Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 58

Search results for: Illumina

58 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

Abstract:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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57 Illumina MiSeq Sequencing for Bacteria Identification on Audio-Visual Materials

Authors: Tereza Branyšová, Martina Kračmarová, Kateřina Demnerová, Michal Ďurovič, Hana Stiborová

Abstract:

Microbial deterioration threatens all objects of cultural heritage, including audio-visual materials. Fungi are commonly known to be the main factor in audio-visual material deterioration. However, although being neglected, bacteria also play a significant role. In addition to microbial contamination of materials, it is also essential to analyse air as a possible contamination source. This work aims to identify bacterial species in the archives of the Czech Republic that occur on audio-visual materials as well as in the air in the archives. For sampling purposes, the smears from the materials were taken by sterile polyurethane sponges, and the air was collected using a MAS-100 aeroscope. Metagenomic DNA from all collected samples was immediately isolated and stored at -20 °C. DNA library for the 16S rRNA gene was prepared using two-step PCR and specific primers and the concentration step was included due to meagre yields of the DNA. After that, the samples were sent to the University of Fairbanks, Alaska, for Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Subsequently, the analysis of the sequences was conducted in R software. The obtained sequences were assigned to the corresponding bacterial species using the DADA2 package. The impact of air contamination and the impact of different photosensitive layers that audio-visual materials were made of, such as gelatine, albumen, and collodion, were evaluated. As a next step, we will take a deeper focus on air contamination. We will select an appropriate culture-dependent approach along with a culture-independent approach to observe a metabolically active species in the air. Acknowledgment: This project is supported by grant no. DG18P02OVV062 of the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic.

Keywords: cultural heritage, Illumina MiSeq, metagenomics, microbial identification

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56 Metagenomics Features of The Gut Microbiota in Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Anna D. Kotrova, Alexandr N. Shishkin, Elena I. Ermolenko

Abstract:

The aim. To study the quantitative and qualitative colon bacteria ratio from patients with metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. Fecal samples from patients of 2 groups were identified and analyzed: the first group was formed by patients with metabolic syndrome, the second one - by healthy individuals. The metagenomics method was used with the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The libraries of the variable sites (V3 and V4) gene 16S RNA were analyzed using the MiSeq device (Illumina). To prepare the libraries was used the standard recommended by Illumina, a method based on two rounds of PCR. Results. At the phylum level in the microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy individuals, the proportion of Tenericutes was reduced, the proportion of Actinobacteria was increased. At the genus level, in the group with metabolic syndrome, relative to the second group was increased the proportion of Lachnospira. Conclusion. Changes in the colon bacteria ratio in the gut microbiota of patients with metabolic syndrome were found both at the type and the genus level. In the metabolic syndrome group, there is a decrease in the proportion of bacteria that do not have a cell wall. To confirm the revealed microbiota features in patients with metabolic syndrome, further study with a larger number of samples is required.

Keywords: gut microbiota, metabolic syndrome, metagenomics, tenericutes

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55 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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54 Predictive Pathogen Biology: Genome-Based Prediction of Pathogenic Potential and Countermeasures Targets

Authors: Debjit Ray

Abstract:

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and recombination leads to the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance and pathogenic traits. HGT events can be identified by comparing a large number of fully sequenced genomes across a species or genus, define the phylogenetic range of HGT, and find potential sources of new resistance genes. In-depth comparative phylogenomics can also identify subtle genome or plasmid structural changes or mutations associated with phenotypic changes. Comparative phylogenomics requires that accurately sequenced, complete and properly annotated genomes of the organism. Assembling closed genomes requires additional mate-pair reads or “long read” sequencing data to accompany short-read paired-end data. To bring down the cost and time required of producing assembled genomes and annotating genome features that inform drug resistance and pathogenicity, we are analyzing the performance for genome assembly of data from the Illumina NextSeq, which has faster throughput than the Illumina HiSeq (~1-2 days versus ~1 week), and shorter reads (150bp paired-end versus 300bp paired end) but higher capacity (150-400M reads per run versus ~5-15M) compared to the Illumina MiSeq. Bioinformatics improvements are also needed to make rapid, routine production of complete genomes a reality. Modern assemblers such as SPAdes 3.6.0 running on a standard Linux blade are capable in a few hours of converting mixes of reads from different library preps into high-quality assemblies with only a few gaps. Remaining breaks in scaffolds are generally due to repeats (e.g., rRNA genes) are addressed by our software for gap closure techniques, that avoid custom PCR or targeted sequencing. Our goal is to improve the understanding of emergence of pathogenesis using sequencing, comparative genomics, and machine learning analysis of ~1000 pathogen genomes. Machine learning algorithms will be used to digest the diverse features (change in virulence genes, recombination, horizontal gene transfer, patient diagnostics). Temporal data and evolutionary models can thus determine whether the origin of a particular isolate is likely to have been from the environment (could it have evolved from previous isolates). It can be useful for comparing differences in virulence along or across the tree. More intriguing, it can test whether there is a direction to virulence strength. This would open new avenues in the prediction of uncharacterized clinical bugs and multidrug resistance evolution and pathogen emergence.

