Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: euthanasia

17 An Empirical Analysis of Euthanasia Issues in Taiwan

Authors: Wen-Shai Hung

Abstract:

This paper examines the factors influencing euthanasia issues in Taiwan. The data used is from the 2015 Survey Research on Attitudes towards the Death Penalty and Related Values in Taiwan, which focused on knowledge, attitudes towards the death penalty, and the concepts of social, political, and law values. The sample ages are from 21 to 94. The method used is probit modelling for examining the influences on euthanasia issues in Taiwan. The main empirical results find that older people, persons with higher educational attainment, those who favour abolition of the death penalty and do not oppose divorce, abortion, same-sex relationships, and putting down homeless’ cats or dogs are more likely to approve of the use of euthanasia to end their lives. In contrast, Mainlanders, people who support the death penalty and favour long-term prison sentences are less likely to support the use of euthanasia.

Keywords: euthanasia, homosexual, death penalty, and probit model

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16 Euthanasia in Dementia Cases: An Interview Study of Dutch Physicians' Experiences

Authors: J. E. Appel, R. N. Bouwmeester, L. Crombach, K. Georgieva, N. O’Shea, T. I. van Rijssel, L. Wingens

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The Netherlands has a unique and progressive euthanasia law. Even people with advanced neurodegenerative diseases, like dementia, can request euthanasia when an Advanced Euthanasia Directive (AED) was written. Although the law sets some guidelines, in practice many complexities occur. Especially doctors experience difficult situations, as they have to decide whether euthanasia is justified. Research suggests that this leads to an emotional burden for them, due to feelings of isolation, fear of prosecution, as well as pressures from patient, family, or society. Existing literature, however, failed to address problems arising in dementia cases in particular, as well as possible sources of support. In order to investigate these issues, semi-structured in-depth interviews with 20 Dutch general practitioners and elderly care physicians will be conducted. Results are expected to be obtained by the end of December 2017.

Keywords: dementia, euthanasia, general practitioners, elderly care physicians, palliative care

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15 Perceptions of Doctors and Nurses About Euthanasia in Indian Scenario

Authors: B. Unnikrishnan, Tanuj Kanchan, Ramesh Holla, Nithin Kumar

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Euthanasia has been debated for the ethical, legal, social, and religious implications associated with it. The present research was conducted to study the perceptions of doctors and nurses about ethical and legal aspects of Euthanasia in Indian scenario. The study was carried out at three tertiary care hospitals of Kasturba Medical College (KMC), Mangalore, India. Practicing doctors and nurses working in the hospitals associated with KMC were included in the study after taking written informed consent from the participants. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the responses of doctors and nurses. P-value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. A total of 144 doctors and nurses participated in the study. Both doctors and nurses agreed that if a terminally ill patient wishes to die, the wish cannot be honored ethically and legally. A significantly larger number of nurses agreed that patient’s wish for euthanasia cannot be honored ethically and legally when compared to the doctors. Though the doctors and nurses were broadly in agreement with the existing legal and ethical views on the issue, their knowledge on the issue with regard to the legal status of euthanasia in India and ethical aspects relating to it needs to be strengthened.

Keywords: euthanasia, ethical aspects, legal aspects, India

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14 Euthanasia as a Case of Judicial Entrepreneurship in India: Analyzing the Role of the Supreme Court in the Policy Process of Euthanasia

