Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: pediatrics

47 Neurological Complications Related to Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy under Anesthesia

Authors: Behzad Sinaei, Shahryar Sane, Behzad Kazemi Haki

Abstract:

Children with different malignancies usually experience potential neurologic complications when treated with radiation therapy, especially if under frequent anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurologic problems associated with anesthesia in pediatrics treated with radiotherapy under anesthesia. The study was a cross-sectional experiment that consisted of 133 pediatric patients with different malignancies who needed anesthesia for performing radiotherapy and were referred to Omid Charity Hospital and Imam Khomeini University Hospital from 2014 to 2020 by the census. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). Anesthesia complications in this study were slight and insignificant. Some were due to the effects of the tumor on other important organs or either previous radiation therapy or chemotherapy. For safe anesthesia, considering the effects of tumors on body organs and the neurological complications they cause can greatly help reduce anesthesia complications in pediatrics under radiation therapy.

Keywords: anesthesia, neurologic complications, pediatrics, radiotherapy

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46 Nurse-Patient Assignment: Case of Pediatrics Department

Authors: Jihene Jlassi, Ahmed Frikha, Wazna Kortli

Abstract:

The objectives of Nurse-Patient Assignment are the minimization of the overall hospital cost and the maximization of nurses ‘preferences. This paper aims to assess nurses' satisfaction related to the implementation of patient acuity tool-based assignments. So, we used an integer linear program that assigns patients to nurses while balancing nurse workloads. Then, the proposed model is applied to the Paediatrics Department at Kasserine Hospital Tunisia. Where patients need special acuities and high-level nursing skills and care. Hence, numerical results suggested that proposed nurse-patient assignment models can achieve a balanced assignment

Keywords: nurse-patient assignment, mathematical model, logistics, pediatrics department, balanced assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
45 Extra Skeletal Manifestations of Histocytosis in Pediatrics

Authors: Ayda Youssef, Mohammed Ali Khalaf, Tarek Rafaat

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Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare multi-systemic disease that shows an abnormal proliferation of these kinds of cells associated with a granular infiltration that affects different structures of the human body, including the lung, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, brain, mucocutaneous, soft tissue (head and neck), and salivary glands. Evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Objectives: To recognize the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), describe the radiologic criteria that are suggestive of LCH in different organs rather than the bones and to illustrate the appropriate differential diagnoses for LCH in each of the common extra-osseous sites. Material and methods: A retrospective study was done on 150 biopsy-proven LCH patients from 2007 to 2012. All patients underwent imaging studies, mostly US, CT, and MRI. These patients were reviewed to assess the extra-skeletal manifestations of LCH. Results: In 150 patients with biopsy-proven LCH, There were 33 patients with liver affection, 5 patients with splenic lesions, 55 patients with enlarged lymph nodes, 9 patient with CNS disease and 11 patients with lung involvement. Conclusions: Because of the frequent LCH children and evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Radiologist need to be familiar with its presentation in different organs and regions of body outside the commonest site of affection (bones). A high-index suspicion should be raised a biopsy is recommended in the presence of radiological suspicion. Chemotherapy is the preferred therapeutic modality.

Keywords: langerhans cell histiocytosis, extra-skeletal, pediatrics, radiology

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44 Improving Pediatric Patient Experience

Authors: Matthew Pleshaw, Caroline Lynch, Caleb Eaton, Ali Kiapour

Abstract:

The problem addressed in this proposal is that of the lacking comfort and safety of inpatient rooms, specifically at Boston Children’s Hospital, with the implementation of a system that will allow inpatient children to feel more comfortable in the unfamiliar environment of a hospital. The focus is that of advancing and enhancing the healing process for children in a long-term inpatient stay at the hospital, though a combination of announcing a clinician or hospital staff’s arrival utilizing RFID (Fig. 1), and improving communication between clinicians, parents/guardians, patients, etc. by integrating a mobile application.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Hospital, RFID, Technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
43 Development of a Nursing Care Program Based on Anthroposophic External Therapy for the Pediatric Hospital in Brazil and Germany

Authors: Karina Peron, Ricardo Ghelman, Monica Taminato, Katia R. Oliveira, Debora C. A. Rodrigues, Juliana R. C. Mumme, Olga K. M. Sunakozaua, Georg Seifert, Vicente O. Filho

Abstract:

The nurse is the most available health professional for the interventions of support in the integrative approach in hospital environment, therefore a professional group key to changes in the model of care. The central components in the performance of anthroposophic nursing procedures are direct physical contact, promotion of proper rhythm, thermal regulation and the construction of a calm and empathic atmosphere, safe for patients and their caregivers. The procedures of anthroposophic external therapies (AET), basically composed of the application of compresses and the use of natural products, provide an opportunity to intensify the therapeutic results through an innovative, complementary and integrative model in the university hospital. The objective of this work is to report the implementation of a program of nursing techniques (AET) through a partnership between the Pediatric Oncology Sector of the Department of Pediatrics of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo and Charite University of Berlin, with lecturers from Berlin's Integrative Hospital Havelhöhe and Witten-Herdecke Integrative Hospital, both in Germany. Intensive training activities of the Hospital's nursing staff and a survey on AET needs were developed based on the most prevalent complaints in pediatric oncology patients in the three environments of the Hospital of Pediatric Oncology: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Intensive Care Unit and Division of Internal Patients. We obtained the approval of the clinical protocol of external anthroposophic therapies for nursing care by the Ethics Committee and the Academic Council of the Hospital. With this project, we highlight the key AET needs that will be part of the standard program of pediatric oncology care with appropriate scientific support. The results of the prevalent symptoms were: vomiting, nausea, pain, difficulty in starting sleep, constipation, cold extremities, mood disorder and psychomotor agitation. This project was the pioneer within the Integrative Pediatrics Program, as an innovative concept of Medicine and Integrative Health presented at scientific meetings.