Keywords: genomics, pathogens, genome assembly, superbugs

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53 The Cleavage of DNA by the Anti-Tumor Drug Bleomycin at the Transcription Start Sites of Human Genes Using Genome-Wide Techniques

Authors: Vincent Murray

Abstract:

The glycopeptide bleomycin is used in the treatment of testicular cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Bleomycin damages and cleaves DNA in human cells, and this is considered to be the main mode of action for bleomycin's anti-tumor activity. In particular, double-strand breaks are thought to be the main mechanism for the cellular toxicity of bleomycin. Using Illumina next-generation DNA sequencing techniques, the genome-wide sequence specificity of bleomycin-induced double-strand breaks was determined in human cells. The degree of bleomycin cleavage was also assessed at the transcription start sites (TSSs) of actively transcribed genes and compared with non-transcribed genes. It was observed that bleomycin preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. There was a correlation between the degree of this enhanced cleavage at TSSs and the level of transcriptional activity. Bleomycin cleavage is also affected by chromatin structure and at TSSs, the peaks of bleomycin cleavage were approximately 200 bp apart. This indicated that bleomycin was able to detect phased nucleosomes at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. The genome-wide cleavage pattern of the bleomycin analogues 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin was also investigated in human cells. As found for bleomycin, these bleomycin analogues also preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes. The cytotoxicity (IC₅₀ values) of these bleomycin analogues was determined. It was found that the degree of enhanced cleavage at TSSs was inversely correlated with the IC₅₀ values of the bleomycin analogues. This suggested that the level of cleavage at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes was important for the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and analogues. Hence this study provided a deeper understanding of the cellular processes involved in the cancer chemotherapeutic activity of bleomycin.

Keywords: anti-tumour activity, bleomycin analogues, chromatin structure, genome-wide study, Illumina DNA sequencing

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52 Linkage Disequilibrium and Haplotype Blocks Study from Two High-Density Panels and a Combined Panel in Nelore Beef Cattle

Authors: Priscila A. Bernardes, Marcos E. Buzanskas, Luciana C. A. Regitano, Ricardo V. Ventura, Danisio P. Munari

Abstract:

Genotype imputation has been used to reduce genomic selections costs. In order to increase haplotype detection accuracy in methods that considers the linkage disequilibrium, another approach could be used, such as combined genotype data from different panels. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks in two high-density panels before and after the imputation to a combined panel in Nelore beef cattle. A total of 814 animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (IHD), wherein 93 animals (23 bulls and 70 progenies) were also genotyped with the Affymetrix Axion Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array Plate (AHD). After the quality control, 809 IHD animals (509,107 SNPs) and 93 AHD (427,875 SNPs) remained for analyses. The combined genotype panel (CP) was constructed by merging both panels after quality control, resulting in 880,336 SNPs. Imputation analysis was conducted using software FImpute v.2.2b. The reference (CP) and target (IHD) populations consisted of 23 bulls and 786 animals, respectively. The linkage disequilibrium and haplotype blocks studies were carried out for IHD, AHD, and imputed CP. Two linkage disequilibrium measures were considered; the correlation coefficient between alleles from two loci (r²) and the |D’|. Both measures were calculated using the software PLINK. The haplotypes' blocks were estimated using the software Haploview. The r² measurement presented different decay when compared to |D’|, wherein AHD and IHD had almost the same decay. For r², even with possible overestimation by the sample size for AHD (93 animals), the IHD presented higher values when compared to AHD for shorter distances, but with the increase of distance, both panels presented similar values. The r² measurement is influenced by the minor allele frequency of the pair of SNPs, which can cause the observed difference comparing the r² decay and |D’| decay. As a sum of the combinations between Illumina and Affymetrix panels, the CP presented a decay equivalent to a mean of these combinations. The estimated haplotype blocks detected for IHD, AHD, and CP were 84,529, 63,967, and 140,336, respectively. The IHD were composed by haplotype blocks with mean of 137.70 ± 219.05kb, the AHD with mean of 102.10kb ± 155.47, and the CP with mean of 107.10kb ± 169.14. The majority of the haplotype blocks of these three panels were composed by less than 10 SNPs, with only 3,882 (IHD), 193 (AHD) and 8,462 (CP) haplotype blocks composed by 10 SNPs or more. There was an increase in the number of chromosomes covered with long haplotypes when CP was used as well as an increase in haplotype coverage for short chromosomes (23-29), which can contribute for studies that explore haplotype blocks. In general, using CP could be an alternative to increase density and number of haplotype blocks, increasing the probability to obtain a marker close to a quantitative trait loci of interest.

Keywords: Bos taurus indicus, decay, genotype imputation, single nucleotide polymorphism

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51 Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model

Authors: Austin Belfiori, Kevin Rinek, Zach Barcroft, Jennifer Berglind

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Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.

Keywords: gluten, colitis, microbiota, DSS, dextran sulphate sodium

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50 Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Low Light Tolerant and Sensitive Rice Varieties Induced by Low Light Stress at Active Tillering Stage

Authors: Darshan Panda, Lambodar Behera, M. J. Baig, Sudhanshu Sekhar

Abstract:

Low light intensity is a significant limitation for grain yield and quality in rice. However, yield is not significantly reduced in low-light tolerant rice varieties. The work, therefore, planned for comparative transcriptome profiling under low light stress to decipher the genes involved and molecular mechanism of low light tolerance in rice. At the active tillering stage, 50% low light exposure for one day, three days, and five days were given to Swarnaprabha (low light tolerant) and IR8 (low light sensitive) rice varieties. Illumina (HiSeq) platform was used for transcriptome sequencing. A total of 6,652 and 12,042 genes were differentially expressed due to low light intensity in Swarnaprabha and IR8, respectively, as compared to control. CAB, LRP, SBPase, MT15, TF PCL1, and Photosystem I & II complex related gene expressions were mostly increased in Swarnaprabha upon the longer duration of low light exposure, which was not found in IR8 as compared to control. Their expressions were validated by qRT-PCR. The overall study suggested that the maintenance of grain yield in the tolerant variety under low light might be the result of accelerated expression of the genes, which enable the plant to keep the photosynthetic processes moving at the same pace even under low light.

