Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3122

Search results for: light amplification

3122 PMEL Marker Identification of Dark and Light Feather Colours in Local Canary

Authors: Mudawamah Mudawamah, Muhammad Z. Fadli, Gatot Ciptadi, Aulanni’am


Canary breeders have spread throughout Indonesian regions for the low-middle society and become an income source for them. The interesting phenomenon of the canary market is the feather colours become one of determining factor for the price. The advantages of this research were contributed to the molecular database as a base of selection and mating for the Indonesia canary breeder. The research method was experiment with the genome obtained from canary blood isolation. The genome did the PCR amplification with PMEL marker followed by sequencing. Canaries were used 24 heads of light and dark colour feathers. Research data analyses used BioEdit and Network software. The results showed that all samples were amplification with PMEL gene with 500 bp fragment length. In base sequence of 40 was found Cytosine(C) in the light colour canaries, while the dark colour canaries was obtained Thymine (T) in same base sequence. Sequence results had 286-415 bp fragment and 10 haplotypes. The conclusions were the PMEL gene (gene of white pigment) was likely to be used PMEL gene to detect molecular genetic variation of dark and light colour feather.

Keywords: canary, haplotype, PMEL, sequence

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3121 A Low-Power Comparator Structure with Arbitrary Pre-Amplification Delay

Authors: Ata Khorami, Mohammad Sharifkhani


In the dynamic comparators, the pre-amplifier amplifies the input differential voltage and when the output Vcm of the pre-amplifier becomes larger than Vth of the latch input transistors, the latch is activated and finalizes the comparison. As a result, the pre-amplification delay is fixed to a value and cannot be set at the minimum required delay, thus, significant power and delay are imposed. In this paper, a novel structure is proposed through which the pre-amplification delay can be set at any low value saving power and time. Simulations show that using the proposed structure, by setting the pre-amplification delay at the minimum required value the power and comparison delay can be reduced by 55% and 100ps respectively.

Keywords: dynamic comparator, low power comparator, analog to digital converter, pre-amplification delay

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3120 Exact Formulas of the End-To-End Green’s Functions in Non-hermitian Systems

Authors: Haoshu Li, Shaolong Wan


The recent focus has been on directional signal amplification of a signal input at one end of a one-dimensional chain and measured at the other end. The amplification rate is given by the end-to-end Green’s functions of the system. In this work, we derive the exact formulas for the end-to-end Green's functions of non-Hermitian single-band systems. While in the bulk region, it is found that the Green's functions are displaced from the prior established integral formula by O(e⁻ᵇᴸ). The results confirm the correspondence between the signal amplification and the non-Hermitian skin effect.

Keywords: non-Hermitian, Green's function, non-Hermitian skin effect, signal amplification

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3119 Isothermal Solid-Phase Amplification System for Detection of Yersinia pestis

Authors: Olena Mayboroda, Angel Gonzalez Benito, Jonathan Sabate Del Rio, Marketa Svobodova, Sandra Julich, Herbert Tomaso, Ciara K. O'Sullivan, Ioanis Katakis


DNA amplification is required for most molecular diagnostic applications but conventional PCR has disadvantages for field testing. Isothermal amplification techniques are being developed to respond to this problem. One of them is the Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) that operates at isothermal conditions without sacrificing specificity and sensitivity in easy-to-use formats. In this work RPA was used for the optical detection of solid-phase amplification of the potential biowarfare agent Yersinia pestis. Thiolated forward primers were immobilized on the surface of maleimide-activated microtitre plates for the quantitative detection of synthetic and genomic DNA, with elongation occurring only in the presence of the specific template DNA and solution phase reverse primers. Quantitative detection was achieved via the use of biotinylated reverse primers and post-amplification addition of streptavidin-HRP conjugate. The overall time of amplification and detection was less than 1 hour at a constant temperature of 37oC. Single-stranded and double-stranded DNA sequences were detected achieving detection limits of 4.04*10-13 M and 3.14*10-16 M, respectively. The system demonstrated high specificity with negligible responses to non-specific targets.