Keywords: integrative health care, integrative nursing, pediatric nursing, pediatric oncology

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42 Poisoning Admission in Pediatrics Benghazi Hospital in Libya: Three Years Review of Medical Record

Authors: Mudafara Bengleil

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Estimation of the magnitude and causes of poisoning was the objective of the current study. A retrospective study of medical records of all poisoning children admitted to Benghazi Children Hospital in Libya from January 2008 up to December 2010. Number of children admitted was 244; the age ranged from less than one to 13 years old. Most of cases were admitted with mild symptom and the majority of them were boys. Only few cases admitted to intensive care unit and there was no mortality recorded through the period of study. Age group 1 to 3 years (50.8%) had the highest frequency of admission and the peak of admission was during summer. The most common cause of admission was due to ingestion of medication (53.69%), House hold product exposure (26.64%) was the second causes of admission while, 19.67% of admissions were due to Food poisoning. Almost all admitted cases were accidental and medicines were the most consumed substances in addition, improper storage of toxic agents were the first risk factor of poisoning. Present results indicated that, children poisoning seems to be a common pediatric care problem which need to control and prevent.

Keywords: poisoning, children, hospital, medical

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41 Ophthalmic Services Covered by Albasar International Foundation in Sudan

Authors: Mohammad Ibrahim

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The study was conducted at Albasar international foundation ophthalmic hospitals in Sudan to study the burden and patterns of ophthalmic disorder in the sector. Review of the hospitals records revealed that the total number of patient examined in the hospitals and outreached camps conducted by the hospitals is 10,513,874, the total number of surgeries is 694,015 and the total number of pupils at school program is 230,382. The organization working with the highest management system and standards and quality result based planning. The study yielded that the ophthalmic problem in Sudan are of great percentage and the temporal blindness disorder are high since major cases and surgeries were Cataract (57.8%). Retinal problem (2.9%), Glaucoma (2.4%), Orbit and Occulo-plastic disorders (2.2%) other disorders are refractive errors, squint and strabismus, Corneal, Pediatrics and minor ophthalmic disorders.

Keywords: hospitals and outreach ophthalmic services, largest coverage of ophthalmic services, nonprofitable ophthalmic services, strong management system and standards

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40 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf

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Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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39 The Effect of Remifentanil on Emergence Agitation after Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Children: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Sung Young Park, Dae Hee Kim, Han Bum Joe, Ji Young Yoo, Jong Bum Choi, Sook Young Lee

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Emergence agitation (EA) is commonly reported adverse events after sevoflurane anesthesia in pediatric patients. The efficacy of prophylactic remifentanil, one of mu opioid agonist, in preventing EA is controversial. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of remifentanil to decrease the incidence of EA from sevoflurane anesthesia in children. We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing sevoflurane alone anesthesia with sevoflurane and remifentanil anesthesia to prevent EA in the Cochrane Library, Embase, Pubmed, and KoreaMed, and included 6 studies with 361 patients. The number of patients of reporting EA was summarized using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), with point estimates and 95CIs derived from a random effects Mantel-Haenszel method. Overall incidence of EA was about 41%. Compared with sevoflurane alone anesthesia, intravenous infusion of remifentanil with sevoflurane significantly reduced the incidence of EA (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.39-0.73, P < 0.0001), (heterogeneity, I2 = 0, P = 0.42). This meta-analysis suggested that continuous infusion of remifentanil could be effective in decreasing the EA of about 47% after sevoflurane anesthesia. However, considering limitations of the included studies, more randomized controlled studies are required to verify our results.

Keywords: emergence agitation, meta-analysis, remifentanil, pediatrics

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38 Secure Texting Used in a Post-Acute Pediatric Skilled Nursing Inpatient Setting: A Multidisciplinary Care Team Driven Communication System with Alarm and Alert Notification Management