Keywords: rice, low light, photosynthesis, yield

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49 Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee Wastewater from a Fast Inoculum Adaptation Stage: Replacement of Complex Substrate

Authors: D. Lepe-Cervantes, E. Leon-Becerril, J. Gomez-Romero, O. Garcia-Depraect, A. Lopez-Lopez

Abstract:

In this study, raw coffee wastewater (CWW) was used as a complex substrate for anaerobic digestion. The inoculum adaptation stage, microbial diversity analysis and biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed. A fast inoculum adaptation stage was used by the replacement of vinasse to CWW in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) operated at mesophilic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial diversity. While, BMP tests using inoculum adapted to CWW were carried out at different inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, on a VS basis). Results show that the adaptability percentage was increased gradually until it reaches the highest theoretical value in a short time of 10 d; with a methane yield of 359.10 NmL CH4/g COD-removed; Methanobacterium beijingense was the most abundant microbial (75%) and the greatest specific methane production was achieved at I/S ratio 4:1, whereas the lowest was obtained at 2:1, with BMP values of 320 NmL CH4/g VS and 151 NmL CH4/g VS, respectively. In conclusion, gradual replacement of substrate was a feasible method to adapt the inoculum in a short time even using complex raw substrates, whereas in the BMP tests, the specific methane production was proportional to the initial amount of inoculum.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential test, coffee wastewater, fast inoculum adaptation

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48 Genome Sequencing of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain 202-3

Authors: Yina A. Cifuentes Triana, Andrés M. Pinzón Velásco, Marío E. Velásquez Lozano

Abstract:

In this work the sequencing and genome characterization of a natural isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (strain 202-3), identified with potential for the production of second generation ethanol from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates is presented. This strain was selected because its capability to consume xylose during the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates, taking into account that many strains of S. cerevisiae are incapable of processing this sugar. This advantage and other prominent positive aspects during fermentation profiles evaluated in bagasse hydrolysates made the strain 202-3 a candidate strain to improve the production of second-generation ethanol, which was proposed as a first step to study the strain at the genomic level. The molecular characterization was carried out by genome sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform paired end; the assembly was performed with different programs, finally choosing the assembler ABYSS with kmer 89. Gene prediction was developed with the approach of hidden Markov models with Augustus. The genes identified were scored based on similarity with public databases of nucleotide and protein. Records were organized from ontological functions at different hierarchical levels, which identified central metabolic functions and roles of the S. cerevisiae strain 202-3, highlighting the presence of four possible new proteins, two of them probably associated with the positive consumption of xylose.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genome sequencing, xylose consumption

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47 Genomic Diversity and Relationship among Arabian Peninsula Dromedary Camels Using Full Genome Sequencing Approach

Authors: H. Bahbahani, H. Musa, F. Al Mathen

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The dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are single-humped even-toed ungulates populating the African Sahara, Arabian Peninsula, and Southwest Asia. The genome of this desert-adapted species has been minimally investigated using autosomal microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. In this study, the genomes of 33 dromedary camel samples from different parts of the Arabian Peninsula were sequenced using Illumina Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. These data were combined with Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) data from African (Sudanese) dromedaries to investigate the genomic relationship between African and Arabian Peninsula dromedary camels. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and average genome-wide admixture analysis were be conducted on these data to tackle the objectives of these studies. Both of the two analyses conducted revealed phylogeographic distinction between these two camel populations. However, no breed-wise genetic classification has been revealed among the African (Sudanese) camel breeds. The Arabian Peninsula camel populations also show higher heterozygosity than the Sudanese camels. The results of this study explain the evolutionary history and migration of African dromedary camels from their center of domestication in the southern Arabian Peninsula. These outputs help scientists to further understand the evolutionary history of dromedary camels, which might impact in conserving the favorable genetic of this species.

Keywords: dromedary, genotyping-by-sequencing, Arabian Peninsula, Sudan

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46 The Transcriptome of Carnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus) of Elicited Cells with Fusarium Oxysporum f.sp. Dianthi

Authors: Juan Jose Filgueira, Daniela Londono-Serna, Liliana Maria Hoyos

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Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is one of the most important products of exportation in the floriculture industry worldwide. Fusariosis is the disease that causes the highest losses on farms, in particular the one produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi, called vascular wilt. Gene identification and metabolic routes of the genes that participate in the building of the plant response to Fusarium are some of the current targets in the carnation breeding industry. The techniques for the identifying of resistant genes in the plants, is the analysis of the transcriptome obtained during the host-pathogen interaction. In this work, we report the cell transcriptome of different varieties of carnation that present differential response from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi attack. The cells of the different hybrids produced in the outbreeding program were cultured in vitro and elicited with the parasite in a dual culture. The isolation and purification of mRNA was achieved by using affinity chromatography Oligo dT columns and the transcriptomes were obtained by using Illumina NGS techniques. A total of 85,669 unigenes were detected in all the transcriptomes analyzed and 31,000 annotations were found in databases, which correspond to 36.2%. The library construction of genic expression techniques used, allowed to recognize the variation in the expression of genes such as Germin-like protein, Glycosyl hydrolase family and Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. These have been reported in this study for the first time as part of the response mechanism to the presence of Fusarium oxysporum.

