Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 509

Search results for: money laundering

509 Anti-Money Laundering and Countering of Terrorist Financing: The Role of Domestic Financial Institutions to Prevent Money Laundering

Authors: Dinesh Sivaguru, Kamal Thilakasiri


Preventing money laundering and terrorist financing is a major national and international problem today. Several attempts have been made to prevent money laundering by national and international dimension. These are often counteracted by the multi dynamic nature of the crimes. However, launders are often to use remittance systems to clean their ill-gotten money. This study presents the role of domestic financial institutions and the effective practices and actions should implement within domestic financial institutions to control and prevent financial crimes. This thesis highlights the progress that is required to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing, further it is an original contribution to the knowledge in an under researched field in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorists financing, financial institutions, regulatory bodies

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508 Preventing Corruption in Dubai: Governance, Contemporary Strategies and Systemic Flaws

Authors: Graham Brooks, Belaisha Bin Belaisha, Hakkyong Kim


The problem of preventing and/or reducing corruption is a major international problem. This paper, however, specifically focuses on how organisations in Dubai are tackling the problem of money laundering. This research establishes that Dubai has a clear international anti-money laundering framework but suffers from some national weaknesses such as diverse anti-money laundering working practice, lack of communication, sharing information and disparate organisational vested self-interest.

Keywords: corruption, governance, money laundering, prevention, strategies

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507 Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism

Authors: Covadonga Mallada Fernández


Economic development and globalization of international markets have created a favourable atmosphere for the emergence of new forms of crime such as money laundering or financing of terrorism, which may contribute to destabilized and damage economic systems. In particular, money laundering have acquired great importance since the 11S attacks, what has caused on the one hand, the establishment and development of preventive measures and, on the other hand, a progressive hardening of penal measures. Since then, the regulations imposed to fight against money laundering have been viewed as key components also in the fight against terrorist financing. Terrorism, at the beginning, was a “national” crime connected with internal problems of the State (for instance the RAF in Germany or ETA in Spain) but in the last 20 years has started to be an international problem that is connected with the defence and security of the States. Therefore, the new strategic concept for the defense and security of NATO has a comprehensive list of security threats to the Alliance, such as terrorism, international instability, money laundering or attacks on cyberspace, among others. With this new concept, money laundering and terrorism has become a priority in the national defense. In this work we will analyze the methods to combat these new threats to the national security. We will study the preventive legislations to combat money laundering and financing of terrorism, the UIF that exchange information between States, and the hawala-Banking.

Keywords: control of financial flows, money laundering, terrorism, financing of terrorism

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506 Data Mining Techniques for Anti-Money Laundering

Authors: M. Sai Veerendra


Today, money laundering (ML) poses a serious threat not only to financial institutions but also to the nation. This criminal activity is becoming more and more sophisticated and seems to have moved from the cliché of drug trafficking to financing terrorism and surely not forgetting personal gain. Most of the financial institutions internationally have been implementing anti-money laundering solutions (AML) to fight investment fraud activities. However, traditional investigative techniques consume numerous man-hours. Recently, data mining approaches have been developed and are considered as well-suited techniques for detecting ML activities. Within the scope of a collaboration project on developing a new data mining solution for AML Units in an international investment bank in Ireland, we survey recent data mining approaches for AML. In this paper, we present not only these approaches but also give an overview on the important factors in building data mining solutions for AML activities.

Keywords: data mining, clustering, money laundering, anti-money laundering solutions

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505 From Al Capone to Silk Road: Money Laundering Regulation for Cryptocurrency on the Horizon

Authors: Chinelle van der Westhuizen


The introduction of cryptocurrencies as an alternative payment system have placed governments in a challenging position in relation to the regulatory status of cryptocurrencies and the money laundering activities associated with it. In April 2018, the Australian government amended its Anti-Money Laundering laws to regulate digital currency exchanges in an attempt to regulate money laundering activities and the introduction of ‘know-your-customer’ policies within the digital currency sector. Part one of this paper explores the use of cryptocurrencies for money laundering purposes and its significance to money launderers. Part two studies the efficacy of the current Australian Anti-Money Laundering laws and whether more can be done on a regulatory level. This paper will, therefore, highlight recent court decisions and legislation in terms of money laundering activities within these alternative payment systems in Australia and the United Kingdom. Part three of the paper will further analyze recent case studies by the Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre and the Office for Professional Body Anti-Money Laundering Supervision in the United Kingdom as the regulatory bodies for money laundering activities. The case studies and research will explore the legal disputes and future regulation concerning the use of cryptocurrencies and money laundering on a national as well as international level. This paper intends to highlight that although cryptocurrency is viewed as an innovative global phenomenon and an alternative method of payment, there are a number of legal issues associated with its use that indicate the need for regulatory reform. It is recommended in this paper that the Financial Action Task Force, International Monetary Fund as well as concerned governments have ongoing discussions on these regulatory issues and how to address it appropriately, whether through legislation or universal guidelines. Therefore, the conclusion of this paper will emphasize the benefits of a regulatory regime for money laundering activities within the cryptocurrency space and that the lack of such a regime may be detrimental to countries.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, know-your-customer policy, money laundering, regulation