Authors: Bency Ann Massinello, Nancy Day, Janet Fellini

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Background: The use of an appropriate mode of communication among the multidisciplinary care team members regarding coordination of care is an extremely complicated yet important patient safety initiative. Effective communication among the team members(nursing staff, medical staff, respiratory therapists, rehabilitation therapists, patient-family services team…) become essential to develop a culture of trust and collaboration to deliver the highest quality care to patients are their families. The inpatient post-acute pediatrics, where children and their caregivers come for continuity of care, is no exceptions to the increasing use of text messages as a means to communication among clinicians. One such platform is the Vocera Communications (Vocera Smart Mobile App called Vocera Edge) allows the teams to use the application and share sensitive patient information through an encrypted platform using IOS company provided shared and assigned mobile devices. Objective: This paper discusses the quality initiative of implementing the transition from Vocera Smartbage to Vocera Edge Mobile App, technology advantage, use case expansion, and lessons learned about a secure alternative modality that allows sending and receiving secure text messages in a pediatric post-acute setting using an IOS device. This implementation process included all direct care staff, ancillary teams, and administrative teams on the clinical units. Methods: Our institution launched this transition from voice prompted hands-free Vocera Smartbage to Vocera Edge mobile based app for secure care team texting using a big bang approach during the first PDSA cycle. The pre and post implementation data was gathered using a qualitative survey of about 500 multidisciplinary team members to determine the ease of use of the application and its efficiency in care coordination. The technology was further expanded in its use by implementing clinical alerts and alarms notification using middleware integration with patient monitoring (Masimo) and life safety (Nurse call) systems. Additional use of the smart mobile iPhone use include pushing out apps like Lexicomp and Up to Date to have it readily available for users for evident-based practice in medication and disease management. Results: Successful implementation of the communication system in a shared and assigned model with all of the multidisciplinary teams in our pediatric post-acute setting. In just a 3-monthperiod post implementation, we noticed a 14% increase from 7,993 messages in 6 days in December 2020 to 9,116messages in March 2021. This confirmed that all clinical and non-clinical teams were using this mode of communication for coordinating the care for their patients. System generated data analytics used in addition to the pre and post implementation staff survey for process evaluation. Conclusion: A secure texting option using a mobile device is a safe and efficient mode for care team communication and collaboration using technology in real time. This allows for the settings like post-acute pediatric care areas to be in line with the widespread use of mobile apps and technology in our mainstream healthcare.

Keywords: nursing informatics, mobile secure texting, multidisciplinary communication, pediatrics post acute care

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37 Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst in a 13-Year-Old Child: A Case Report

Authors: Ghada Esheba, Bayan Hafiz, Ashwaq Al-Qarni, Abdulelah AlMalki, Esraa Kaheel

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Hydatid disease is caused by genus Echinococcus, it is transmitted to human through sheep and cattle. People who lived in an endemic area should be suspected to have the disease. Pulmonary hydatid disease can be presented by respiratory manifestations as in our case. We report a case of child, 13 years old, who was presented by shortness of breath and non-productive cough 2 months ago. The patient had an attack of hemoptysis 3 months ago but there is no history of fever, other constitutional symptoms or any medical illness. The patient has had a close contact with a horse. On examination, the patient was oriented and vitally stable. Both side of chest were moving equally with decrease air entry on the left side of the chest. Cervical lymph node enlargement was also detected. The case was provisionally diagnosed as tuberculosis. The x-ray was normal, while CT scan showed two cysts in the left side. The patient was treated surgically with resection of both cysts without lobectomy. Broncho-alveolar lavage was done and together with plural effusion and both cysts were sent for histopathology. The patient received the following medication: albendazole 200MG/BID/Orally for 30 days and Cefuroxime 250MG/Q12H/Orally for 10 days.

Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, hydatid disease, pediatrics, pulmonary hydatid cyst

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36 Effect of Phenytoin and Cyclosporine on Connective Tissue Enzymes in Gingival Fibroblasts of Adult and Children

Authors: V. Surena, B. Nazemisalman, F. Noghrehkar

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Introduction: Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a common side effect involving users of antiepileptic, immunosuppressive and calcium channel blocker drugs. Cyclosporine and phenytoin are amongst the most widely used drugs associated with GO. Gingival fibroblasts seem to have a significant role in the production of certain enzymes after administration of the drugs contributing to GO. Previous studies have shown a higher prevalence of GO in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare normal human gingival fibroblasts with those exposed to Cyclosporine or phenytoin in measuring the production levels of certain enzymes that could have a possible role in GO. Methods: samples were obtained from the gingival biopsies of seven adult and seven children and were cultured into plates. With the growth of fibroblast cells, they were treated with or without either Cyclosporine or phenytoin. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the expressed levels of R-EGF, cathepsin B,L, Lysyl oxidase, COL1, TGF β1, MMP-1,2, and TIMP1. Results: according to RT-PCR analyses, the expressed levels of R-EGF, cathepsin B, L, Lysyl oxidase, COL1, TGF β1, MMP-1, 2 and TIMP1 were affected by Cyclosporine and phenytoin. TGF-β1, TIMP, Cathepsin B and EGF showed comparable values in the adult and pediatric groups. Conclusions: Different expressed levels of enzymes after treatment of the gingival fibroblasts of adults and pediatrics with phenytoin or Cyclosporine could be the reason for the higher severity of GO in children. More studies need to be performed on the pathogenesis of GO at different age groups.

Keywords: cyclosporine, fibroblasts, phenytoin, gingivae

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35 A Comparison between the McGrath Video Laryngoscope and the Macintosh Laryngoscopy in Children with Expected Normal Airway

Authors: Jong Yeop Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Sook Young Lee

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Background: This prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the McGrath VL compared to Macintosh laryngoscopy in children with expected normal airway during endotracheal intubation, by comparing the time to intubation and ease of intubation. Methods: Eighty-four patients, aged 1-10 years undergoing endotracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly assigned to McGrath group (n = 42) or Macintosh group (n = 42). Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.5-3.0 mg/kg and sevoflurane 5-8 vol%. Orotracheal intubation was performed 2 minutes after injection of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg with McGrath VL or Macintosh laryngoscope. The primary outcome was time to intubation. The Cormack and Lehane glottic grade, intubation difficulty score (IDS), and success rate of intubation were assessed. Hemodynamic changes also were recorded. Results: Median time to intubation [interquartile range] was not different between the McGrath group and the Macintosh group (25.0 [22.8-28.3] s vs. 26.0 [24.0-29.0] s, p = 0.301). The incidence of grade I glottic view was significantly higher in theMcGrath group than in the Macintosh group (95% vs. 74%, p = 0.013). Median IDS was lower in the McGrath group than in the Macintosh group (0 [0-0] vs. 0 [0-1], p = 0.018). There were no significant differences in success rate on intubation or hemodynamics between the two groups. Conclusions: McGrath VL provides better laryngeal views and lower IDS, but similar intubation times and success rates compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope in children with the normal airway.