Keywords: Carnation, Fusarium, vascular wilt, transcriptome

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45 The Genetic Architecture Underlying Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Singaporeans

Authors: Feng Ji Mervin Goh, Edmund Chee Jian Pua, Stuart Alexander Cook

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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common cause of heart failure. Genetic mutations account for 50% of DCM cases with TTN mutations being the most common, accounting for up to 25% of DCM cases. However, the genetic architecture underlying Asian DCM patients is unknown. We evaluated 68 patients (female= 17) with DCM who underwent follow-up at the National Heart Centre, Singapore from 2013 through 2014. Clinical data were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Genomic DNA was subjected to next-generation targeted sequencing. Nextera Rapid Capture Enrichment was used to capture the exons of a panel of 169 cardiac genes. DNA libraries were sequenced as paired-end 150-bp reads on Illumina MiSeq. Raw sequence reads were processed and analysed using standard bioinformatics techniques. The average age of onset of DCM was 46.1±10.21 years old. The average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular diastolic internal diameter (LVIDd), left ventricular systolic internal diameter (LVIDs) were 26.1±11.2%, 6.20±0.83cm, and 5.23±0.92cm respectively. The frequencies of mutations in major DCM-associated genes were as follows TTN (5.88% vs published frequency of 20%), LMNA (4.41% vs 6%), MYH7 (5.88% vs 4%), MYH6 (5.88% vs 4%), and SCN5a (4.41% vs 3%). The average callability at 10 times coverage of each major gene were: TTN (99.7%), LMNA (87.1%), MYH7 (94.8%), MYH6 (95.5%), and SCN5a (94.3%). In conclusion, TTN mutations are not common in Singaporean DCM patients. The frequencies of other major DCM-associated genes are comparable to frequencies published in the current literature.

Keywords: heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, genetics, next-generation sequencing

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44 Development of Microsatellite Markers for Genetic Variation Analysis in House Cricket, Acheta domesticus

Authors: Yash M. Gupta, Kittisak Buddhachat, Surin Peyachoknagul, Somjit Homchan

Abstract:

The house cricket, Acheta domesticus is one of the commonly found species of field crickets. Although it is very commonly used as food and feed, the genomic information of house cricket is still missing for genetic investigation. DNA sequencing technology has evolved over the decades, and it has also revolutionized the molecular marker development for genetic analysis. In the present study, we have sequenced the whole genome of A. domesticus using illumina platform based HiSeq X Ten sequencing technology for searching simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in DNA to develop polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic analysis. A total of 112,157 SSRs with primer pairs were identified, 91 randomly selected SSRs used to check DNA amplification, of which nine primers were polymorphic. These microsatellite markers have shown cross-amplification with other three species of crickets which are Gryllus bimaculatus, Gryllus testaceus and Brachytrupes portentosus. These nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to check genetic variation for forty-five individuals of A. domesticus, Phitsanulok population, Thailand. For nine loci, the number of alleles was ranging from 5 to 15. The observed heterozygosity was ranged from 0.4091 to 0.7556. These microsatellite markers will facilitate population genetic analysis for future studies of A. domesticus populations. Moreover, the transferability of these SSR makers would also enable researchers to conduct genetic studies for other closely related species.

Keywords: cross-amplification, microsatellite markers, observed heterozygosity, population genetic, simple sequence repeats

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43 RNA-Seq Based Transcriptomic Analysis of Wheat Cultivars for Unveiling of Genomic Variations and Isolation of Drought Tolerant Genes for Genome Editing

Authors: Ghulam Muhammad Ali

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Unveiling of genes involved in drought and root architecture using transcriptomic analyses remained fragmented for further improvement of wheat through genome editing. The purpose of this research endeavor was to unveil the variations in different genes implicated in drought tolerance and root architecture in wheat through RNA-seq data analysis. In this study seedlings of 8 days old, 6 cultivars of wheat namely, Batis, Blue Silver, Local White, UZ888, Chakwal 50 and Synthetic wheat S22 were subjected to transcriptomic analysis for root and shoot genes. Total of 12 RNA samples was sequenced by Illumina. Using updated wheat transcripts from Ensembl and IWGC references with 54,175 gene models, we found that 49,621 out of 54,175 (91.5%) genes are expressed at an RPKM of 0.1 or more (in at least 1 sample). The number of genes expressed was higher in Local White than Batis. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) were higher in Chakwal 50. Expression-based clustering indicated conserved function of DRO1and RPK1 between Arabidopsis and wheat. Dendrogram showed that Local White is sister to Chakwal 50 while Batis is closely related to Blue Silver. This study flaunts transcriptomic sequence variations in different cultivars that showed mutations in genes associated with drought that may directly contribute to drought tolerance. DRO1 and RPK1 genes were fetched/isolated for genome editing. These genes are being edited in wheat through CRISPR-Cas9 for yield enhancement.

Keywords: transcriptomic, wheat, genome editing, drought, CRISPR-Cas9, yield enhancement

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42 Full Length Transcriptome Sequencing and Differential Expression Gene Analysis of Hybrid Larch under PEG Stress

Authors: Zhang Lei, Zhao Qingrong, Wang Chen, Zhang Sufang, Zhang Hanguo

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Larch is the main afforestation and timber tree species in Northeast China, and drought is one of the main factors limiting the growth of Larch and other organisms in Northeast China. In order to further explore the mechanism of Larch drought resistance, PEG was used to simulate drought stress. The full-length sequencing of Larch embryogenic callus under PEG simulated drought stress was carried out by combining Illumina-Hiseq and SMRT-seq. A total of 20.3Gb clean reads and 786492 CCS reads were obtained from the second and third generation sequencing. The de-redundant transcript sequences were predicted by lncRNA, 2083 lncRNAs were obtained, and the target genes were predicted, and a total of 2712 target genes were obtained. The de-redundant transcripts were further screened, and 1654 differentially expressed genes (DEGs )were obtained. Among them, different DEGs respond to drought stress in different ways, such as oxidation-reduction process, starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone pathway, carbon metabolism, lignin catabolic/biosynthetic process and so on. This study provides basic full-length sequencing data for the study of Larch drought resistance, and excavates a large number of DEGs in response to drought stress, which helps us to further understand the function of Larch drought resistance genes and provides a reference for in-depth analysis of the molecular mechanism of Larch drought resistance.

