Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: judgement

57 The Impact of Religiosity and Ethical Senstivity on Accounting Students’ Ethical Judgement Decision

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Alteer

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The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditors' sensitive to ethical dilemma through Auditing Students. This study considers the possibility of auditing students’ ethical judgement being affected by two individual factors, namely ethical sensitivity and religiosity. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and supported that ethical sensitivity and religiosity may affect ethical judgement decision among accounting students. The suggestion model proposes that student ethical judgement is influenced by their ethical sensitivity and their religiosity. Nonetheless, the influence of religiosity on ethical judgement is expected to be via ethical sensitivity.

Keywords: asccounting students, ethical sensitivity, religiosity, ethical judgement

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56 Money Laundering Risk Assessment in the Banking Institutions: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Yusarina Mat-Isa, Zuraidah Mohd-Sanusi, Mohd-Nizal Haniff, Paul A. Barnes

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In view that money laundering has become eminent for banking institutions, it is an obligation for the banking institutions to adopt a risk-based approach as the integral component of the accepted policies on anti-money laundering. In doing so, those involved with the banking operations are the most critical group of personnel as these are the people who deal with the day-to-day operations of the banking institutions and are obligated to form a judgement on the level of impending risk. This requirement is extended to all relevant banking institutions staff, such as tellers and customer account representatives for them to identify suspicious customers and escalate it to the relevant authorities. Banking institutions staffs, however, face enormous challenges in identifying and distinguishing money launderers from other legitimate customers seeking genuine banking transactions. Banking institutions staffs are mostly educated and trained with the business objective in mind to serve the customers and are not trained to be “detectives with a detective’s power of observation”. Despite increasing awareness as well as trainings conducted for the banking institutions staff, their competency in assessing money laundering risk is still insufficient. Several gaps have prompted this study including the lack of behavioural perspectives in the assessment of money laundering risk in the banking institutions. Utilizing experimental approach, respondents are randomly assigned within a controlled setting with manipulated situations upon which judgement of the respondents is solicited based on various observations related to the situations. The study suggests that it is imperative that informed judgement is exercised in arriving at the decision to proceed with the banking services required by the customers. Judgement forms a basis of opinion for the banking institution staff to decide if the customers posed money laundering risk. Failure to exercise good judgement could results in losses and absorption of unnecessary risk into the banking institutions. Although the banking institutions are exposed with choices of automated solutions in assessing money laundering risk, the human factor in assessing the risk is indispensable. Individual staff in the banking institutions is the first line of defence who are responsible for screening the impending risk of any customer soliciting for banking services. At the end of the spectrum, the individual role involvement on the subject of money laundering risk assessment is not a substitute for automated solutions as human judgement is inimitable.

Keywords: banking institutions, experimental approach, money laundering, risk assessment

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55 Relevance of the Judgements Given by the International Court of Justice with Regard to South China Sea Vis-A-Vis Marshall Islands

Authors: Hitakshi Mahendru, Advait Tambe, Simran Chandok, Niharika Sanadhya

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After the Second World War had come to an end, the Founding Fathers of the United Nations recognized a need for a supreme peacekeeping mechanism to act as a mediator between nations and moderate disputes that might blow up, if left unchecked. It has been more than seven decades since the establishment of the International Court of Justice (ICJ). When it was created, there were certain aim and objectives that the ICJ was intended to achieve. However, in today’s world, with change in political dynamics and international relations between countries, the ICJ has not succeeded in achieving several of these objectives. The ICJ is the only body in the international scenario that has the authority to regulate disputes between countries. However, in recent times, with countries like China disregarding the importance of the ICJ, there is no hope for the ICJ to command respect from other nations, thereby sending ICJ on a slow, yet steady path towards redundancy. The authority of the judgements given by the International Court of Justice, which is one of the main pillars of the United Nations, is questionable due to the forthcoming reactions from various countries on public platforms. The ICJ’s principal role within the United Nations framework is to settle peacefully international/bilateral disputes between the states that come under its jurisdiction and in accordance with the principles laid down in international law. By shedding light on the public backlash from the Chinese Government to the recent South China Sea judgement, we see the decreasing relevance of the ICJ in the contemporary world scenario. Philippines and China have wrangled over territory in the South China Sea for centuries but after the recent judgement the tension has reached an all-time high with China threatening to prosecute anybody as trespassers while continuing to militarise the disputed area. This paper will deal with the South China Sea judgement and the manner in which it has been received by the Chinese Government. Also, it will look into the consequences of counter-back. The authors will also look into the Marshall Island matter and propose a model judgement, in accordance with the principles of international law that would be the most suited for the given situation. Also, the authors will propose amendments in the working of the Security Council to ensure that the Marshal Island judgement is passed and accepted by the countries without any contempt.

