Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1421

Search results for: African Union

1421 The Morocco's Return to the African Union: A New Era in the Kingdom's Foreign Policy

Authors: L. Ponomarenko, Rachid Kaouar

Abstract:

Morocco has rejoined the African Union and more than 30 years after it left the continental body due to the recognition of the Arabic Republic of Western Sahara. Morocco was readmitted after a one year campaign led by the King himself, who was visiting the Eastern African country with the aim to expend the kingdom presence in new region in Africa after that it managed to build a large influence net in the West Africa region. The return of Morocco can be a beginning of a new era in the foreign policy of Morocco, specially, in the policy towards the state-quo of the Western Sahara conflict, which is considerate as one the biggest obstacle for the cooperation and integration process in the region of North Africa. As a member-state of the African Union Morocco has lot more to lose, according to that the Moroccan position must be more flexible.

Keywords: African Union, Algeria, Morocco, North African Region, Western Sahara

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
1420 Resistance of African States Against the African Court on Human and People Rights (ACPHR)

Authors: Ayyoub Jamali

Abstract:

At the first glance, it seems that the African Court on Human and People’s Rights has achieved a tremendous development in the protection of human rights in Africa. Since its first judgement in 2009, the court has taken a robust approach/ assertive stance, showing its strength by finding states to be in violation of the Africana Charter and other human rights treaties. This paper seeks to discuss various challenges and resistance that the Court has faced since the adoption of the Founding Protocol to the Establishment of the African Court on Human and People’s Rights. The outcome of the paper casts shadow on the legitimacy and effectiveness of the African Court as the guarantor of human rights within the African continent.

Keywords: African Court on Human and People’s Rights, African Union, African regional human rights system, compliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
1419 Fractional Integration in the West African Economic and Monetary Union

Authors: Hector Carcel Luis Alberiko Gil-Alana

Abstract:

This paper examines the time series behavior of three variables (GDP, Price level of Consumption and Population) in the eight countries that belong to the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), which are Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo. The reason for carrying out this study lies in the considerable heterogeneity that can be perceived in the data from these countries. We conduct a long memory and fractional integration modeling framework and we also identify potential breaks in the data. The aim of the study is to perceive up to which degree the eight West African countries that belong to the same monetary union follow the same economic patterns of stability. Testing for mean reversion, we only found strong evidence of it in the case of Senegal for the Price level of Consumption, and in the cases of Benin, Burkina Faso and Senegal for GDP.

Keywords: West Africa, Monetary Union, fractional integration, economic patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1418 A Flagship Framework with Feet of Clay: Operational and Structural Challenges of the African Peace and Security Architecture

Authors: Wiriranai Brilliant Masara

Abstract:

The African Peace and Security Architecture is widely celebrated and revered as a paragon of the will to address peace and security challenges in Africa. However, like any other institution, it is embedded with operational and institutional challenges that prevent it from effectively carrying out its mandate and turning goals into achieved results. The article examines the fundamental flaws and weaknesses of the African Peace and Security Architecture by focusing on its institutions, norms, instruments, and its relationship to Africa’s Regional Economic Communities. Therefore, the article reviews the flaws of the five elements of the African Peace and Security Architecture which are the Peace and Security Council, Panel of the Wise, Continental Early Warning System, African Standby Force, and Peace Fund.

Keywords: African Union, African Peace and Security Architecture, peace and security council, continental early warning system, African Standby Force, Panel of the Wise, Peace Fund

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1417 Analysis of the Best Interest of the Child Principle within a Marriage Law Framework: A Study of South Africa

Authors: Lizelle Ramaccio Calvino

Abstract:

Article 3 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Child states that 'The best interests of the child must be a top priority in all decisions and actions that affect children.' This stance is also echoed in terms of article 20 of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. South Africa, as a signatory of the aforesaid international and national conventions, constitutionalised the best interest of the child in terms of section 28(2) of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 28(2) provides that '[A] child’s best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child.' The application of 'the best interests of the child' principle is consequently applicable in all fields of South African law, including matrimonial law. Two separate but equal Acts regulate civil marriages in South Africa, namely the Marriage Act 25 of 1961 and the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006. Customary marriages are regulated by the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act 120 of 1998. In terms of the Marriage Act and the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, a minor may (provided he/she obtains the required consent) enter into a marriage. Despite the aforesaid, section 1 of the Civil Union Act categorically prohibits a minor from entering into a civil union. The article will first determine whether the ban of minors from entering into a civil union undermines the 'the best interests of the child' principle, and if so, whether it is in violation of the Constitution as well as international and national conventions. In addition, the article will critically analyse whether the application of the Marriage Act and the Civil Union Act (dual Acts) result in disparity within the South African marriage law framework, and if so, whether such discrepancy violates same-sex couples’ right (in particular a same-sex minor) to equality before the law and to have their dignity protected. The article intends, through the application of a qualitative research methodology and by way of a comparative analyses of international and domestic laws, consider whether a single well-defined structure such as the Dutch marriage law system would not be an improved alternative to address the existing paradox resulting from the application of an Act that undermines 'the best interest of the child' principle. Ultimately the article proposes recommendations for matrimonial law reform.

Keywords: best interests of the child, civil marriage, civil union, minor

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1416 The Contribution of the Lomé Charter to Combating Trafficking in Persons at Sea: Nigerian and South African Legal Perspective

Authors: Obinna Emmanuel Nkomadu

Abstract:

A major maritime problem in the African continent is the widespread proliferation of threats to maritime security, and one of which is the traffic in persons (TIP) at sea, which victims are sometimes assaulted, injured, killed, and in many cases go missing. The South African and Nigerian law on TIP at sea is the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act and the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act, respectively. These legislation prohibits TIP at sea but does not provides effective and efficient national coordination structures and international cooperation measures against traffickers who engage on human trafficking on the African maritime domain. As a result of the limitations on the maritime security laws of most African States and the maritime security threats on the continent, the African Union in 2016 adopted the African Charter on Maritime Security and Safety and Development in Africa (Lome Charter). The Lomé Charter provides mechanisms for national and international cooperation on maritime security threats, including TIP at sea. However, the Charter is yet to come into force due to the number of States required to accede or ratify the Charter. This paper identifies gaps on existing instruments on TIP at sea by those States and justify on South Africa and Nigeria should adopt the Charter. The justification flow from analysing relevant international law instruments, as well as legislation on human trafficking.

Keywords: cooperation against trafficking in persons at sea, lomé charter, maritime security, Nigerian legislation on trafficking in persons, South African legislation on trafficking in person, and trafficking in persons at sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1415 Union-Primes and Immediate Neighbors

Authors: Shai Sarussi

Abstract:

The union of a nonempty chain of prime ideals in a noncommutative ring is not necessarily a prime ideal. An ideal is called union-prime if it is a union of a nonempty chain of prime ideals but is not a prime. In this paper, some relations between chains of prime ideals and the induced chains of union-prime ideals are shown; in particular, the cardinality of such chains and the cardinality of the sets of cuts of such chains are discussed. For a ring R and a nonempty full chain of prime ideals C of R, several characterizations for the property of immediate neighbors in C are given.

Keywords: prime ideals, union-prime ideals, immediate neighbors, Kaplansky's conjecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
1414 International Law and Its Role in Protecting Human Rights

Authors: Yrfet Shkreli

Abstract:

To determine the content of human rights norms in national constitutions, international law - in the form of treaties, declarations and case law from international monitoring bodies, and comparative case law from other countries - is often discussed in the judgments of domestic courts. This paper explores the extent to which international law has influenced domestic human rights case law in Africa. The paper first explores how the human rights provisions of African constitutions came into being before turning to the role played by international law in the constitutional order of various African states and how treaties, declarations and findings of international monitoring bodies have been used in African countries to interpret and expand on constitutional human rights provisions.

