Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi

27 The Effect of the Thermal Temperature and Injected Current on Laser Diode 808 nm Output Power

Authors: Hassan H. Abuelhassan, M. Ali Badawi, Abdelrahman A. Elbadawi, Adam A. Elbashir

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of the injected current and temperature into the output power of the laser diode module operating at 808nm were applied, studied and discussed. Low power diode laser was employed as a source. The experimental results were demonstrated and then the output power of laser diode module operating at 808nm was clearly changed by the thermal temperature and injected current. The output power increases by the increasing the injected current and temperature. We also showed that the increasing of the injected current results rising in heat, which also, results into decreasing of the laser diode output power during the highest temperature as well. The best ranges of characteristics made by diode module operating at 808nm were carefully handled and determined.

Keywords: laser diode, light amplification, injected current, output power

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26 Routine pus Swabs for Uncomplicated Abscesses – Do They Alter Our Management Plan?

Authors: Abdelrahman Abdelrahman, Lawrence Nip, Seun Ikotun, Iman Satar, Anur Miah

Abstract:

Introduction: Incision and drainage of an abscess is a common procedure performed by the general surgeon. Pus swabs are often obtained routinely for MC&S.Our study aimed to investigate whether swabs taken at our local institution had any impact on the overall management plan for uncomplicated abscesses. Methods: We retrospectively assessed all patients presenting to University Hospital Lewisham with an abscess between October 2020 – April 2021. Exclusion criteria were recurrent abscesses, patients admitted with sepsis, known inflammatory bowel disease, immunocompromised, and those managed non-operatively. Results: We identified 131 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Two thirds were performed in theatre under general anaesthetic and the other one third under local. 63% of patients had a pus swab collected. Of these, 96% were not followed up by the requesting doctor, and there was no further patient contact. In the other 4%, the organisms cultured were flagged as atypical such as MRSA. In these cases, microbiology advice was that if the patient was clinically well and adequate drainage was achieved, then no furtherantibiotics were required. All patients were discharged before any microbiology results had come back with no subsequent change in the management plan. Average cost of pus swab = £10.10 – potentially cost saving of £1656.4 annually. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the majority of pus swabs taken from uncomplicated abscessesare not followed up by requesting doctor with no impact on the overall management plan. We, therefore, do not recommend the routine use of pus swabs for uncomplicated abscesses.

Keywords: pus swabs, uncomplated abscess, Pus MCS, follow up of uncomplicated abscess

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25 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung

Authors: Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea, Mahmoud Hassan Onsa

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.

Keywords: methane, cow dung, daily production, pasteurization, increase

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24 Design of a Rectifier with Enhanced Efficiency and a High-gain Antenna for Integrated and Compact-size Rectenna Circuit

Authors: Rawaa Maher, Ahmed Allam, Haruichi Kanaya, Adel B. Abdelrahman

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In this paper, a compact, high-efficiency integrated rectenna is presented to operate in the 2.45 GHz band. A comparison between two rectifier topologies is performed to verify the benefits of removing the matching network from the rectifier. A rectifier high conversion efficiency of 74.1% is achieved. To complete the rectenna system, a novel omnidirectional antenna with high gain (3.72 dB) and compact size (25 mm * 29 mm) is designed and fabricated. The same antenna is used with a reflector for raising the gain to nearly 8.3 dB. The simulation and measurement results of the antenna are in good agreement.

Keywords: internet of things, integrated rectenna, rectenna, RF energy harvesting, wireless sensor networks(WSN)

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23 Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation for Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Opening

Authors: Abdelrahman Elsehsah, Hany Madkour, Khalid Farah

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This article presents a 3-D modified non-linear elastic model in the strain space. The Helmholtz free energy function is introduced with the existence of a dissipation potential surface in the space of thermodynamic conjugate forces. The constitutive equation and the damage evolution were derived as well. The modified damage has been examined to model the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs with an opening. A parametric study with RC was carried out to investigate the impact of different factors on the behavior of RC slabs. These factors are the opening area, the opening shape, the place of opening, and the thickness of the slabs. And the numerical results have been compared with the experimental data from literature. Finally, the model showed its ability to be applied to the structural analysis of RC slabs.

