Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: Fatih. V. Çelebi

85 Islamic Education System: Implementation of Curriculum Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang

Authors: Basyir Yaman, Fades Br. Gultom

Abstract:

The picture and pattern of Islamic education in the Prophet's period in Mecca and Medina is the history of the past that we need to bring back. The Basic Education Institute called Kuttab. Kuttab or Maktab comes from the word kataba which means to write. The popular Kuttab in the Prophet’s period aims to resolve the illiteracy in the Arab community. In Indonesia, this Institution has 25 branches; one of them is located in Semarang (i.e. Kuttab Al-Fatih). Kuttab Al-Fatih as a non-formal institution of Islamic education is reserved for children aged 5-12 years. The independently designed curriculum is a distinctive feature that distinguishes between Kuttab Al-Fatih curriculum and the formal institutional curriculum in Indonesia. The curriculum includes the faith and the Qur’an. Kuttab Al-Fatih has been licensed as a Community Activity Learning Center under the direct supervision and guidance of the National Education Department. Here, we focus to describe the implementation of curriculum Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang (i.e. faith and al-Qur’an). After that, we determine the relevance between the implementation of the Kuttab Al-Fatih education system with the formal education system in Indonesia. This research uses literature review and field research qualitative methods. We obtained the data from the head of Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang, vice curriculum, faith coordinator, al-Qur’an coordinator, as well as the guardians of learners and the learners. The result of this research is the relevance of education system in Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang about education system in Indonesia. Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang emphasizes character building through a curriculum designed in such a way and combines thematic learning models in modules.

Keywords: Islamic education system, implementation of curriculum, Kuttab Al-Fatih Semarang, formal education system, Indonesia

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84 The Views of Teachers, Students and Parents on the FATIH Project

Authors: Şemsettin Şahin, Ahmet Oğuz Aktürk, İsmail Çelik

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This study investigated the views of teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH (Movement of Enhancing Opportunities and Improving Technology) Project, which was put into service by the Ministry of National Education in cooperation with the Ministry of Transportation in Turkey in November 2010 for the purpose of increasing students' success and planned to be completed within 5 years. The study group consisted of teachers employed in a pilot school in the province of Karaman in central Turkey included within the scope of the FATIH Project, students attending this school and parents whose children are students in that school. The research data were collected through forms developed by the researchers to determine the views of teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH Project. The descriptive analysis method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the study. An analysis of the data revealed that a large majority of the teachers and the students believed that if computers were used to serve their set purpose, then they could make considerable contributions to education. A large majority of the students' parents, on the other hand, regard the use of computers in education as a great opportunity for the students. The views of the teachers, students and students' parents on the FATIH Project usually overlap. Most of the participants in the study pointed out that the FATIH Project was intended to use technology effectively in education. Moreover, each individual participant described their role in the FATIH Project in accordance with their relative position and stated that they could perform whatever was expected of them for the effective and efficient use and progress of the project. The views of the participants regarding the FATİH Project vary according to the kind of the participants.

Keywords: education, FATIH project, technology, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
83 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

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This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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82 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin

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This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
81 Examining Awareness, Foresight and Expectations about Fatih Project Increasing the Occasions and Normalizing the Technology Movement

Authors: Agah Tugrul Korucu, Mustafa Mucahit Gundogdu, Tarık Gencturk, Ahmet Yucel

Abstract:

Countries are developing big projects and supplying financial resource for developing technological substructure and integrating technology into the education. In Turkey, the Ministry of Education, with the aim of integrating ICT into learning and teaching processes, created a project named increasing occasions and normalizing the technology movement. FATIH Project with this project, the aim is to create teaching environments which are enriched with technology. In orientating people with the technology and integrating technology into the education, teacher and teacher candidates have a big responsibility. While teachers are using technology in lesson, the devices in class and the methods developed are important factors. The aim of this research is to examine awareness, and foresight about FATIH Project in different aspects. This study was conducted during the practice period of the second semester in the 2014-2015 academic years. The working group of the research was created from 209 teacher candidates which are from different teaching departments in the Ahmet Kelesoglu Education Faculty of Necmettin Erbakan University. Scanning model was used in this research. In research, as a getting data tool evaluation of “opinion about FATIH Project: awareness, foresight and expectation scale” which was developed by Karal et. al.; personal information form which was developed by researchers were used. Cronbach coefficient which is the reliability of the scale is 0.91. In analyzing the data, statistical package program average, standard deviation, percentage, correlation, t-test and variance analysis test were used.