Keywords: intubation, Macintosh laryngoscopy, Mcgrath videolaryngoscopy, pediatrics

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34 Debate between Breast Milk and Formula Milk in Nutritional Value

Authors: Nora Alkharji, Wafa Fallatah

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Introduction: One of the major issues to consider when is deciding on what to feed a baby is the quality of the food itself. Whilst commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients, most major medical organizations consider breastfeeding the best nutritional option for babies. Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is one of the first decisions expectant parents will make. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is in agreement with other organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Dietetic Association (ADA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) in recommending breastfeeding as the best nutrition for babies and best suited for a baby's digestive system. In addition, breastfeeding helps in the combatting of infections, prevention of allergies, and protection against various chronic conditions. The decision to breastfeed or formula feed one’s baby is a very personal one. However, certain points need to be clarified regarding the nutritional value of breastfeeding versus formula feeding to allow for informed decision-making. Methodology: -A formal debate about whether to breastfeed or formula feed babies as the better choice. -There will be two debaters, both lactation consultants -Arguments will be based on evidence-based medicine -Duration period of debated: 45 min Result: Clarification and heightened awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding. Conclusion: This debate will make the choice between breastfeeding or formula feeding a relatively easy one to make by both health worker and parents.

Keywords: breastmilk, formula milk, nutritional, comparison

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33 Phenotypic and Genotypic Diagnosis of Gaucher Disease in Algeria

Authors: S. Hallal, Z. Chami, A. Hadji-Lehtihet, S. Sokhal-Boudella, A. Berhoune, L. Yargui

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Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage in our population, it is due to a deficiency of β –glucosidase acid. The enzyme deficiency causes a pathological accumulation of undegraded substrate in lysosomes. This metabolic overload is responsible for a multisystemic disease with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bone involvement. Neurological involvement is rare. The laboratory diagnosis of Gaucher disease consists of phenotypic diagnosis by determining the enzymatic activity of β - glucosidase by fluorimetric method, a study by genotypic diagnosis in the GBA gene, limiting the search recurrent mutations (N370S, L444P, 84 GG); PCR followed by an enzymatic digestion. Abnormal profiles were verified by sequencing. Monitoring of treated patients is provided by the determination of chitotriosidase. Our experience spaning a period of 6 years (2007-2014) has enabled us to diagnose 78 patients out of a total of 328 requests from the various departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, neurology. Genotypic diagnosis focused on the entire family of 9 children treated at pediatric CHU Mustapha, which help define the clinical form; or 5 of them had type III disease, carrying the L444P mutation in the homozygous state. Three others were composite (N370/L444P) (N370S/other unintended mutation in our study), and only in one family no recurrent mutation has been found. This molecular study permits screening of heterozygous essential for genetic counseling.

Keywords: Gaucher disease, mutations, N370S, L444P

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32 Low-Dose Chest Computed Tomography Can Help in Differential Diagnosis of Asthma–COPD Overlap Syndrome in Children

Authors: Frantisek Kopriva, Kamila Michalkova, Radim Dudek, Jana Volejnikova

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Rationale: Diagnostic criteria of asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) are controversial in pediatrics. Emphysema is characteristic of COPD and usually does not occur in typical asthma; its presence in patients with asthma suggests the concurrence with COPD. Low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) allows a non-invasive assessment of the lung tissue structure. Here we present CT findings of emphysematous changes in a child with ACOS. Patient and Methods: In a 6-year-old boy, atopy was confirmed by a skin prick test using common allergen extracts (grass and tree pollen, house dust mite, molds, cat, dog; manufacturer Stallergenes Greer, London, UK), where reactions over 3 mm were considered positive. Treatment with corticosteroids was started during the course of severe asthma. At 12 years of age, his spirometric parameters deteriorated despite treatment adjustment (VC 1.76 L=85%, FEV1 1.13 L=67%, TI%VCmax 64%, MEF25 19%, TLC 144%) and the bronchodilator test became negative. Results: Low-dose chest CT displayed irregular regions with increased radiolucency of pulmonary parenchyma (typical for hyperinflation in emphysematous changes) in both lungs. This was in accordance with the results of spirometric examination. Conclusions: ACOS is infrequent in children. However, low-dose chest CT scan can be considered to confirm this diagnosis or eliminate other diagnoses when the clinical condition is deteriorating and treatment response is poor.

