Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: photodetector

17 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim

Abstract:

In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: plasmonic photodetector, plasmon-plasmon interaction, Gold nanoparticle, electrical properties

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16 Influence of Wavelengths on Photosensitivity of Copper Phthalocyanine Based Photodetectors

Authors: Lekshmi Vijayan, K. Shreekrishna Kumar

Abstract:

We demonstrated an organic field effect transistor based photodetector using phthalocyanine as the active material that exhibited high photosensitivity under varying light wavelengths. The thermally grown SiO₂ layer on silicon wafer act as a substrate. The critical parameters, such as photosensitivity, responsivity and detectivity, are comparatively high and were 3.09, 0.98AW⁻¹ and 4.86 × 10¹⁰ Jones, respectively, under a bias of 5 V and a monochromatic illumination intensity of 4mW cm⁻². The photodetector has a linear I-V curve with a low dark current. On comparing photoresponse of copper phthalocyanine at four different wavelengths, 560 nm shows better photoresponse and the highest value of photosensitivity is also obtained.

Keywords: photodetector, responsivity, photosensitivity, detectivity

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15 High Photosensitivity and Broad Spectral Response of Multi-Layered Germanium Sulfide Transistors

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Yi-Ying Lu, Chia-Jung Kuo, Srinivasa Reddy Tamalampudi, Raman Sankar, Fang Cheng Chou, Yit-Tsong Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the optoelectronic properties of multi-layered GeS nanosheets (~28 nm thick)-based field-effect transistors (called GeS-FETs). The multi-layered GeS-FETs exhibit remarkably high photoresponsivity of Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 under illumination of 1.5 µW/cm2 at  = 633 nm, Vg = 0 V, and Vds = 10 V. The obtained Rλ ~ 206 AW-1 is excellent as compared with a GeS nanoribbon-based and the other family members of group IV-VI-based photodetectors in the two-dimensional (2D) realm, such as GeSe and SnS2. The gate-dependent photoresponsivity of GeS-FETs was further measured to be able to reach Rλ ~ 655 AW-1 operated at Vg = -80 V. Moreover, the multi-layered GeS photodetector holds high external quantum efficiency (EQE ~ 4.0 × 104 %) and specific detectivity (D* ~ 2.35 × 1013 Jones). The measured D* is comparable to those of the advanced commercial Si- and InGaAs-based photodiodes. The GeS photodetector also shows an excellent long-term photoswitching stability with a response time of ~7 ms over a long period of operation (>1 h). These extraordinary properties of high photocurrent generation, broad spectral range, fast response, and long-term stability make the GeS-FET photodetector a highly qualified candidate for future optoelectronic applications.

Keywords: germanium sulfide, photodetector, photoresponsivity, external quantum efficiency, specific detectivity

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14 Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Based on Porous In0.08Ga0.92N

Authors: Saleh H. Abud, Z. Hassan, F. K. Yam

Abstract:

Characteristics of MSM photodetector based on a porous In0.08Ga0.92N thin film were reported. Nanoporous structures of n-type In0.08Ga0.92N/AlN/Si thin films were synthesized by photoelectrochemical (PEC) etching at a ratio of 1:4 of HF:C2H5OH solution for 15 min. The structural and optical properties of pre- and post-etched thin films were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope images showed that the pre-etched thin film has a sufficiently smooth surface over a large region and the roughness increased for porous film. Blue shift has been observed in photoluminescence emission peak at 300 K for porous sample. The photoluminescence intensity of the porous film indicated that the optical properties have been enhanced. A high work function metals (Pt and Ni) were deposited as a metal contact on the porous films. The rise and recovery times of the devices were investigated at 390 nm chopped light. Finally, the sensitivity and quantum efficiency were also studied.

