 Comparison of Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses in Laser and Electron Beam Welded Ti–5Al–2.5Sn Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. N. Baig, F. N. Khan, M. Junaid

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are widely employed in aerospace, medical, chemical, and marine applications. These alloys offer many advantages such as low specific weight, high strength to weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, high melting point and good fatigue behavior. These attractive properties make titanium alloys very unique and therefore they require special attention in all areas of processing, especially welding. In this work, 1.6 mm thick sheets of Ti-5Al-2,5Sn, an alpha titanium (α-Ti) alloy, were welded using electron beam (EBW) and laser beam (LBW) welding processes to achieve a full penetration Bead-on Plate (BoP) configuration. The weldments were studied using polarized optical microscope, SEM, EDS and XRD. Microhardness distribution across the weld zone and smooth and notch tensile strengths of the weldments were also recorded. Residual stresses using Hole-drill Strain Measurement (HDSM) method and deformation patterns of the weldments were measured for the purpose of comparison of the two welding processes. Fusion zone widths of both EBW and LBW weldments were found to be approximately equivalent owing to fairly similar high power densities of both the processes. Relatively less oxide content and consequently high joint quality were achieved in EBW weldment as compared to LBW due to vacuum environment and absence of any shielding gas. However, an increase in heat-affected zone width and partial ά-martensitic transformation infusion zone of EBW weldment were observed because of lesser cooling rates associated with EBW as compared with LBW. The microstructure infusion zone of EBW weldment comprised both acicular α and ά martensite within the prior β grains whereas complete ά martensitic transformation was observed within the fusion zone of LBW weldment. Hardness of the fusion zone in EBW weldment was found to be lower than the fusion zone of LBW weldment due to the observed microstructural differences. Notch tensile specimen of LBW exhibited higher load capacity, ductility, and absorbed energy as compared with EBW specimen due to the presence of high strength ά martensitic phase. It was observed that the sheet deformation and deformation angle in EBW weldment were more than LBW weldment due to relatively more heat retention in EBW which led to more thermal strains and hence higher deformations and deformation angle. The lowest residual stresses were found in LBW weldments which were tensile in nature. This was owing to high power density and higher cooling rates associated with LBW process. EBW weldment exhibited highest compressive residual stresses due to which the service life of EBW weldment is expected to improve.

Keywords: Laser and electron beam welding, Microstructure and mechanical properties, Residual stress and distortions, Titanium alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 118