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504 Combating Money Laundering and Inroads into Banking Secrecy: Evidence from Malaysia

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman


It is widely accepted that the investigation of money laundering and the tracing and confiscation of criminal proceeds have intruded into the principles of banking secrecy. The inroads into banking secrecy present serious threats to democracy, and more importantly, to the traditional banker-customer relationship. It is generally accepted that the fight against money laundering is in conflict with the secrecy rule. Banking secrecy is a customer privilege whereas combating crime is critical for public safety and security. Indeed, achieving a proper balance is a desirable goal. But how we go about achieving such a balance is a question encountered by many law enforcement authorities. Therefore, this paper examines the effect of disclosure under the Malaysian anti-money laundering laws on the traditional duty of banks to keep the customer’s information confidential. It also analyzes whether the Malaysian laws provide a right balance between a duty to keep customer’s information secret and a duty to disclose such information in the fight against money laundering. On closer inspection, it is submitted that the Malaysian laws provide sufficient safeguards to ensure that the disclosure of customer’s information is carried out in a manner that is not prejudicial to the interest of legitimate customers. This is a positive approach that could protect the innocent customers from being mistreated by the law. Ultimately, it can be said that the growing threat of global money laundering and terrorism makes the overriding of banking secrecy justified because without a flow of information from the banks, the effective prevention of the menace is not possible.

Keywords: anti-money laundering law, banker-customer relationship, banking secrecy, confidentiality, money laundering

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503 Role of Authorized Agencies to Combat Financial Crime in Bangladesh

Authors: Khan Sarfaraz, Mohammad Ali Mia


Money laundering and other financial crime have become a global threat in recent years, impacting both developed and poor countries. In developing countries like Bangladesh, it is more difficult to combat financial crime than in developing countries because of the inadequate regulatory environment and vulnerable financial system. Bangladesh's central bank issues guidelines to facilitate the implementation of the prevention of the money laundering act. According to the guideline of Bangladesh Bank, all financial institution has to develop anti-money laundering policy to ensure the safety and soundness of their institutions. The paper aims to focus on the role of authorized agencies in combating financial crime. In this paper, the latest trends in financial crimes have been discussed from global and Asian perspectives. The preventive measures for money laundering and other financial crimes have been discussed elaborately. So far, financial crime is a sophisticated and dynamic crime, and criminals continuously took innovative processes to use the financial system to launder money. The study will take a step in pointing out new techniques, effects and challenges of financial crime in Bangladesh.

Keywords: financial crime, illegal money transfer, online gambling, money laundering, authorized agencies

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502 Money Laundering and Governance in Cryptocurrencies: The Double-Edged Sword of Blockchain Technology

Authors: Jiaqi Yan, Yani Shi


With the growing popularity of bitcoin transactions, criminals have exploited the bitcoin like cryptocurrencies, and cybercriminals such as money laundering have thrived. Unlike traditional currencies, the Internet-based virtual currencies can be used anonymously via the blockchain technology underpinning. In this paper, we analyze the double-edged sword features of blockchain technology in the context of money laundering. In particular, the traceability feature of blockchain-based system facilitates a level of governance, while the decentralization feature of blockchain-based system may bring governing difficulties. Based on the analysis, we propose guidelines for policy makers in governing blockchain-based cryptocurrency systems.

Keywords: cryptocurrency, money laundering, blockchain, decentralization, traceability

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501 The Impact of Cryptocurrency Classification on Money Laundering: Analyzing the Preferences of Criminals for Stable Coins, Utility Coins, and Privacy Tokens