Keywords: European Union, global governance, globalization, normative power

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1413 The Role of Development in Settling Migration Crisis: The Preventive Approach of the European Union in Relations with Sub-Saharan African States

Authors: Artsiom Zinchanka

Abstract:

The world faces now one of the largest migration crisis and the European Union meets challenges in accepting the flow of migrants that could not be handled finally at this step. This crisis is complicated with many factors, such as military conflict in the Middle East; absence of the appropriate conditions in the refugees’ camps; but also with the complicity of the migration flow consisting of the Sub-Saharan migrants. This type of migrants leave their homelands for many reasons including poverty, not appropriate level of social and economic conditions, absence of infrastructure and access to the education and medical care. In practice, when the restrictive approach directed to limit the flow of illicit migration and to send illicit migrants back to their homelands is not always working, the approach directed to the root causes of the migration crisis can be more effective in settling the crisis. The Cotonou Agreement and the following treaties concluded between the European Union, and Sub-Saharan states show that the European Union considers the development of human rights and appropriate social and economic conditions in the Sub-Saharan states as one of the most important factors addressing the migration crisis. The preventive approach as the efforts of the European Union to develop appropriate social and economic conditions in Sub-Saharan states is considered in this article, as well as its evolution and current condition. This article also considers pros and cons of this approach and the obstacles that this approach faces. The research methods include review of literature and documents, analytical and descriptive methods.

Keywords: migration crisis, preventive approach, Sub-Saharan States, the European Union

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1412 Child Soldier in Africa: A Big Challenge to Human Right

Authors: Adegboyega Adeolapo Ola, Gerelene Jagganath

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges of human right in the world, especially African states is the use of child soldiers in armed conflict, constituting a major source of destruction of lives and properties. Mostly, they are in developing countries with the situation in Sub-Saharan Africa, the abduction and employment of children as soldiers is a form of exploitative labour that is tantamount to slavery. Since the end of cold war, Child soldier has increased in Africa countries like Angola, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Uganda. This study examines the main cause of the recruitment and use of child soldiers and its challenges to human right. It further assesses the role of international regional bodies and various governments in curbing child soldiers with a view to proffer suggestions on how to address some of the resultant threat of human right. The study posits that the control of small arms and light weapons is essential in curtailing the spread of child soldier and abuse of human right. This hopefully should result in the sustainability of human/child right in African continent. It is a recommendation of this study that, in order to sustain human right in the region, all Africa leaders, government and regional bodies; such as African Union, Economic Community of West African States, South African Development Community among others, should cooperate and work together to address the issue of illicit small arms, which could eventually lead to child soldier.

Keywords: arms control, child soldier, human right, small arms

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
1411 The Withdrawal of African States from the International Criminal Court

Authors: Allwell Uwazuruike

Abstract:

With the withdrawal, in 2016, of 3 African states from the ICC, the discourse took an interesting twist. African states, or at least some of them, had now shown their resolve to part ways with the ICC and, by implication, focus on further enthroning regional control and governance through an improved continental justice system. A range of views has been expressed over the years on the allegations of bias by some African states and the continued membership of the ICC. While there may be a split on the merits of the allegations of bias, academic analysts have generally not opposed African states’ membership of the ICC nor been particularly optimistic about the prospects of an African criminal court. There is also a degree of ambivalence on whether there are positives to be taken from African states’ withdrawal from the ICC. This article examines the recent developments with the ICC and analyses whether these could be viewed from the positive (or, at least, alternative) spectrum of the AU’s spirited march towards regional sovereignty or entirely negatively from the point of view of African Heads-of-State seeking to enthrone an era of authoritarianism and non-accountability.

Keywords: international criminal court, Africa, regionalism, criminal justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1410 The Vertex Degree Distance of One Vertex Union of the Cycle and the Star

Authors: Ying Wang, Haiyan Xie, Aoming Zhang

Abstract:

The degree distance of a graph is a graph invariant that is more sensitive than the Wiener index. In this paper, we calculate the vertex degree distances of one vertex union of the cycle and the star, and the degree distance of one vertex union of the cycle and the star. These results lay a foundation for further study on the extreme value of the vertex degree distances, and the distribution of the vertices with the extreme value in one vertex union of the cycle and the star.