Authors: Aishwarya Pothula

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Euthanasia in India is a politically dormant policy issue in the sense that discussions around it are sporadic in nature (usually with developments in specific cases) and it stays as a dominant issue in the public domain for a fleeting period. In other words, it is a non-political issue that has been unable to successfully get on the policy agenda. This paper studies how the Supreme Court of India (SC) plays a role in euthanasia’s policy making. In 2011, the SC independently put a law in place that legalized passive euthanasia through its judgement in the Aruna Shanbaug v. Union of India case. According to this, it is no longer illegal to withhold/withdraw a patient’s medical treatment in certain cases. This judgement, therefore, is the empirical focus of this paper. The paper essentially employs two techniques of discourse analysis to study the SC’s system of argumentation. The two methods, Text Analysis using Gasper’s Analysis Table and Frame Analysis – are complemented by two discourse techniques called metaphor analysis and lexical analysis. The framework within which the analysis is conducted lies in 1) the judicial process of India, i.e. the SC procedures and the Constitutional rules and provisions, and 2) John W. Kingdon’s theory of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. The results of this paper are three-fold: first, the SC dismiss the petitioner’s request for passive euthanasia on inadequate and weak grounds, thereby setting no precedent for the historic law they put in place. In other words, they leave the decision open for the Parliament to act upon. Hence the judgement, as opposed to arguments by many, is by no means an instance of judicial activism/overreach. Second, they define euthanasia in a way that resonates with existing broader societal themes. They combine this with a remarkable use of authoritative and protective tones/stances to settle at an intermediate position that balances the possible opposition to their role in the process and what they (perhaps) perceive to be an optimal solution. Third, they soften up the policy community (including the public) to the idea of passive euthanasia leading it towards a Parliamentarian legislation. They achieve this by shaping prevalent principles, provisions and worldviews through an astute use of the legal instruments at their disposal. This paper refers to this unconventional role of the SC as ‘judicial entrepreneurship’ which is also the first scholarly contribution towards research on euthanasia as a policy issue in India.

Keywords: argumentation analysis, Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug, discourse analysis, euthanasia, judicial entrepreneurship, policy-making process, supreme court of India

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13 Attitudes of Nurses towards End-of-Life Care for Themselves

Authors: H. N. S. Silva, S. N. Silva

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Introduction: 88.3% of physicians decided to choose a ‘no-code’ or a DNR order if hospitalized and would choose to die less aggressively at home. However, their wishes were mostly over ridden. Objective: To assess the attitudes of nurses towards the end-of-the-life care they would like to receive for themselves and their attitudes towards terminal illnesses. Methods: A mixed method approach was used. A closed and open-ended questionnaire was administered to 73 participants and 5 registered nurses, who have more than 10 years of experience, working in hospitals both in Sri Lanka and abroad, were interviewed. Results: 94.1% of the participants stated that they would like to die at home, spending their last hours at home surrounded by their loved ones and engaging in religious activities but 57.7% of unmarried nurse said they would agree on euthanasia if they had a terminal disease, and also 66.2% of them stated they would agree in DNR order if they happen to be admitted to the ICU, but 82.5% wanted to diagnose if they had a terminal illness or cancer but did not agree on euthanasia. Qualitative analysis confirmed the findings and revealed that despite having adequate confidence about the hospital care, nurses would choose to die at home, surrounded by their loved once and engaging in religious activities. Euthanasia was believed to be inappropriate as it is religiously incorrect and as death is a natural process. Conclusion: The perception of death among nurses depends on their religious belief.

Keywords: death, do not resuscitate, euthanasia, nurses

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12 Euthanasia with Reference to Defective Newborns: An Analysis

Authors: Nibedita Priyadarsini

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It is said that Ethics has a wide range of application which mainly deals with human life and human behavior. All ethical decisions are ultimately concerned with life and death. Both life and death must be considered dignified. Medical ethics with its different topics mostly deals with life and death concepts among which euthanasia is one. Various types of debates continue over Euthanasia long since. The question of putting an end to someone’s life has aroused controversial in legal sphere as well as in moral sphere. To permit or not to permit has remained an enigma the world over. Modern medicine is in the stage of transcending limits that cannot be set aside. The morality of allowing people to die without treatment has become more important as methods of treatment have become more sophisticated. Allowing someone to die states an essential recognition that there is some point in any terminal illness when further curative treatment has no purpose and the patient in such situation should allow dying a natural death in comfort, peace, and dignity, without any interference from medical science and technology. But taking a human life is in general sense is illogical in itself. It can be said that when we kill someone, we cause the death; whereas if we merely let someone die, then we will not be responsible for anyone’s death. This point is often made in connection with the euthanasia cases and which is often debatable. Euthanasia in the pediatric age group involves some important issues that are different from those of adult issues. The main distinction that occurs is that the infants and newborns and young children are not able to decide about their future as the adult does. In certain cases, where the child born with some serious deformities with no hope of recovery, in that cases doctor decide not to perform surgery in order to remove the blockage, and let the baby die. Our aim in this paper is to examine, whether it is ethically justified to withhold or to apply euthanasia on the part of the defective infant. What to do with severely defective infants from earliest time if got to know that they are not going to survive at all? Here, it will deal mostly with the ethics in deciding the relevant ethical concerns in the practice of euthanasia with the defective newborns issues. Some cases in relation to disabled infants and newborn baby will be taken in order to show what to do in a critical condition, that the patient and family members undergoes and under which condition those could be eradicated, if not all but some. The final choice must be with the benefit of the patient.