Keywords: damage mechanics, 3-D numerical analysis, RC, slab with opening

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22 Computational Models for a More Accurate Estimation of Joint Force

Authors: Ibrahim Elnour Abdelrahman Eltayeb

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Computational modelling is a method used to investigate joint forces during a movement. It can get high accuracy in the joint forces via subject-specific models. However, the construction of subject-specific models remains time-consuming and expensive. The purpose of this paper was to identify what alterations we can make to generic computational models to get a better estimation of the joint forces. It appraised the impact of these alterations on the accuracy of the estimated joint forces. It found different strategies of alterations: joint model, muscle model, and an optimisation problem. All these alterations affected joint contact force accuracy, so showing the potential for improving the model predictions without involving costly and time-consuming medical images.

Keywords: Joint force, joint model, optimisation problem, validation

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21 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader, Sherif H. ElGohary

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: ADHD, autism, epilepsy, EEG, SVM

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20 Impact of Health Sector Economic Reforms in Underdeveloped Countries

Authors: Haga Abdelrahman Elimam

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This paper investigates the connotation, and some of the realistic implications, of the economic reform of health sector in under developed countries. The paper investigates the issues that economic reforms have to address, and the policy targets they are considered to accomplish. The work argues that the development of economic reform is not connected only with understanding the priorities and refining them, furthermore with reformation and restructuring the organizations through which health policies are employed. Considering various organizational values, that are likely to be regular to all economic reform programs, a regulatory approach to institutional reform is unsuitable. The paper further investigates the selection of economic reform that may as well influence via technical suggestions and analysis, but the verdict to continue, and the consequent success of execution, eventually depends on the progressive political sustainability. The paper concludes by giving examples of institutional reforms from various underdeveloped countries and includes recommendation of the responsibility and control of donor organizations.

Keywords: economic reform, health sector, underdeveloped countries, technical suggestions

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19 Nitrogen-Doped Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon Composite Films Prepared by Coaxial Arc Plasma Deposition

Authors: Abdelrahman Zkria, Tsuyoshi Yoshitake

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Diamond is one of the most interesting semiconducting carbon materials owing to its unique physical and chemical properties, yet its application in electronic devices is limited due to the difficulty of realizing n-type conduction by nitrogen doping. In contrast Ultrananocrystalline diamond with diamond grains of about 3–5 nm in diameter have attracted much attention for device-oriented applications because they may enable the realization of n-type doping with nitrogen. In this study, nitrogen-doped Ultra-Nanocrystalline diamond films were prepared by coaxial arc plasma deposition (CAPD) method, the nitrogen content was estimated by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). The electrical conductivity increased with increasing nitrogen contents. Heterojunction diodes with p-type Si were fabricated and evaluated based on current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics measured in dark at room temperature.

Keywords: heterojunction diodes, hopping conduction mechanism, nitrogen-doping, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond

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18 Nutritional Quality of Partially Processed Chicken Meat Products from Egyptian and Saudi Arabia Markets

Authors: Ali Meawad Ahmad, Hosny A. Abdelrahman

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Chicken meat is a good source of protein of high biological value which contains most of essential amino-acids with high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol level. Besides, it contain many vitamins as well as minerals which are important for the human body. Therefore, a total of 150 frozen chicken meat product samples, 800g each within their shelf-life, were randomly collected from commercial markets from Egypt (75 samples) and Saudi Arabian (75 samples) for chemical evaluation. The mean values of fat% in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 16.0% and 4.6% for chicken burger; 15.0% and 11% for nuggets and 11% and 11% for strips respectively. The mean values of moisture % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 67.0% and 81% for chicken burger; 66.0% and 78% for nuggets and 71.0% and 72% for strips respectively. The mean values of protein % in the examined samples of Egyptian and Saudi markets were 15% and 17% for chicken burger; 16% and 16% for nuggets and 16% and 17% for strips respectively. The obtained results were compared with the Egyptian slandered and suggestions for improving the chemical quality of chicken products were given.