Keywords: child, asthma, low-dose chest CT, ACOS

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31 Postoperative Emergence Delirium in Children: An Incomprehensible Scenario For Parents’

Authors: Jenny Ringblom, Marie Proczkowska, Laura Korhonen, Ingrid Wåhlin

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Background: Emergence delirium is a well-known behaviour of perceptual disturbances that may occur after general anaesthesia in children. Children with emergence delirium are often confused; they cry, are involuntarily physically active and are almost impossible to console. The prevalence varies considerably between about 13% and 53%. Research has mainly focused on how different medication accents affect the incidence of emergence delirium, but less is known about parents’ experiences of emergence delirium during the recovery process. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe parents’ experiences and reflections during their child's emergence delirium behaviour when recovering from anaesthesia. Method: The study has a qualitative design, and the data has been analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 16 parents were interviewed at two county hospitals in Sweden. Results: When the parents reunited with their child at the recovering unit, they felt as if they were encountering an incomprehensible scenario. When watching their child demonstrating emergence delirium, they experienced fear and insecurity and had feelings of powerlessness and guilt. Information and previous experience turned out to offer relief and being seen by the healthcare staff when they, in their vulnerability, failed to reach or console their child gave hope and energy. Conclusion: Emergence delirium must be extensively considered in children undergoing general anaesthesia. Healthcare staff needs to be aware of the parental difficulties it may cause. There is also important to know what parents experience as relieving, such as receiving information and when staff members are being available, responsive and supportive during the wake-up period.

Keywords: emergence delirium, experiences, pediatrics, parents, postoperative care

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30 Platelet Indices among the Cases of Vivax Malaria

Authors: Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Mubashra Ahmad, Ramlah Mehmood, Nazia Mahboob, Waqar Nasir

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Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and study changes in MPV and PDW among cases of vivax malaria. Design: Descriptive analytic study. Place and duration of study: Department of pediatrics, Fazle Omar Hospital, from January to December 2012. Methodology: All patients from birth to 16 years age, who presented in Fazle- Omar hospital, Rabwah from January to December 2012 were included in this study. Hundred patients with other febrile illnesses were taken as control. Full blood counts were checked by Madonic CA 620 analyzer. Name, age, sex, weight, platelet counts. MPV, PDW, any evidence of bleeding, outcome of cases included in this study and taken as control were recorded on data sheets. Results: One hundred and forty-two patients were included in this study. There was no incidence of death or active bleeding. Median platelet count was 109000/mm3. Thrombocytopenia was present in 108 (76.1%) patients. Severe thrombocytopenia was present in 10(7%) patients. Minimum count was 27000/mm3 and maximum was 341000/mm3. Platelet counts of control group was significantly more as compared with study group.(p<.001) Median MPV was 8.70. Minimum value was 6.40 and maximum was 11.90. MPV of study group was significantly more than control group.(p<.001) Median PDW was 11.30. Minimum value was 8.5 and maximum was 16.70. There was no difference between PDW of study and control groups (p=0.246). Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is a common complication among pediatric cases of vivax malaria. MPV of cases of vivax malaria is higher than control group.

Keywords: malaria vivax, platelet, mean platelet volume, thrombocytopenia

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29 Correlation of Nutritional Status and Anemia Among School-Aged Children in Indonesian Urban Area

Authors: William Cheng, Yuni Astria, Rini Sekartini

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Background: Prevalence of anemia among school-aged children is relatively high (25.4%). This condition can affect children’s life, including cognitive function. One of the most common factors that is associated with anemia in children is nutritional status. This simple indicator will be very helpful in identifying more population at risk. The aim of this study is to correlate the clinical implication of nutritional status to the prevalence of anemia in children, with intention to determine a more effective nutritional status indicator in detecting anemia. Method: Anthropometric and haemoglobin status were gathered from children between 5 to 7-years-old in one of the urban areas in Jakarta in 2012. We identified children with haemoglobin level under 11.5 as anemia and correlated them to their WHO z-score from each of these indicators: Body Weight for Age (normal weight and underweight), Height for Age (not stunted and stunted), and Body Mass Index for Age (not wasted and wasted). Results: A total of 195 children were included in this research and 57 of them (29,2%) were diagnosed as anemia. The majority of the children had good nutritional status, however, 30 (15,4%) of them were found to be underweight, 33 (16,9%) were stunted, and 1 children (0,5%) was wasted. There were no overweight result found in this population. From the three nutritional status indicators, none proved to be statistically significant in relation to the incidence of anemia (p>0.05). Out of 33 children who were diagnosed as stunted, 36.36 % were found to have anemia, in comparison to 27,7% of children who were not stunted. Meanwhile, among 30 children who were diagnosed as underweight, 33,3 % of them were anemic whereas only 28,4% of the normal weight group were anemic. Conclusion: In this study, there is no significant correlation between anemia with any nutritional status indicator. However, more than a third of the stunted children are proven to have low haemoglobin status. The finding of stunting in children should be given more attention to further investigate for anemia.