Keywords: ethics, medical ethics, euthanasia, defective newborns

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11 Intrarenal Injection of Pentobarbital Sodium for Euthanasia in Cats: 131 Cases, 2010-2011

Authors: Kathleen Cooney, Jennifer Coates, Lesley Leach, Kristin Hrenchir

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The objective of this retrospective study was to determine whether intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium is a practicable method of euthanasia in client-owned cats. 131 Cats were anesthetized using a combination of tiletamine, zolazepam, and acepromazine given by of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Once an appropriate plane of anesthesia was reached, 6 ml of pentobarbital sodium was injected into either the left or right kidney. The patient’s age, sex, estimated weight, presenting condition, estimated dehydration level, palpable characteristics of the kidney pre and post injection, physical response of the cat, and time to cardiopulmonary arrest were recorded. Analysis of 131 records revealed that cats receiving an intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium had an average time to cardiopulmonary arrest of 1 minute. The great majority (79%) experienced cardiopulmonary arrest in less than one minute with the remainder experiencing cardiopulmonary arrest between 1 and 8 minutes of the injection. 95% of cats had no observable reaction to intrarenal injection other than cardiopulmonary arrest. In the 19% of cases where kidney swelling was not palpable upon injection, average time to cardiopulmonary arrest increased from 0.9 to 1.6 min. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Intrarenal injections of pentobarbital sodium are similar in effect to intravenous methods of euthanasia. Veterinarians who elect to use intrarenal injections can expect cardiopulmonary arrest to occur quickly in the majority of patients with few agonal reactions. Intrarenal injection of pentobarbital sodium in anesthetized cats has ideally suited for cases of owner observed euthanasia when obtaining intravenous access would difficult or disruptive.

Keywords: euthanasia, injection, intrarenal, pentobarbital sodium

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10 Capacity for Care: A Management Model for Increasing Animal Live Release Rates, Reducing Animal Intake and Euthanasia Rates in an Australian Open Admission Animal Shelter

Authors: Ann Enright

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More than ever, animal shelters need to identify ways to reduce the number of animals entering shelter facilities and the incidence of euthanasia. Managing animal overpopulation using euthanasia can have detrimental health and emotional consequences for the shelter staff involved. There are also community expectations with moral and financial implications to consider. To achieve the goals of reducing animal intake and the incidence of euthanasia, shelter best practice involves combining programs, procedures and partnerships to increase live release rates (LRR), reduce the incidence of disease, length of stay (LOS) and shelter intake whilst overall remaining financially viable. Analysing daily processes, tracking outcomes and implementing simple strategies enabled shelter staff to more effectively focus their efforts and achieve amazing results. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the effect of implementing the capacity for care (C4C) management model. Data focusing on the average daily number of animals on site for a two year period (2016 – 2017) was exported from a shelter management system, Customer Logic (CL) Vet to Excel for manipulation and comparison. Following the implementation of C4C practices the average daily number of animals on site was reduced by >50%, (2016 average 103 compared to 2017 average 49), average LOS reduced by 50% from 8 weeks to 4 weeks and incidence of disease reduced from ≥ 70% to less than 2% of the cats on site at the completion of the study. The total number of stray cats entering the shelter due to council contracts reduced by 50% (486 to 248). Improved cat outcomes were attributed to strategies that increased adoptions and reduced euthanasia of poorly socialized cats, including foster programs. To continue to achieve improvements in LRR and LOS, strategies to decrease intake further would be beneficial, for example, targeted sterilisation programs. In conclusion, the study highlighted the benefits of using C4C as a management tool, delivering a significant reduction in animal intake and euthanasia with positive emotional, financial and community outcomes.