Keywords: porous InGaN, photoluminescence, SMS photodetector, atomic force microscopy

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13 Laser Irradiated GeSn Photodetector for Improved Infrared Photodetection

Authors: Patrik Scajev, Pavels Onufrijevs, Algirdas Mekys, Tadas Malinauskas, Dominykas Augulis, Liudvikas Subacius, Kuo-Chih Lee, Jevgenijs Kaupuzs, Arturs Medvids, Hung Hsiang Cheng

Abstract:

In this study, we focused on the optoelectronic properties of the photodiodes prepared by using 200 nm thick Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ epitaxial layers on Ge/n-Si substrate with aluminum contacts. Photodiodes were formed on non-irradiated and Nd: YAG laser irradiated Ge₀.₉₅Sn₀.₀₅ layers. The samples were irradiated by pulsed Nd: YAG laser with 136.7-462.6 MW/cm² intensity. The photodiodes were characterized by using short laser pulses with the wavelength in the 2.0-2.6 μm range. The laser-irradiated diode was found more sensitive in the long-wavelength range due to laser-induced Sn atoms redistribution providing formation of graded bandgap structure. Sub-millisecond photocurrent relaxation in the diodes revealed their suitability for image sensors. Our findings open the perspective for improving the photo-sensitivity of GeSn alloys in the mid-infrared by pulsed laser processing.

Keywords: GeSn, laser processing, photodetector, infrared

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12 Effect of Al on Glancing Angle Deposition Synthesized In₂O₃ Nanocolumn for Photodetector Application

Authors: Chitralekha Ngangbam, Aniruddha Mondal, Naorem Khelchand Singh

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Aluminium (Al) doped In2O3 (Indium Oxide) nanocolumn array was synthesized by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique on Si (n-type) substrate for photodetector application. The sample was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The average diameter of the nanocolumn was calculated from the top view of the SEM image and found to be ∼80 nm. The length of the nanocolumn (~500 nm) was calculated from cross sectional SEM image and it shows that the nanocolumns are perpendicular to the substrate. The EDX analysis confirmed the presence of Al (Aluminium), In (Indium), O (Oxygen) elements in the samples. The XRD patterns of the Al-doped In2O3 nanocolumn show the presence of different phases of the Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn i.e. (222) and (622). Three different peaks were observed from the PL analysis of Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn at 365 nm, 415 nm and 435 nm respectively. The peak at PL emission at 365 nm can be attributed to the near band gap transition of In2O3 whereas the peaks at 415 nm and 435 nm can be attributed to the trap state emissions due to oxygen vacancies and oxygen–indium vacancy centre in Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn. The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of the Al doped In2O3 nanocolumn based detector was measured through the Au Schottky contact. The devices were then examined under the halogen light (20 W) illumination for photocurrent measurement. The Al-doped In2O3 nanocolumn based optical detector showed high conductivity and low turn on voltage at 0.69 V under white light illumination. A maximum photoresponsivity of 82 A/W at 380 nm was observed for the device. The device shows a high internal gain of ~267 at UV region (380 nm) and ∼127 at visible region (760 nm). Also the rise time and fall time for the device at 650 nm is 0.15 and 0.16 sec respectively which makes it suitable for fast response detector.

Keywords: glancing angle deposition, nanocolumn, semiconductor, photodetector, indium oxide

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11 Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector

Authors: Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Ting Mei, Jianbang Zheng

Abstract:

Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.

Keywords: polycrystalline PbSe, sensitization, transport, stoichiometry

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10 Highly Responsive p-NiO/n-rGO Heterojunction Based Self-Powered UV Photodetectors

Authors: P. Joshna, Souvik Kundu

Abstract:

Detection of ultraviolet (UV) radiation is very important as it has exhibited a profound influence on humankind and other existences, including military equipment. In this work, a self-powered UV photodetector was reported based on oxides heterojunctions. The thin films of p-type nickel oxide (NiO) and n-type reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used for the formation of p-n heterojunction. Low-Cost and low-temperature chemical synthesis was utilized to prepare the oxides, and the spin coating technique was employed to deposit those onto indium doped tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. The top electrode platinum was deposited utilizing physical vapor evaporation technique. NiO offers strong UV absorption with high hole mobility, and rGO prevents the recombination rate by separating electrons out from the photogenerated carriers. Several structural characterizations such as x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope were used to study the materials crystallinity, microstructures, and surface roughness. On one side, the oxides were found to be polycrystalline in nature, and no secondary phases were present. On the other side, surface roughness was found to be low with no pit holes, which depicts the formation of high-quality oxides thin films. Whereas, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to study the chemical compositions and oxidation structures. The electrical characterizations such as current-voltage and current response were also performed on the device to determine the responsivity, detectivity, and external quantum efficiency under dark and UV illumination. This p-n heterojunction device offered faster photoresponse and high on-off ratio under 365 nm UV light illumination of zero bias. The device based on the proposed architecture shows the efficacy of the oxides heterojunction for efficient UV photodetection under zero bias, which opens up a new path towards the development of self-powered photodetector for environment and health monitoring sector.