Keywords: International Court of Justice, international law, Marshall Islands, South China Sea, United Nations Charter

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54 The Role of Self-Compassion for the Diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents

Authors: Diana Vieira Figueiredo, Rita Ramos Miguel, Maria do Céu Salvador, Luiza Nobre-Lima, Daniel RIjo, Paula Vagos

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Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social and/or performance situations in which one may be exposed to the scrutiny of others.  SAD has its usual onset and is highly prevalent during adolescence; if left untreated, it often has a chronic and unremitting course. So, it seems important to understand the psychological processes that might predict the development of SAD. One of these processes may be self-compassion, which has been found to be associated with social anxiety in both adults and adolescents. Self-compassion involves three main components, each with a positive (compassionate behavior) and negative (uncompassionate behavior) pole – self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation, and mindfulness versus over-identification. The negative indicators of self-compassion (self-judgement, isolation, and over-identification) were found to be more strongly linked to mental health problems than the positive indicators (self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness). Additionally, negative associations were found between the positive indicators of self-compassion (self-kindness, common humanity, mindfulness) and psychopathology. The current study aimed to investigate the role of self-kindness, self-judgment, common humanity, isolation, mindfulness, and over-identification in the likelihood of an adolescent presenting SAD by comparing groups of normative and socially anxious adolescents. The sample consisted of 32 adolescents (Mage = 15.88, SD = .833) of which 23 were girls. Adolescents were assessed through a clinical structured interview that led 17 to be assigned to the clinical group (presenting a primary diagnosis of SAD) and 15 to be assigned to the non-clinical group (presenting no clinical diagnosis). Variables under study were measured through the Self-Compassion Scale for adolescents (SCS-A), which assesses the six indicators of self-compassion presented above. Six separate models were tested, each with one of the subscales of the SCS-A as the independent variable and with the group (clinical versus non-clinical) as the dependent variable. The models considering isolation, over-identification, self-judgement, and self-kindness fitted the data and accurately predicted group belonging for between 75% to 84.4% of cases. Results indicated that the log of the odds of an adolescent presenting SAD was positively related to isolation, over-identification, and self-judgement and negatively associated with self-kindness. Findings provide support for the idea that decreased self-compassion may place adolescents at increased risk for experiencing clinical levels of social anxiety: on the one hand, adolescents with higher levels of isolation, over-identification, and self-judgement seem to be more prone to the development of psychopathological levels of social anxiety; on the other hand, self-kindness may play a protective role in the development of SAD in this developmental phase. So, if focusing on social feared consequences and perceiving to be different from others may be distinctive features of SAD, developing self-kindness may be the antidote to promote diminished levels of social anxiety and more.

Keywords: adolescents, social anxiety disorder, self-compassion, diagnosis odds-ration

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53 Euthanasia as a Case of Judicial Entrepreneurship in India: Analyzing the Role of the Supreme Court in the Policy Process of Euthanasia

Authors: Aishwarya Pothula

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Euthanasia in India is a politically dormant policy issue in the sense that discussions around it are sporadic in nature (usually with developments in specific cases) and it stays as a dominant issue in the public domain for a fleeting period. In other words, it is a non-political issue that has been unable to successfully get on the policy agenda. This paper studies how the Supreme Court of India (SC) plays a role in euthanasia’s policy making. In 2011, the SC independently put a law in place that legalized passive euthanasia through its judgement in the Aruna Shanbaug v. Union of India case. According to this, it is no longer illegal to withhold/withdraw a patient’s medical treatment in certain cases. This judgement, therefore, is the empirical focus of this paper. The paper essentially employs two techniques of discourse analysis to study the SC’s system of argumentation. The two methods, Text Analysis using Gasper’s Analysis Table and Frame Analysis – are complemented by two discourse techniques called metaphor analysis and lexical analysis. The framework within which the analysis is conducted lies in 1) the judicial process of India, i.e. the SC procedures and the Constitutional rules and provisions, and 2) John W. Kingdon’s theory of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. The results of this paper are three-fold: first, the SC dismiss the petitioner’s request for passive euthanasia on inadequate and weak grounds, thereby setting no precedent for the historic law they put in place. In other words, they leave the decision open for the Parliament to act upon. Hence the judgement, as opposed to arguments by many, is by no means an instance of judicial activism/overreach. Second, they define euthanasia in a way that resonates with existing broader societal themes. They combine this with a remarkable use of authoritative and protective tones/stances to settle at an intermediate position that balances the possible opposition to their role in the process and what they (perhaps) perceive to be an optimal solution. Third, they soften up the policy community (including the public) to the idea of passive euthanasia leading it towards a Parliamentarian legislation. They achieve this by shaping prevalent principles, provisions and worldviews through an astute use of the legal instruments at their disposal. This paper refers to this unconventional role of the SC as ‘judicial entrepreneurship’ which is also the first scholarly contribution towards research on euthanasia as a policy issue in India.

Keywords: argumentation analysis, Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug, discourse analysis, euthanasia, judicial entrepreneurship, policy-making process, supreme court of India

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52 Analysis of the Engineering Judgement Influence on the Selection of Geotechnical Parameters Characteristic Values

Authors: K. Ivandic, F. Dodigovic, D. Stuhec, S. Strelec

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A characteristic value of certain geotechnical parameter results from an engineering assessment. Its selection has to be based on technical principles and standards of engineering practice. It has been shown that the results of engineering assessment of different authors for the same problem and input data are significantly dispersed. A survey was conducted in which participants had to estimate the force that causes a 10 cm displacement at the top of a axially in-situ compressed pile. Fifty experts from all over the world took part in it. The lowest estimated force value was 42% and the highest was 133% of measured force resulting from a mentioned static pile load test. These extreme values result in significantly different technical solutions to the same engineering task. In case of selecting a characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter the importance of the influence of an engineering assessment can be reduced by using statistical methods. An informative annex of Eurocode 1 prescribes the method of selecting the characteristic values of material properties. This is followed by Eurocode 7 with certain specificities linked to selecting characteristic values of geotechnical parameters. The paper shows the procedure of selecting characteristic values of a geotechnical parameter by using a statistical method with different initial conditions. The aim of the paper is to quantify an engineering assessment in the example of determining a characteristic value of a specific geotechnical parameter. It is assumed that this assessment is a random variable and that its statistical features will be determined. For this purpose, a survey research was conducted among relevant experts from the field of geotechnical engineering. Conclusively, the results of the survey and the application of statistical method were compared.