Keywords: degree distance, vertex-degree-distance, one vertex union of a cycle and a star, graph

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1409 Growing Acts of Terrorism in Local Conflicts: A Dire Need for International Attention

Authors: Yusuf Abubakar Mamud

Abstract:

Highlighting the imperatives of local conflicts considering the dangerous dimensions of terrorism they are assuming in Africa has not attracted serious academic and political attention. The discourse about conflict in Africa was discussed within five identified conflict zones in the continent. The threats from these local conflicts are diverse and complex and the acts of terrorism in these local conflicts are driven by certain attitudes and behaviours linked to the African leadership. The paper examined and noted that the current conflict resolution model of the African Union (AU) was robust with requisite institutions to address the trends in local conflicts. However, it was observed that the AU peace and security framework lacked the requisite structural and technical capabilities to proactively address the drivers of local conflicts in Africa. It was found that the persistence of local conflicts in the African region may deny her the opportunities of achievement of the targets envisioned in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the paper called on the international community to support Africa through provision of capacity. It urged the African leaders themselves to develop the political will to ensure that all issues concerning peace and security in the continent were guided by the provisions of the AU Constitutive Act. The need to strengthen the APRM in the light of the current trends in local conflicts was also highlighted.

Keywords: conflicts, local conflicts, terrorism, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
1408 The African Translator as a Literary Globetrotter in Minds and Thoughts

Authors: Boudersa Said Sami

Abstract:

This paper aims at revealing the new role of the African translator as a progressive traveler in the thoughts and minds of both Africans and others via his/her multidimensional translations, and a particular focus will be here on literary translation. The African translator, in this respect, is a great actor in Africa’s literary, intellectual and philosophical movement through his exploration of great literary books and highly-echoed intellectual masterpieces via translation. The paper’s hypothesis revolves around the importance of the African translator in moving from one thought to another as shifting from one language to another (French to English or English to French and Arabic). Unless the African translator is alert-minded, lively and animated, the African thoughts are stagnant and Africa is a big mire of rotten ideas. African thoughts are alive, providing that translation is vivid. The findings of the paper reveal the significance of the African translator’s multidimensional roles in keeping Africa in movement. As a pertinent recommendation, translation in Africa should be fostered and its tools should be enhanced as well to keep Africa’s thoughts in continuous mobility between geographic areas as languages are in a progressive move through translation.

Keywords: African, translator, literary, globetrotter, movement

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1407 The Concept and Practice of Good Governance in the European Union

Authors: Robert Grzeszczak

Abstract:

The article deals with one of the most significant issues concerning the functioning of the public sector in the European Union. The objectives of good governance were formulated by the EU itself and also the Scholars in reaction to the discussion that started a decade ago and concerned the role of the government in 21st century, the future of integration processes and globalization challenges in Europe. Currently, the concept of good governance is mainly associated with the improvement of management of public policies in the European Union, concerning both domestic and EU policies. However, it goes beyond the issues of state capacity and effectiveness of management. Good governance relates also to societal participation in the public administration and verification of decisions made in public authorities’ (including public administration). Indirectly, the concept and practice of good governance are connected to societal legitimisation of public bodies in the European Union.

Keywords: good governance, government, European law, European Union

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
1406 Obioma's 'The Fishermen' and the Redefinition of African Postcolonial Narrative Tragedy

Authors: Ezechi Onyerionwu

Abstract:

If there is a modern world literary culture that has so tremendously patronized the tragic mode, it has to be that of Africa, and this has been largely true to the extent that the African socio-historical process has been given strong projection by its literature and other art forms. From the three-century-long transatlantic slave trade which brutally translocated millions of Africans to the ‘outermost parts of the earth’, to the vicious partitioning of Africa among European powers and the subsequent imposition of colonial authority on a pulverized people, Africa has really been at the receiving end of the big negatives of global transactions. The African tale has largely been one long tragic narrative. However, the postcolonial African tragic saga has presented an interesting variety of forms and approaches, which have seen to the production of some of the most thought-provoking and acclaimed African novels of the late 20th and early 21st century. Some of the defining characteristics of the African tragic prose has been: the exploration of the many neocolonial implications of the African contemporary existence; the significance of the robust interplay between the essentially foreign, and the originally indigenous elements of the modern African society; and the implosive aftermaths of the individual modern African’s attempt to rationalize his position at the centre of a very complex society. Obioma’s incredible novel, The Fishermen, is in many ways, a classic of the African postcolonial narrative tragedy. The reasons for this bold categorization would occupy the present paper.