Keywords: animal welfare, capacity for care, cat, euthanasia, length of stay, managed intake, shelter

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9 Euthanasia Reconsidered: Voting and Multicriteria Decision-Making in Medical Ethics

Authors: J. Hakula

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Discussion on euthanasia is a continuous process. Euthanasia is defined as 'deliberately ending a patient's life by administering life-ending drugs at the patient's explicit request'. With few exceptions, worldwide in most countries human societies have not been able to agree on some fundamental issues concerning ultimate decisions of life and death. Outranking methods in voting oriented social choice theory and multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) can be applied to issues in medical ethics. There is a wide range of voting methods, and using different methods the same group of voters can end up with different outcomes. In the MCDM context, decision alternatives can be substituted for candidates, and criteria for voters. The view chosen here is that of a single decision-maker. Initially, three alternatives and three criteria are chosen. Pairwise and basic positional voting rules - plurality, anti-plurality and the Borda count - are applied. In the MCDM solution, criteria are put weights by giving them the more 'votes'; the more important the decision-maker ranks them. A hypothetical example on evaluating properties of euthanasia consists of three alternatives A, B, and C, which are ranked according to three criteria - the patient’s willingness to cooperate, general action orientation (active/passive), and cost-effectiveness - the criteria having weights 7, 5, and 4, respectively. Using the plurality rule and the weights given to criteria, A is the best alternative, B and C thereafter. In pairwise comparisons, both B and C defeat A with weight scores 7 to 9. On the other hand, B is defeated by C with weights 11 to 5. Thus, C (i.e. the so-called Condorcet winner) defeats both A and B. The best alternative using the plurality principle is not necessarily the best in the pairwise sense, the conflict remaining unsolved with or without additional weights. Positional rules are sensitive to variations in alternative sets. In the example above, the plurality rule gives the rank ABC. If we leave out C, the plurality ranking between A and B results in BA. Withdrawing B or A the ranking is CA and CB, respectively. In pairwise comparisons an analogous problem emerges when the number of criteria is varied. Cyclic preferences may lead to a total tie, and no (rational) choice between the alternatives can be made. In conclusion, the choice of the best commitment to re-evaluate euthanasia, with criteria left unchanged, depends entirely on the evaluation method used. The right strategies matter, too. Future studies might concern the problem of an abstention - a situation where voters do not vote - and still their best candidate may win. Or vice versa, actively giving the ballot to their first rank choice might lead to a total loss. In MCDM terms, a decision might occur where some central criteria are not actively involved in the best choice made.

Keywords: medical ethics, euthanasia, voting methods, multicriteria decision-making

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8 The Safety of Microbiologically Prepared Fructooligosaccharide on White Albino Rats

Authors: Olayinka Risiquat Raimi

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FOS was produced from FTase of Aspergillus niger. HPLC analysis showed 32.24%. Consisting of 28.57% ketose and 4.67% nystose. Effects of FOS were studied on 12 weeks old albino rats. All animals survived until scheduled euthanasia. A low incidence of clinical sign and no toxicological effect were observed. Male rats fed with 2500mg/kg fructooligosaccharides had the highest weight. Male and female rat showed a significant increase in weight from first week to the fifth week. All haematological parameters examined were normal in male and female rats. Mean haematological and haemoglobin values for 2500mg/kg bw FOS fed male rats were the highest. Clinical chemistry test, glucose, albumin, and cholesterol were within normal laboratory values for a rat. The mean glucose value was lower for FOS fed male and female rats compared to those fed with honey and 60% sucrose. Gross necropsy observation showed no remarkable internal gross abnormalities for any of the animals.

Keywords: fructooligosaccharide, white albino rat, haematology values, clinical chemistry values

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7 Exploring the Association between Race and Attitudes toward Physician-Assisted Death; An Analysis of the Gss Dataset

Authors: Seini G. Kaufusi

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Background. Physician-assisted death (PAD) has and continues to be a controversial issue in the U.S. Dying with dignity statutes exists in 9 U.S. jurisdictions that permit competent adults diagnosed with a terminal illness and given a prognosis of 6 month or less to live to request medication to hasten death. Robust advocacy for and against PAD influences policy, and opinions vary. Aim. This study aims to explore the association between race and the attitudes toward physician-assisted death in the U.S. Methods. Data for this study derives from the General Social Survey (GSS) dataset, a national survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) that focuses on the opinions and values of American’s. A cross-sectional design and probability sample from the 2018 data set was used to randomly select respondents. Results. The results indicated that race is significantly associated with attitudes towards physician-assisted death. The level of significance suggests a strong positive association, and the direction indicated that Black and Other racial groups have higher rates of positive decision about PAD. Conclusion. Although attitudes towards PAD varied, Black and other racial groups had favorable decisions for PAD. Further research is crucial in the continuous debate on PAD and understanding the influences of predictors for or against PAD.