Keywords: larch, drought stress, full-length transcriptome sequencing, differentially expressed genes

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41 Assessment on Rumen Microbial Diversity of Bali Cattle Using 16S rRNA Sequencing

Authors: Asmuddin Natsir, A. Mujnisa, Syahriani Syahrir, Marhamah Nadir, Nurul Purnomo

Abstract:

Bacteria, protozoa, Archaea, and fungi are the dominant microorganisms found in the rumen ecosystem that has an important role in converting feed ingredients into components that can be digested and utilized by the livestock host. This study was conducted to assess the diversity of rumen bacteria of bali cattle raised under traditional farming condition. Three adult bali cattle were used in this experiment. The rumen fluid samples from the three experimental animals were obtained by the Stomach Tube method before the morning feeding. The results of study indicated that the Illumina sequencing was successful in identifying 301,589 sequences, averaging 100,533 sequences, from three rumen fluid samples of three cattle. Furthermore, based on the SILVA taxonomic database, there were 19 kinds of phyla that had been successfully identified. Of the 19 phyla, there were only two dominant groups across the three samples, namely Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, with an average percentage of 83.68% and 13.43%, respectively. Other groups such as Synergistetes, Spirochaetae, Planctomycetes can also be identified but in relatively small percentage. At the genus level, there were 157 sequences obtained from all three samples. Of this number, the most dominant group was Prevotella 1 with a percentage of 71.82% followed by 6.94% of Christencenellaceae R-7 group. Other groups such as Prevotellaceae UCG-001, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group, Sphaerochaeta, Ruminococcus 2, Rikenellaceae RC9 gut group, Quinella were also identified but with very low percentages. The sequencing results were able to detect the presence of 3.06% and 3.92% respectively for uncultured rumen bacterium and uncultured bacterium. In conclusion, the results of this experiment can provide an opportunity for a better understanding of the rumen bacterial diversity of the bali cattle raised under traditional farming condition and insight regarding the uncultured rumen bacterium and uncultured bacterium that need to be further explored.

Keywords: 16S rRNA sequencing, bali cattle, rumen microbial diversity, uncultured rumen bacterium

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40 Development of a Multi-Locus DNA Metabarcoding Method for Endangered Animal Species Identification

Authors: Meimei Shi

Abstract:

Objectives: The identification of endangered species, especially simultaneous detection of multiple species in complex samples, plays a critical role in alleged wildlife crime incidents and prevents illegal trade. This study was to develop a multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method for endangered animal species identification. Methods: Several pairs of universal primers were designed according to the mitochondria conserved gene regions. Experimental mixtures were artificially prepared by mixing well-defined species, including endangered species, e.g., forest musk, bear, tiger, pangolin, and sika deer. The artificial samples were prepared with 1-16 well-characterized species at 1% to 100% DNA concentrations. After multiplex-PCR amplification and parameter modification, the amplified products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis and used for NGS library preparation. The DNA metabarcoding was carried out based on Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. The data was processed with quality trimming, reads filtering, and OTU clustering; representative sequences were blasted using BLASTn. Results: According to the parameter modification and multiplex-PCR amplification results, five primer sets targeting COI, Cytb, 12S, and 16S, respectively, were selected as the NGS library amplification primer panel. High-throughput sequencing data analysis showed that the established multi-locus DNA metabarcoding method was sensitive and could accurately identify all species in artificial mixtures, including endangered animal species Moschus berezovskii, Ursus thibetanus, Panthera tigris, Manis pentadactyla, Cervus nippon at 1% (DNA concentration). In conclusion, the established species identification method provides technical support for customs and forensic scientists to prevent the illegal trade of endangered animals and their products.

Keywords: DNA metabarcoding, endangered animal species, mitochondria nucleic acid, multi-locus

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39 Effects of Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Composition of Bacteria in Feces of Finishing Steers

Authors: Yan Li, Qingxiang Meng, Bo Zhou, Zhenming Zhou

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The objective of this study was to compare the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML), and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on fecal bacterial communities in Simmental crossbred finishing steers fed the following 3 diets: a standard TMR diet, standard diet containing EML and standard diet containing SMFP, and the diets had similar protein and energy levels. Bacterial communities in the fecal content were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene amplification. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the selected bacterial species in the feces. Most of the sequences were assigned to phyla Firmicutes (56.67%) and Bacteroidetes(35.90%), followed by Proteobacteria(1.86%), Verrucomicrobia(1.80%) and Tenericutes(1.37%). And the predominant genera included the 5-7N15 (5.91%), CF231 (2.49%), Oscillospira (2.33%), Paludibacter (1.23%) and Akkermansia(1.11%). As for the treatments, no significant differences were observed in Firmicutes (p = 0.28), Bacteroidetes (p = 0.63), Proteobacteria (p = 0.46), Verrucomicrobia (p = 0.17) and Tenericutes (p = 0.75). On the genus level, classified genera with high abundance (more than 0.1%) mainly came from two phyla: Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Also no differences were observed in most genera level, 5-7N15 (p = 0.21), CF231 (p = 0.62), Oscillospira (p = 0.9), Paludibacter (p = 0.33) and Akkermansia (p = 0.37), except that rc4-4 were lower in the CON and SMFP groups compared to the EML animals (p = 0.02). Additionally, there were no differences in richness estimate and diversity indices (p > 0.16), and treatments had no significant effect on most selected bacterial species in the fecal (p > 0.06), except that Ruminococcus albus were higher in the EML group (p < 0.01) and Streptococcus bovis were lower in the CON group (p < 0.01). In conclusion, diets supplemented with EML and SMFP have little influence on fecal bacterial community composition in finishing steers.