Keywords: Fatih Project, information and communication technologies, information technology integration, views on the Fatih Project, technology integration in education

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80 The Effects of Signal Level of the Microwave Generator on the Brillouin Gain Spectrum in BOTDA and BOTDR

Authors: Murat Yucel, Murat Yucel, Nail Ferhat Ozturk, Halim Haldun Goktas, Cemal Gemci, Fatih Vehbi Celebi

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In this study, Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) is experimentally analyzed in the Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR) and Brillouin optical time domain analyzer (BOTDA). For this purpose, the signal level of the microwave generator is varied and the effects of BGS are investigated. In the setups, 20 km conventional single mode fiber is used to both setups and laser wavelengths are selected around 1550 nm. To achieve best results, it can be used between 5 dBm to 15 dBm signal level of microwave generator for BOTDA and BOTDR setups.

Keywords: microwave signal level, Brillouin gain spectrum, BOTDA, BOTDR

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79 Investigating Students’ Acceptance Perception Level of Tablet PCs by a Variety of Variables

Authors: Baris Sezer

Abstract:

A great number of projects have been implemented by Turkey in order to integrate technologies into education. The FATİH Project is intended to integrate technology into all levels of education in Turkey. As part of the FATİH Project that is aimed to complete in 2016, it is intended to initially deliver a tablet PC to every student and teacher. We aimed to detect grade 9 students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs during the 2014 – 2015 school year in this study where quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques were used in combination. The study group consisted of 228 grade 9 students of high schools in Istanbul, Ankara, Zonguldak and Bursa in Turkey. Study data was obtained through the “Tablet PC Acceptance Scale” and structured interview forms. Given the results obtained from the study, the mean overall score was 70.08 (3.72 out of 5), which was derived from all the dimensions of the acceptance perception level of tablet PCs in the students’ view. Findings of the study indicate that mean scores for students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs did not differ by their gender and their level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Focus group interviews with students suggest that students did not effectively and actively use the tablet PCs; instead they used the interactive board during classes.

Keywords: acceptance of technology, student’s view, FATIH project, tablet PCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
78 Hardware Implementation of Local Binary Pattern Based Two-Bit Transform Motion Estimation

Authors: Seda Yavuz, Anıl Çelebi, Aysun Taşyapı Çelebi, Oğuzhan Urhan

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Nowadays, demand for using real-time video transmission capable devices is ever-increasing. So, high resolution videos have made efficient video compression techniques an essential component for capturing and transmitting video data. Motion estimation has a critical role in encoding raw video. Hence, various motion estimation methods are introduced to efficiently compress the video. Low bit‑depth representation based motion estimation methods facilitate computation of matching criteria and thus, provide small hardware footprint. In this paper, a hardware implementation of a two-bit transformation based low-complexity motion estimation method using local binary pattern approach is proposed. Image frames are represented in two-bit depth instead of full-depth by making use of the local binary pattern as a binarization approach and the binarization part of the hardware architecture is explained in detail. Experimental results demonstrate the difference between the proposed hardware architecture and the architectures of well-known low-complexity motion estimation methods in terms of important aspects such as resource utilization, energy and power consumption.

Keywords: binarization, hardware architecture, local binary pattern, motion estimation, two-bit transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
77 Individual Differences and Language Learning Strategies

Authors: Nilgun Karatas, Bihter Sakin

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In this study, the relationships between the use of language learning strategies and English language exit exam success were investigated in the university EFL learners’ context. The study was conducted at Fatih University Prep School. To collect data 3 classes from the A1 module in English language classes completed a questionnaire known as the English Language Learning Strategy Inventory or ELLSI. The data for the present study were collected from the preparatory class students who are studying English as a second language at the School of Foreign Languages. The students were placed into four different levels of English, namely A1, A2, B1, and B2 level of English competency according to European Union Language Proficiency Standard, by means of their English placement test results. The Placement test was conveyed at the beginning of the spring semester in 2014-2015.The ELLSI consists of 30 strategy items which students are asked to rate from 1 (low frequency) to 5 (high frequency) according to how often they use them. The questionnaire and exit exam results were entered onto SPSS and analyzed for mean frequencies and statistical differences. Spearman and Pearson correlation were used in a detailed way. There were no statistically significant results between the frequency of strategy use and exit exam results. However, most questions correlate at a significant level with some of the questions.