Authors: Mohamed Saad, Huda Ismail


The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of cryptocurrency classification on money laundering crimes and to analyze how the preferences of criminals differ according to the type of digital currency used. Specifically, we aim to explore the roles of stablecoins, utility coins, and privacy tokens in facilitating or hindering money laundering activities and to identify the key factors that influence the choices of criminals in using these cryptocurrencies. To achieve our research objectives, we used a dataset for the most highly traded cryptocurrencies (32 currencies) that were published on the coin market cap for 2022. In addition to conducting a comprehensive review of the existing literature on cryptocurrency and money laundering, with a focus on stablecoins, utility coins, and privacy tokens, Furthermore, we conducted several Multivariate analyses. Our study reveals that the classification of cryptocurrency plays a significant role in money laundering activities, as criminals tend to prefer certain types of digital currencies over others, depending on their specific needs and goals. Specifically, we found that stablecoins are more commonly used in money laundering due to their relatively stable value and low volatility, which makes them less risky to hold and transfer. Utility coins, on the other hand, are less frequently used in money laundering due to their lack of anonymity and limited liquidity. Finally, privacy tokens, such as Monero and Zcash, are increasingly becoming a preferred choice among criminals due to their high degree of privacy and untraceability. In summary, our study highlights the importance of understanding the nuances of cryptocurrency classification in the context of money laundering and provides insights into the preferences of criminals in using digital currencies for illegal activities. Based on our findings, our recommendation to the policymakers is to address the potential misuse of cryptocurrencies for money laundering. By implementing measures to regulate stable coins, strengthening cross-border cooperation, fostering public-private partnerships, and increasing cooperation, policymakers can help prevent and detect money laundering activities involving digital currencies.

Keywords: crime, cryptocurrency, money laundering, tokens.

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500 Understanding How Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism Are Conducted through the Real Estate Sector in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Authors: Haytham Yassine


This research seeks to identify how money laundering activities are executed through the real estate sector. This article provides academics with literature on the topic and provides scholars, and practitioners with a better understanding of the risks and challenges involved. Data are gathered through survey in the Middle East and North Africa region and review of the available research. The results of the analysis will help identifying the factors attracting criminals to the real estate sector and develop an understanding of the methods used to launder illicit funds through this sector and the indicators of suspicion for reporting entities. Further analysis reveals the risks posed by money laundering and terrorist financing on the real estate sector and challenges facing states in this regard.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorism financing, real estate sector, Middle East and North Africa

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499 The Integration of Prosecutorial Discretion in the Anti-Money Laundering Regime in Nigeria: A Focus on Politically Exposed Persons

Authors: Chineduum Okpala


Nigeria, since her independence, has been engulfed in financial crimes of different forms. From embezzlement and conversion of public funds by public servants to stealing, contract inflation, and money laundering. Money laundering in Nigeria, particularly by political exposed persons, has been an issue of concern since independence. Corruption has been endemic, and Nigeria needs to integrate pro-active measures to show to the international community that it is ready to move against this vice. This paper discusses the negative effect of corruption and its effect on prosecutorial discretion. It also takes cognisance of the policy and aims of the anti-money laundering (AML) policy as enacted in Nigeria. It also takes as valid the assumption that the effective application of the rule of law will improve the efficacy of the Nigerian regime. In this regard, the perspective is internal to the Nigerian regime and its internal policy discourse which also reflect its policy discourse at international level. This paper takes notice of the typology of money laundering (ML) offences that most affect Nigeria, which hinges on corruption and abuse of office by a specific type of person, politically exposed persons (PEP). This typology of money laundering offence appears to be the most prevalent in developing nations like Nigeria. The application of essential principles of law provides an opportunity for the internalisation of the rule of law in the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria, which could aid the successful prosecution of politically exposed persons on money laundering offences. The rule of law and how well the Nigerian legal system manages to deal with the interface between high level politics and the criminal justice system in Nigeria cannot be understood from internal sources but must be developed as a genuine but critical account informed by perspectives external to the Nigerian regime. If the efficacy of the regime is to be assessed in view of notorious failures of the regime, an external assessment is needed. Hence the paper discusses the need to integrate the essential principles of law in the application of prosecutorial discretion in the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria, particularly with politically exposed persons. The paper highlights jurisdiction where prosecutorial discretion is integrated into the anti-money laundering regime in accordance to the rule of law which forms a basis for comparative analysis of the success of the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria. This paper discusses why the application of prosecutorial discretion should not be used as a tool to extricate or avail the rich and powerful in the society from justice. The paper aims to argue that the successful prosecution of politically exposed persons, will raise the confidence of the citizens and the international community in the anti-money laundering regime in Nigeria.

Keywords: money laundering, politically exposed persons, corruption, Nigeria

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498 The Conduct of Laundering Money through Transport of Cash in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Authors: Haytham Yassine


This article mainly aims to detect and understand how money laundering activities are executed by transport of cash, identifying the underlying factors and separating legitimate from illegitimate usage of cash and how it is being used. This research provides academics with additional literature and provides bank supervisors and practitioners with a better understanding of sources and uses of cash in criminal activities and how cash is used in the laundering mechanism. Data are gathered through survey in the Middle East and North Africa region and review of the available research. The results of the analysis will help distinguish the factors affecting preference for cash rather other payment instruments in the region, identify what causes the tendency to launder illegal proceeds through cash transportation and how illegal cash is being laundered and moved. On the other hand, this paper sheds the light on major cash generating criminal activities, its sources and main destinations.