Keywords: chicken meat, nutrition, Egypt, markets

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17 Advanced Digital Manufacturing: Case Study

Authors: Abdelrahman Abdelazim

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Most industries are looking for technologies that are easy to use, efficient and fast to accomplish. To implement these, factories tend to use advanced systems that could alter complicity to simplicity and rudimentary to advancement. Cloud Manufacturing is a new movement that aims to mirror and integrate cloud computing into manufacturing. Amongst cloud manufacturing various advantages are decreasing the human involvements and increasing the dependency on automated machines, which in turns decreases human errors and increases efficiency. A reliable and extraordinary performance processes with minimum errors are highly desired factors of today’s manufacturers. At the glance it seems to be the best alternative, however, the implementation of a cloud system can be very challenging. This work investigates cloud manufacturing in details, it outlines its advantages and disadvantages by converting a local factory in Kuwait to a cloud-ready system. Initially the flow of the factory’s manufacturing process has been analyzed identifying the bottlenecks and illustrating how cloud manufacturing can eliminate them. Following this an automation process has been analyzed and implemented. A comparison between the process before and after the adaptation has been carried out showing the effects on the cost, the output and the efficiency of the process.

Keywords: cloud manufacturing, automation, Kuwait industrial sector, advanced digital manufacturing

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16 Level of Behavioral Development for Hepatitis C Virus Cases Versus Their Contacts: Does Infection Make a Difference and What Is Beyond?

Authors: Ammal M. Metwally, Lobna A. ElEtreby, Rehan M. Saleh, Ghada Abdrabou, Somia I. Salama, Amira Orabi, Mohamed Abdelrahman

Abstract:

Hepatitis C virus infection is a public health threat in Egypt. To control infection, efforts should be spent to encourage healthy behavior. This study aimed to assess the level of behavioral development in order to create a positive environment for the adoption of the recommended behaviors. The study was conducted over one year from Jan. 2011 till Jan. 2012. Knowledge, attitude and behavior of 540 HCV patients and 102 of their contacts were assessed and the level of behavioral development was determined. The study revealed that the majority of patients and contacts knew that HCV infection is dangerous with perceived concern for early diagnosis and treatment. More than 75% knew the correct modes of transmission. The assessment showed positive attitudes towards the recommended practices with the intention to adopt those practices. Strategies to create opportunities to continue the recommended behaviors should be adopted together with the reinforcement of social support.

Keywords: hepatitis C virus, level of behavioral development, recommended behaviors

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15 The Current Status of Integrating Information and Communication Technology in Teaching at Sultan Qaboos University

Authors: Ahmed Abdelrahman, Ahmed Abdelraheem

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There are many essential factors affecting the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into teaching and learning, including technology infrastructure, institutional support, professional development, and faculty members’ beliefs regarding ICT integration. The present research project investigated the current status of integrating ICT into teaching and learning at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU). A sample of 220 faculty members from six different colleges and four administrators from the Center of Educational Technology (CET) and the Center for Information Systems (CIS) at SQU in Oman were chosen, and quantitative, qualitative design using a semi-structured questionnaire, interviews and checklists were employed. The findings show that SQU had a high availability of ICT infrastructure in terms of hardware, software, and support services, as well as adequate computer labs for educational purposes. However, the results also indicated that, although SQU provided a series of professional development workshops related to using ICT in teaching, few faculty members were interested. Furthermore, the finding indicated that the degree of ICT integration into teaching at SQU was at a medium level.

Keywords: information and communication technology, integration, professional development, teaching

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14 Prediction of the Mechanical Power in Wind Turbine Powered Car Using Velocity Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Alghazali, Youssef Kassem, Hüseyin Çamur, Ozan Erenay

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Savonius is a drag type vertical axis wind turbine. Savonius wind turbines have a low cut-in speed and can operate at low wind speed. This makes it suitable for electricity or mechanical generation in low-power applications such as individual domestic installations. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between the type of Savonius rotor and the torque and mechanical power generated. And it was to illustrate how the type of rotor might play an important role in the prediction of mechanical power of wind turbine powered car. The main purpose of this paper is to predict and investigate the aerodynamic effects by means of velocity analysis on the performance of a wind turbine powered car by converting the wind energy into mechanical energy to overcome load that rotates the main shaft. The predicted results based on theoretical analysis were compared with experimental results obtained from literature. The percentage of error between the two was approximately around 20%. Prediction of the torque was done at a wind speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 130 RPM according to meteorological statistics in Northern Cyprus.