Keywords: chemical synthesis, oxides, photodetectors, spin coating

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9 The High Precision of Magnetic Detection with Microwave Modulation in Solid Spin Assembly of NV Centres in Diamond

Authors: Zongmin Ma, Shaowen Zhang, Yueping Fu, Jun Tang, Yunbo Shi, Jun Liu

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Solid-state quantum sensors are attracting wide interest because of their high sensitivity at room temperature. In particular, spin properties of nitrogen–vacancy (NV) color centres in diamond make them outstanding sensors of magnetic fields, electric fields and temperature under ambient conditions. Much of the work on NV magnetic sensing has been done so as to achieve the smallest volume, high sensitivity of NV ensemble-based magnetometry using micro-cavity, light-trapping diamond waveguide (LTDW), nano-cantilevers combined with MEMS (Micro-Electronic-Mechanical System) techniques. Recently, frequency-modulated microwaves with continuous optical excitation method have been proposed to achieve high sensitivity of 6 μT/√Hz using individual NV centres at nanoscale. In this research, we built-up an experiment to measure static magnetic field through continuous wave optical excitation with frequency-modulated microwaves method under continuous illumination with green pump light at 532 nm, and bulk diamond sample with a high density of NV centers (1 ppm). The output of the confocal microscopy was collected by an objective (NA = 0.7) and detected by a high sensitivity photodetector. We design uniform and efficient excitation of the micro strip antenna, which is coupled well with the spin ensembles at 2.87 GHz for zero-field splitting of the NV centers. Output of the PD signal was sent to an LIA (Lock-In Amplifier) modulated signal, generated by the microwave source by IQ mixer. The detected signal is received by the photodetector, and the reference signal enters the lock-in amplifier to realize the open-loop detection of the NV atomic magnetometer. We can plot ODMR spectra under continuous-wave (CW) microwave. Due to the high sensitivity of the lock-in amplifier, the minimum detectable value of the voltage can be measured, and the minimum detectable frequency can be made by the minimum and slope of the voltage. The magnetic field sensitivity can be derived from η = δB√T corresponds to a 10 nT minimum detectable shift in the magnetic field. Further, frequency analysis of the noise in the system indicates that at 10Hz the sensitivity less than 10 nT/√Hz.

Keywords: nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers, frequency-modulated microwaves, magnetic field sensitivity, noise density

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8 Miniaturization of Germanium Photo-Detectors by Using Micro-Disk Resonator

Authors: Haifeng Zhou, Tsungyang Liow, Xiaoguang Tu, Eujin Lim, Chao Li, Junfeng Song, Xianshu Luo, Ying Huang, Lianxi Jia, Lianwee Luo, Kim Dowon, Qing Fang, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo

Abstract:

Several Germanium photodetectors (PD) built on silicon micro-disks are fabricated on the standard Si photonics multiple project wafers (MPW) and demonstrated to exhibit very low dark current, satisfactory operation bandwidth and moderate responsivity. Among them, a vertical p-i-n Ge PD based on a 2.0 µm-radius micro-disk has a dark current of as low as 35 nA, compared to a conventional PD current of 1 µA with an area of 100 µm2. The operation bandwidth is around 15 GHz at a reverse bias of 1V. The responsivity is about 0.6 A/W. Microdisk is a striking planar structure in integrated optics to enhance light-matter interaction and construct various photonics devices. The disk geometries feature in strongly and circularly confining light into an ultra-small volume in the form of whispering gallery modes. A laser may benefit from a microdisk in which a single mode overlaps the gain materials both spatially and spectrally. Compared to microrings, micro-disk removes the inner boundaries to enable even better compactness, which also makes it very suitable for some scenarios that electrical connections are needed. For example, an ultra-low power (≈ fJ) athermal Si modulator has been demonstrated with a bit rate of 25Gbit/s by confining both photons and electrically-driven carriers into a microscale volume.In this work, we study Si-based PDs with Ge selectively grown on a microdisk with the radius of a few microns. The unique feature of using microdisk for Ge photodetector is that mode selection is not important. In the applications of laser or other passive optical components, microdisk must be designed very carefully to excite the fundamental mode in a microdisk in that essentially the microdisk usually supports many higher order modes in the radial directions. However, for detector applications, this is not an issue because the local light absorption is mode insensitive. Light power carried by all modes are expected to be converted into photo-current. Another benefit of using microdisk is that the power circulation inside avoids any introduction of the reflector. A complete simulation model with all involved materials taken into account is established to study the promise of microdisk structures for photodetector by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. By viewing from the current preliminary data, the directions to further improve the device performance are also discussed.