Keywords: illegitimate activities, cash, money laundering, terrorism financing

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497 Money Laundering Risk Assessment in the Banking Institutions: An Experimental Approach

Authors: Yusarina Mat-Isa, Zuraidah Mohd-Sanusi, Mohd-Nizal Haniff, Paul A. Barnes


In view that money laundering has become eminent for banking institutions, it is an obligation for the banking institutions to adopt a risk-based approach as the integral component of the accepted policies on anti-money laundering. In doing so, those involved with the banking operations are the most critical group of personnel as these are the people who deal with the day-to-day operations of the banking institutions and are obligated to form a judgement on the level of impending risk. This requirement is extended to all relevant banking institutions staff, such as tellers and customer account representatives for them to identify suspicious customers and escalate it to the relevant authorities. Banking institutions staffs, however, face enormous challenges in identifying and distinguishing money launderers from other legitimate customers seeking genuine banking transactions. Banking institutions staffs are mostly educated and trained with the business objective in mind to serve the customers and are not trained to be “detectives with a detective’s power of observation”. Despite increasing awareness as well as trainings conducted for the banking institutions staff, their competency in assessing money laundering risk is still insufficient. Several gaps have prompted this study including the lack of behavioural perspectives in the assessment of money laundering risk in the banking institutions. Utilizing experimental approach, respondents are randomly assigned within a controlled setting with manipulated situations upon which judgement of the respondents is solicited based on various observations related to the situations. The study suggests that it is imperative that informed judgement is exercised in arriving at the decision to proceed with the banking services required by the customers. Judgement forms a basis of opinion for the banking institution staff to decide if the customers posed money laundering risk. Failure to exercise good judgement could results in losses and absorption of unnecessary risk into the banking institutions. Although the banking institutions are exposed with choices of automated solutions in assessing money laundering risk, the human factor in assessing the risk is indispensable. Individual staff in the banking institutions is the first line of defence who are responsible for screening the impending risk of any customer soliciting for banking services. At the end of the spectrum, the individual role involvement on the subject of money laundering risk assessment is not a substitute for automated solutions as human judgement is inimitable.

Keywords: banking institutions, experimental approach, money laundering, risk assessment

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496 Accountants and Anti-Money Laundering Compliance in the Real Estate Sector

Authors: Mark E. Lokanan, Liz Lee


This paper aims to examine the role of accountants as gatekeepers in anti-money laundering compliance in real estate transactions. The paper seeks to answer questions on ways in which accountants are involved in real estate transactions and mandatory compliance with regulatory authorities in Canada. The data for the study came from semi-structured interviews with accountants, lawyers, and government officials. Preliminary results reveal that there is a conflict between accountants’ obligation to disclose and loyalty to their clients. Accountants often do not see why they are obligated to disclose their clients' information to government agencies. The importance of the client in terms of the amount of revenue contributed to the accounting firm also plays a significant role in accountants' reporting decision-making process. Although the involvement of accountants in real estate purchase and sale transactions is limited to lawyers or notaries, they are often involved in designing financing schemes, which may involve money laundering activities. The paper is of wider public policy interests to both accountants and regulators. It is hard not to see Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA) Canada and government regulators using the findings to better understand the decision-making processes of accountants in their reporting practices to regulatory authorities.

Keywords: money laundering, real estate, disclosure, legislation, compliance

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495 Fight against Money Laundering with Optical Character Recognition

Authors: Saikiran Subbagari, Avinash Malladhi


Anti Money Laundering (AML) regulations are designed to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing activities worldwide. Financial institutions around the world are legally obligated to identify, assess and mitigate the risks associated with money laundering and report any suspicious transactions to governing authorities. With increasing volumes of data to analyze, financial institutions seek to automate their AML processes. In the rise of financial crimes, optical character recognition (OCR), in combination with machine learning (ML) algorithms, serves as a crucial tool for automating AML processes by extracting the data from documents and identifying suspicious transactions. In this paper, we examine the utilization of OCR for AML and delve into various OCR techniques employed in AML processes. These techniques encompass template-based, feature-based, neural network-based, natural language processing (NLP), hidden markov models (HMMs), conditional random fields (CRFs), binarizations, pattern matching and stroke width transform (SWT). We evaluate each technique, discussing their strengths and constraints. Also, we emphasize on how OCR can improve the accuracy of customer identity verification by comparing the extracted text with the office of foreign assets control (OFAC) watchlist. We will also discuss how OCR helps to overcome language barriers in AML compliance. We also address the implementation challenges that OCR-based AML systems may face and offer recommendations for financial institutions based on the data from previous research studies, which illustrate the effectiveness of OCR-based AML.