Keywords: recombinase polymerase amplification, Yersinia pestis, solid-phase detection, ELONA

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3118 Design of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Walls Considering Shear Amplification by Nonlinear Dynamic Behavior

Authors: Sunghyun Kim, Hong-Gun Park


In the performance-based design (PBD), by using the nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA), the actual performance of the structure is evaluated. Unlike frame structures, in the wall structures, base shear force which is resulted from the NDA, is greatly amplified than that from the elastic analysis. This shear amplifying effect causes repeated designs which make designer difficult to apply the PBD. Therefore, in this paper, factors which affect shear amplification were studied. For the 20-story wall model, the NDA was performed. From the analysis results, the base shear amplification factor was proposed.

Keywords: performance based design, shear amplification factor, nonlinear dynamic analysis, RC shear wall

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3117 Experimental Demonstration of Broadband Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier

Authors: Belloui Bouzid


In this paper, broadband design of erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) is demonstrated and proved experimentally. High and broad gain is covered in C and L bands. The used technique combines, in one configuration, two double passes with split band structure for the amplification of two traveled signals one for the C band and the other for L band. This new topology is to investigate the trends of high gain and wide amplification at different status of pumping power, input wavelength, and input signal power. The presented paper is to explore the performance of EDFA gain using what it can be called double pass double branch wide band amplification configuration. The obtained results show high gain and wide broadening range of 44.24 dB and 80 nm amplification respectively.

Keywords: erbium doped fiber amplifier, erbium doped fiber laser, optical amplification, fiber laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3116 Effect of Scarp Topography on Seismic Ground Motion

Authors: Haiping Ding, Rongchu Zhu, Zhenxia Song


Local irregular topography has a great impact on earthquake ground motion. For scarp topography, using numerical simulation method, the influence extent and scope of the scarp terrain on scarp's upside and downside ground motion are discussed in case of different vertical incident SV waves. The results show that: (1) The amplification factor of scarp's upside region is greater than that of the free surface, while the amplification factor of scarp's downside part is less than that of the free surface; (2) When the slope angle increases, for x component, amplification factors of the scarp upside also increase, while the downside part decrease with it. For z component, both of the upside and downside amplification factors will increase; (3) When the slope angle changes, the influence scope of scarp's downside part is almost unchanged, but for the upside part, it slightly becomes greater with the increase of slope angle; (4) Due to the existence of the scarp, the z component ground motion appears at the surface. Its amplification factor increases for larger slope angle, and the peaks of the surface responses are related with incident waves. However, the input wave has little effects on the x component amplification factors.

Keywords: scarp topography, ground motion, amplification factor, vertical incident wave

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3115 A Microfluidic Biosensor for Detection of EGFR 19 Deletion Mutation Targeting Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Ji Su Kim, Bo Ram Choi, Ju Yeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee


Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 deletion mutation gene is over-expressed in carcinoma patient. EGFR 19 deletion mutation is known as typical biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which one section in the coding exon 19 of EGFR is deleted. Therefore, there have been many attempts over the years to detect EGFR 19 deletion mutation for replacing conventional diagnostic method such as PCR and tissue biopsy. We developed a simple and facile detection platform based on Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), which provides highly amplified products in isothermal amplification of the ligated DNA template. Limit of detection (~50 nM) and a faster detection time (~30 min) could be achieved by introducing RCA.

Keywords: EGFR19, cancer, diagnosis, rolling circle amplification (RCA), hydrogel

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3114 Dynamic Amplification Factors of Some City Bridges

Authors: I. Paeglite, A. Paeglitis


The paper presents a study of dynamic effects obtained from the dynamic load testing of the city highway bridges in Latvia carried out from 2005 to 2012. 9 pre-stressed concrete bridges and 4 composite bridges were considered. 11 of 13 bridges were designed according to the Eurocodes but two according to the previous structural codes used in Latvia (SNIP 2.05.03-84). The dynamic properties of the bridges were obtained by heavy vehicles passing the bridge roadway with different driving speeds and with or without even pavement. The obtained values of the Dynamic amplification factor (DAF) and bridge natural frequency were analyzed and compared to the values of built-in traffic load models provided in Eurocode 1. The actual DAF values for even bridge deck in the most cases are smaller than the value adopted in Eurocode 1. Vehicle speed for uneven pavements significantly influence Dynamic amplification factor values.