Keywords: integrated optical devices, silicon photonics, micro-resonator, photodetectors

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7 Force Sensor for Robotic Graspers in Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Naghmeh M. Bandari, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy

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Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) has been widely performed around the world during the last two decades. RMIS demonstrates significant advantages over conventional surgery, e.g., improving the accuracy and dexterity of a surgeon, providing 3D vision, motion scaling, hand-eye coordination, decreasing tremor, and reducing x-ray exposure for surgeons. Despite benefits, surgeons cannot touch the surgical site and perceive tactile information. This happens due to the remote control of robots. The literature survey identified the lack of force feedback as the riskiest limitation in the existing technology. Without the perception of tool-tissue contact force, the surgeon might apply an excessive force causing tissue laceration or insufficient force causing tissue slippage. The primary use of force sensors has been to measure the tool-tissue interaction force in real-time in-situ. Design of a tactile sensor is subjected to a set of design requirements, e.g., biocompatibility, electrical-passivity, MRI-compatibility, miniaturization, ability to measure static and dynamic force. In this study, a planar optical fiber-based sensor was proposed to mount at the surgical grasper. It was developed based on the light intensity modulation principle. The deflectable part of the sensor was a beam modeled as a cantilever Euler-Bernoulli beam on rigid substrates. A semi-cylindrical indenter was attached to the bottom surface the beam at the mid-span. An optical fiber was secured at both ends on the same rigid substrates. The indenter was in contact with the fiber. External force on the sensor caused deflection in the beam and optical fiber simultaneously. The micro-bending of the optical fiber would consequently result in light power loss. The sensor was simulated and studied using finite element methods. A laser light beam with 800nm wavelength and 5mW power was used as the input to the optical fiber. The output power was measured using a photodetector. The voltage from photodetector was calibrated to the external force for a chirp input (0.1-5Hz). The range, resolution, and hysteresis of the sensor were studied under monotonic and harmonic external forces of 0-2.0N with 0 and 5Hz, respectively. The results confirmed the validity of proposed sensing principle. Also, the sensor demonstrated an acceptable linearity (R2 > 0.9). A minimum external force was observed below which no power loss was detectable. It is postulated that this phenomenon is attributed to the critical angle of the optical fiber to observe total internal reflection. The experimental results were of negligible hysteresis (R2 > 0.9) and in fair agreement with the simulations. In conclusion, the suggested planar sensor is assessed to be a cost-effective solution, feasible, and easy to use the sensor for being miniaturized and integrated at the tip of robotic graspers. Geometrical and optical factors affecting the minimum sensible force and the working range of the sensor should be studied and optimized. This design is intrinsically scalable and meets all the design requirements. Therefore, it has a significant potential of industrialization and mass production.

Keywords: force sensor, minimally invasive surgery, optical sensor, robotic surgery, tactile sensor

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6 From Synthesis to Application of Photovoltaic Perovskite Nanowires

Authors: László Forró

Abstract:

The organolead halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 and its derivatives are known to be very efficient light harvesters revolutionizing the field of solid-state solar cells. The major research area in this field is photovoltaic device engineering although other applications are being explored, as well. Recently, we have shown that nanowires of this photovoltaic perovskite can be synthesized which in association with carbon nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and graphene) make outstanding composites with rapid and strong photo-response. They can serve as conducting electrodes, or as central components of detectors. The performance of several miniature devices based on these composite structures will be demonstrated. Our latest findings on the guided growth of perovskite nanowires by solvatomorph graphoepitaxy will be presented. This method turned out to be a fairly simple approach to overcome the spatially random surface nucleation. The process allows the synthesis of extremely long (centimeters) and thin (a few nanometers) nanowires with a morphology defined by the shape of nanostructured open fluidic channels. This low-temperature solution-growth method could open up an entirely new spectrum of architectural designs of organometallic-halide-perovskite-based heterojunctions and tandem solar cells, LEDs and other optoelectronic devices. Acknowledgment: This work is done in collaboration with Endre Horvath, Massimo Spina, Alla Arakcheeva, Balint Nafradi, Eric Bonvin1, Andrzej Sienkievicz, Zsolt Szekrenyes, Hajnalka Tohati, Katalin Kamaras, Eduard Tutis, Laszlo Mihaly and Karoly Holczer The research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant (PICOPROP670918).