Keywords: attitudes, euthanasia, physician-assisted death, race

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6 Canine Neonatal Mortality at the São Paulo State University Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil – Preliminary Data

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, João C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

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The neonatal mortality rates in dogs are considered high, varying between 5.7 and 21.2% around the world, and the causes of the deaths are often unknown. Data regarding canine neonatal mortality are scarce in Brazil. This study aims at describing the neonatal mortality rates in dogs, as well as the main causes of death. The study included 152 litters and 669 neonates admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil between January 2018 and September 2019. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (112/669), with 40% (61/152) of the litters presenting at least one case of stillbirth or neonatal mortality. The rate of stillbirths was 7.7% (51/669), while the neonatal mortality rate was 9% (61/669). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) was 13.7% (92/669), accounting for 82.1% (92/112) of all deaths. The late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) was 2.7% (18/669), accounting for 16% (18/112) of all deaths. Infection was the causa mortis in 51.8% (58/112) of the newborns, of which 30.3% (34/112) were caused by bacterial sepsis, and 21.4% (24/112) were caused by other bacterial, viral or parasite infections. Other causes of death included congenital malformations (15.2%, 17/112), of which 5.3% (6/112) happened through euthanasia due to malformations incompatible with life; asphyxia/hypoxia by dystocia (9.8%, 11/112); wasting syndrome in debilitated newborns (6.2%, 7/112); aspiration pneumonia (3.6%, 4/112); agalactia (2.7%, 3/112); trauma (1.8%, 2/112); administration of contraceptives to the mother (1.8%, 2/112) and unknown causes (7.1%, 8/112). The neonatal mortality rate was considered high, but they may be even higher in locations without adequate care for the mothers and neonates. Therefore, prenatal examinations and early neonatal care are of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: neonate dogs, puppies, mortality rate, neonatal death

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5 The Effects of Lipid Emulsion, Magnesium Sulphate and Metoprolol in Amitryptiline-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Saylav Ejder Bora, Arife Erdogan, Mumin Alper Erdogan, Oytun Erbas, Ismet Parlak

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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate histological, electrical and biochemical effects of metoprolol, lipid emulsion and magnesium sulphate as an alternative method to be used in preventing long QT emergence, that is among the lethal consequences of amitryptiline toxicity. Methods: Thirty Sprague- Dawley male rats were included. Rats were randomly separated into 5 groups. First group was administered saline only while the rest had received amitryptiline 100 mg/kg + saline, 5 mg/kg metoprolol, 20 ml/kg lipid emulsion and 75 mg/kg magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) intraperitoneally. ECG at DI lead, biochemical tests following euthanasia were performed in all groups after 1 hour of administration. Cardiac tissues were removed, sections were prepared and examined. Results: QTc values were significantly shorter in the rest when compared to amitryptiline+ saline group. While lipid emulsion did not affect proBNP and troponin values biochemically as compared to that of the control group, histologically, it was with reduced caspase 3 expression. Though statistically insignificant in the context of biochemical changes, pro-BNP and urea levels were lower in the metoprolol group when compared to controls. Similarly, metoprolol had no statistically significant effect on histological caspase 3 expression in the group that was treated with amitryptiline+metoprolol. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant decrease in Troponin, pro-BNP and urea levels as well as significant decline in histological caspase 3 expression within the MgSO4 group when compared to controls. Conclusion: As still a frequent cause of mortality in emergency units, administration of MgSO4, lipid emulsion and metoprolol might be beneficial in alternative treatment of cardiovascular toxicity caused by tricyclic antidepressant overdose, whether intake would be intentional or accidental.