Keywords: individual differences, language learning strategies, Fatih University, English language

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
76 Pruning Algorithm for the Minimum Rule Reduct Generation

Authors: Sahin Emrah Amrahov, Fatih Aybar, Serhat Dogan

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In this paper we consider the rule reduct generation problem. Rule Reduct Generation (RG) and Modified Rule Generation (MRG) algorithms, that are used to solve this problem, are well-known. Alternative to these algorithms, we develop Pruning Rule Generation (PRG) algorithm. We compare the PRG algorithm with RG and MRG.

Keywords: rough sets, decision rules, rule induction, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
75 A Needs-Based Top-Down Approach for a Tailor-Made Smart City Roadmap

Authors: Mustafa Eruyar, Ersoy Pehlivan, Fatih Kafalı, Fatih Gundogan

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All megacities are not only under the pressure of common urbanization and growth problems but also dealing with different challenges according to their specific circumstances. However, the majority of cities focuses mainly on popular smart city projects, which are usually driven by strong private sector, regardless of their characteristics, each city needs to develop customized projects within a tailor-made smart city roadmap to be able to solve its own challenges. Smart city manifest, helps citizens to feel the action better than good reading smart city vision statements, which consists of five elements; namely purpose, values, mission, vision, and strategy. This study designs a methodology for smart city roadmap based on a top-down approach, breaking down of smart city manifest to feasible projects for a systematic smart city transformation. This methodology was implemented in Istanbul smart city transformation program which includes smart city literature review, current state analysis, roadmap, and architecture projects, respectively. Istanbul smart city roadmap project followed an extensive literature review of certain leading smart cities around the world and benchmarking of the city’s current state using well known smart city indices. In the project, needs of citizens and service providers of the city were identified via stakeholder, persona and social media analysis. The project aimed to develop smart city projects targeting fulfilling related needs by implementing a gap analysis between current state and foreseen plans. As a result, in 11 smart city domains and enablers; 24 strategic objectives, 50 programs, and 101 projects were developed with the support of 183 smart city stakeholder entities and based on 125 citizen persona profiles and last one-year social media analysis. In conclusion, the followed methodology helps cities to identify and prioritize their needs and plan for long-term sustainable development, despite limited resources.

Keywords: needs-based, manifest, roadmap, smart city, top-down approach

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74 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check

Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih

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Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.

Keywords: boiler tube, convergence check, normal tube, rifled tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
73 The Follower Robots Tested in Different Lighting Condition and Improved Capabilities

Authors: Sultan Muhammed Fatih Apaydin

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In this study, two types of robot were examined as being pioneer robot and follower robot for improving of the capabilities of tracking robots. Robots continue to tracking each other and measurement of the follow-up distance between them is very important for improvements to be applied. It was achieved that the follower robot follows the pioneer robot in line with intended goals. The tests were applied to the robots in various grounds and environments in point of performance and necessary improvements were implemented by measuring the results of these tests.

Keywords: mobile robot, remote and autonomous control, infra-red sensors, arduino

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72 Effect of the Experimental Conditions on the Adsorption Capacities in the Removal of Pb2+ from Aqueous Solutions by the Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders

Authors: Oral Lacin, Turan Calban, Fatih Sevim, Taner Celik

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In this study, Pb2+ uptake by the hydroxyapatite nanopowders (n-Hap) from aqueous solutions was investigated by using batch adsorption techniques. The adsorption equilibrium studies were carried out as a function of contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, temperature, and initial Pb2+ concentration. The results showed that the equilibrium time of adsorption was achieved within 60 min, and the effective pH was selected to be 5 (natural pH). The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ on n-Hap was found as 565 mg.g-1. It is believed that the results obtained for adsorption may provide a background for the detailed mechanism investigations and the pilot and industrial scale applications.

Keywords: nanopowders, hydroxyapatite, heavy metals, adsorption

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71 Quantum Fisher Information of Bound Entangled W-Like States

Authors: Fatih Ozaydin

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Quantum Fisher information (QFI) is a multipartite entanglement witness and recently it has been studied extensively with separability and entanglement in the focus. On the other hand, bound entanglement is a special phenomena observed in mixed entangled states. In this work, we study the QFI of W states under a four-dimensional entanglement binding channel. Starting with initally pure W states of several qubits, we find how the QFI decreases as two qubits of the W state is subject to entanglement binding. We also show that as the size of the W state increases, the effect of entanglement binding is decreased.