Keywords: anti-money laundering, compliance, financial crimes, fraud detection, machine learning, optical character recognition

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494 Money Laundering and Terror Financing in the Islamic Banking Sector in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Abdul Kader


Several reports released by Global Financial Integrity (GFI) in recent times have identified Bangladesh as being among the worst affected countries to the scourge of money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF). The money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF) risks associated with conventional finance are generally well identified and understood by the relevant national authorities. There is, however, no common understanding of ML/TF risks associated with Islamic Banking. This paper attempts to examine the issues of money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF) in Islamic Banks of Bangladesh. This study also investigates the risk factors associated with Islamic Banking system of Bangladesh that are favorable for ML and TF and which prevent the government to control such issues in the Islamic Banks of Bangladesh. Qualitative research methods were employed by studying various reports from journals, newspapers, bank reports and periodicals. In addition, five ex-bankers who were in the policy making bodies of three Islamic Banks were also interviewed. Findings suggest that government policies regarding Islamic Banking system in Bangladesh are not well defined and clear. Shariah law, that is the guiding principle of Islamic Banking, is not well recognized by the government policy makers, and thus they left the responsibility to the governing bodies of the banks. Other challenges that were found in the study are: the complexity of some Islamic banking products, the different forms of relationship between the banks and their clients, the inadequate ability and skill in the supervision of Islamic finance, particularly in jurisdictions, to evaluate their activities. All these risk factors paved the ground for ML and TF in the Islamic Banks of Bangladesh. However, due to unconventional nature of Banking and lack of investigative reporting on Islamic Banking, this study could not cover the whole picture of the ML/TF of Islamic Banks of Bangladesh. However, both qualitative documents and interviewees confirmed that Islamic Banking in Bangladesh could be branded as risky when it comes to money laundering and terror financing. This study recommends that the central bank authorities who supervise Islamic finance and the government policy makers should obtain a greater understanding of the specific ML/TF risks that may arise in Islamic Banks and develop a proper response. The study findings are expected to considerably impact Islamic banking management and policymakers to develop strong and appropriate policy to enhance transparency, accountability, and efficiency in banking sector. The regulatory bodies can consider the findings to disseminate anti money laundering and terror financing related rules and regulations.

Keywords: money laundering, terror financing, islamic banking, bangladesh

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493 A Regulatory Analysis on Legal Problems of BitCoin

Authors: Fady Tawakol


BitCoin is a decentralized cryptocurrency that can be used without the need of traditional central banks to accomplish any e-commerce trade. The use of such currency could facilitate new economic interactions and linkages. However, without effective and efficient regulations, cryptocurrency transactions are mostly used by criminals to commit crimes such as money laundering, theft, and blackmailing. And because law is one step behind technological developments, this paper discusses the importance of regulations and supervision for the BitCoin-system, to provide unified regulatory solutions for our digital future in the Middle East. It will provide a detailed analysis of the legal nature of BitCoin along with, its regulation with respect to criminal and civil law.

Keywords: BitCoin, financial protection, crypto currency, money laundering

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492 The Dark Side of the Fight against Organised Crime

Authors: Ana M. Prieto del Pino


As is well known, UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988) was a landmark regarding the seizure of proceeds of crime. Depriving criminals of the profits from their activity became a priority at an international level in the fight against organised crime. Enabling confiscation of proceeds of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, criminalising money laundering and confiscating the proceeds thereof are the three measures taken in order to achieve that purpose. The beginning of 21st century brought the declaration of war on corruption and on the illicit enjoyment of the profits thereof onto the international scene. According to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (2000), States Parties should adopt the necessary measures to enable the confiscation of proceeds of crime derived from offences (or property of equivalent value) and property, equipment and other instrumentalities used in offences covered by that Convention. The UN Convention against Corruption (2003) states asset recovery explicitly as a fundamental principle and sets forth measures aiming at the direct recovery of property through international cooperation in confiscation. Furthermore, European legislation has made many significant strides forward in less than twenty years concerning money laundering, confiscation, and asset recovery. Crime does not pay, let there be no doubt about it. Nevertheless, we must be very careful not to sing out of tune with individual rights and legal guarantees. On the one hand, innocent individuals and businesses must be protected, since they should not pay for the guilty ones’ faults. On the other hand, the rule of law must be preserved and not be tossed aside regarding those who have carried out criminal activities. An in-depth analysis of judicial decisions on money laundering and confiscation of proceeds of crime issued by European national courts and by the European Court of Human Rights in the last decade has been carried out from a human rights, legal guarantees and criminal law basic principles’ perspective. The undertaken study has revealed the violation of the right to property, of the proportionality principle legal and the infringement of basic principles of states’ domestic substantive and procedural criminal law systems. The most relevant ones have to do with the punishment of money laundering committed through negligence, non-conviction based confiscation and a too-far reaching interpretation of the notion of ‘proceeds of crime’. Almost everything in life has a bright and a dark side. Confiscation of criminal proceeds and asset recovery are not an exception to this rule.