Keywords: bridge, dynamic effects, load testing, dynamic amplification factor

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3113 Effect of Site Amplification on Seismic Safety Evaluation of Flyover Pier

Authors: Mohammad Raihan Mukhlis, M. Abdur Rahman Bhuiyan


Bangladesh is a developing country in which a lot of multi-span simply/continuous supported flyovers are being constructed in its major cities. Being situated in a seismically active region, seismic safety evaluation of flyovers is essential for seismic risk reduction. Effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of flyover piers are the main concern of this study. In this regard, failure mode, lateral strength and displacement ductility of piers of a typical multi-span simply supported flyover have been evaluated by Japan Road Association (JRA) recommended guidelines, with and without considering site amplification. Ultimate flexural strengths of piers have been computed using the pushover analysis results. Shear capacity of piers has been calculated using the guidelines of JRA. Lateral strengths have been determined depending on the failure modes of the piers. Displacement ductility of piers has been computed using yield and ultimate displacements of the piers obtained from the pushover analysis results. Selected earthquake time history is used in seismic safety evaluation of the flyover piers. Finally, the ductility design method is used to conduct the seismic safety evaluation of the piers with and without considering site amplification. From the numerical results, it has been revealed that the effects of site amplification on seismic safety evaluation of bridge structures should be carefully taken into account.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flyover pier, lateral strength, safety evaluation, site amplification

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3112 Detection of Aflatoxin B1 Producing Aspergillus flavus Genes from Maize Feed Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Technique

Authors: Sontana Mimapan, Phattarawadee Wattanasuntorn, Phanom Saijit


Aflatoxin contamination in maize, one of several agriculture crops grown for livestock feeding, is still a problem throughout the world mainly under hot and humid weather conditions like Thailand. In this study Aspergillus flavus (A. Flavus), the key fungus for aflatoxin production especially aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), isolated from naturally infected maize were identified and characterized according to colony morphology and PCR using ITS, Beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes. The strains were analysed for the presence of four aflatoxigenic biosynthesis genes in relation to their capability to produce AFB1, Ver1, Omt1, Nor1, and aflR. Aflatoxin production was then confirmed using immunoaffinity column technique. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was applied as an innovative technique for rapid detection of target nucleic acid. The reaction condition was optimized at 65C for 60 min. and calcein flurescent reagent was added before amplification. The LAMP results showed clear differences between positive and negative reactions in end point analysis under daylight and UV light by the naked eye. In daylight, the samples with AFB1 producing A. Flavus genes developed a yellow to green color, but those without the genes retained the orange color. When excited with UV light, the positive samples become visible by bright green fluorescence. LAMP reactions were positive after addition of purified target DNA until dilutions of 10⁻⁶. The reaction products were then confirmed and visualized with 1% agarose gel electrophoresis. In this regards, 50 maize samples were collected from dairy farms and tested for the presence of four aflatoxigenic biosynthesis genes using LAMP technique. The results were positive in 18 samples (36%) but negative in 32 samples (64%). All of the samples were rechecked by PCR and the results were the same as LAMP, indicating 100% specificity. Additionally, when compared with the immunoaffinity column-based aflatoxin analysis, there was a significant correlation between LAMP results and aflatoxin analysis (r= 0.83, P < 0.05) which suggested that positive maize samples were likely to be a high- risk feed. In conclusion, the LAMP developed in this study can provide a simple and rapid approach for detecting AFB1 producing A. Flavus genes from maize and appeared to be a promising tool for the prediction of potential aflatoxigenic risk in livestock feedings.