Keywords: characteristic values, engineering judgement, Eurocode 7, statistical methods

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51 The Effectiveness of Summative Assessment in Practice Learning

Authors: Abdool Qaiyum Mohabuth, Syed Munir Ahmad

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Assessment enables students to focus on their learning, assessment. It engages them to work hard and motivates them in devoting time to their studies. Student learning is directly influenced by the type of assessment involved in the programme. Summative Assessment aims at providing measurement of student understanding. In fact, it is argued that summative assessment is used for reporting and reviewing, besides providing an overall judgement of achievement. While summative assessment is a well defined process for learning that takes place in the classroom environment, its application within the practice environment is still being researched. This paper discusses findings from a mixed-method study for exploring the effectiveness of summative assessment in practice learning. A survey questionnaire was designed for exploring the perceptions of mentors and students about summative assessment in practice learning. The questionnaire was administered to the University of Mauritius students and mentors who supervised students for their Work-Based Learning (WBL) practice at the respective placement settings. Some students, having undertaken their WBL practice, were interviewed, for capturing their views and experiences about the application of summative assessment in practice learning. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with three experienced mentors who have assessed students on practice learning. The findings reveal that though learning in the workplace is entirely different from learning at the University, most students had positive experiences about their summative assessments in practice learning. They felt comfortable and confident to be assessed by their mentors in their placement settings and wished that the effort and time that they devoted to their learning be recognised and valued. Mentors on their side confirmed that the summative assessment is valid and reliable, enabling them to better monitor and coach students to achieve the expected learning outcomes.

Keywords: practice learning, judgement, summative assessment, knowledge, skills, workplace

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50 The Relationship between Representational Conflicts, Generalization, and Encoding Requirements in an Instance Memory Network

Authors: Mathew Wakefield, Matthew Mitchell, Lisa Wise, Christopher McCarthy

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The properties of memory representations in artificial neural networks have cognitive implications. Distributed representations that encode instances as a pattern of activity across layers of nodes afford memory compression and enforce the selection of a single point in instance space. These encoding schemes also appear to distort the representational space, as well as trading off the ability to validate that input information is within the bounds of past experience. In contrast, a localist representation which encodes some meaningful information into individual nodes in a network layer affords less memory compression while retaining the integrity of the representational space. This allows the validity of an input to be determined. The validity (or familiarity) of input along with the capacity of localist representation for multiple instance selections affords a memory sampling approach that dynamically balances the bias-variance trade-off. When the input is familiar, bias may be high by referring only to the most similar instances in memory. When the input is less familiar, variance can be increased by referring to more instances that capture a broader range of features. Using this approach in a localist instance memory network, an experiment demonstrates a relationship between representational conflict, generalization performance, and memorization demand. Relatively small sampling ranges produce the best performance on a classic machine learning dataset of visual objects. Combining memory validity with conflict detection produces a reliable confidence judgement that can separate responses with high and low error rates. Confidence can also be used to signal the need for supervisory input. Using this judgement, the need for supervised learning as well as memory encoding can be substantially reduced with only a trivial detriment to classification performance.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, representation, memory, conflict monitoring, confidence

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49 Short Life Cycle Time Series Forecasting

Authors: Shalaka Kadam, Dinesh Apte, Sagar Mainkar

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The life cycle of products is becoming shorter and shorter due to increased competition in market, shorter product development time and increased product diversity. Short life cycles are normal in retail industry, style business, entertainment media, and telecom and semiconductor industry. The subject of accurate forecasting for demand of short lifecycle products is of special enthusiasm for many researchers and organizations. Due to short life cycle of products the amount of historical data that is available for forecasting is very minimal or even absent when new or modified products are launched in market. The companies dealing with such products want to increase the accuracy in demand forecasting so that they can utilize the full potential of the market at the same time do not oversupply. This provides the challenge to develop a forecasting model that can forecast accurately while handling large variations in data and consider the complex relationships between various parameters of data. Many statistical models have been proposed in literature for forecasting time series data. Traditional time series forecasting models do not work well for short life cycles due to lack of historical data. Also artificial neural networks (ANN) models are very time consuming to perform forecasting. We have studied the existing models that are used for forecasting and their limitations. This work proposes an effective and powerful forecasting approach for short life cycle time series forecasting. We have proposed an approach which takes into consideration different scenarios related to data availability for short lifecycle products. We then suggest a methodology which combines statistical analysis with structured judgement. Also the defined approach can be applied across domains. We then describe the method of creating a profile from analogous products. This profile can then be used for forecasting products with historical data of analogous products. We have designed an application which combines data, analytics and domain knowledge using point-and-click technology. The forecasting results generated are compared using MAPE, MSE and RMSE error scores. Conclusion: Based on the results it is observed that no one approach is sufficient for short life-cycle forecasting and we need to combine two or more approaches for achieving the desired accuracy.