Keywords: fecal bacteria community composition, sequencing, ensiled mulberry leaves (EML), sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP)

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38 Theory of Negative Trigger: The Contract between Oral Probiotics and Immune System

Authors: Cliff Shunsheng Han

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Identifying the direct allergy cause that can be easily mitigated is the foundation to stop the allergy epidemic that has been started in the seventies. It has confirmed that the personal and social hygiene practices are associated with the allergy prevalence. But direct causes have been found, and proposed translational measures have not been effective. This study, assisted by a particular case of allergies, has seen the direct cause of allergies, developed a valid test resulted in lasting relief for allergies, and constructed theory describing general relationship between microbiota and host immune system. Saliva samples were collected from a subject for three years during which time the person experienced yearlong allergy, seasonal allergy, and remission of allergy symptoms. Bacterial DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were profiled with Illumina sequencing technology. The analyzing results indicate that the possible direct cause of allergy is the lacking probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity, such as genera Streptococcus and Veilonella, that can produce metabolites to pacify immune system. Targeted promotion of those bacteria with a compound designed for them, has led to lasting remissions of allergic rhinitis. During the development of the translational measure, the subject's oral biofilm was completely destructed by a moderate fever due to an unrelated respiratory infection. The incident not only facilitated the development of the heat based microbiota reseeding procedure but also indicated a possible natural switch that subsequently increases the efficacy of the immune system previously restrained by metabolites from microbiota. These results lead to the proposal of a Theory of Negative Trigger (TNT) to describe the relationship between oral probiotics and immune system, in which probiotics are the negative trigger that will release the power of immune system when removed by fever or modern lifestyles. This study could open doors leading to further understanding of how the immune system functions under the influence of microbiota as well as validate simple traditional practices for healthy living.

Keywords: oral microbiome, allergy, immune system, infection

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37 Applying EzRAD Method for SNPs Discovery in Population Genetics of Freshwater and Marine Fish in the South of Vietnam

Authors: Quyen Vu Dang Ha, Oanh Truong Thi, Thuoc Tran Linh, Kent Carpenter, Thinh Doan Vu, Binh Dang Thuy

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Enzyme restriction site associated DNA (EzRAD) has recently emerged as a promising genomic approach for exploring fish genetic diversity on a genome-wide scale. This is a simplified method for genomic genotyping in non-model organisms and applied for SNPs discovery in the population genetics of freshwater and marine fish in the South of Vietnam. The observations of regional-scale differentiation of commercial freshwater fish (smallscale croakers Boesemania microlepis) and marine fish (emperor Lethrinus lentjan) are clarified. Samples were collected along Hau River and coastal area in the south and center Vietnam. 52 DNA samples from Tra Vinh, An Giang Province for Boesemania microlepis and 34 DNA samples of Lethrinus lentjan from Phu Quoc, Nha Trang, Da Nang Province were used to prepare EzRAD libraries from genomic DNA digested with MboI and Sau3AI. A pooled sample of regional EzRAD libraries was sequenced using the HiSeq 2500 Illumina platform. For Boesemania microlepis, the small scale population different from upstream to downstream of Hau river were detected, An Giang population exhibited less genetic diversity (SNPs per individual from 14 to 926), in comparison to Tra Vinh population (from 11 to 2172). For Lethrinus lentjan, the result showed the minor difference between populations in the Northern and the Southern Mekong River. The numbers of contigs and SNPs vary from 1315 to 2455 and from 7122 to 8594, respectively (P ≤ 0.01). The current preliminary study reveals regional scale population disconnection probably reflecting environmental changing. Additional sampling and EzRad libraries need to be implemented for resource management in the Mekong Delta.

Keywords: Boesemania microlepis, EzRAD, Lethrinus lentjan, SNPs

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36 The Use of Bleomycin and Analogues to Probe the Chromatin Structure of Human Genes

Authors: Vincent Murray

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The chromatin structure at the transcription start sites (TSSs) of genes is very important in the control of gene expression. In order for gene expression to occur, the chromatin structure at the TSS has to be altered so that the transcriptional machinery can be assembled and RNA transcripts can be produced. In particular, the nucleosome structure and positioning around the TSS has to be changed. Bleomycin is utilized as an anti-tumor agent to treat Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and testicular cancer. Bleomycin produces DNA damage in human cells and DNA strand breaks, especially double-strand breaks, are thought to be responsible for the cancer chemotherapeutic activity of bleomycin. Bleomycin is a large glycopeptide with molecular weight of approximately 1500 Daltons and hence its DNA strand cleavage activity can be utilized as a probe of chromatin structure. In this project, Illumina next-generation DNA sequencing technology was used to determine the position of DNA double-strand breaks at the TSSs of genes in intact cells. In this genome-wide study, it was found that bleomycin cleavage preferentially occurred at the TSSs of actively transcribed human genes in comparison with non-transcribed genes. There was a correlation between the level of enhanced bleomycin cleavage at TSSs and the degree of transcriptional activity. In addition, bleomycin was able to determine the position of nucleosomes at the TSSs of human genes. Bleomycin analogues were also utilized as probes of chromatin structure at the TSSs of human genes. In a similar manner to bleomycin, the bleomycin analogues 6′-deoxy-BLM Z and zorbamycin preferentially cleaved at the TSSs of human genes. Interestingly this degree of enhanced TSS cleavage inversely correlated with the cytotoxicity (IC50 values) of BLM analogues. This indicated that the degree of cleavage by bleomycin analogues at the TSSs of human genes was very important in the cytotoxicity of bleomycin and analogues. It also provided a deeper insight into the mechanism of action of this cancer chemotherapeutic agent since actively transcribed genes were preferentially targeted.