Keywords: school-aged children, nutritional status, anemia, pediatrics

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28 Effectiveness of Parent Coaching Intervention for Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities in the Home and Community

Authors: Elnaz Alimi, Keriakoula Andriopoulos, Sam Boyer, Weronika Zuczek

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Occupational therapists can use coaching strategies to guide parents in providing therapy for their children with developmental disabilities. Evidence from various fields has shown increased parental self-efficacy and positive child outcomes as benefits of home and community-based parent coaching models. A literature review was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of parent coaching interventions delivered in home and community settings for children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12, on a variety of parent and child outcomes. CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, PubMed, OTseeker were used as databases. The inclusion criteria consisted of: children with developmental disabilities ages 0-12 and their parents, parent coaching models conducted in the home and community, and parent and child outcomes. Studies were excluded if they were in a language other than English and published before 2000. Results showed that parent coaching interventions led to more positive therapy outcomes in child behaviors and symptoms related to their diagnosis or disorder. Additionally, coaching strategies had positive effects on parental satisfaction with therapy, parental self-efficacy, and family dynamics. Findings revealed decreased parental stress and improved parent-child relationships. Further research on parent coaching could involve studying the feasibility of coaching within occupational therapy specifically, incorporating cultural elements into coaching, qualitative studies on parental satisfaction with coaching, and measuring the quality of life outcomes for the whole family.

Keywords: coaching model, developmental disabilities, occupational therapy, pediatrics

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27 Smartphone Application for Social Inclusion of Deaf Parents and Children About Sphincter Training

Authors: Júlia Alarcon Pinto, Carlos João Schaffhausser, Gustavo Alarcon Pinto

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Introduction: The deaf people in Brazil communicate through the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS), which is restricted to this minority and people that received training. However, there is a lack of prepared professionals in the health system to deal with these patients. Therefore, effective communication, health education, quality of support and assistance are compromised. It is of utmost importance to develop measures that ensure the inclusion of deaf parents and children since there are frequent doubts about sphincter training and an absence of tools to promote effective communication between doctors and their patients. Objective: Use of an efficient, rapid and cheap communication method to promote social inclusion and patient education of deaf parents and children during pediatrics appointments. Results; The application demonstrates how to express phrases and symptoms within seconds and this allows patients to fully understand the information provided during the appointment and are capable to evaluate the signs of readiness, learn the correct approaches with the child, what are the adequate instruments, possible obstacles and the importance to execute medical orientations in order to achieve success in the process. Consequently, patients feel more satisfied, secured and embraced by professionals in the health system care. Conclusion: It is of utmost importance to use efficient and cheap methods that support patient care and education in order to promote health and social inclusion.

Keywords: application, deaf patients, social inclusion, sphincter training

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26 A Retrospective Cross Sectional Study of Blood Culture Results in a Tertiary Hospital, Ekiti, Nigeria

Authors: S. I. Nwadioha, M. S. Odimayo, J. A. Omotayo, A. Olu Taiwo, O. E. Olabiyi

Abstract:

The current study was conducted to determine the epidemiology and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from blood of septicemic patients for improved antibiotic therapy. A three-year descriptive study has been carried out at Microbiology Laboratory, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, from April 2012 to April 2015. Information compiled from patients’ records includes age, sex, isolated organisms and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Three hundred and thirteen blood cultures were collected from neonatology and pediatrics wards, Out Patients’ Department (OPD) and from other adult patients. Forty-one cultures yielded mono microbial growth (no polymicrobial growth), giving an incidence of 13.1% positive blood culture (N=41/313). There were 58.4% Gram-negative bacilli and 41.6% Gram-positive cocci in the microbial growth. Bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus 34%(14/41), Klebsiella species22% (9/41), Enterococci 17%(7/41), Proteus species12%(5/41), Escherichia coli 7%(3/41) and Streptococcal pneumoniae 7%(3/41). There was a (35%) higher occurrence of septicemia in neonates than in any other age groups in the hospital. Bacterial sensitivity to 13 antibiotic agents was determined by antibiotics disc diffusion using modified Kirby Bauer’s method. Gram-positive organisms showed a higher antibiotic sensitivity ranging from 14- 100% than the Gram-negative bacteria (11-80%). Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella species are the most prevalent organisms. The third generation Cephalosporins (Ceftriaxone) and Floroquinolone(Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin) have proved reliable for management of these blood infections.

Keywords: blood cultures, septicemia, antibiogram, Nigeria

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25 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge

Abstract:

Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

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24 Modifying Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors in Urban Primary School Children: Three Different Exercise Interventions

Authors: Anneke Van Biljon

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Background: Exercise is a primary form of preventing and improving cardiometabolic disease risk factors; however specific exercise variables and their associated health benefits in children are inconclusive. A preliminary study revealed that different exercise variables may improve particular cardiometabolic health benefits. Objectives: This study further investigated the specific cardiometabolic health benefits associated with three isocaloric exercise interventions set at different intensities. Methods: Hundred-and-twenty (n = 120) participants between the ages of 10 – 14 years old were assigned to four different study groups 1. High intensity interval training (HIIT) at > 80% MHR 2. Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) at 65% – 70% MHR 3. Alternative intensities (ALT) of HIIT and MICT 4. Control group. Exercise interventions were designed to generate isocaloric workloads of ~154.77 kcal per session, three times per week for five weeks. The one-way ANOVA test established comparisons between group means. Post hoc tests were calculated to determine specific group differences. Results: Although, all exercise groups improved cardiometabolic health, the MICT group showed greater improvements in fasting glucose (-9.30%), whereas cardiorespiratory fitness increased most by 31.33% (p = 0.000) within the HIIT group. Finally, ALT group recorded overall superior and additional cardiometabolic health benefits compared with both MICT and HIIT groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that superior benefits may be elicited when combining and alternating MICT and HIIT. These results provide specific exercise recommendations for achieving optimal and substantial cardiometabolic health benefits in children which will contribute towards achieving the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 2030.