Keywords: forecast, short life cycle product, structured judgement, time series

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48 Resistance of African States Against the African Court on Human and People Rights (ACPHR)

Authors: Ayyoub Jamali

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At the first glance, it seems that the African Court on Human and People’s Rights has achieved a tremendous development in the protection of human rights in Africa. Since its first judgement in 2009, the court has taken a robust approach/ assertive stance, showing its strength by finding states to be in violation of the Africana Charter and other human rights treaties. This paper seeks to discuss various challenges and resistance that the Court has faced since the adoption of the Founding Protocol to the Establishment of the African Court on Human and People’s Rights. The outcome of the paper casts shadow on the legitimacy and effectiveness of the African Court as the guarantor of human rights within the African continent.

Keywords: African Court on Human and People’s Rights, African Union, African regional human rights system, compliance

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47 Optimizing Protection of Medieval Glass Mosaic

Authors: J. Valach, S. Pospisil, S. Kuznecov

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The paper deals with experimental estimation of future environmental load on medieval mosaic of Last Judgement on entrance to St. Vitus cathedral on Prague castle. The mosaic suffers from seasonal changes of weather pattern, as well as rains, their acidity, deposition of dust and sooth particles from polluted air and also from freeze-thaw cycles. These phenomena influence state of the mosaic. The mosaic elements, tesserae are mostly made from glass prone to weathering. To estimate future procedure of the best maintenance, relation between various weather scenarios and their effect on the mosaic was investigated. At the same time local method for evaluation of protective coating was developed. Together both methods will contribute to better care for the mosaic and also visitors aesthetical experience.

Keywords: environmental load, cultural heritage, glass mosaic, protection

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46 The Ordinary Way of the Appeal in Penalty Part

Authors: Abdelkadir Elhaouari

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The priciest thing in human life since his birth is his freedom, basing on this idea, the conflict exists till now, the fight against oppression, injustice, tyranny and slavery, searching for freedom and political resistances, and this makes the freedom is deeply related to the defense for its existence all over years. This project attempts using any way to preserve this freedom, and building and maintaining bases and rules to organize this life. Appeal is a one of the most important method that human uses to protect his freedom, and we will mention in this thesis our attempt to clarify this aspect to the individual. We can say that the law does not know just one color or one logic, and is not based on one rule to be taken by heart, but the law is neutrality, the diversity, abstraction and diligence diversity. The penal law is a valued law and it deserves to be studied and searched more… so that to attempt to master it. Our thesis is just a brief explanation of an important point in this law, where we attempt to clarify and simplify the image to the normal person, so that he can preserve his rights, and we hope that we had succeeded to choose the right topic for that.

Keywords: appeal, penalization, judgement, criminal

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45 Hybrid Risk Assessment Model for Construction Based on Multicriteria Decision Making Methods

Authors: J. Tamosaitiene

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The article focuses on the identification and classification of key risk management criteria that represent the most important sustainability aspects of the construction industry. The construction sector is one of the most important sectors in Lithuania. Nowadays, the assessment of the risk level of a construction project is especially important for the quality of construction projects, the growth of enterprises and the sector. To establish the most important criteria for successful growth of the sector, a questionnaire for experts was developed. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the expert judgement method and other multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods were used to develop the hybrid model. The results were used to develop an integrated knowledge system for the measurement of a risk level particular to construction projects. The article presents a practical case that details the developed system, sustainable aspects, and risk assessment.

Keywords: risk, system, model, construction

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44 Detecting Model Financial Statement Fraud by Auditor Industry Specialization with Fraud Triangle Analysis

Authors: Reskino Resky

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This research purposes to create a model to detecting financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. This research used sample of company which is listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange that have sanctions and cases by Financial Services Authority in 2011-2013. The number of company that were became in this research were 30 fraud company and 30 non-fraud company. The method of determining the sample is by using purposive sampling method with judgement sampling, while the data processing methods used by researcher are mann-whitney u and discriminants analysis. This research have two from five variable that can be process with discriminant analysis. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

Keywords: fraud triangle analysis, financial targets, financial stability, auditor industry specialization, financial statement fraud

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43 Ethical and Personality Factors and Accounting Professional Judgement

Authors: Shannon Hashemi, Alireza Daneshfar

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Accounting ethical awareness has been widely promoted in recent years both in academia and in practice. However, the effectiveness of ethical awareness on accountants' judgment and choice of action is still debatable. This study investigates whether Machiavellianism and gender, as significant personality factors, influence the effect of ethical awareness on accountants' decision-making. Using an experiment, the results of ANOVA tests show that although introducing ethical awareness positively influences the accountants' judgment and choice of action, such an effect is significantly moderated by the accountants' Machiavellianism score and gender. Specifically, the test results show that the effect of introducing ethical awareness was higher on males with low Machiavellian score. The results also show that when the Machiavellian scores were high, the effect of ethical awareness was lower for both males and females. Applications of the results are discussed for accounting professionals as well as accounting ethics educators and researchers.