Keywords: anti-cancer activity, chromatin structure, cytotoxicity, gene expression, next-generation DNA sequencing

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35 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali

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Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

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34 Gene Expression Analysis for Corals / Zooxanthellae under High Seawater Temperature Stress

Authors: Haruka Ito, Toru Maruyama, Michihiro Ito, Chuya Shinzato, Hiroyuki Fujimura, Yoshikatsu Nakano, Shoichiro Suda, Sachiyo Aburatani, Haruko Takeyama

Abstract:

Clarifying symbiotic relationships is one of the most important theme for understanding the marine eco-system. Coral reef has been regarded as an important environmental resource. Coral holobiont composed by coral, symbiotic microalgae zooxanthellae, and bacteria have complexed relationship. Zooxanthellae mainly supply organic matter to the host corals through their photosynthetic activity. The symbiotic relationship is indispensable for corals but may easily collapses due to the rise of seawater temperature. However, the molecular mechanism how seawater temperature influences their relationships still remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptomic analysis has applied to elucidate the coral-zooxanthellae relationships under high seawater temperature stress. To observe reactions of corals and zooxanthellae against the rise of seawater temperature, meta-gene expression in coral have been analyzed. The branches from six different colonies of a stony coral, Acropora tenuis, were sampled at nine times by 2016 at two locations, Ishikawabaru and South of Sesoko Island, Okinawa, Japan. The mRNAs extracted from the branches including zooxanthellae were sequenced by illumina HiSeq. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) based on hyper geometric distribution was performed. The seawater temperature at 2016 summer was unusually high, which was caused by El Niño event, and the number of zooxanthellae in coral was decreased in August. GSEA derived the several specific genes expressed in A. tenuis under heat stress conditions. The upregulated genes under heat stress highly related with infection immunity. The downregulated genes significantly contained cell cycle related genes. Thu, it is considered that heat stress cause disorder in cell metabolism of A. tenuis, resulting in serious influence to coral holobiont.

Keywords: coral, symbiosis, thermal stress response, transcriptome analysis

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33 The Comparison Study of Human Microbiome in Chronic Rhinosinusitis between Adults and Children

Authors: Il Ho Park, Joong Seob Lee, Sung Hun Kang, Jae-Min Shin, Il Seok Park, Seok Min Hong, Seok Jin Hong

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Introduction: The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms, and the bacterial microbiome of the human digestive tract contributes to both health and disease. In health, bacteria are key components in the development of mucosal barrier function and in innate and adaptive immune responses, and they also work to suppress the establishment of pathogens. In human upper airway, the sinonasal microbiota might play an important role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this study is to investigate the human upper airway microbiome in CRS patients and to compare the sinonasal microbiome of adults with children. Materials and methods: A total of 19 samples from 19 patients (Group1; 9 CRS in children, aged 5 to 14 years versus Group 2; 10 CRS in adults aged 21 to 59 years) were examined. Swabs were collected from the middle meatus and/or anterior ethmoid region under general anesthesia during endoscopic sinus surgery or tonsillectomy. After DNA extraction from swab samples, we analysed bacterial microbiome consortia using 16s rRNA gene sequencing approach (the Illumina MiSeq platform). Results: In this study, relatively abundance of the six bacterial phyla and tremendous genus and species found in substantial amounts in the individual sinus swab samples, include Corynebacterium, Hemophilus, Moraxella, and Streptococcus species. Anaerobes like Fusobacterium and Bacteroides were abundantly present in the children group, Bacteroides and Propionibacterium were present in adults group. In genus, Haemophilus was the most common CRS microbiome in children and Corynebacterium was the most common CRS microbiome in adults. Conclusions: Our results show the diversity of human upper airway microbiome, and the findings will suggest that CRS is a polymicrobial infection. The Corynebacterium and Hemophilus may live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of sinus in the upper respiratory tract. The further study will be needed for analysis of microbiome-human interactions in upper airway and CRS.

Keywords: microbiome, upper airway, chronic rhinosinusitis, adult and children

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32 Changes in the fecal Microbiome of Periparturient Dairy Cattle and Associations with the Onset of Salmonella Shedding

Authors: Lohendy Munoz-Vargas, Stephen O. Opiyo, Rose Digianantonio, Michele L. Williams, Asela Wijeratne, Gregory Habing

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Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica is a zoonotic pathogen with critical importance in animal and public health. The persistence of Salmonella on farms affects animal productivity and health, and represents a risk for food safety. The intestinal microbiota plays a fundamental role in the colonization and invasion of this ubiquitous microorganism. To overcome the colonization resistance imparted by the gut microbiome, Salmonella uses invasion strategies and the host inflammatory response to survive, proliferate, and establish infections with diverse clinical manifestations. Cattle serve as reservoirs of Salmonella, and periparturient cows have high prevalence of Salmonella shedding; however, to author`s best knowledge, little is known about the association between the gut microbiome and the onset of Salmonella shedding during the periparturient period. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the association between changes in bacterial communities and the onset of Salmonella shedding in cattle approaching parturition. In a prospective cohort study, fecal samples from 98 dairy cows originating from four different farms were collected at four time points relative to calving (-3 wks, -1 wk, +1 wk, +3 wks). All 392 samples were cultured for Salmonella. Sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina platform was completed to evaluate the fecal microbiome in a selected sample subset. Analyses of microbial composition, diversity, and structure were performed according to time points, farm, and Salmonella onset status. Individual cow fecal microbiomes, predominated by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Spirochaetes, and Proteobacteria phyla, significantly changed before and after parturition. Microbial communities from different farms were distinguishable based on multivariate analysis. Although there were significant differences in some bacterial taxa between Salmonella positive and negative samples, our results did not identify differences in the fecal microbial diversity or structure for cows with and without the onset of Salmonella shedding. These data suggest that determinants other than the significant changes in the fecal microbiome influence the periparturient onset of Salmonella shedding in dairy cattle.