Keywords: mechanical power, torque, Savonius rotor, wind car

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13 Functions and Pathophysiology of the Ventricular System: Review of the Underlying Basic Physics

Authors: Mohamed Abdelrahman Abdalla

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Apart from their function in producing CSF, the brain ventricles have been recognized as the mere remnant of the embryological neural tube with no clear role. The lack of proper definition of the function of the brain ventricles and the central spinal canal has made it difficult to ascertain the pathophysiology of its different disease conditions or to treat them. This study aims to review the simple physics that could explain the basic function of the CNS ventricular system and to suggest new ways of approaching its pathology. There are probably more physical factors to consider than only the pressure. Monro-Killie hypothesis focuses on volume and subsequently pressure to direct our surgical management in different disease conditions. However, the enlarged volume of the ventricles in normal pressure hydrocephalus does not move any blood or brain outside the skull. Also, in idiopathic intracranial hypertension, the very high intracranial pressure rarely causes brain herniation. On this note, the continuum of the intracranial cavity with the spinal canal makes it a whole unit and hence the defect in the theory. In this study, adding different factors to the equation like brain and CSF density and positions of the brain in space, in addition to the volume and pressure, aims to identify how the ventricles are important in the CNS homeostasis. In addition, increasing the variables that we analyze to treat different CSF pathological conditions should increase our understanding and hence accuracy of treatment of such conditions.

Keywords: communicating hydrocephalus, functions of the ventricles, idiopathic intracranial hypertension physics of CSF

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12 Finite Element Modeling of Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Alloys

Authors: Fadi Al-Badour, Nesar Merah, Abdelrahman Shuaib, Abdelaziz Bazoune

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In the current work, a Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) model is developed to simulate the friction stir welding (FSW) process of dissimilar Aluminum alloys (Al 6061-T6 with Al 5083-O). The model predicts volumetric defects, material flow, developed temperatures, and stresses in addition to tool reaction loads. Simulation of welding phase is performed by employing a control volume approach, whereas the welding speed is defined as inflow and outflow over Eulerian domain boundaries. Only material softening due to inelastic heat generation is considered and material behavior is assumed to obey Johnson-Cook’s Model. The model was validated using published experimentally measured temperatures, at similar welding conditions, and by qualitative comparison of dissimilar weld microstructure. The FE results showed that most of developed temperatures were below melting and that the bulk of the deformed material in solid state. The temperature gradient on AL6061-T6 side was found to be less than that of Al 5083-O. Changing the position Al 6061-T6 from retreating (Ret.) side to advancing (Adv.) side led to a decrease in maximum process temperature and strain rate. This could be due to the higher resistance of Al 6061-T6 to flow as compared to Al 5083-O.

Keywords: friction stir welding, dissimilar metals, finite element modeling, coupled Eulerian Lagrangian Analysis

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11 Assessing Psycho-Social Stressors for Chronically Infected Hepatitis C Virus Patients in Egypt

Authors: Ammal M. Metwally, Dalia M. Elmosalami, Walaa A. Fouad, Abla G. Khalifa, Lobna A. El Etreby, Mohamed AbdelRahman

Abstract:

People with hepatitis C are likely to experience psychological distress related to adjustment issues following diagnosis. Objective: The study was conducted to determine the psycho-social stressors accompanying Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection. The study focused on immediate and later on reactions to being diagnosed as infected HCV patients. Effect of HCV on disruption of patients’ relationships in term of family relationship and friendship, employment and financial status was assessed. The magnitude and causes of the social stigma and its relation to awareness about illness, level of education were also assessed. Methods: During this study the subjective experiences of people having HCV was explored through a designed questionnaire targeted 540 cases; 359 males and 181 females from ten out of 21 National Treatment Reference Centers of National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institutes of Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals. The study was conducted along a period of six months from September 2011 to March 2012. Results: The study revealed that the financial problems are the commonest problems faced by 75.5 % of the cases. More than 70% of the cases suffered from immediate sadness versus 67.4% suffered from worry. Social stigma was reported by 13 % of HCV +patients, the majority of which were females. Conclusions: Exploring the psychosocial consequences of HCV infection can act as pressing motivators for behavior change needed for limiting HCV endemicity in Egypt.