Keywords: confiscation, human rights, money laundering, organized crime

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491 The International Fight against the Financing of Terrorism: Analysis of the Anti-Money Laundering and Combating Financing of Terrorism Regime

Authors: Loukou Amoin Marie Djedri


Financing is important for all terrorists – from the largest organizations in control of territories, to the smallest groups – not only for spreading fear through attacks, but also to finance the expansion of terrorist dogmas. These organizations pose serious threats to the international community. The disruption of terrorist financing aims to create a hostile environment for the growth of terrorism and to limit considerably the terrorist groups capacities. The World Bank (WB), together with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), decided to include in their scope the Fight against the money laundering and the financing of terrorism, in order to assist Member States in protecting their internal financial system from terrorism use and abuse and reinforcing their legal system. To do so, they have adopted the Anti-Money Laundering /Combating Financing of Terrorism (AML/CFT) standards that have been set up by the Financial Action Task Force. This set of standards, recognized as the international standards for anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism, has to be implemented by States Members in order to strengthen their judicial system and relevant national institutions. However, we noted that, to date, some States Members still have significant AML/CFT deficiencies, which can constitute serious threats not only to the country’s economic stability but also for the global financial system. In addition, studies stressed out that repressive measures are more implemented by countries than preventive measures, which could be an important weakness in a state security system. Furthermore, we noticed that the AML/CFT standards evolve slowly, while techniques used by terrorist networks keep developing. The goal of the study is to show how to enhance the AML/CFT global compliance through the work of the IMF and the WB, to help member states to consolidate their financial system. To encourage and ensure the effectiveness of these standards, a methodology for assessing the compliance with the AML/CFT standards has been created to follow up the concrete implementation of these standards and to provide accurate technical assistance to countries in need. A risk-based approach has also been adopted as a key component of the implementation of the AML/CFT Standards, with the aim of strengthening the efficiency of the standards. Instead, we noted that the assessment is not efficient in the process of enhancing AML/CFT measures because it seems to lack of adaptation to the country situation. In other words, internal and external factors are not enough taken into account in a country assessment program. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the AML/CFT regime in the fight against the financing of terrorism and to find lasting solutions to achieve the global AML/CFT compliance. The work of all the organizations involved in this combat is imperative to protect the financial network and to lead to the disintegration of terrorist groups in the future.

Keywords: AML/CFT standards, financing of terrorism, international financial institutions, risk-based approach

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490 Forensic Investigation: The Impact of Biometric-Based Solution in Combatting Mobile Fraud

Authors: Mokopane Charles Marakalala


Research shows that mobile fraud has grown exponentially in South Africa during the lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the South African Banking Risk Information Centre (SABRIC), fraudulent online banking and transactions resulted in a sharp increase in cybercrime since the beginning of the lockdown, resulting in a huge loss to the banking industry in South Africa. While the Financial Intelligence Centre Act, 38 of 2001, regulate financial transactions, it is evident that criminals are making use of technology to their advantage. Money-laundering ranks among the major crimes, not only in South Africa but worldwide. This paper focuses on the impact of biometric-based solutions in combatting mobile fraud at the South African Risk Information. SABRIC had the challenges of a successful mobile fraud; cybercriminals could hijack a mobile device and use it to gain access to sensitive personal data and accounts. Cybercriminals are constantly looting the depths of cyberspace in search of victims to attack. Millions of people worldwide use online banking to do their regular bank-related transactions quickly and conveniently. This was supported by the SABRIC, who regularly highlighted incidents of mobile fraud, corruption, and maladministration in SABRIC, resulting in a lack of secure their banking online; they are vulnerable to falling prey to fraud scams such as mobile fraud. Criminals have made use of digital platforms since the development of technology. In 2017, 13 438 instances involving banking apps, internet banking, and mobile banking caused the sector to suffer gross losses of more than R250,000,000. The final three parties are forced to point fingers at one another while the fraudster makes off with the money. A non-probability sampling (purposive sampling) was used in selecting these participants. These included telephone calls and virtual interviews. The results indicate that there is a relationship between remote online banking and the increase in money-laundering as the system allows transactions to take place with limited verification processes. This paper highlights the significance of considering the development of prevention mechanisms, capacity development, and strategies for both financial institutions as well as law enforcement agencies in South Africa to reduce crime such as money-laundering. The researcher recommends that strategies to increase awareness for bank staff must be harnessed through the provision of requisite training and to be provided adequate training.