Keywords: cardiometabolic disease risk factors, exercise, pediatrics, interventions

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23 Translation and Validation of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory for Children in Pakistani Context

Authors: Nazia Mustafa, Aneela Maqsood

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Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory is the most widely used instrument for assessing children and adolescent health-related quality of life and has shown excellent markers of reliability and validity. The current study was carried out with the objectives of translation and cross-language validation along with the determination of factor Structure and psychometric properties of the Urdu version. It was administered on 154 Primary School Children with age range 10 to12 years (M= 10.86, S.D = 0.62); including boys (n=92) and girls (n = 62). The sample was recruited from two randomly selected schools from the Rawalpindi district of Pakistan. Results of the pilot phase revealed that the instrument had good reliability (Urdu Version α = 0.798; English Version α = 0.795) as well as test-retest correlation coefficients over a period of 15 days (r = 0.85). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) resulted in three factorial structures; Social/School Functioning (k = 8), Psychological Functioning (k = 7) and Physical Functioning (k = 6) considered suitable for our sample instead of four factors. Bartlett's test of sphericity showed inter-correlation between variables. However, factor loadings for items 22 and 23 of the School Functioning subscale were problematic. The model was fit to the data after their removal with Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability coefficient of the scale (k = 21) as 0.87 and for subscales as 0.75, 0.77 and 0.73 for Social/School Scale, Psychological subscale and Physical subscale, respectively. These results supported the feasibility and reliability of the Urdu version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory as a reliable and effective tool for the measurement of quality of life among Pediatrics Pakistani population.

Keywords: primary school children, paediatric quality of life, exploratory factor analysis, Pakistan

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22 The Connection between Social Support, Caregiver Burden, and Life Satisfaction of the Parents Whose Children Have Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: A. Uludağ, F. G. Tufekci, N. Ceviz

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Aim: The research has been carried out in order to evaluate caregiver burden, life satisfaction and received social support level of the parents whose children have congenital heart disease; to examine the relationship between the social supports received by them and caregiver burden and life satisfaction. Material and Method: The research which is descriptive and which is searching a relationship has been carried out between the dates June 7, 2012- June 30, 2014, in Erzurum Ataturk University Research and Application Hospital, Department of Pediatrics and Children Cardiology Polyclinic. In the research, it was collaborated with the parents (N = 157) who accepted to participate in, of children who were between the ages of 3 months- 12 years. While gathering the data, a questionnaire, Zarit Caregiver Burden, Life Satisfaction and Social Support Scales have been used. The statistics of the data acquired has been produced by using percentage distribution, mean, and variance and correlation analysis. Ethical principles are followed in the research. Results: In the research, caregiver burden, life satisfaction and social support level received from family (p < 0.05), have been determined higher in the parents whose children have serious congenital heart disease than that of parents whose children have slight disease and social support received from friends has been found lower. It has been determined that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through negative direction between both social support levels and caregiver burden of parents; and that there is a strong relation (p < 0.001) through positive direction between both support levels and life satisfaction. Conclusion: That Social Support is in a strong relation with Caregiver Burden through a negative direction and a strong relation with Life Satisfaction through positive direction in parents of all the children who have congenital heart disease requires social support systems to be reinforced. Parents can be led or guided so as to prompt social support systems more.

Keywords: congenital heart disease, child, parents, caregiver burden, life satisfaction, social support

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21 Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis in Pediatrics Patient: A Case Report

Authors: Saboor Saeed, Chunming Jiang

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Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, is a rare systemic vasculitis of small and medium-sized vessels that primarily develops in middle-aged individuals. It is characterized by asthma, blood eosinophilia, and extra pulmonary manifestations. In childhood, EGPA is extremely rare. Pulmonary and cardiac involvement is predominant in pediatric EGPA, and mortality is substantial. Generally, EGPA will develop in three stages: a) The allergic phase is commonly associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis, b) the eosinophilic phase, in which the main pathology is related to the infiltration of eosinophilic organs, i.e., lung, heart, and gastrointestinal system, c) vasculitis phase involved purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and some constitutional symptoms. The key to the treatment of EGPA lies in the early diagnosis of the disease. Early application of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants can improve symptoms and the overall prognosis of EGPA. Case Description: We presented a case of an 8-year-old boy with a history of short asthma, marked eosinophilia, and multi-organ involvement. The extremely high eosinophil level in the blood (72.50%) prompted the examination of eosinophilic leukemia before EGPA diagnosis was made. Subsequently, this disease was successfully treated. This case report shows a typical case of CSS in childhood because of the extreme eosinophilia. It emphasizes the importance of EGPA is a life-threatening cause of children's eosinophilia. Conclusion: EGPA in children has unique clinical, imaging, and histological characteristics different from those of adults. In pediatric patients, the development and diagnosis of systemic symptoms are often delayed, mainly occurring in the eosinophilic phase, which will lead to specific manifestations. At the same time, we cannot detect a genetic relationship related to EGPA.