Keywords: photovoltaics, perovskite, nanowire, photodetector

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5 Preparation and Characterization of Transparent and Conductive SnO2 Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis

Authors: V. Jelev, P. Petkov, P. Shindov

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Thin films of undoped and As-doped tin oxide (As:SnO2) were obtained on silicon and glass substrates at 450°- 480°C by spray pyrolysis technique. Tin chloride (SnCl4.5H2O) and As oxide (3As2O5.5H2O) were used as a source for Sn and As respectively. The As2O5 concentration was varied from 0 to 10 mol% in the starting water-alcoholic solution. The characterization of the films was provided with XRD, CEM, AFM and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The influence of the synthesis parameters (the temperature of the substrate, solution concentration, gas and solution flow rates, deposition time, nozzle-to substrate distance) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the films was investigated. The substrate temperature influences on the surface topography, structure and resistivity of the films. Films grown at low temperatures (<300°C) are amorphous whereas this deposited at higher temperatures have certain degree of polycrystallinity. Thin oxide films deposited at 450°C are generally polycrystalline with tetragonal rutile structure. The resistivity decreases with dopant concentration. The minimum resistivity was achieved at dopant concentration about 2.5 mol% As2O5 in the solution. The transmittance greater than 80% and resistivity smaller than 7.5.10-4Ω.cm were achieved in the films deposited at 480°C. The As doped films (SnO2: As) deposited on silicon substrates was used for preparation of a large area position sensitive photodetector (PSD), acting on the base of a lateral photovoltaic effect. The position characteristic of PSD is symmetric to the zero and linear in the 80% of the active area. The SnO2 films are extremely stable under typical environmental conditions and extremely resistant to chemical etching.

Keywords: metal oxide film, SnO2 film, position sensitive photodetectors (PSD), lateral photovoltaic effect

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4 Infrared Photodetectors Based on Nanowire Arrays: Towards Far Infrared Region

Authors: Mohammad Karimi, Magnus Heurlin, Lars Samuelson, Magnus Borgstrom, Hakan Pettersson

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Nanowire semiconductors are promising candidates for optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, photodetectors and lasers due to their quasi-1D geometry and large surface to volume ratio. The functional wavelength range of NW-based detectors is typically limited to the visible/near-infrared region. In this work, we present electrical and optical properties of IR photodetectors based on large square millimeter ensembles (>1million) of vertically processed semiconductor heterostructure nanowires (NWs) grown on InP substrates which operate in longer wavelengths. InP NWs comprising single or multiple (20) InAs/InAsP QDics axially embedded in an n-i-n geometry, have been grown on InP substrates using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The NWs are contacted in vertical direction by atomic layer deposition (ALD) deposition of 50 nm SiO2 as an insulating layer followed by sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) and evaporation of Ti and Au as top contact layer. In order to extend the sensitivity range to the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength regions, the intersubband transition within conduction band of InAsP QDisc is suggested. We present first experimental indications of intersubband photocurrent in NW geometry and discuss important design parameters for realization of intersubband detectors. Key advantages with the proposed design include large degree of freedom in choice of materials compositions, possible enhanced optical resonance effects due to periodically ordered NW arrays and the compatibility with silicon substrates. We believe that the proposed detector design offers the route towards monolithic integration of compact and sensitive III-V NW long wavelength detectors with Si technology.