Keywords: biometric-based solution, investigation, cybercrime, forensic investigation, fraud, combatting

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489 Money and Inflation in Cambodia

Authors: Siphat Lim


The result of the study revealed that the interaction between money, exchange rate, and price level was mainly derived from the policy-induced by the central bank. Furthermore, the variation of inflation was explained weakly by exchange rate and money supply. In the period of twelfth-month, the variation of inflation which caused by exchange rate and money supply were not more than 1.78 percent and 9.77 percent, respectively.

Keywords: money supply, exchange rate, price level, VAR model

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488 The Link between Money Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe


The paper examines the impact of money market on economic growth in Nigeria using data for the period 1980-2012. Econometrics techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares Method, Johanson’s Co-integration Test and Vector Error Correction Model were used to examine both the long-run and short-run relationship. Evidence from the study suggest that though a long-run relationship exists between money market and economic growth, but the present state of the Nigerian money market is significantly and negatively related to economic growth. The link between the money market and the real sector of the economy remains very weak. This implies that the market is not yet developed enough to produce the needed growth that will propel the Nigerian economy because of several challenges. It was therefore recommended that government should create the appropriate macroeconomic policies, legal framework and sustain the present reforms with a view to developing the market so as to promote productive activities, investments, and ultimately economic growth.

Keywords: economic growth, investments, money market, money market challenges, money market instruments

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487 Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance

Authors: M. H. Arslan, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, I. Gocek, I. Erdem


Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.

Keywords: behavior against washing machine parameters, performance evaluation of textiles, statistical analysis, commercial and test textiles

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486 A Pathway to Financial Inclusion: Mobile Money and Individual Savings in Uganda

Authors: Musa Mayanja Lwanga, Annet Adong


This study provides a micro perspective on the impact of mobile money services on individual’s saving behavior using the 2013 Uganda FinScope data. Results show that although saving through the mobile phone is not a common practice in Uganda, being a registered mobile money user increases the likelihood to save with mobile money. Saving using mobile is more prevalent in urban areas and in Kampala and Central region compared to other regions. This can be explained by: first, rural dwellers tend on average to have lower incomes and thus have lower to saving compared to the urban counterpart. Similarly, residents of Kampala tend to have higher incomes and thus high savings compared to residents of other regions. Secondly, poor infrastructure in rural areas in terms of lack of electricity and poor telecommunication network coverage may limit the use of mobile phones and consequently the use of mobile money as a saving mechanism. Overall, the use of mobile money as a saving mechanism is still very low and this could be partly explained by limitations in the legislation that does not incorporate mobile finance services into mobile money. The absence of interest payments on mobile money savings may act as a disincentive to save through this mechanism. Given the emerging mobile banking services, there is a need to create more awareness and the need for enhanced synergies between telecom companies and commercial banks.

Keywords: financial inclusion, mobile money, savings, Uganda

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485 Investigating the Impact of the Laundry and Sterilization Process on the Performance of Reusable Surgical Gowns

Authors: N. Khomarloo, F. Mousazadegan, M. Latifi, N. Hemmatinejad


Recently, the utilization of reusable surgical gowns in order to decrease costs, environmental protection and enhance surgeon’s comfort is considered. One of the concerns in applying this kind of medical protective clothing is reduction of their resistance to bacterial penetration especially in wet state, after repeated laundering and sterilizing process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the laundering and sterilizing process on the reusable surgical gown’s resistance against bacterial wet penetration. To this end, penetration of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in wet state after 70 washing and sterilizing cycles was evaluated on the two single-layer and three-layer reusable gowns. The outcomes reveal that up to 20 laundering and sterilizing cycles, protective property of samples improves due to fabric shrinkage, after that because of the fabric’s construction opening, the bacterial penetration increase. However, the three-layer gown presents higher protective performance comparing to the single-layer one.

Keywords: laundry, porosity, reusable surgical gown, sterilization, wet bacterial penetration

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484 The Intention to Use E-Money Transaction: The Moderating Effect of Security in Conceptual Frammework

Authors: Husnil Khatimah, Fairol Halim


This research examines the moderating impact of security on intention to use e-money that adapted from some variables of the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) and TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). This study will use security as moderating variable and finds these relationship depends on customer intention to use e-money as payment tools. The conceptual framework of e-money transactions was reviewed to understand behavioral intention of consumers from perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived behavioral control and security. Quantitative method will be utilized as sources of data collection. A total of one thousand respondents will be selected using quota sampling method in Medan, Indonesia. Descriptive analysis and Multiple Regression analysis will be conducted to analyze the data. The article ended with suggestion for future studies.