Keywords: amitryptiline, cardiovascular toxicity, long QT, Rat Model

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4 A Case Report on Therapeutic Approach in Cases of Anasarca in Neonates Dogs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenço, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Anasarca is generalized congenital edema that is often lethal. The condition is transmitted hereditarily and is autosomal dominant, with a racial predisposition in French Bulldogs and English Bulldogs. This study aims at reporting a case of anasarca treatment in neonates. The fetuses of a one year and six months old, primiparous English Bulldog mother were diagnosed with anasarca during an ultrasound examination performed at the 55th day of pregnancy and, therefore, an elective cesarean section was scheduled to prevent fetal dystocia. At birth, all puppies presented anasarca, and one of the six was stillborn. The newborns presented cyanosis, dyspnea, bradycardia, absent reflexes, low vitality scores (3/10), and hypothermia ( < 32ºC). The weight of the puppies at the time of birth varied between 347 and 373 grams, about 100 grams above the average weight estimated for the breed. Immediate neonatal care was applied with oxygen therapy via a mask, aminophylline (0.2 ml/100 g/PV/sublingual), and slow heating. After 10 minutes, there was a significant improvement in the neonatal parameters. The anasarca was treated with the drug furosemide, administered subcutaneously, at a dose of 0.2 mg per 100 grams of weight, every three hours. The stimulation for urination of newborns was performed every 30 minutes, and weight loss was monitored every 30 minutes. Five grams of potassium chloride were administered orally for every 30 grams of weight loss to counterbalance the loss of potassium caused by the diuretic medication. After 15 hours, the neonates reached the ideal weight for the breed, around 209 to 230 grams. In total, four neonates received five doses of furosemide, while one received six doses. The puppies are currently ten months old, healthy and neutered. Anasarca should not be ignored and is considered potentially lethal and an indication for euthanasia in all cases. Early intervention is of utmost importance for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: Walrus syndrome, congenital edema, water puppy syndrome, puppies

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3 Coherent Optical Tomography Imaging of Epidermal Hyperplasia in Vivo in a Mouse Model of Oxazolone Induced Atopic Dermatitis

Authors: Eric Lacoste

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Laboratory animals are currently widely used as a model of human pathologies in dermatology such as atopic dermatitis (AD). These models provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of this complex and multifactorial disease, the discovery of potential new therapeutic targets and the testing of the efficacy of new therapeutics. However, confirmation of the correct development of AD is mainly based on histology from skin biopsies requiring invasive surgery or euthanasia of the animals, plus slicing and staining protocols. However, there are currently accessible imaging technologies such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which allows non-invasive visualization of the main histological structures of the skin (like stratum corneum, epidermis, and dermis) and assessment of the dynamics of the pathology or efficacy of new treatments. Briefly, female immunocompetent hairless mice (SKH1 strain) were sensitized and challenged topically on back and ears for about 4 weeks. Back skin and ears thickness were measured using calliper at 3 occasions per week in complement to a macroscopic evaluation of atopic dermatitis lesions on back: erythema, scaling and excoriations scoring. In addition, OCT was performed on the back and ears of animals. OCT allows a virtual in-depth section (tomography) of the imaged organ to be made using a laser, a camera and image processing software allowing fast, non-contact and non-denaturing acquisitions of the explored tissues. To perform the imaging sessions, the animals were anesthetized with isoflurane, placed on a support under the OCT for a total examination time of 5 to 10 minutes. The results show a good correlation of the OCT technique with classical HES histology for skin lesions structures such as hyperkeratosis, epidermal hyperplasia, and dermis thickness. This OCT imaging technique can, therefore, be used in live animals at different times for longitudinal evaluation by repeated measurements of lesions in the same animals, in addition to the classical histological evaluation. Furthermore, this original imaging technique speeds up research protocols, reduces the number of animals and refines the use of the laboratory animal.

Keywords: atopic dermatitis, mouse model, oxzolone model, histology, imaging

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2 Cardiotoxicity Associated with Radiation Therapy: The Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Improvement of Heart Function

Authors: Isalira Peroba Ramos, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Grazielle Suhett, Camila Salata, Paulo Cesar Canary, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg

Abstract:

Background: The therapeutic options for patients with cancer now include increasingly complex combinations of medications, radiation therapy (RT), and surgical intervention. Many of these treatments have important potential adverse cardiac effects and are likely to have significant effects on patient outcomes. Cell therapy appears to be promising for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardiomyopathy induced by RT, as the current therapeutic options are insufficient. Aims: To evaluate the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) in radioinduced cardiac damage Methods: Female Wistar rats, 3 months old (Ethics Committee 054/14), were divided into 2 groups, non-treated irradiated group (IR n=15) and irradiated and BMMC treated (IRT n=10). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate heart function. After euthanasia, 3 months post treatment; the left ventricle was removed and prepared for RT-qPCR (VEGF and Pro Collagen I) and histological (picrosirius) analysis. Results: In both groups, 45 days after irradiation, ejection fraction (EF) was in the normal range for these animals (> 70%). However, the BMMC treated group had EF (83.1%±2.6) while the non-treated IR group showed a significant reduction (76.1%±2.6) in relation to the treated group. In addition, we observed an increase in VEGF gene expression and a decrease in Pro Collagen I in IRT when compared to IR group. We also observed by histology that the collagen deposition was reduced in IRT (10.26%±0.83) when compared to IR group (25.29%±0.96). Conclusions: Treatment with BMMCs was able to prevent ejection fraction reduction and collagen deposition in irradiated animals. The increase of VEGF and the decrease of pro collagen I gene expression might explain, at least in part, the cell therapy benefits. All authors disclose no financial or personal relationships with individuals or organizations that could be perceived to bias their work. Sources of funding: FAPERJ, CAPES, CNPq, MCT.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, radioation, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow

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1 Anesthesia for Spinal Stabilization Using Neuromuscular Blocking Agents in Dog: Case Report

Authors: Agata Migdalska, Joanna Berczynska, Ewa Bieniek, Jacek Sterna

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Muscle relaxation is considered important during general anesthesia for spine stabilization. In a presented case peripherally acting muscle relaxant was applied during general anesthesia for spine stabilization surgery. The patient was a dog, 11-years old, 26 kg, male, mix breed. Spine fracture was situated between Th13-L1-L2, probably due to the car accident. Preanesthetic physical examination revealed no sign underlying health issues. The dog was premedicated with midazolam 0.2 mg IM and butorphanol 2.4 mg IM. General anesthesia was induced with propofol IV. After the induction, the dog was intubated with an endotracheal tube and connected to an open-ended rebreathing system and maintained with the use of inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. 0,5 mg/ kg of rocuronium was given IV. Use of muscle relaxant was accompanied by an assessment of the degree of neuromuscular blockade by peripheral nerve stimulator. Electrodes were attached to the skin overlying at the peroneal nerve at the lateral cranial tibia. Four electrical pulses were applied to the nerve over a 2 second period. When satisfying nerve block was detected dog was prepared for the surgery. No further monitoring of the effectiveness of blockade was performed during surgery. Mechanical ventilation was kept during anesthesia. During surgery dog maintain stable, and no anesthesiological complication occur. Intraoperatively surgeon claimed that neuromuscular blockade results in a better approach to the spine and easier muscle manipulation which was helpful in order to see the fracture and replace bone fragments. Finally, euthanasia was performed intraoperatively as a result of vast myelomalacia process of the spinal cord. This prevented examination of the recovering process. Neuromuscular blocking agents act at the neuromuscular junction to provide profound muscle relaxation throughout the body. Muscle blocking agents are neither anesthetic nor analgesic; therefore inappropriately used may cause paralysis in fully conscious and feeling pain patient. They cause paralysis of all skeletal muscles, also diaphragm and intercostal muscles when given in higher doses. Intraoperative management includes maintaining stable physiological conditions, which involves adjusting hemodynamic parameters, ensuring proper ventilation, avoiding variations in temperature, maintain normal blood flow to promote proper oxygen exchange. Neuromuscular blocking agent can cause many side effects like residual paralysis, anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, delayed recovery from anesthesia, histamine release, recurarization. Therefore reverse drug like neostigmine (with glikopyrolat) or edrofonium (with atropine) should be used in case of a life-threatening situation. Another useful drug is sugammadex, although the cost of this drug strongly limits its use. Muscle relaxant improves surgical conditions during spinal surgery, especially in heavily muscled individuals. They are also used to facilitate the replacement of dislocated joints as they improve conditions during fracture reduction. It is important to emphasize that in a patient with muscle weakness neuromuscular blocking agents may result in intraoperative and early postoperative cardiovascular and respiratory complications, as well as prolonged recovery from anesthesia. This should not appear in patients with recent spine fracture or luxation. Therefore it is believed that neuromuscular blockers could be useful during spine stabilization procedures.

Keywords: anesthesia, dog, neuromuscular block, spine surgery

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