Keywords: intersubband photodetector, infrared, nanowire, quantum disc

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3 p-Type Multilayer MoS₂ Enabled by Plasma Doping for Ultraviolet Photodetectors Application

Authors: Xiao-Mei Zhang, Sian-Hong Tseng, Ming-Yen Lu

Abstract:

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS₂, have attracted considerable attention owing to the unique optical and electronic properties related to its 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure. MoS₂ is becoming prevalent in post-silicon digital electronics and in highly efficient optoelectronics due to its extremely low thickness and its tunable band gap (Eg = 1-2 eV). For low-power, high-performance complementary logic applications, both p- and n-type MoS₂ FETs (NFETs and PFETs) must be developed. NFETs with an electron accumulation channel can be obtained using unintentionally doped n-type MoS₂. However, the fabrication of MoS₂ FETs with complementary p-type characteristics is challenging due to the significant difficulty of injecting holes into its inversion channel. Plasma treatments with different species (including CF₄, SF₆, O₂, and CHF₃) have also been found to achieve the desired property modifications of MoS₂. In this work, we demonstrated a p-type multilayer MoS₂ enabled by selective-area doping using CHF₃ plasma treatment. Compared with single layer MoS₂, multilayer MoS₂ can carry a higher drive current due to its lower bandgap and multiple conduction channels. Moreover, it has three times the density of states at its minimum conduction band. Large-area growth of MoS₂ films on 300 nm thick SiO₂/Si substrate is carried out by thermal decomposition of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, (NH₄)₂MoS₄, in a tube furnace. A two-step annealing process is conducted to synthesize MoS₂ films. For the first step, the temperature is set to 280 °C for 30 min in an N₂ rich environment at 1.8 Torr. This is done to transform (NH₄)₂MoS₄ into MoS₃. To further reduce MoS₃ into MoS₂, the second step of annealing is performed. For the second step, the temperature is set to 750 °C for 30 min in a reducing atmosphere consisting of 90% Ar and 10% H₂ at 1.8 Torr. The grown MoS₂ films are subjected to out-of-plane doping by CHF₃ plasma treatment using a Dry-etching system (ULVAC original NLD-570). The radiofrequency power of this dry-etching system is set to 100 W and the pressure is set to 7.5 mTorr. The final thickness of the treated samples is obtained by etching for 30 s. Back-gated MoS₂ PFETs were presented with an on/off current ratio in the order of 10³ and a field-effect mobility of 65.2 cm²V⁻¹s⁻¹. The MoS₂ PFETs photodetector exhibited ultraviolet (UV) photodetection capability with a rapid response time of 37 ms and exhibited modulation of the generated photocurrent by back-gate voltage. This work suggests the potential application of the mild plasma-doped p-type multilayer MoS₂ in UV photodetectors for environmental monitoring, human health monitoring, and biological analysis.

Keywords: photodetection, p-type doping, multilayers, MoS₂

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2 Electrophoretic Light Scattering Based on Total Internal Reflection as a Promising Diagnostic Method

Authors: Ekaterina A. Savchenko, Elena N. Velichko, Evgenii T. Aksenov

Abstract:

The development of pathological processes, such as cardiovascular and oncological diseases, are accompanied by changes in molecular parameters in cells, tissues, and serum. The study of the behavior of protein molecules in solutions is of primarily importance for diagnosis of such diseases. Various physical and chemical methods are used to study molecular systems. With the advent of the laser and advances in electronics, optical methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, sedimentation analysis, nephelometry, static and dynamic light scattering, have become the most universal, informative and accurate tools for estimating the parameters of nanoscale objects. The electrophoretic light scattering is the most effective technique. It has a high potential in the study of biological solutions and their properties. This technique allows one to investigate the processes of aggregation and dissociation of different macromolecules and obtain information on their shapes, sizes and molecular weights. Electrophoretic light scattering is an analytical method for registration of the motion of microscopic particles under the influence of an electric field by means of quasi-elastic light scattering in a homogeneous solution with a subsequent registration of the spectral or correlation characteristics of the light scattered from a moving object. We modified the technique by using the regime of total internal reflection with the aim of increasing its sensitivity and reducing the volume of the sample to be investigated, which opens the prospects of automating simultaneous multiparameter measurements. In addition, the method of total internal reflection allows one to study biological fluids on the level of single molecules, which also makes it possible to increase the sensitivity and the informativeness of the results because the data obtained from an individual molecule is not averaged over an ensemble, which is important in the study of bimolecular fluids. To our best knowledge the study of electrophoretic light scattering in the regime of total internal reflection is proposed for the first time, latex microspheres 1 μm in size were used as test objects. In this study, the total internal reflection regime was realized on a quartz prism where the free electrophoresis regime was set. A semiconductor laser with a wavelength of 655 nm was used as a radiation source, and the light scattering signal was registered by a pin-diode. Then the signal from a photodetector was transmitted to a digital oscilloscope and to a computer. The autocorrelation functions and the fast Fourier transform in the regime of Brownian motion and under the action of the field were calculated to obtain the parameters of the object investigated. The main result of the study was the dependence of the autocorrelation function on the concentration of microspheres and the applied field magnitude. The effect of heating became more pronounced with increasing sample concentrations and electric field. The results obtained in our study demonstrated the applicability of the method for the examination of liquid solutions, including biological fluids.