Keywords: African narrative tragedy, neocolonialism, postcolonial literature, twenty first century African literature

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1405 Benefits of Polish Accession to the European Union for Air Transport

Authors: D. Tloczynski

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to present a balance of the decade of Polish air transport market in the European Union having taking into account selected entities of the aviation market. This article analyzes the functioning of the Polish air transport market after the Polish accession to the European Union. During the study two main areas were pointed: shipping activity and activity of the airports. The most important benefits of integration and the benefits of introducing of the open sky policy were indicated. The last part of the article presents the perspectives of development of air traffic.

Keywords: air transport, airports, development air transport, European Union, Poland

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
1404 Epistemology in African Philosophy: A Critique of African Concept of Knowledge

Authors: Ovett Nwosimiri

Abstract:

African tradition and what it entails are the content of African concepts of knowledge. The study of African concepts of knowledge is also known as African epistemology. In other words, African epistemology is a branch of African philosophy that deals with knowledge. This branch of African philosophy engages with the nature and concept of knowledge, the ways in which knowledge can be gained, the ways in which one can justify an epistemic claim or validate a knowledge claim and the limit of human knowledge, etc. The protagonists of African epistemology based their argument for a distinctive or unique African epistemology on the premise or proposition “that each race is endowed with a distinctive nature and embodies in its civilization a particular spirit”. All human beings share some certain basic values and perceptions irrespective of where you come from, and this idea actually fosters some forms of interaction between people from different nationality. Africans like other people share in some certain values, perceptions, and interaction with the rest of the world. These basic values, perceptions, and interaction that Africans share with the rest of the word prompted African people to attempt to “modernize” their societies or develop some forms of their tradition in harmony with the ethos of the contemporary world. Based on the above ideas, it would be interesting to investigate if such (African) epistemology is still unique. The advocates of African epistemology focus on the externalist notion of justification and neglect the idea that both the internalist and externalist notion of justification are needed in order to arrive at a coherent and well-founded account of epistemic justification. Thus, this paper will critically examine the claims that there is a unique African epistemology (a mode of knowing that is peculiar to Africans, and that African mode of knowing is social, monism and situated notion of knowledge), and the grounds for justifying beliefs and epistemic claims.

Keywords: internalist, externalist, knowledge, justification

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
1403 Management Opposition, Strikes, and Union Threats

Authors: Patrick Nüß

Abstract:

I estimate management opposition against unions in terms of hiring discrimination by a large scale field experiment in the German labor market. The results show that callback rates for union members decrease significantly in the presence of high sectoral union density and large firm size. I further explore how this effect varies with regional and sectoral labor dispute intensity and find that management opposition is stronger when a sector is exposed to an intense labor dispute. There is evidence that the observed management opposition can be explained by sectoral union threat effects. Sectors with lower hiring discrimination have lower coverage of collective agreements, and in the absence of a collective agreement, they are less likely to follow the collective agreement wage setting.

Keywords: trade unions, Industrial relations, management opposition, union threat, labor disputes, field experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1402 Legal Implications of a Single African Air Transport Market on Airlines and Passengers in Nigeria

Authors: Adejoke Omowumi Adediran

Abstract:

The commitment of African states to liberalise civil aviation in Africa through the implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision of 1999 was reiterated in 2015 at the African Union Assembly meeting. A declaration was made by African Heads of government at the meeting to ensure the immediate implementation of the decision towards the establishment of a Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) by 2017. A SAATM will imply among others, a removal of all commercial restrictions for African airlines in Africa; access to any route in Africa by African airlines without any required permit or authorisation; and a common set of regulations for airlines in African member states. As the envisioned 2017 date for launching the SAATM could not be met, a new date of January 2018 has been set. The lack of political will by African States, however, remains a prominent challenge to the realisation of the SAATM. As at June 2017, only twenty-one states had signed the commitment to actualise the decision creating the SAATM. In actualisation of the SAATM, a regulatory framework has been established to efficiently manage the new African airline industry, and regulatory texts have been adopted as part of the legal regime. This legal regime is to regulate both interstate and domestic operations. Airlines in Nigeria are currently faced with certain challenges which ultimately affect their effectiveness and passengers as well do not enjoy utmost customer satisfaction with services rendered by the airlines. Although Nigeria has demonstrated support for the SAATM since 2015, as Nigeria alongside ten other states, signed the initial commitment, whether or not SAATM will eventually be beneficial to airlines and passengers has become an issue in the light of the challenges of the Nigerian airline industry. Remarkably, the benefit of the SAATM is to a large extent ultimately determined by its legal framework. Using doctrinal research, this paper examines the legal implications of the SAATM on airlines and passengers in Nigeria. This paper analyses the legal framework of SAATM and juxtaposes this with the particular issues affecting airlines and passengers in Nigeria such as financial difficulties on the part of airlines and consumer protection as regards passengers. Among others, it can be asserted that the legal regime affords an opportunity for business expansion and creates a fair environment for competition. This is beneficial not only to the airlines but to passengers as well. In addition, in the interest of passengers, consumer rights are prescribed, and the regulations also cater for situations where airlines interrupt their services, as losses arising from these situations will be mitigated. There is indeed no doubt that the SAATM will be of great utility to both airlines and passengers in Nigeria.

Keywords: airlines, civil aviation, competition, consumer protection, passengers, single African air transport market, yamoussoukro decision

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1401 The European Union: Considering Its Alleged Endangerment

Authors: Jesús Ulloa

Abstract:

The creation, rise, and consolidation of far right-wing, ultranationalist, and eurosceptic parties in Europe after the Second World War pose a real threat towards the disintegration of the European Union. Starting more than thirty years ago with Jean-Marie Le Pen's FN and Margaret Thatcher's policies, to Marine Le Pen's current FN and anti-immigration proposals along with Nigel Farage's UKIP and their intentions to leave the European Union, the progress of right-wing parties should be noted, taking into account that they may have very important differences within their postures but that they also reach common ground in certain areas. The actual disintegration of the EU would represent an enormous failure of the new liberal world order. Through this essay, the roots of this political parties will be analyzed and the conclusion of whether the disintegration may become a reality or if the principles of cooperation and unity will prevail will be answered.

Keywords: eurosceptic, ultarnationalist, right-wing, European Union

Procedia PDF Downloads 506
1400 Human Rights as Part of the Core Values System of International Organisations: A Comparative Study

Authors: Ayyoub Jamali, Jennie Edlund, Alena Kozlová

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the monitoring, prevention, and enforcing mechanisms of the core values of international organisations (IOs) in a comparative human rights perspective. The IOs in focus are the European Union, the Council of Europe, the African Union, and the Organization of American States. The paper will take the founding treaties of these IOs and their relevant protocols as a starting point to identify the values and the mechanisms used for their implementation. It will explore the scope of violations, the procedures in place and evaluate what type of response to those breaches seems to work best in terms of achieving its declared objectives. The study will identify and compare the weaknesses and strengths of each mechanism used by the IOs and recognize common challenges and means, thereby drawing inter-organizational comparisons. Consequently, the findings of this paper can be used among the IOs to improve their system and thus enhance their effectiveness.

Keywords: international organizations, core values, human rights, enforcement mechanism, compliance

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
1399 World Agricultural Commodities Prices Dynamics and Volatilities Impacts on Commodities Importation and Food Security in West African Economic and Monetary Union Countries

Authors: Baoubadi Atozou, Koffi Akakpo

Abstract:

Since the decade 2000, the use of foodstuffs such as corn, wheat, and soybeans in biofuel production has been growing sharply in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Thus, prices for these agricultural products are rising in the world market. These cereals are the most important source of calorific energy for West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) countries members’ population. These countries are highly dependent on imports of most of these products. Thereby, rising prices can have an important impact on import levels and consequently on food security in these countries. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the prices of these commodities and their volatilities, and their effects on imports of these agricultural products by each WAEMU ’country member. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model, the GARCH Multivariate model, and the Granger Causality Test are used in this investigation. The results show that import levels are highly and significantly sensitive to price changes as well as their volatility. In the short term as well as in the long term, there is a significant relationship between the prices of these products. There is a positive relationship in general between price volatility. And these volatilities have negative effects on the level of imports. The market characteristics affect food security in these countries, especially access to food for vulnerable and low-income populations. The policies makers must adopt viable strategies to increase agricultural production and limit their dependence on imports.