Keywords: dairy cattle, microbiome, periparturient, Salmonella

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31 Evaluation of Methods for Simultaneous Extraction and Purification of Fungal and Bacterial DNA from Vaginal Swabs

Authors: Vanessa De Carvalho, Chad MacPherson, Julien Tremblay, Julie Champagne, Stephanie-Anne Girard

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Background: The interactions between bacteria and fungi in the human vaginal microbiome are fundamental to the concept of health and disease. The means by which the microbiota and mycobiota interact is still poorly understood and further studies are necessary to properly characterize this complex ecosystem. The aim of this study was to select a DNA extraction method capable of recovering high qualities of fungal and bacterial DNA from a single vaginal swab. Methods: 11 female volunteers ( ≥ 20 to < 55 years old) self-collected vaginal swabs in triplicates. Three commercial extraction kits: Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (Epicenter), PureLink™ Microbiome DNA Purification kit (Invitrogen), and Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) were evaluated on the ability to recover fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. The extraction kits were compared on the basis of recovery, yield, purity, and the community richness of bacterial (16S rRNA - V3-V4 region) and fungal (ITS1) microbiota composition by Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing. Results: Recovery of bacterial DNA was achieved with all three kits while fungal DNA was only consistently recovered with Masterpure Yeast Purification kit (yield and purity). Overall, all kits displayed similar microbiota profiles for the top 20 OTUs; however, Quick-DNA™ Fecal/Soil Microbe Miniprep kit (Zymo) showed more species richness than the other two kits. Conclusion: In the present study, Masterpure Yeast purification kit proved to be a good candidate for purification of high quality fungal and bacterial DNA simultaneously. These findings have potential benefits that could be applied in future vaginal microbiome research. Whilst the use of a single extraction method would lessen the burden of multiple swab sampling, decrease laboratory workload and off-set costs associated with multiple DNA extractions, thoughtful consideration must be taken when selecting an extraction kit depending on the desired downstream application.

Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, DNA extraction, microbiota, mycobiota, vagina, vulvovaginal candidiasis, women’s health

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30 Identification of Candidate Congenital Heart Defects Biomarkers by Applying a Random Forest Approach on DNA Methylation Data

Authors: Kan Yu, Khui Hung Lee, Eben Afrifa-Yamoah, Jing Guo, Katrina Harrison, Jack Goldblatt, Nicholas Pachter, Jitian Xiao, Guicheng Brad Zhang

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Background and Significance of the Study: Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs) are the most common malformation at birth and one of the leading causes of infant death. Although the exact etiology remains a significant challenge, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects. At present, no existing DNA methylation biomarkers are used for early detection of CHDs. The existing CHD diagnostic techniques are time-consuming and costly and can only be used to diagnose CHDs after an infant was born. The present study employed a machine learning technique to analyse genome-wide methylation data in children with and without CHDs with the aim to find methylation biomarkers for CHDs. Methods: The Illumina Human Methylation EPIC BeadChip was used to screen the genome‐wide DNA methylation profiles of 24 infants diagnosed with congenital heart defects and 24 healthy infants without congenital heart defects. Primary pre-processing was conducted by using RnBeads and limma packages. The methylation levels of top 600 genes with the lowest p-value were selected and further investigated by using a random forest approach. ROC curves were used to analyse the sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker in both training and test sample sets. The functionalities of selected genes with high sensitivity and specificity were then assessed in molecular processes. Major Findings of the Study: Three genes (MIR663, FGF3, and FAM64A) were identified from both training and validating data by random forests with an average sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 95%. GO analyses for the top 600 genes showed that these putative differentially methylated genes were primarily associated with regulation of lipid metabolic process, protein-containing complex localization, and Notch signalling pathway. The present findings highlight that aberrant DNA methylation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of congenital heart defects.

Keywords: biomarker, congenital heart defects, DNA methylation, random forest

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29 Insights into the Annotated Genome Sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 Isolated from a Thermophilic Rural Biogas Producing Plant

Authors: Irena Maus, Katharina Gabriella Cibis, Andreas Bremges, Yvonne Stolze, Geizecler Tomazetto, Daniel Wibberg, Helmut König, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter

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Within the agricultural sector, the production of biogas from organic substrates represents an economically attractive technology to generate bioenergy. Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biomass decomposition and biogas production. Recently, species belonging to the phylum Thermotogae were detected in thermophilic biogas-production plants utilizing renewable primary products for biomethanation. To analyze adaptive genome features of representative Thermotogae strains, Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 was isolated from a rural thermophilic biogas plant (54°C) and completely sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq system. Sequencing and assembly of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome yielded a circular chromosome with a size of 2,053,097 bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. Functional annotation of the complete genome sequence revealed that the thermophilic strain L3 encodes several genes predicted to facilitate growth of this microorganism on arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, fructose, raffinose, ribose, cellobiose, lactose, xylose, xylan, lactate and mannitol. Acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are supposed to be end products of the fermentation process. The latter gene products are metabolites for methanogenic archaea, the key players in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness of dominant biogas community members within selected digester systems to D. tunisiensis L3, metagenome sequences from corresponding communities were mapped on the L3 genome. These fragment recruitments revealed that metagenome reads originating from a thermophilic biogas plant covered 95% of D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence. In conclusion, availability of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence and insights into its metabolic capabilities provide the basis for biotechnological exploitation of genome features involved in thermophilic fermentation processes utilizing renewable primary products.

Keywords: genome sequence, thermophilic biogas plant, Thermotogae, Defluviitoga tunisiensis

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