Keywords: Quantum Fisher information, W states, bound entanglement, entanglement binding

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70 Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform Features to Recognize Characters in Natural Scene Images

Authors: Belaynesh Chekol, Numan Çelebi

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The main purpose of this work is to recognize individual characters extracted from natural scene images using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as an input to K-nearest neighbor (KNN); a classification learner algorithm. For this task, 1,068 and 78 images of English alphabet characters taken from Chars74k data set is used to train and test the classifier respectively. For each character image, We have generated describing features by using SIFT algorithm. This set of features is fed to the learner so that it can recognize and label new images of English characters. Two types of KNN (fine KNN and weighted KNN) were trained and the resulted classification accuracy is 56.9% and 56.5% respectively. The training time taken was the same for both fine and weighted KNN.

Keywords: character recognition, KNN, natural scene image, SIFT

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
69 FPGA Implementation of Adaptive Clock Recovery for TDMoIP Systems

Authors: Semih Demir, Anil Celebi

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Circuit switched networks widely used until the end of the 20th century have been transformed into packages switched networks. Time Division Multiplexing over Internet Protocol (TDMoIP) is a system that enables Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) traffic to be carried over packet switched networks (PSN). In TDMoIP systems, devices that send TDM data to the PSN and receive it from the network must operate with the same clock frequency. In this study, it was aimed to implement clock synchronization process in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips using time information attached to the packages received from PSN. The designed hardware is verified using the datasets obtained for the different carrier types and comparing the results with the software model. Field tests are also performed by using the real time TDMoIP system.

Keywords: clock recovery on TDMoIP, FPGA, MATLAB reference model, clock synchronization

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
68 Weight Comparison of Oil and Dry Type Distribution Transformers

Authors: Murat Toren, Mehmet Çelebi

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Reducing the weight of transformers while providing good performance, cost reduction and increased efficiency is important. Weight is one of the most significant factors in all electrical machines, and as such, many transformer design parameters are related to weight calculations. This study presents a comparison of the weight of oil type transformers and dry type transformer weight. Oil type transformers are mainly used in industry; however, dry type transformers are becoming more widespread in recent years. MATLAB is typically used for designing transformers and design parameters (rated voltages, core loss, etc.) along with design in ANSYS Maxwell. Similar to other studies, this study presented that the dry type transformer option is limited. Moreover, the commonly-used 50 kVA distribution transformers in the industry are oil type and dry type transformers are designed and considered in terms of weight. Currently, the preference for low-cost oil-type transformers would change if costs for dry-type transformer were more competitive. The aim of this study was to compare the weight of transformers, which is a substantial cost factor, and to provide an evaluation about increasing the use of dry type transformers.

Keywords: weight, optimization, oil-type transformers, dry-type transformers

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
67 An Assessment of the Digital Transformation of Radio

Authors: Fatih Sogut

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Developments in information technologies have caused significant changes in terms of radio and television broadcasting. With these changes in terms of production format, transmission techniques and service delivery, the distinction between traditional media and New Media has emerged. The viewer/listener, who was in a passive position before, is now in an active position and has a say in many matters, including content production. Visual and auditory data transfer has diversified and become easier thanks to the convergence phenomenon. These transformations and developments also affected one of the oldest electronic communication tools, radio. In this study, in order to adapt to the new era that emerged with the digital age, the change in radio broadcasting and the factors that led to this change were tried to be explained.

Keywords: Internet, radio broadcasting, digital transformation, Internet broadcasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
66 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi̇, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

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In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle which used to the analysis made independent of the number of mesh elements and k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results was interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km / h and 100 km / h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result; the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km / h and 100 km / h was interpreted.

Keywords: aerodynamics, k-epsilon, taillight, turbulence aerodynamic analysis, CFD, drag coefficient

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65 A FR Fire-Off with Polysilicic Acid for Pes/Co Blends

Authors: Raziye Atakan, Ebru Celebi, Gulay Ozcan, Neda Soydan, A. Sezai Sarac

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In this study, a novel polymeric flame retardant chemical with phosphorous-nitrogen synergism was synthesized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), hydrophilic polyester resin (PR), phosphoric acid and dicyandiamide (DCDA). Polyester/Cotton (Pes/Co) blend fabrics were treated via pad-dry-cure process with this synthesized chemical. PVA (PR)-P-DCDA has shown that it is an effective flame retardant on the fabrics. In order to improve durable flame retardancy for cotton part of the blend, polysilicic acid and citric acid monohydrate auxiliaries were added in FR finishing bath at different concentrations. Flammability and characteristic properties of the sample were tested according to relevant ISO standard and procedures. To do so, ISO 6940 vertical flammability test, TGA, DTA, LOI and FTIR analysis have been performed. The obtained results showed that this new finishing formulation is a good char-forming agent for the PES/CO blends and polysilicic acid could be used for cellulosic blends with PVA (PR)-P-DCDA.