Keywords: price volatility, import of agricultural products, food safety, WAEMU

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1398 The Common Agricultural Policy in a Czech Context

Authors: Markéta Slováková

Abstract:

The largest share of policy and money within the European Union goes to agriculture. The Union’s Common Agricultural Policy has undergone several transformations in the last five decades, with the main change taking place in the 1990's. This change influenced agriculture in the Czech Republic, inasmuch as the fledgling republic was preparing to join the European Union and adopt its policies. In the 1990s, Czech agriculture passed from a centrally planned economy to a market economy and subsequently adopted the terms of the Common Agricultural Policy. The Czech Republic is also characterized by a significant landscape sphere diversification. Agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic are still not used the possibility of grants from the European Union. They focus rather on national or regional subsidy titles. Only half of all agricultural entrepreneurs in the Czech Republic use European subsidies. This article focuses on the introduction of the Common Agricultural Policy to the Czech Republic and its subsequent influence on Czech agriculture. It is demonstrated on the implementation rate of the CAP in the EU Member States and the closer focus is on the Czech integration.

Keywords: common agricultural policy, agriculture, European Union, transformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 504
1397 The European Refugee Crisis and Its Effects on the Relationships between Turkey and the European Union

Authors: Ebru Nergiz

Abstract:

The world is facing one of the biggest refugee crisis’ in history as hundred thousands of refugees who run away from the battle and genocide in the Middle East are travelling illegally to reach Europe over the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea. The number of refugees has reached huge numbers due to the civil war that was caused by the Arab Spring. The number of asylum applications to the European Union has also increased in parallel with the increase in the number of refugees. The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar Al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and especially Turkey. Turkey hosts massive numbers of Syrian refugees, almost 3 million and Syrians have been seeking protection in increasing numbers. The refugee crisis has affected the relationships between Turkey and the European Union deeply. President of the European Council Donald Tusk chaired a meeting of EU heads of state or government with Turkey on 29 November 2015. The meeting opened a new era in the relationships between Turkey and the European Union in terms of the migration crisis. The EU and Turkey agreed to negotiate Turkey's accession process to the European Union and to hold regular summits on Turkey-EU relations and discuss these issues. This paper looks at the reasons and consequences of the European refugee crisis and its effects on Turkey- European Union relationships. This paper also argues that the European Union has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement. The European Union’s priority is to guarantee that the lowest possible number of refugees reach Europe rather than to ensure the security of the refugees.

Keywords: European Union, human rights, refugee crisis, Turkey-European union relationships

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
1396 Geographies of Blackness: An Exploration of the Subaltern Public Spheres of the African Diaspora in European Cities

Authors: Teju N. Adisa-Farrar

Abstract:

In European cities, social, political and cultural geographies of blackness exist. Organizations create spaces to discuss, express, and expose the realities of young people of African descent creating an Afropean lifestyle with transnational affiliations. Focusing on black and brown spaces produced by and for the young people of African descent in Vienna and Brussels, it became clear a multidisciplinary approach would be necessary. Using Cultural Studies frameworks along with Communications Theories on Black Public Spheres and Social-Geography, a basis was created for exploring the creative, political, and economic responses of young people who are apart of the historically (and contemporary) oppressed and excluded groups of the African Diaspora. Through this intrinsic study, it became apparent that spaces created and reclaimed by young people of the African Diaspora were more inclusive and democratic than other spaces. The organizations studied have used city life as the platform to express their struggles and celebrations of their multicultural identity; clearly using historical, global black and Pan-African movements as the basis for local adaptation of an African Diaspora identity.