Keywords: Egypt, HCV infection, psycho-social adjustment, stigma

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10 A Questionnaire Survey Reviewing Radiographers' Knowledge of Computed Tomography Exposure Parameters

Authors: Mohammad Rawashdeh, Mark McEntee, Maha Zaitoun, Mostafa Abdelrahman, Patrick Brennan, Haytham Alewaidat, Sarah Lewis, Charbel Saade

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Despite the tremendous advancements that have been generated by Computed Tomography (CT) in the field of diagnosis, concerns have been raised about the potential cancer induction risk from CT because of the exponentially increased use of it in medicine. This study aims at investigating the application and knowledge of practicing radiographers in Jordan about CT radiation. In order to collect the primary data of this study, a questionnaire was designed and distributed by social media using a snow-balling sampling method. The respondents (n=54) have answered 36 questions including the questions about their demographic information, knowledge about Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), CT exposure and adaptation of pediatric patients exposure. The educational level of the respondents was either at a diploma degree (35.2%) or bachelor (64.8%). The results of this study have indicated a good level of general knowledge between radiographers about the relationship between image quality, exposure parameters, and patient dose. The level of knowledge related to DRL was poor where less than 7.4 percent of the sample members were able to give specific values for a number of common anatomical fields, including abdomen, brain, and chest. Overall, Jordanian radiographers need to gain more knowledge about the expected levels of the dose when applying good practice. Additional education on DRL or DRL inclusion in educational programs is highlighted.

Keywords: computed tomography, CT scan, DRLs, exposure parameters, image quality, radiation dose

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9 Factors Associated with Mammography Screening Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study of Egyptian Women

Authors: Salwa Hagag Abdelaziz, Naglaa Fathy Youssef, Nadia Abdellatif Hassan, Rasha Wesam Abdelrahman

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Breast cancer is considered as a substantial health concern and practicing mammography screening [MS] is important in minimizing its related morbidity. So it is essential to have a better understanding of breast cancer screening behaviors of women and factors that influence utilization of them. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that are linked to MS behaviors among the Egyptian women. A cross-sectional descriptive design was carried out to provide a snapshot of the factors that are linked to MS behaviors. A convenience sample of 311 women was utilized and all eligible participants admitted to the Women Imaging Unit who are 40 years of age or above, coming for mammography assessment, not pregnant or breast feeding and who accepted to participate in the study were included. A structured questionnaire was developed by the researchers and contains three parts; Socio-demographic data; Motivating factors associated with MS; and association between MS and model of behavior change. The analyzed data indicated that most of the participated women (66.6 %) belonged to the age group of 40-49.A high proportion of participants (58.1%) of group having previous MS influenced by their neighbors to practice MS, whereas 32.7 % in group not having previous MS were influenced by family members which indicated significant differences (P <0.05). Doctors and media are shown to be the least influence of others to practice MS. Women with intention to have a future mammogram had higher OR (1.404) for practicing MS compared with women with no intention. Further studies are needed to examine the relation between Trans-theoretical Model [TTM] and practicing MS.

Keywords: breast cancer, mammography, screening behaviors, morbidity

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8 Investigating the Use of Rigid-Foundation Impedance Function for Time-Domain Substructure Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis

Authors: Abdelrahman Taha, Niloofar Malekghaini, Hamed Ebrahimian, Ramin Motamed

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This paper compares the substructure and direct methods for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis in the time domain. In the substructure SSI method, the soil domain is replaced by a set of springs and dashpots, also referred to as the impedance function, derived through the study of the behavior of a massless rigid foundation. The impedance function is inherently frequency dependent, i.e., it varies as a function of the frequency content of the structural response. To use the frequency-dependent impedance function for time-domain SSI analysis, the impedance function is approximated at the fundamental frequency of the structure-soil system. To explore the potential limitations of the substructure modeling process, a two-dimensional reinforced concrete frame structure is modeled using substructure and direct methods in this study. The results show discrepancies between the simulated responses of the substructure and the direct approaches. To isolate the effects of higher modal responses, the same study is repeated using a harmonic input motion, in which a similar discrepancy is still observed between the substructure and direct approaches. It is concluded that the main source of discrepancy between the substructure and direct SSI approaches is likely attributed to the way the impedance functions are calculated, i.e., assuming a massless rigid foundation without considering the presence of the superstructure. Hence, a refined impedance function, considering the presence of the superstructure, shall be developed. This refined impedance function is expected to significantly improve the simulation accuracy of the substructure approach for structural systems whose behavior is dominated by the fundamental mode response.