Keywords: flame retardancy, flammability, Pes/Co blends, polysilicic acid

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64 3D Finite Element Analysis of Yoke Hybrid Electromagnet

Authors: Hasan Fatih Ertuğrul, Beytullah Okur, Huseyin Üvet, Kadir Erkan

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The objective of this paper is to analyze a 4-pole hybrid magnetic levitation system by using 3D finite element and analytical methods. The magnetostatic analysis of the system is carried out by using ANSYS MAXWELL-3D package. An analytical model is derived by magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method. The purpose of magnetostatic analysis is to determine the characteristics of attractive force and rotational torques by the change of air gap clearances, inclination angles and current excitations. The comparison between 3D finite element analysis and analytical results are presented at the rest of the paper.

Keywords: yoke hybrid electromagnet, 3D finite element analysis, magnetic levitation system, magnetostatic analysis

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63 Spatial Evaluations of Haskoy: The Emperial Village

Authors: Yasemin Filiz-Kuruel, Emine Koseoglu

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This study aims to evaluate Haskoy district of Beyoglu town of Istanbul. Haskoy is located in Halic region, between Kasimpasa district and Kagithane district. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) set up his tent here. Therefore, the area gets its name as Haskoy, 'imperial village' that means a village which is special for Sultan. Today, there are shipyard and ateliers in variable sizes in Haskoy. In this study, the legibility of Haskoy streets is investigated comparatively. As a research method, semantic differential scale is used. The photos of the streets, which contain specific criteria, are chosen. The questionnaire is directed to first and third grade architecture students. The spatial evaluation of Haskoy streets is done through the survey.

Keywords: Haskoy, legibility, semantic differential scale, urban streets

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62 Synthesis and Anticholinesterase Activity of Carvacrol Derivatives

Authors: Fatih Sonmez

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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease and it is the most common form of dementia that affects aged people. Acetylcholinesterase is a hydrolase involved in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter ACh in the central and peripheral nervous system. Carvacrol (5-iso-propyl-2-methyl-phenol) is a main bioactive monoterpene isolated from many medicinal herbs, such as Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctate and Origanum vulgare spp. It is known that carvacrol has been widely used as an active anti-inflammatory ingredient, which can inhibit the isoproterenol induced inflammation in myocardial infarcted rats. In this paper, a series of 12 carvacrol substituted carbamate derivatives (2a-l) was synthesized and their inhibitory activities on AChE and BuChE were evaluated. Among them, 2d exhibited the strongest inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value of 2.22 µM, which was 130-fold more than that of carvacrol (IC50 = 288.26 µM).

Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Butyrylcholinesterase, Carbamate, Carvacrol

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
61 Electronic and Computer-Assisted Refreshable Braille Display Developed for Visually Impaired Individuals

Authors: Ayşe Eldem, Fatih Başçiftçi

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Braille alphabet is an important tool that enables visually impaired individuals to have a comfortable life like those who have normal vision. For this reason, new applications related to the Braille alphabet are being developed. In this study, a new Refreshable Braille Display was developed to help visually impaired individuals learn the Braille alphabet easier. By means of this system, any text downloaded on a computer can be read by the visually impaired individual at that moment by feeling it by his/her hands. Through this electronic device, it was aimed to make learning the Braille alphabet easier for visually impaired individuals with whom the necessary tests were conducted.

Keywords: visually impaired individual, Braille, Braille display, refreshable Braille display, USB

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
60 A Thermal Analysis Based Approach to Obtain High Carbonaceous Fibers from Chicken Feathers

Authors: Y. Okumuş, A. Tuna, A. T. Seyhan, H. Çelebi

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Useful carbon fibers were derived from chicken feathers (PCFs) based on a two-step pyrolysis method. The collected PCFs were cleaned and categorized as black, white and brown. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) were systemically used to design the pyrolysis steps. Depending on colors, feathers exhibit different glass transition (Tg) temperatures. Long-time heat treatment applied to the feathers emerged influential on the surface quality of the resulting carbon fibers. Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) examination revealed that the extent of disulfide bond cleavage is highly associated with the feather melting stability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations were employed to evaluate the morphological changes of feathers after pyrolysis. Of all, brown feathers were found to be the most promising to turn into useful carbon fibers without any trace of melting and shape distortion when pyrolysis was carried out at 230°C for 24 hours and at 450°C for 1 hour.