Keywords: ethical awareness, accounting decision making, Machiavellianism, ANOVA, ethics, accounting education

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42 Value Engineering and Its Impact on Drainage Design Optimization for Penang International Airport Expansion

Authors: R.M. Asyraf, A. Norazah, S.M. Khairuddin, B. Noraziah

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Designing a system at present requires a vital, challenging task; to ensure the design philosophy is maintained in economical ways. This paper perceived the value engineering (VE) approach applied in infrastructure works, namely stormwater drainage. This method is adopted in line as consultants have completed the detailed design. Function Analysis System Technique (FAST) diagram and VE job plan, information, function analysis, creative judgement, development, and recommendation phase are used to scrutinize the initial design of stormwater drainage. An estimated cost reduction using the VE approach of 2% over the initial proposal was obtained. This cost reduction is obtained from the design optimization of the drainage foundation and structural system, where the pile design and drainage base structure are optimized. Likewise, the design of the on-site detention tank (OSD) pump was revised and contribute to the cost reduction obtained. This case study shows that the VE approach can be an important tool in optimizing the design to reduce costs.

Keywords: value engineering, function analysis system technique, stormwater drainage, cost reduction

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41 Retrospective Casenote Audit of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Maxillofacial Patients

Authors: Joshua Abraham, Craig Wales

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Abstract—SIGN Guideline 122 recommends that all patients who are admitted to hospital are assessed for venous thromboembolism risk within 24 hours of admission. NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde provide guidance on this in the form of a proforma. Patients are then subsequently prescribed either thrombo-embolic-deterrent stockings (TEDS)/low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of VTE based on their score. A retrospective casenote audit of a random sample of fifty oncology and trauma inpatients at the QEUH in December 2019 was performed. 90% of patients had a risk assessment conducted as evidenced by a completed proforma. In 78% of these patients, the proforma fully completed. Overall 94% of patients had some for of thromboprophylaxis prescribed in the form of TEDS or LMWH. A lack of 100% compliance against the given standards highlighted potential implications for patient safety, but also medico-legal ramifications for staff. Clinical judgement can only be relied upon if there is written documentation as evidence. Further staff education and the suggestion of a written prompt to the clerk-in documentation will hopefully improve compliance, whilst a repeat audit should demonstrate any improvement.

Keywords: Maxillofacial , Thromboembolism, Thromboprophylaxis , Prescription

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40 Several Aspects of the Conceptual Framework of Financial Reporting

Authors: Nadezhda Kvatashidze

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The conceptual framework of International Financial Reporting Standards determines the basic principles of accounting. The said principles have multiple applications, with professional judgments being one of those. Recognition and assessment of the information contained in financial reporting, especially so the somewhat uncertain events and transactions and/or the ones regarding which there is no standard or interpretation are based on professional judgments. Professional judgments aim at the formulation of expert assumptions regarding the specifics of the circumstances and events to be entered into the report based on the conceptual framework terms and principles. Experts have to make a choice in favor of one of the aforesaid and simulate the situations applying multi-variant accounting estimates and judgment. In making the choice, one should consider all the factors, which may help represent the information in the best way possible. Professional judgment determines the relevance and faithful representation of the presented information, which makes it more useful for the existing and potential investors. In order to assess the prospected net cash flows, the information must be predictable and reliable. The publication contains critical analysis of the aforementioned problems. The fact that the International Financial Reporting Standards are developed continuously makes the issue all the more important and that is another point discussed in the study.

Keywords: conceptual framework, faithful representation, professional judgement, relevance

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39 The Complaint Speech Act Set Produced by Arab Students in the UAE

Authors: Tanju Deveci

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It appears that the speech act of complaint has not received as much attention as other speech acts. However, the face-threatening nature of this speech act requires a special attention in multicultural contexts in particular. The teaching context in the UAE universities, where a big majority of teaching staff comes from other cultures, requires investigations into this speech act in order to improve communication between students and faculty. This session will outline the results of a study conducted with this purpose. The realization of complaints by Freshman English students in Communication courses at Petroleum Institute was investigated to identify communication patterns that seem to cause a strain. Data were collected using a role-play between a teacher and students, and a judgment scale completed by two of the instructors in the Communications Department. The initial findings reveal that the students had difficulty putting their case, produced the speech act of criticism along with a complaint and that they produced both requests and demands as candidate solutions. The judgement scales revealed that the students’ attitude was not appropriate most of the time and that the judges would behave differently from students. It is concluded that speech acts, in general, and complaint, in particular, need to be taught to learners explicitly to improve interpersonal communication in multicultural societies. Some teaching ideas are provided to help increase foreign language learners’ sociolinguistic competence.

Keywords: speech act, complaint, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, language teaching

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38 Epistemic Stance in Chinese Medicine Translation: A Systemic Functional Perspective

Authors: Yan Yue

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Epistemic stance refers to the writer’s judgement about the certainty of the proposition, which demonstrates writer’s degree of commitment and confidence to the status of the information. Epistemic stance can exert great consequence to the validity or reliability of the values of a statement, however, to date, it receives little attention in translations studies, especially from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and with the relation to translator’s domain knowledge. This study is corpus-based research carried out in SFL perspective, which investigates translator’s epistemic stance pattern in Chinese medicine discourse translations by translators with and without medical domain knowledge. Overall, our findings show that all translators tend to be neither too assertive nor too doubted about Chinese medicine statements, and they all tend to express their epistemic stance in a subjective rather than objective way. Individually, there is a clear pattern of epistemic stance marked off by translators’ medical expertise, which further consolidates the previous finding that epistemic asymmetry is found most salient between lay people and professionals. However, contrary to our hypothesis, translators as clinicians who have more medical knowledge are found to be more tentative to TCM statements than translators as non-clinicians. This finding could serve to refine the statements about the relation between writer’s domain knowledge and epistemic stance-taking and the current debate whether Chinese medicine texts should only be translated by clinicians.