Keywords: Churg Strauss syndrome, asthma, vasculitis, hypereosinophilia, eosinophilic granulomatosis polyangiitis

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20 The Importance of Introducing New Academic Programs in ‎Egyptian National Cancer ‎Institute

Authors: Mohammed S. Mohammed, Asmaa M. S. Mohammed

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Background: To achieve the quality of cancer care, the oncologic academic programs should be continuously developed with establishing new ones. We highlighted three disciplines, Clinical nutrition, medical biophysics and radiobiology and Psycho-oncology programs; without a doubt, the Egyptian National Cancer Institute, in ‎the accreditation era, will be establishing them ‎ due to their importance in improving the skills of cancer practitioners. Methods: The first suggested program in Clinical Nutrition that is dealing with the assessment of the patient's well-being before, during and after treatment to avoid the defects in the metabolism resulting from the cancer disease and its treatment by giving the supplements in the patient's diet. The second program is Medical Biophysics and Radiobiology, which there's no denying that it ‎is ‎provided ‎in Cairo University as a good program in the faculty of science but lacks the clinical ‎practice. Hence, it is probably better to establish this program in our institute to ‎improve the ‎practitioner skills and introduce a tailored radiation therapy regimen for every patient according to ‎their characteristic profile.‎ While patients are receiving their treatment, the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder arises, so the importance of the third program, Psycho-Oncology, is clearly obtained. This program is concerned with the psychological, social, behavioral, and ethical aspects of cancer. The area of multi-disciplinary interest has boundaries with the major specialties in oncology: the clinical disciplines (surgery, medicine, pediatrics, and radiotherapy), epidemiology, immunology, endocrinology, biology, pathology, bioethics, palliative care, rehabilitation medicine, clinical trials research and decision making, as well as psychiatry and psychology. Results: It is a prospective academic plan which is compatible with the institutional vision and its strategic plan. Conclusion: In this context, evaluating and understanding the suggested academic programs has become a mandatory part of cancer care. And it is essential to be provided by the NCI.

Keywords: clinical nutrition, psycho-oncology, medical biophysics and radiobiology, medical education

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19 Challenges Faced by Physician Leaders in Teaching Hospitals of Private Medical Schools in the National Capital Region, Philippines

Authors: Policarpio Jr. Joves

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Physicians in most teaching hospitals are commonly promoted into managerial roles, yet their training is mostly in clinical and scientific skills but not in leadership competencies. When they shift into roles of physician leadership, the majority hold on to their primary identity of physicians. These conflicting roles affect their identity and eventually their work. The physician leaders also face additional challenges related to academics which include incorporation of new knowledge into the existing curriculum, use of technology in the delivery of teaching, the need to train medical students outside of hospital wards, etc. The study aims to explore how physician leaders in teaching hospitals of private medical schools enact their leadership roles and how they face the challenges as physician leaders. The study setting shall be teaching hospitals of three private medical schools situated in the National Capital Region, Philippines. A multiple case study design shall be adopted in this research. Physicians shall be eligible to participate in the study if they are practicing clinicians limited to the five major clinical specialty: Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology. They must be teaching in the College of Medicine prior to their appointments as physician leaders in both medical school and teaching hospital. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews shall be utilized as a means of data collection, with open-ended questions, enabling physician leaders to present narratives about their identity, role enactment, conflicts, reaction of colleagues, and the challenges encountered in their day-to-day work as physician leaders. Interviews shall be combined with observations and review of records to gain more insights into how the physician leaders are 'doing' management. Within-case analysis shall be done initially followed by a thematic analysis across the cases, referred to as cross–case analysis or cross-case synthesis.

Keywords: academic leaders, academic managers, physician leaders, physician managers

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18 Operating Characteristics of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Identifying Skin and Soft Tissue Abscesses in the Emergency Department

Authors: Sathyaseelan Subramaniam, Jacqueline Bober, Jennifer Chao, Shahriar Zehtabchi

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Background: Emergency physicians frequently evaluate skin and soft tissue infections in order to differentiate abscess from cellulitis. This helps determine which patients will benefit from incision and drainage. Our objective was to determine the operating characteristics of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) compared to clinical examination in identifying abscesses in emergency department (ED) patients with features of skin and soft tissue infections. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in the following databases: Medline, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. Trials were included if they compared the operating characteristics of POCUS with clinical examination in identifying skin and soft tissue abscesses. Trials that included patients with oropharyngeal abscesses or that requiring abscess drainage in the operating room were excluded. The presence of an abscess was determined by pus drainage. No pus seen on incision or resolution of symptoms without pus drainage at follow up, determined the absence of an abscess. Quality of included trials was assessed using GRADE criteria. Operating characteristics of POCUS are reported as sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood (LR+) and negative likelihood (LR-) ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). Summary measures were calculated by generating a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic model (HSROC). Results: Out of 3203 references identified, 5 observational studies with 615 patients in aggregate were included (2 adults and 3 pediatrics). We rated the quality of 3 trials as low and 2 as very low. The operating characteristics of POCUS and clinical examination in identifying soft tissue abscesses are presented in the table. The HSROC for POCUS revealed a sensitivity of 96% (95% CI = 89-98%), specificity of 79% (95% CI = 71-86), LR+ of 4.6 (95% CI = 3.2-6.8), and LR- of 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.2). Conclusion: Existing evidence indicates that POCUS is useful in identifying abscesses in ED patients with skin or soft tissue infections.

Keywords: abscess, point-of-care ultrasound, pocus, skin and soft tissue infection

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