Keywords: e-money transaction, TAM & TPB, moderating variable, behavioral intention, conceptual paper

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483 An Intercontinental Comparison of Delay Discounting for Real and Hypothetical Money and Cigarettes among Cigarette Smokers

Authors: Steven R. Lawyer, Tereza Prihodova, Katerina Prihodova


Delay discounting (DD) is one of the most frequently used behavioral-economic measures of impulsive choice, but there are few cross-cultural comparisons of discounting, and to the best of our knowledge, none compare patterns of DD across different commodities or compare real and hypothetical rewards across cultures. The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of DD for both real and hypothetical money and cigarettes among participants in the USA and the Czech Republic. Adult smokers from the United States and the Czech Republic completed standard measures of DD for hypothetical and real money (~$10USD) and cigarettes (1 pack, or 20 cigarettes). Contrary to data from the USA sample, Czech Republic participants discounted the value of real money steeper than hypothetical money, though this could be related to the relatively poor fit of the hyperbolic decay function to DD for hypothetical money in the Czech sample. These findings suggest that there might be cultural differences in delay discounting that warrant further attention.

Keywords: delay discounting, temporal discounting, cigarette smoking, real rewards, hypothetical rewards

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482 Position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the Matter of Restricting Constitutional Rights of Citizens Concerning Banking Secrecy

Authors: A. V. Shashkova


The aim of the present article is to analyze the position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The methodological ground of the present Article represents the dialectic scientific method of the socio-political, legal and organizational processes with the principles of development, integrity, and consistency, etc. The consistency analysis method is used while researching the object of the analysis. Some public-private research methods are also used: the formally-logical method or the comparative legal method, are used to compare the understanding of the ‘secrecy’ concept. The aim of the present article is to find the root of the problem and to give recommendations for the solution of the problem. The result of the present research is the author’s conclusion on the necessity of the political will to improve Russian legislation with the aim of compliance with the provisions of the Constitution. It is also necessary to establish a clear balance between the constitutional rights of the individual and the limit of these rights when carrying out various control activities by public authorities. Attempts by the banks to "overdo" an anti-money laundering law under threat of severe sanctions by the regulators actually led to failures in the execution of normal economic activity. Therefore, individuals face huge problems with payments on the basis of clearing, in addition to problems with cash withdrawals. The Bank of Russia sets requirements for banks to execute Federal Law No. 115-FZ too high. It is high place to attract political will here. As well, recent changes in Russian legislation, e.g. allowing banks to refuse opening of accounts unilaterally, simplified banking activities in the country. The article focuses on different theoretical approaches towards the concept of “secrecy”. The author gives an overview of the practices of Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America on the matter of restricting the constitutional rights of citizens to inviolability of professional and banking secrecy in effecting controlling activities. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation basing on the Constitution of the Russian Federation has its special understanding of the issue, which should be supported by further legislative development in the Russian Federation.

Keywords: constitutional court, restriction of constitutional rights, bank secrecy, control measures, money laundering, financial control, banking information

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481 Money as Motivation Amongst Industrial Sales People in Nigeria

Authors: Mahmoud Rufai Mahmoud


A look at existing literature on sales force motivation reveals lack of consensus on the role monetary rewards play in motivating salespeople. In view of the apparent contradiction inherent in the literature, it follows perhaps, chat sales managers are faced with the dilemma of what role to assign to monetary incentives in the scheme of motivating salespeople. This study investigated the perception of industrial salespeople on the role of money as a motivator. The result shows that salespeople believe that money is an important motivator whose power of motivation is influenced by a complex function of economic, social and psychological variables. Based on the findings, if is recommended that managers need different types of rewards to achieve a given level of motivation.  

Keywords: motivation, salespeople, money, Nigeria

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480 The Role of Asset Recovery in Combatting Organized Crime

Authors: Tamas Bezsenyi, Noemi Katona


Fighting Human Trafficking is a highly important issue worldwide that states need to deal with in international politics. In the EU combatting human trafficking is emphasized in international policy making and also in the work of international law enforcement, thus in the work of the EUROPOL. While the EU Directive against Human Trafficking prescribes how states should fight this transnational crime and also how victims should be assisted, the EUROPOL focuses on the effective cooperation between national law enforcement agencies. However, despite the aims of the common fight, human trafficking is regulated differently in the punitive law of various nation states. This deeply defines the work and possibilities of national law enforcement organizations. Among the manifold differences in this paper, we focus on the role of regulating asset recovery. We highlight that money, and the regulation and practice how the law enforcement deals with income gained from criminal activities, play essential role in combatting human trafficking. While doing research on the investigation of transnational human trafficking by the Hungarian Law Enforcement Agencies, we have found that the unfortunate regulation of asset recovery determines the lower effectiveness of eliminating criminal organizations. While i.e. in the Netherlands confiscation of property takes place in an early stage of the criminal procedure, in Hungary it can be conducted only if money laundering is also assumed. Our presentation builds on the comparison of criminal procedures which we analyse based on criminal files and interviews with coworkers of the National Bureau of Investigation.

Keywords: human trafficking, law enforcement, asset recovery, organized crime

Procedia PDF Downloads 225