Keywords: direct approach, impedance function, soil-structure interaction, substructure approach

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7 Sandy Soil Properties under Different Plant Cover Types in Drylands, Sudan

Authors: Rayan Elsiddig Eltaib, Yamanaka Norikazu, Mubarak Abdelrahman Abdalla

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This study investigated the effects of Acacia Senegal, Calotropis procera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Ziziphus spina Christi, Balanites aegyptiaca, Indigofera oblongigolia, Arachis hypogea and Sesimum indicum grown in the western region of White Nile State on soil properties of the 0-10, 10-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm depths. Soil properties were: pH(paste), electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe), total N (TN), organic carbon (OC), soluble K, available P, aggregate stability and water holding capacity. Triplicate Soil samples were collected after the end of the rainy season using 5 cm diameter auger. Results indicated that pH, ECe and TN were not significantly different among plant cover types. In the top 10-30 cm depth, OC under all types was significantly higher than the control (4.1 to 7.7 fold). The highest (0.085%) OC was found under the Z. spina Christi and A. Senegal whereas the lowest (0.045%) was reported under the A. hypogea. In the 10-30 cm depth, with the exception of A. hypogea, Z. spina christi and S. indicum, P content was almost similar but significantly higher than the control by 72 to 129%. In the 10-30 cm depth, K content under the S. indicum (0.46 meq/L) was exceptionally high followed by Z. spina christi (0.102 meq/L) as compared to the control (0.029 meq/L). Water holding capacity and aggregate stability of the top 0-10 cm depth were not significantly different among plant cover types. Based on the fact that accumulation of organic matter in the soil profile of any ecosystem is an important indicator of soil quality, results of this study may conclude that (1) cultivation of A.senegal, B.aegyptiaca and Z. spina Christi improved soil quality whereas (2) cultivation of A. hypogea or soil that is solely invaded with C. procera and L.pyrotechnica may induce soil degradation.

Keywords: canopy, crops, shrubs, soil properties, trees

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6 Sea Level Characteristics Referenced to Specific Geodetic Datum in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ahmed M. Khedr, Saad M. Abdelrahman, Kareem M. Tonbol

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Two geo-referenced sea level datasets (September 2008 – November 2010) and (April 2012 – January 2014) were recorded at Alexandria Western Harbour (AWH). Accurate re-definition of tidal datum, referred to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-2014), was discussed and updated to improve our understanding of the old predefined tidal datum at Alexandria. Tidal and non-tidal components of sea level were separated with the use of Delft-3D hydrodynamic model-tide suit (Delft-3D, 2015). Tidal characteristics at AWH were investigated and harmonic analysis showed the most significant 34 constituents with their amplitudes and phases. Tide was identified as semi-diurnal pattern as indicated by a “Form Factor” of 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Principle tidal datums related to major tidal phenomena were recalculated referred to a meaningful geodetic height datum. The portion of residual energy (surge) out of the total sea level energy was computed for each dataset and found 77% and 72%, respectively. Power spectral density (PSD) showed accurate resolvability in high band (1–6) cycle/days for the nominated independent constituents, except some neighbouring constituents, which are too close in frequency. Wind and atmospheric pressure data, during the recorded sea level time, were analysed and cross-correlated with the surge signals. Moderate association between surge and wind and atmospheric pressure data were obtained. In addition, long-term sea level rise trend at AWH was computed and showed good agreement with earlier estimated rates.

Keywords: Alexandria, Delft-3D, Egypt, geodetic reference, harmonic analysis, sea level

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5 Regression of Fibrosis by Apigenin in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis Rat Model through Suppression of HIF-1/FAK Pathway

Authors: Hany M. Fayed, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman, Alyaa F. Hessin, Hanan A. Ogaly, Gihan F. Asaad, Abeer A. A. Salama, Sahar Abdelrahman, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Marwan Abd Elbaset Mohamed

Abstract:

Liver fibrosis is a serious global health problem that occurs as a result of a variety of chronic liver disorders. Apigenin, a flavonoid found in many plants, has several pharmacological properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifibrotic efficacy of apigenin (APG) against experimentally induced hepatic fibrosis in rats via using thioacetamide (TAA) and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. TAA (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was given three times each week for two weeks to induce liver fibrosis. After TAA injections, APG was given orally (5 and 10 mg/kg) daily for two weeks. Biochemical, molecular, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on blood and liver tissue samples. The functioning of the liver, oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver fibrosis indicators were all evaluated. The findings showed that TAA markedly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) with a reduction in albumin, total protein, A/G ratio, GSH content and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Moreover, TAA elevated the content of collagen I, α -smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and hydroxyproline in the liver. The treatment with APG in a dose-dependent manner has obviously prevented these alterations and amended the harmful effects induced by TAA. The histopathological and immunohistochemical observations supported this biochemical evidence. The higher dose of APG produced the most significant antifibrotic effect. As a result of these data, APG appears to be a promising antifibrotic drug and could be used as a new herbal medication or dietary supplement in the future for the treatment of liver fibrosis. This effect might be related to the inhibition of the HIF-1/FAK signaling pathway.

Keywords: apigenin, FAK, HIF-1, liver fibrosis, rat, thioacetamide

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4 DNA Fingerprinting of Some Major Genera of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera) (Anacanthotermes, Psammotermes and Microtermes) from Western Saudi Arabia

Authors: AbdelRahman A. Faragalla, Mohamed H. Alqhtani, Mohamed M. M.Ahmed

Abstract:

Saudi Arabia has currently been beset by a barrage of bizarre assemblages of subterranean termite fauna, inflicting heavy catastrophic havocs on human valued properties in various homes, storage facilities, warehouses, agricultural and horticultural crops including okra, sweet pepper, tomatoes, sorghum, date palm trees, citruses and many forest domains and green lush desert oases. The most pressing urgent priority is to use modern technologies to alleviate the painstaking obstacle of taxonomic identification of these injurious noxious pests that might lead to effective pest control in both infested agricultural commodities and field crops. Our study has indicated the use of DNA fingerprinting technologies, in order to generate basic information of the genetic similarity between 3 predominant families containing the most destructive termite species. The methodologies included extraction and DNA isolation from members of the major families and the use of randomly selected primers and PCR amplifications with the nucleotide sequences. GC content and annealing temperatures for all primers, PCR amplifications and agarose gel electrophoresis were also conducted in addition to the scoring and analysis of Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPDs). A phylogenetic analysis for different species using statistical computer program on the basis of RAPD-DNA results, represented as a dendrogram based on the average of band sharing ratio between different species. Our study aims to shed more light on this intriguing subject, which may lead to an expedited display of the kinship and relatedness of species in an ambitious undertaking to arrive at correct taxonomic classification of termite species, discover sibling species, so that a logistic rational pest management strategy could be delineated.

Keywords: DNA fingerprinting, Western Saudi Arabia, DNA primers, RAPD

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3 Towards Sustainable Construction: An Exploratory Study of the Factors Affecting the Investment on Construction and Demolition Waste in Saudi Arabia (KSA)

Authors: Mohammed Alnuwairan, Mahmoud Abdelrahman

Abstract:

Based on the sustainability concept, this paper explores the current situation of construction and demolition waste (C&D) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from the source of production to final destinations. The issues that hindered the investment of recycling C&D in the context will be studied in order to identify the challenges and opportunities to improve this sector and put forward a strategic framework to reduce, reuse, recycle and minimize the disposal of this type of waste. The research, which is exploratory in nature, identified four types of organizations that were appropriate case studies. These organizations were drawn from the municipalities, city council, recyclers and manufacturers. Secondary data collection, direct observation, and elite interviewing methods were used in the case studies to facilitate comparisons with existing literature to explore opportunities to improve sustainability practices in the buildings sector. Implementation of C&D waste management and recycling in KSA is in the early stages. Resistance of virgin building material manufacturers, free usage of landfill, culture, surpluses of natural raw material, availability of land and the cost of recycling this material compared with virgin material hinders the adoption of recycled buildings martial. Although the metal material is collected and recycled but it has the lowest percentage of C&D waste in Saudi. The findings indicate that government and industry need to collaborate more closely in order to successfully implement best practices. Economic and environmental benefits can be achieved, particularly through improvements to infrastructure and legislation. Feasible solution framework and recommendations for managing C&D waste under current situation are provided. The findings can be used to extend this framework and to enable it to be applicable in other context with emerging economies similar to that found in KSA. No study of this type has been previously carried out in KSA. The findings should prove useful in creating a future research agenda for C&D waste in KSA and, possibly, other emerging countries within a similar context.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, recycling, reuse, sustainability