Keywords: light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering, electrophoresis, total internal reflection

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1 Al2O3-Dielectric AlGaN/GaN Enhancement-Mode MOS-HEMTs by Using Ozone Water Oxidization Technique

Authors: Ching-Sung Lee, Wei-Chou Hsu, Han-Yin Liu, Hung-Hsi Huang, Si-Fu Chen, Yun-Jung Yang, Bo-Chun Chiang, Yu-Chuang Chen, Shen-Tin Yang

Abstract:

AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been intensively studied due to their intrinsic advantages of high breakdown electric field, high electron saturation velocity, and excellent chemical stability. They are also suitable for ultra-violet (UV) photodetection due to the corresponding wavelengths of GaN bandgap. To improve the optical responsivity by decreasing the dark current due to gate leakage problems and limited Schottky barrier heights in GaN-based HEMT devices, various metal-oxide-semiconductor HEMTs (MOS-HEMTs) have been devised by using atomic layer deposition (ALD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase deposition (LPD), and RF sputtering. The gate dielectrics include MgO, HfO2, Al2O3, La2O3, and TiO2. In order to provide complementary circuit operation, enhancement-mode (E-mode) devices have been lately studied using techniques of fluorine treatment, p-type capper, piezoneutralization layer, and MOS-gate structure. This work reports an Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMT design by using a cost-effective ozone water oxidization technique. The present ozone oxidization method advantages of low cost processing facility, processing simplicity, compatibility to device fabrication, and room-temperature operation under atmospheric pressure. It can further reduce the gate-to-channel distance and improve the transocnductance (gm) gain for a specific oxide thickness, since the formation of the Al2O3 will consume part of the AlGaN barrier at the same time. The epitaxial structure of the studied devices was grown by using the MOCVD technique. On a Si substrate, the layer structures include a 3.9 m C-doped GaN buffer, a 300 nm GaN channel layer, and a 5 nm Al0.25Ga0.75N barrier layer. Mesa etching was performed to provide electrical isolation by using an inductively coupled-plasma reactive ion etcher (ICP-RIE). Ti/Al/Au were thermally evaporated and annealed to form the source and drain ohmic contacts. The device was immersed into the H2O2 solution pumped with ozone gas generated by using an OW-K2 ozone generator. Ni/Au were deposited as the gate electrode to complete device fabrication of MOS-HEMT. The formed Al2O3 oxide thickness 7 nm and the remained AlGaN barrier thickness is 2 nm. A reference HEMT device has also been fabricated in comparison on the same epitaxial structure. The gate dimensions are 1.2 × 100 µm 2 with a source-to-drain spacing of 5 μm for both devices. The dielectric constant (k) of Al2O3 was characterized to be 9.2 by using C-V measurement. Reduced interface state density after oxidization has been verified by the low-frequency noise spectra, Hooge coefficients, and pulse I-V measurement. Improved device characteristics at temperatures of 300 K-450 K have been achieved for the present MOS-HEMT design. Consequently, Al2O3-dielectric Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN E-mode MOS-HEMTs by using the ozone water oxidization method are reported. In comparison with a conventional Schottky-gate HEMT, the MOS-HEMT design has demonstrated excellent enhancements of 138% (176%) in gm, max, 118% (139%) in IDS, max, 53% (62%) in BVGD, 3 (2)-order reduction in IG leakage at VGD = -60 V at 300 (450) K. This work is promising for millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) and three-terminal active UV photodetector applications.

Keywords: MOS-HEMT, enhancement mode, AlGaN/GaN, passivation, ozone water oxidation, gate leakage

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