Keywords: African diaspora, black public sphere, identity, spaces, geographies

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
1395 An Analysis of African Solutions to African Problems: Practical Effects of International Criminal Court Withdrawals in Favour of Regional Court Systems

Authors: Jeanne-Mari Retief

Abstract:

As of November 2016, three African states have withdrawn from the International Criminal Court (ICC) and more are expected to follow. The alleged abuse of universal jurisdiction and targeting of African states by the ICC motivated the withdrawals. These historical exits raise many questions, especially in regard to the adequate investigation and prosecution of international crimes in a continent with a history of impunity. Even though African courts exist and one more is proposed, many issues remain i.e. adequate access to the courts, the extent of the courts’ jurisdiction, and proposed methods of effectively dealing with international crimes in Africa. This paper seeks to address the practical effects of the withdrawal from the ICC and the problems posed through utilizing regional courts. It will specifically look at the practical challenges existing courts face, the lack of access to the latter, issues concerning the proposed African Court for Justice and Human Rights, and the shocking promotion of impunity in Africa. These all have severe implications for African citizens and victims of the most heinous crimes. The mantra of African solutions to African problems places an important duty on states to ensure the actual provision of these solutions, which can only be achieved through a critical analysis of the questions above.

Keywords: ACJHR, Africa, impunity, justice, Malabo protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1394 African Swine Fewer Situation and Diagnostic Methods in Lithuania

Authors: Simona Pileviciene

Abstract:

On 24th January 2014, Lithuania notified two primary cases of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boars. The animals were tested positive for ASF virus (ASFV) genome by real-time PCR at the National Reference Laboratory for ASF in Lithuania (NRL), results were confirmed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for African swine fever (CISA-INIA). Intensive wild and domestic animal monitoring program was started. During the period of 2014-2017 ASF was confirmed in two large commercial pig holding with the highest biosecurity. Pigs were killed and destroyed. Since 2014 ASF outbreak territory from east and south has expanded to the middle of Lithuania. Diagnosis by PCR is one of the highly recommended diagnostic methods by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of ASF. The aim of the present study was to compare singleplex real-time PCR assays to a duplex assay allowing the identification of ASF and internal control in a single PCR tube and to compare primers, that target the p72 gene (ASF 250 bp and ASF 75 bp) effectivity. Multiplex real-time PCR assays prove to be less time consuming and cost-efficient and therefore have a high potential to be applied in the routine analysis. It is important to have effective and fast method that allows virus detection at the beginning of disease for wild boar population and in outbreaks for domestic pigs. For experiments, we used reference samples (INIA, Spain), and positive samples from infected animals in Lithuania. Results show 100% sensitivity and specificity.

Keywords: African swine fewer, real-time PCR, wild boar, domestic pig

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1393 W. Norris Clarke’s “Substance-In-Relation”: A Viable Model for Reconstruction of African Personalism

Authors: Aloysius Ezeoba

Abstract:

W. Norris Clarke described his personalism as “substance-in-relation” which emphasizes the equality of primordial modes of substance and relation as a solution to the dichotomy between substance and relation created in the history of metaphysics of the human person. But African personalism seems to conceive the human person as essentially relational, which is mostly expressed in the saying: “I am because we are.” The problem with African personalism is that it tends to overemphasize the relational aspect of the human person, which makes it inclined toward collectivism, that most often seems to lead to repression of the individual (substance). The aim of this article is to attempt a proposal of a reconstruction of African communal personalism using the model of Clarke's personalism by laying equal emphasis on the primordial modes of substance and relation in order to guard against such repression of the individual or substance.

Keywords: substance, relation, human person, Chi, community, African personalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1392 Artificial Intelligence and Personhood : An African Perspective

Authors: Meshandren Naidoo, Amy Gooden

Abstract:

The concept of personhood extending from the moral status of an artificial intelligence system has been explored – but predominantly from a Western conception of personhood. African personhood, however, is distinctly different from Western personhood in that communitarianism is central rather than individualism. Given the decolonization projects happening in Africa, it’s paramount to consider these views. This research demonstrates that the African notion of personhood may extend for an artificial intelligent system where the pre-conditions are met.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethics, law, personhood, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 3