Keywords: epistemic stance, domain knowledge, SFL, medical translation

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37 First-Year Undergraduate Students' Dilemma with Kinematics Graphs

Authors: Itumeleng Phage

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Students’ comprehension of graphs may be affected by the characteristics of the discipline in which the graph is used, the type of the task as well as the background of the students who are the readers or interpreters of the graph. This research study investigated these aspects of the graph comprehension of 152 first-year undergraduate physics students by comparing their responses to corresponding tasks in the mathematics and physics disciplines. The discipline characteristics were analysed for four task-related constructs namely coordinates, representations, area and slope. Students’ responses to corresponding visual decoding and judgement tasks set in mathematics and kinematics contexts were statistically compared. The effects of the participants’ gender, year of school completion and study course were determined as reader characteristics. The results of the empirical study indicated that participants generally transferred their mathematics knowledge on coordinates and representation of straight line graphs to the physics contexts, but not in the cases of parabolic and hyperbolic functions or area under graphs. Insufficient understanding of the slope concept contributed to weak performances on this construct in both mathematics and physics contexts. Discipline characteristics seem to play a vital role in students’ understanding, while reader characteristics had insignificant to medium effects on their responses.

Keywords: kinematics graph, discipline characteristics, constructs, coordinates, representations, area and slope

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36 Experiencing the Shattered: Managing Countertransference Experiences with Anorexia Patients in Psychotherapy

Authors: M. Card

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Working with anorexia patients can be a challenging experience for mental and health care professionals. The reasons for not wanting to work with this patient population stems from the numerous concerns surrounding the patient’s health – physically and mentally. Many health care professionals reported having strong negative feelings, such as; anger, hopelessness and helplessness when working with anorexia patients. These feelings often impaired their judgement to treatment and affected how they related to the patient. This research focused on psychotherapists who preferred to work with anorexia patients; what countertransference feelings were evoked in them during sessions with patients and most importantly, how they managed the feelings. The research used interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) as the theoretical framework and data analysis method. Semi-structured interviews were used with ten experienced psychotherapists to obtain their countertransference experiences with anorexia patients and how they manage it. There were three main themes discovered; (1) the use of supervision, (2) their own personal therapy and finally (3) experience and evolution. The research unearthed that experienced psychotherapists also experienced strong countertransference feelings towards their patients; some positive and some negative. However, these feelings could actually be interpreted as co-transference with their anorexia patients. The psychotherapists were able to own their part in the evocative unconscious nature of a relational therapeutic space, where their personal issues may be entangled in their anorexia patient’s symptomatology.

Keywords: anorexia nervosa, countertransference, co-transference, psychotherapy, relational psychotherapy

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35 West Meets Islam in Contemporary World, Leadership Perspective

Authors: Muhamad Rosdi Senam, Khairuddin Abdul Rashid, Azila Ahmad Sarkawi, Rapiah Mohd Zaini

Abstract:

Islam is a way of life than merely a religion that covers all facets of Muslim affairs and lifes. It provides the most comprehensive values, principles and guidance that are based on divine sources to all mankind in all spheres including leadership. Islamic leadership is all encompassing and holistic model of leadership that offers the tauhidic paradigm, spiritual and ethical (akhlaq) dimensions that are absent in the modern conventional leadership theories. Islamic leadership has a glorious history of great success from the era of the Prophet S.A.W. and the following caliphs that had conquered almost one third of the world territory during that time, as their leadership was paragon of excellence that followed to the spirits and teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. As the modern civilisation designed by the West takes place, the modern leadership theories has been dominating the world and literature including those in the Muslim countries. However, it is clear that values and principles derived from Islam and the West are distinct, as the Islamic ones are based on divine, the non-Islamics are not indeed as there are based on human rational and judgement. Recent development in business organisations and literature have seen the tendency towards moral, ethical, even spiritual and positive form of leadership such as servant leadership, ethical leadership, authentic leadership and spiritual leadership that found its root in the Islamic model of leadership.This development has surfaced after series of serious ethical dilemma, corporate scandals and leadership crisis in the West. This paper aims to draw a comparative discussions and analysis between the modern conventional leadership theories with the Islamic leadership by highlighting the key dimensions that distinguish the two. It is suggested in this paper that the core dimensions of Islamic leadership are spiritual dimension, moral and ethical dimension and physical dimension which is also paralleled with the roles of khalifah of Allah on earth; relationship with Allah, relationship with human beings and relationship with the environment respectively. Islam is a way of life than merely a religion that covers all facets of Muslim affairs and lifes. It provides the most comprehensive values, principles and guidance that are based on divine sources to all mankind in all spheres including leadership. Islamic leadership is all encompassing and holistic model of leadership that offers the tauhidic paradigm, spiritual and ethical (akhlaq) dimensions that are absent in the modern conventional leadership theories. Islamic leadership has a glorious history of great success from the era of the Prophet S.A.W. and the following caliphs that had conquered almost one third of the world territory during that time, as their leadership was paragon of excellence that followed to the spirits and teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. As the modern civilisation designed by the West takes place, the modern leadership theories has been dominating the world and literature including those in the Muslim countries. However, it is clear that values and principles derived from Islam and the West are distinct, as the Islamic ones are based on divine, the non-Islamics are not indeed as there are based on human rational and judgement. Recent development in business organisations and literature have seen the tendency towards moral, ethical, even spiritual and positive form of leadership such as servant leadership, ethical leadership, authentic leadership and spiritual leadership that found its root in the Islamic model of leadership.This development has surfaced after series of serious ethical dilemma, corporate scandals and leadership crisis in the West. This paper aims to draw a comparative discussions and analysis between the modern conventional leadership theories with the Islamic leadership by highlighting the key dimensions that distinguish the two. It is suggested in this paper that the core dimensions of Islamic leadership are spiritual dimension, moral and ethical dimension and physical dimension which is also paralleled with the roles of khalifah of Allah on earth; relationship with Allah, relationship with human beings and relationship with the environment respectively.