Keywords: Aflatoxin B1, Aspergillus flavus genes, maize, loop-mediated isothermal amplification

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3111 Analysis of Building Response from Vertical Ground Motions

Authors: George C. Yao, Chao-Yu Tu, Wei-Chung Chen, Fung-Wen Kuo, Yu-Shan Chang


Building structures are subjected to both horizontal and vertical ground motions during earthquakes, but only the horizontal ground motion has been extensively studied and considered in design. Most of the prevailing seismic codes assume the vertical component to be 1/2 to 2/3 of the horizontal one. In order to understand the building responses from vertical ground motions, many earthquakes records are studied in this paper. System identification methods (ARX Model) are used to analyze the strong motions and to find out the characteristics of the vertical amplification factors and the natural frequencies of buildings. Analysis results show that the vertical amplification factors for high-rise buildings and low-rise building are 1.78 and 2.52 respectively, and the average vertical amplification factor of all buildings is about 2. The relationship between the vertical natural frequency and building height was regressed to a suggested formula in this study. The result points out an important message; the taller the building is, the greater chance of resonance of vertical vibration on the building will be.

Keywords: vertical ground motion, vertical amplification factor, natural frequency, component

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3110 Visual Detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) through Formation of Beads Aggregation in Capillary Tube by Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Bo Ram Choi, Ji Su Kim, Juyeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee


Food contaminated by bacteria (E.coli), causes food poisoning, which occurs to many patients worldwide annually. We have introduced an application of rolling circle amplification (RCA) as a versatile biosensor and developed a diagnostic platform composed of capillary tube and microbeads for rapid and easy detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli). When specific mRNA of E.coli is extracted from cell lysis, rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA template can be achieved and can be visualized by beads aggregation in capillary tube. In contrast, if there is no bacterial pathogen in sample, no beads aggregation can be seen. This assay is possible to detect visually target gene without specific equipment. It is likely to the development of a genetic kit for point of care testing (POCT) that can detect target gene using microbeads.

Keywords: rolling circle amplification (RCA), Escherichia coli (E. coli), point of care testing (POCT), beads aggregation, capillary tube

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3109 The Spectral Power Amplification on the Regular Lattices

Authors: Kotbi Lakhdar, Hachi Mostefa


We show that a simple transformation between the regular lattices (the square, the triangular, and the honeycomb) belonging to the same dimensionality can explain in a natural way the universality of the critical exponents found in phase transitions and critical phenomena. It suffices that the Hamiltonian and the lattice present similar writing forms. In addition, it appears that if a property can be calculated for a given lattice then it can be extrapolated simply to any other lattice belonging to the same dimensionality. In this study, we have restricted ourselves on the spectral power amplification (SPA), we note that the SPA does not have an effect on the critical exponents but does have an effect by the criticality temperature of the lattice; the generalisation to other lattice could be shown according to the containment principle.

Keywords: ising model, phase transitions, critical temperature, critical exponent, spectral power amplification

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3108 Constitutive Role of Light in Christian Sacred Architecture

Authors: Sokol Gojnik, Zorana; Gojnik, Igor


Light is the central theme of sacred architecture of all religions and so of Christianity. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the inner sense of light and its constitutive role in Christian sacred architecture. The theme of light in Christian sacred architecture is fundamentally connected to its meaning and symbolism of light in Christian theology and liturgy. This fundamental connection is opening the space to the symbolic and theological comprehending of light which was present throughout the history of Christianity and which is lacking in contemporary sacred architecture.