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2 Anticancer Activity of Milk Fat Rich in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells in Female Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Diea Gamal Abo El-Hassan, Salwa Ahmed Aly, Abdelrahman Mahmoud Abdelgwad

Abstract:

The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have anticancer effect, especially breast cancer cells, inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Also, CLA has several health benefits in vivo, including antiatherogenesis, antiobesity, and modulation of immune function. The present study aimed to assess the safety and anticancer effects of milk fat CLA against in vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in female Swiss albino mice. This was based on acute toxicity study, detection of the tumor growth, life span of EAC bearing hosts, and simultaneous alterations in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty adult female mice were equally divided into five groups. Groups (1-2) were normal controls, and Groups (3-5) were tumor transplanted mice (TTM) inoculated intraperitoneally with EAC cells (2×106 /0.2 mL). Group (3) was (TTM positive control). Group (4) TTM fed orally on balanced diet supplemented with milk fat CLA (40 mg CLA/kg body weight). Group (5) TTM fed orally on balanced diet supplemented with the same level of CLA 28 days before tumor cells inoculation. Blood samples and specimens from liver and kidney were collected from each group. The effect of milk fat CLA on the growth of tumor, life span of TTM, and simultaneous alterations in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological profiles were examined. Results: For CLA treated TTM, significant decrease in tumor weight, ascetic volume, viable Ehrlich cells accompanied with increase in life span were observed. Hematological and biochemical profiles reverted to more or less normal levels and histopathology showed minimal effects. Conclusion: The present study proved the safety and anticancer efficiency of milk fat CLA and provides a scientific basis for its medicinal use as anticancer attributable to the additive or synergistic effects of its isomers.

Keywords: anticancer activity, conjugated linoleic acid, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, % increase in life span, mean survival time, tumor transplanted mice.

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1 The Effect of Positional Release Technique versus Kinesio Tape on Iliocostalis lumborum in Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome

Authors: Shams Khaled Abdelrahman Abdallah Elbaz, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Positional Release Technique versus Kinesio Tape on pain level, pressure pain threshold level and functional disability in patients with back myofascial pain syndrome at iliocostalis lumborum. Backgrounds/significance: Myofascial Pain Syndrome is a common muscular pain syndrome that arises from trigger points which are hyperirritable, painful and tender points within a taut band of skeletal muscle. In more recent literature, about 75% of patients with musculoskeletal pain presenting to a community medical centres suffer from myofascial pain syndrome.Iliocostalis lumborum are most likely to develop active trigger points. Subjects: Thirty patients diagnosed as back myofascial pain syndrome with active trigger points in iliocostalis lumborum muscle bilaterally had participated in this study. Methods and materials: Patients were randomly distributed into two groups. The first group consisted of 15 patients (8 males and 7 females) with mean age 30.6 (±3.08) years, they received positional release technique which was applied 3 times per session, 3/week every other day for 2 weeks. The second group consisted of 15 patients(5 males, 10 females) with a mean age 30.4 (±3.35) years, they received kinesio tape which was applied and changed every 3 days with one day off for a total 3 times in 2 weeks. Both techniques were applied over trigger points of the iliocostalis lumborum bilaterally. Patients were evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment program for Pain intensity (Visual analogue scale), pressure pain threshold (digital pressure algometry), and functional disability (The Oswestry Disability Index). Analyses: Repeated measures MANOVA was used to detect differences within and between groups pre and post treatment. Then the univariate ANOVA test was conducted for the analysis of each dependant variable within and between groups. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS. with significance level set at p<0.05 throughout all analyses. Results: The results revealed that there was no significant difference between positional release technique and kinesio tape technique on pain level, pressure pain threshold and functional activities (p > 0.05). Both groups of patients showed significant improvement in all the measured variables (p < 0.05) evident by significant reduction of both pain intensity and functional disability as well as significant increase of pressure pain threshold Conclusions : Both positional release technique and kinesio taping technique are effective in reducing pain level, improving pressure pain threshold and improving function in treating patients who suffering from back myofascial pain syndrome at iliocostalis lumborum. As there was no statistically significant difference was proven between both of them.

Keywords: positional release technique, kinesio tape, myofascial pain syndrome, Iliocostalis lumborum

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