Keywords: conventional leadership, Islamic leadership, comparative, dimensions

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34 Mindfulness, Reinvestment, and Rowing under Pressure: Evidence for Moderated Moderation of the Anxiety-Performance Relationship

Authors: Katherine Sparks, Christopher Ring

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate whether dispositional sport-specific mindfulness moderated the moderation effect of conscious processing on the relationship between anxiety and rowing race performance. Using a sport-specific (Rowing-Specific) Reinvestment Scale (RSRS) to measure state conscious processing, we examined the effects of trait sport-related mindfulness on the conscious processes of rowers under competitive racing pressure at a number of UK regattas. 276 rowers completed a survey post competitive race. The survey included the RSRS, mindfulness, a perceived performance rating scale, demographic and race information to identify and record the rower’s actual race performance. Results from the research demonstrated that high levels of dispositional mindfulness are associated with a superior performance under pressure. In relation to the moderating moderation effect, conscious processing amplifies the detrimental effects of anxiety on performance. However, mindfulness, mindful awareness, and mindful non-judgement all proved to attenuate this amplification effect by moderating the conscious processing moderation on the anxiety-performance relationship. Therefore, this study provides initial support for the speculation that dispositional mindfulness can help prevent the deleterious effects of rowing-specific reinvestment under pressure.

Keywords: mindful, reinvestment, under pressure, performance, rowing

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33 Perception of Secondary Schools’ Students on Computer Education in Federal Capital Territory (FCT-Abuja), Nigeria

Authors: Salako Emmanuel Adekunle

Abstract:

Computer education is referred to as the knowledge and ability to use computers and related technology efficiently, with a range of skills covering levels from basic use to advance. Computer continues to make an ever-increasing impact on all aspect of human endeavours such as education. With numerous benefits of computer education, what are the insights of students on computer education? This study investigated the perception of senior secondary school students on computer education in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. A sample of 7500 senior secondary schools students was involved in the study, one hundred (100) private and fifty (50) public schools within FCT. They were selected by using simple random sampling technique. A questionnaire [PSSSCEQ] was developed and validated through expert judgement and reliability co-efficient of 0.84 was obtained. It was used to gather relevant data on computer education. Findings confirmed that the students in the FCT had positive perception on computer education. Some factors were identified that affect students’ perception on computer education. The null hypotheses were tested using t-test and ANOVA statistical analyses at 0.05 level of significance. Based on these findings, some recommendations were made which include competent teachers should be employed into all secondary schools; this will help students to acquire relevant knowledge in computer education, technological supports should be provided to all secondary schools; this will help the users (students) to solve specific problems in computer education and financial supports should be provided to procure computer facilities that will enhance the teaching and the learning of computer education.

Keywords: computer education, perception, secondary school, students

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32 Impact of Behavioral Biases on Indian Investors: Case Analysis of a Mutual Fund Investment Company

Authors: Priyal Motwani, Garvit Goel

Abstract:

In this study, we have studied and analysed the transaction data of investors of a mutual fund investment company based in India. Based on the data available, we have identified the top four biases that affect the investors of the emerging market economies through regression analysis and three uniquely defined ratios. We found that the four most prominent biases that affected the investment making decisions in India are– Chauffer Knowledge, investors tend to make ambitious decisions about sectors they know little about; Bandwagon effect – the response of the market indices to macroeconomic events are more profound and seem to last longer compared to western markets; base-rate neglect – judgement about stocks are too much based on the most recent development ignoring the long-term fundamentals of the stock; availability bias – lack of proper communication channels of market information lead people to be too reliant on limited information they already have. After segregating the investors into six groups, the results have further been studied to identify a correlation among the demographics, gender and unique cultural identity of the derived groups and the corresponding prevalent biases. On the basis of the results obtained from the derived groups, our study recommends six methods, specific to each group, to educate the investors about the prevalent biases and their role in investment decision making.