Keywords: light, sacred architecture, religious architecture, phenomenology of architecture

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3107 Rapid Detection of MBL Genes by SYBR Green Based Real-Time PCR

Authors: Taru Singh, Shukla Das, V. G. Ramachandran


Objectives: To develop SYBR green based real-time PCR assay to detect carbapenemases (NDM, IMP) genes in E. coli. Methods: A total of 40 E. coli from stool samples were tested. Six were previously characterized as resistant to carbapenems and documented by PCR. The remaining 34 isolates previously tested susceptible to carbapenems and were negative for these genes. Bacterial RNA was extracted using manual method. The real-time PCR was performed using the Light Cycler III 480 instrument (Roche) and specific primers for each carbapenemase target were used. Results: Each one of the two carbapenemase gene tested presented a different melting curve after PCR amplification. The melting temperature (Tm) analysis of the amplicons identified was as follows: blaIMP type (Tm 82.18°C), blaNDM-1 (Tm 78.8°C). No amplification was detected among the negative samples. The results showed 100% concordance with the genotypes previously identified. Conclusions: The new assay was able to detect the presence of two different carbapenemase gene type by real-time PCR.

Keywords: resistance, b-lactamases, E. coli, real-time PCR

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3106 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin


In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

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3105 A Study of Light in Zoroastrianism and Ancient Iranian Traditions: A Case of Mathnavi

Authors: Farideh Aramideh


The aim of this essay is to study the light in Zoroastrianism, and Masnavi by Rumi. The use of light goes back to thousand years B.C. the light in the legacy of ancient Iranian wisdom has been used in Mithraism, Zurvanism, Zoroastrianism and Manichaean religion and spirituality has been emanated in the world through the light. Ontology and angelology and the sacredness of fire in Zoroastrianism have been interpreted according to the concept of light. The ruling atmosphere on mazdaism world is the world which is full of light and angels, and light is one of the basis of worldview in ancient Iranian mysticism, especially Zoroastrianism and Manichaean, continued widely in Islamic mysticism, and also it always provokes discussions among scholars and mystics especially Iranian mystics. Light and fire are used as the signs and symbols of God's existence, The Shining lights emanated from the sacred essence of God, knowledge, and mysticism, love, discovering the wisdom and a way to God. Rumi speaks eloquently about light in Masnavi, and by using the light; he could render his readers the fundamental mystic subjects such as the true existence of God, the verity of prophets and saints, intuition of God, spiritual states of union with God and abiding in God, which are the most complicated mystic terms.

Keywords: zoroastrianism, myticims, Masnavi, light

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3104 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar


Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

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3103 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu


In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: brake light, car-following model, traffic flow, regional planning, transportation

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3102 Amorphous Silicon-Based PINIP Structure for Human-Like Photosensor

Authors: Sheng-Chuan Hsu


Because the existing structure of ambient light sensor is most silicon photodiode device, it is extremely sensitive in the red and infrared regions. Even though the IR-Cut filter had added, it still cannot completely eliminate the influence of infrared light, and the spectral response of infrared light was stronger than that of the human eyes. Therefore, it is not able to present the vision spectrum of the human eye reacts with the ambient light. Then it needs to consider that the human eye feels the spectra that show significant differences between light and dark place. Consequently, in practical applications, we must create and develop advanced device of human-like photosensor which can solve these problems of ambient light sensor and let cognitive lighting system to provide suitable light to achieve the goals of vision spectrum of human eye and save energy.

Keywords: ambient light sensor, vision spectrum, cognitive lighting system, human eye

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3101 Halal Authentication for Some Product Collected from Jordanian Market Using Real-Time PCR

Authors: Omar S. Sharaf


The mitochondrial 12s rRNA (mt-12s rDNA) gene for pig-specific was developed to detect material from pork species in different products collected from Jordanian market. The amplification PCR products of 359 bp and 531 bp were successfully amplified from the cyt b gene of pig the amplification product using mt-12S rDNA gene were successfully produced a single band with a molecular size of 456 bp. In the present work, the PCR amplification of mtDNA of cytochrome b has been shown as a suitable tool for rapid detection of pig DNA. 100 samples from different dairy, gelatin and chocolate based products and 50 samples from baby food formula were collected and tested to a presence of any pig derivatives. It was found that 10% of chocolate based products, 12% of gelatin and 56% from dairy products and 5.2% from baby food formula showed single band from mt-12S rDNA gene.