Keywords: poultry chicken feather, keratin protein fiber, pyrolysis, high carbonaceous fibers

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59 Microfluidization for Processing of Carbonized Chicken Feather Fiber (CCFF) Modified Epoxy Suspensions and the Thermal Properties of the Resulting Composites

Authors: A. Tuna, Y. Okumuş, A. T. Seyhan, H. Çelebi

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In this study, microfluidization was considered a promising approach to breaking up of carbonized chicken feather fibers (CCFFs) flocs to synthesizing epoxy suspensions containing (1 wt. %) CCFFs. For comparison, CCFF was also treated using sonication. The energy consumed to break up CCFFs in the ethanol was the same for both processes. CCFFs were found to be dispersed in ethanol in a significantly shorter time with the high shear processor. The CCFFs treated by both sonication and microfluidization were dispersed in epoxy by sonication. SEM examination revealed that CCFFs were broken up into smaller pieces using the high shear processor while being not agglomerated. Further, DSC, TMA, and DMA were systematically used to measure thermal properties of the resulting composites. A significant improvement was observed in the composites including CCFFs treated with microfluidization.

Keywords: carbonized chicken feather fiber (CCFF), modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), modulated thermomechanical analysis (MTMA), thermal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
58 Evaluating Urban City Indices: A Study for Investigating Functional Domains, Indicators and Integration Methods

Authors: Fatih Gundogan, Fatih Kafali, Abdullah Karadag, Alper Baloglu, Ersoy Pehlivan, Mustafa Eruyar, Osman Bayram, Orhan Karademiroglu, Wasim Shoman

Abstract:

Nowadays many cities around the world are investing their efforts and resources for the purpose of facilitating their citizen’s life and making cities more livable and sustainable by implementing newly emerged phenomena of smart city. For this purpose, related research institutions prepare and publish smart city indices or benchmarking reports aiming to measure the city’s current ‘smartness’ status. Several functional domains, various indicators along different selection and calculation methods are found within such indices and reports. The selection criteria varied for each institution resulting in inconsistency in the ranking and evaluating. This research aims to evaluate the impact of selecting such functional domains, indicators and calculation methods which may cause change in the rank. For that, six functional domains, i.e. Environment, Mobility, Economy, People, Living and governance, were selected covering 19 focus areas and 41 sub-focus (variable) areas. 60 out of 191 indicators were also selected according to several criteria. These were identified as a result of extensive literature review for 13 well known global indices and research and the ISO 37120 standards of sustainable development of communities. The values of the identified indicators were obtained from reliable sources for ten cities. The values of each indicator for the selected cities were normalized and standardized to objectively investigate the impact of the chosen indicators. Moreover, the effect of choosing an integration method to represent the values of indicators for each city is investigated by comparing the results of two of the most used methods i.e. geometric aggregation and fuzzy logic. The essence of these methods is assigning a weight to each indicator its relative significance. However, both methods resulted in different weights for the same indicator. As a result of this study, the alternation in city ranking resulting from each method was investigated and discussed separately. Generally, each method illustrated different ranking for the selected cities. However, it was observed that within certain functional areas the rank remained unchanged in both integration method. Based on the results of the study, it is recommended utilizing a common platform and method to objectively evaluate cities around the world. The common method should provide policymakers proper tools to evaluate their decisions and investments relative to other cities. Moreover, for smart cities indices, at least 481 different indicators were found, which is an immense number of indicators to be considered, especially for a smart city index. Further works should be devoted to finding mutual indicators representing the index purpose globally and objectively.

Keywords: functional domain, urban city index, indicator, smart city

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57 Heat Transfer Correlations for Exhaust Gas Flow

Authors: Fatih Kantas

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Exhaust systems are key contributors to ground vehicles as a heat source. Understanding heat transfer in exhaust systems is related to defining effective parameter on heat transfer in exhaust system. In this journal, over 20 Nusselt numbers are investigated. This study shows advantages and disadvantages of various Nusselt numbers in different range Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency. Also (CAF) Convective Augmentation Factors are defined to correct standard Nusselt number for geometry and location of exhaust system. Finally, optimum Nusselt number and Convective Augmentation Factors are recommended according to Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency, geometry and location effect of exhaust system.

Keywords: exhaust gas flow, heat transfer correlation, Nusselt, Prandtl, pulsating flow

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56 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi

Abstract:

Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: biodegradable, bioplastics, morphology, solution casting, poly(lactic acid)

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