Keywords: Bandwagon effect, behavioural biases, Chauffeur knowledge, demographics, investor literacy, mutual funds

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31 Comparing the Behaviour of the FRP and Steel Reinforced Shear Walls under Cyclic Seismic Loading in Aspect of the Energy Dissipation

Authors: H. Rahman, T. Donchev, D. Petkova

Abstract:

Earthquakes claim thousands of lives around the world annually due to inadequate design of lateral load resisting systems particularly shear walls. Additionally, corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures is one of the main challenges in construction industry. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement can be used as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement. FRP has several excellent mechanical properties than steel such as high resistance to corrosion, high tensile strength and light self-weight; additionally, it has electromagnetic neutrality advantageous to the structures where it is important such as hospitals, some laboratories and telecommunications. This paper is about results of experimental research and it is incorporating experimental testing of two medium-scale concrete shear wall samples; one reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP) bar and one reinforced with steel bars as a control sample. The samples are tested under quasi-static-cyclic loading following modified ATC-24 protocol standard seismic loading. The results of both samples are compared to allow a judgement about performance of BFRP reinforced against steel reinforced concrete shear walls. The results of the conducted researches show a promising momentum toward utilisation of the BFRP as an alternative to traditional steel reinforcement with the aim of improving durability with suitable energy dissipation in the reinforced concrete shear walls.  

Keywords: shear walls, internal fibre reinforced polymer reinforcement, cyclic loading, energy dissipation, seismic behaviour

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30 Risk Analysis of Leaks from a Subsea Oil Facility Based on Fuzzy Logic Techniques

Authors: Belén Vinaixa Kinnear, Arturo Hidalgo López, Bernardo Elembo Wilasi, Pablo Fernández Pérez, Cecilia Hernández Fuentealba

Abstract:

The expanded use of risk assessment in legislative and corporate decision-making has increased the role of expert judgement in giving data for security-related decision-making. Expert judgements are required in most steps of risk assessment: danger recognizable proof, hazard estimation, risk evaluation, and examination of choices. This paper presents a fault tree analysis (FTA), which implies a probabilistic failure analysis applied to leakage of oil in a subsea production system. In standard FTA, the failure probabilities of items of a framework are treated as exact values while evaluating the failure probability of the top event. There is continuously insufficiency of data for calculating the failure estimation of components within the drilling industry. Therefore, fuzzy hypothesis can be used as a solution to solve the issue. The aim of this paper is to examine the leaks from the Zafiro West subsea oil facility by using fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA). As a result, the research has given theoretical and practical contributions to maritime safety and environmental protection. It has been also an effective strategy used traditionally in identifying hazards in nuclear installations and power industries.

Keywords: expert judgment, probability assessment, fault tree analysis, risk analysis, oil pipelines, subsea production system, drilling, quantitative risk analysis, leakage failure, top event, off-shore industry

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29 House Facades and Emotions: Exploring the Psychological Impact of Architectural Features

Authors: Nour Tawil, Sandra Weber, Kirsten K. Roessler, Martin Mau, Simone Kuhn

Abstract:

The link between “quality” residential environments and human health and well-being has long been proposed. While the physical properties of a sound environment have been fairly defined, little focus has been given to the psychological impact of architectural elements. Recently, studies have investigated the response to architectural parameters, using measures of physiology, brain activity, and emotion. Results showed different aspects of interest: detailed and open versus blank and closed facades, patterns in perceiving different elements, and a visual bias for capturing faces in buildings. However, in the absence of a consensus on methodologies, the available studies remain unsystematic and face many limitations regarding the underpinning psychological mechanisms. To bridge some of these gaps, an online study was launched to investigate design features that influence the aesthetic judgement and emotional evaluation of house facades, using a well-controlled stimulus set of Canadian houses. A methodical modelling of design features will be performed to extract both high and low level image properties, in addition to segmentation of layout-related features. 300 participants from Canada, Denmark, and Germany will rate the images on twelve psychological dimensions representing appealing aspects of a house. Subjective ratings are expected to correlate with specific architectural elements while controlling for typicality and familiarity, and other individual differences. With the lack of relevant studies, this research aims to identify architectural elements of beneficial qualities that can inform design strategies for optimized residential spaces.

Keywords: architectural elements, emotions, psychological response, residential facades.

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28 Investigating Complement Clause Choice in Written Educated Nigerian English (ENE)

Authors: Juliet Udoudom

Abstract:

Inappropriate complement selection constitutes one of the major features of non-standard complementation in the Nigerian users of English output of sentence construction. This paper investigates complement clause choice in Written Educated Nigerian English (ENE) and offers some results. It aims at determining preferred and dispreferred patterns of complement clause selection in respect of verb heads in English by selected Nigerian users of English. The complementation data analyzed in this investigation were obtained from experimental tasks designed to elicit complement categories of Verb – Noun -, Adjective – and Prepositional – heads in English. Insights from the Government – Binding relations were employed in analyzing data, which comprised responses obtained from one hundred subjects to a picture elicitation exercise, a grammaticality judgement test, and a free composition task. The findings indicate a general tendency for clausal complements (CPs) introduced by the complementizer that to be preferred by the subjects studied. Of the 235 tokens of clausal complements which occurred in our corpus, 128 of them representing 54.46% were CPs headed by that, while whether – and if-clauses recorded 31.07% and 8.94%, respectively. The complement clause-type which recorded the lowest incidence of choice was the CP headed by the Complementiser, for with a 5.53% incident of occurrence. Further findings from the study indicate that semantic features of relevant embedding verb heads were not taken into consideration in the choice of complementisers which introduce the respective complement clauses, hence the that-clause was chosen to complement verbs like prefer. In addition, the dispreferred choice of the for-clause is explicable in terms of the fact that the respondents studied regard ‘for’ as a preposition, and not a complementiser.

Keywords: complement, complement clause complement selection, complementisers, government-binding

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