Keywords: halal food, baby infant formula, chocolate based products, PCR, Jordan

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3100 Enhanced Traffic Light Detection Method Using Geometry Information

Authors: Changhwan Choi, Yongwan Park


In this paper, we propose a method that allows faster and more accurate detection of traffic lights by a vision sensor during driving, DGPS is used to obtain physical location of a traffic light, extract from the image information of the vision sensor only the traffic light area at this location and ascertain if the sign is in operation and determine its form. This method can solve the problem in existing research where low visibility at night or reflection under bright light makes it difficult to recognize the form of traffic light, thus making driving unstable. We compared our success rate of traffic light recognition in day and night road environments. Compared to previous researches, it showed similar performance during the day but 50% improvement at night.

Keywords: traffic light, intelligent vehicle, night, detection, DGPS

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3099 Stray Light Reduction Methodology by a Sinusoidal Light Modulation and Three-Parameter Sine Curve Fitting Algorithm for a Reflectance Spectrometer

Authors: Hung Chih Hsieh, Cheng Hao Chang, Yun Hsiang Chang, Yu Lin Chang


In the applications of the spectrometer, the stray light that comes from the environment affects the measurement results a lot. Hence, environment and instrument quality control for the stray reduction is critical for the spectral reflectance measurement. In this paper, a simple and practical method has been developed to correct a spectrometer's response for measurement errors arising from the environment's and instrument's stray light. A sinusoidal modulated light intensity signal was incident on a tested sample, and then the reflected light was collected by the spectrometer. Since a sinusoidal signal modulated the incident light, the reflected light also had a modulated frequency which was the same as the incident signal. Using the three-parameter sine curve fitting algorithm, we can extract the primary reflectance signal from the total measured signal, which contained the primary reflectance signal and the stray light from the environment. The spectra similarity between the extracted spectra by this proposed method with extreme environment stray light is 99.98% similar to the spectra without the environment's stray light. This result shows that we can measure the reflectance spectra without the affection of the environment's stray light.

Keywords: spectrometer, stray light, three-parameter sine curve fitting, spectra extraction

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3098 Light-Scattering Characteristics of Ordered Arrays Nobel Metal Nanoparticles

Authors: Yassine Ait-El-Aoud, Michael Okomoto, Andrew M. Luce, Alkim Akyurtlu, Richard M. Osgood III


Light scattering of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has a unique, and technologically important effect on enhancing light absorption in substrates because most of the light scatters into the substrate near the localized plasmon resonance of the NPs. The optical response, such as the resonant frequency and forward- and backward-scattering, can be tuned to trap light over a certain spectral region by adjusting the nanoparticle material size, shape, aggregation state, Metallic vs. insulating state, as well as local environmental conditions. In this work, we examined the light scattering characteristics of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles and the light trapping, in order to enhance absorption, by measuring the forward- and backward-scattering using a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer. Samples were fabricated using the popular self-assembly process method: dip coating, combined with nanosphere lithography.

Keywords: dip coating, light-scattering, metal nanoparticles, nanosphere lithography

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3097 A Reading Light That Can Adjust Indoor Light Intensity According to the Activity and Person for Improve Indoor Visual Comfort of Occupants and Tested using Post-occupancy Evaluation Techniques for Sri Lankan Population

Authors: R.T.P. De Silva, T. K. Wijayasiriwardhane, B. Jayawardena


Most people nowadays spend their time indoor environment. Because of that, a quality indoor environment needs for them. This study was conducted to identify how to improve indoor visual comfort using a personalized light system. Light intensity, light color, glare, and contrast are the main facts that affect visual comfort. The light intensity which needs to perform a task is changed according to the task. Using necessary light intensity and we can improve the visual comfort of occupants. The hue can affect the emotions of occupants. The preferred light colors and intensity change according to the occupant's age and gender. The research was conducted to identify is there any relationship between personalization and visual comfort. To validate this designed an Internet of Things-based reading light. This light can work according to the standard light levels and personalized light levels. It also can measure the current light intensity of the environment and maintain continuous light levels according to the task. The test was conducted by using 25 undergraduates, and 5school students, and 5 adults. The feedbacks are gathered using Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) techniques. Feedbacks are gathered in three steps, It was done without any light control, with standard light level, and with personalized light level Users had to spend 10 minutes under each condition. After finishing each step, collected their feedbacks. According to the result gathered, 94% of participants rated a personalized light system as comfort for them. The feedbacks show stay under continuous light level help to keep their concentrate. Future research can be conducted on how the color of indoor light can affect for indoor visual comfort of occupants using a personalized light system. Further proposed IoT based can improve to change the light colors according to the user's preference.

Keywords: indoor environment quality, internet of things based light system, post occupancy evaluation, visual comfort

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3096 Quantification of Effects of Shape of Basement Topography below the Circular Basin on the Ground Motion Characteristics and Engineering Implications

Authors: Kamal, Dinesh Kumar, J. P. Narayan, Komal Rani


This paper presents the effects of shape of basement topography on the characteristics of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and associated average spectral amplification (ASA) in the 3D basins having circular surface area. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of 3D viscoelastic wave equations. An increase of amplitude amplification and ASA towards the centre of different considered basins was obtained. Further, it may be concluded that ASA in basin very much depends on the impedance contrast, exposure area of basement to the incident wave front, edge-slope, focusing of the BGS-waves and sediment-damping. There is an urgent need of incorporation of a map of differential ground motion (DGM) caused by the BGS-waves as one of the output maps of the seismic microzonation.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, maximum displacement, average spectral amplification

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3095 DBN-Based Face Recognition System Using Light Field

Authors: Bing Gu


Abstract—Most of Conventional facial recognition systems are based on image features, such as LBP, SIFT. Recently some DBN-based 2D facial recognition systems have been proposed. However, we find there are few DBN-based 3D facial recognition system and relative researches. 3D facial images include all the individual biometric information. We can use these information to build more accurate features, So we present our DBN-based face recognition system using Light Field. We can see Light Field as another presentation of 3D image, and Light Field Camera show us a way to receive a Light Field. We use the commercially available Light Field Camera to act as the collector of our face recognition system, and the system receive a state-of-art performance as convenient as conventional 2D face recognition system.

Keywords: DBN, face recognition, light field, Lytro

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3094 Differential Signaling Spread-Spectrum Modulation of the In-Door LED Visible Light Wireless Communications using Mobile-Phone Camera

Authors: Shih-Hao Chen, Chi-Wai Chow


Visible light communication combined with spread spectrum modulation is demonstrated in this study. Differential signaling method also ensures the proposed system that can support high immunity to ambient light interference. Experiment result shows the proposed system has 6 dB gain comparing with the original On-Off Keying modulation scheme.

Keywords: Visible Light Communication (VLC), Spread Spectrum Modulation (SSM), On-Off Keying, visible light communication

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3093 Impact of Light Intensity, Illumation Strategy and Self-Shading on Sustainable Algal Growth in Photo Bioreactors

Authors: Amritanshu Shriwastav, Purnendu Bose


Algal photo bioreactors were operated at incident light intensities of 0.24, 2.52 and 5.96 W L-1 to determine the impact of light on algal growth. Low specific Chlorophyll-a content of algae was a strong indicator of light induced stress on algal cells. It was concluded that long term operation of photo bioreactors in the continuous illumination mode was infeasible under the range of incident light intensities examined and provision of a dark period after each light period was necessary for algal cells to recover from light-induced stress. Long term operation of photo bioreactors in the intermittent illumination mode was however possible at light intensities of 0.24 and 2.52 W L-1. Further, the incident light intensity in the photo bioreactors was found to decline exponentially with increase in algal concentration in the reactor due to algal ‘self-shading’. This may be an important determinant for photo bioreactor performance at higher algal concentrations.

Keywords: Algae, algal growth, photo bioreactor, photo-inhibition, ‘self-shading’

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