Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3251

Search results for: scoping review

3251 Scoping Review of the Barriers and Facilitators to Enabling Scholarly Activity within Canadian Schools of Nursing

Authors: Christa Siminiuk, Morgan Yates, Paramita Banerjee, Alison Curtis, Lysbeth Cuanda

Abstract:

This review looked at current evidence regarding barriers and facilitators to nursing scholarship within the content of Canadian Schools of Nursing. Nursing scholarship mainly referred to research, though other activities as described by Boyer’s Model were also discussed. This scoping review was done to assist the Langara School of Nursing in developing an evidenced-based plan to enhance scholarly work among its faculty members. The scoping review identified 10 articles which detailed barriers and facilitators in both Canadian and international contexts. Barriers and facilitators in these articles were extracted and they were also critically appraised. The identified barriers and facilitators fell into three main areas; personal attributes, facility factors and system challenges. The three area will be discussed further in the presentation as well as strategies identified to overcome these barriers.

Keywords: barriers, facilitators, nursing education, scholarship

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
3250 Interoperability Maturity Models for Consideration When Using School Management Systems in South Africa: A Scoping Review

Authors: Keneilwe Maremi, Marlien Herselman, Adele Botha

Abstract:

The main purpose and focus of this paper are to determine the Interoperability Maturity Models to consider when using School Management Systems (SMS). The importance of this is to inform and help schools with knowing which Interoperability Maturity Model is best suited for their SMS. To address the purpose, this paper will apply a scoping review to ensure that all aspects are provided. The scoping review will include papers written from 2012-2019 and a comparison of the different types of Interoperability Maturity Models will be discussed in detail, which includes the background information, the levels of interoperability, and area for consideration in each Maturity Model. The literature was obtained from the following databases: IEEE Xplore and Scopus, the following search engines were used: Harzings, and Google Scholar. The topic of the paper was used as a search term for the literature and the term ‘Interoperability Maturity Models’ was used as a keyword. The data were analyzed in terms of the definition of Interoperability, Interoperability Maturity Models, and levels of interoperability. The results provide a table that shows the focus area of concern for each Maturity Model (based on the scoping review where only 24 papers were found to be best suited for the paper out of 740 publications initially identified in the field). This resulted in the most discussed Interoperability Maturity Model for consideration (Information Systems Interoperability Maturity Model (ISIMM) and Organizational Interoperability Maturity Model for C2 (OIM)).

Keywords: interoperability, interoperability maturity model, school management system, scoping review

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
3249 Psychosocial Processes and Strategies behind Islamic Deradicalisation: A Scoping Review

Authors: Carvalho M. Catia, Pinto R. Isabel, Azevedo F. Luis, Guerreiro, T. Alexandre, Barbosa R. Mariana, Pinto S. Marta

Abstract:

Due to the loss of territory, foreign terrorist fighters who have joined Islamic State are returning to their home countries. In order to counter this threat to international security, it is important to implement deradicalisation programmes, through strategies and processes that can reverse radicalisation. The objectives of this scoping review - which is underway - are to provide a comprehensive overview of the programmes being implemented, its main characteristics, the main motives and processes leading to deradicalisation, and to identify the key findings and the existing gaps in the literature. The methodology to be implemented in this scoping review follows the guidelines proposed by Arksey and O’Malley and by The Joanna Briggs Institute. The main results will be the development of a synthesis map of the deradicalisation programmes existing in the world, its main features, and recommendations to policy-makers and professionals.

Keywords: deradicalisation strategies, psychosocial processes, radicalisation, terrorism

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
3248 Ubiquitous Learning Environments in Higher Education: A Scoping Literature Review

Authors: Mari A. Virtanen, Elina Haavisto, Eeva Liikanen, Maria Kääriäinen

Abstract:

Ubiquitous learning and the use of ubiquitous learning environments herald a new era in higher education. Ubiquitous environments fuse together authentic learning situations and digital learning spaces where students can seamlessly immerse themselves into the learning process. Definitions of ubiquitous learning are wide and vary in the previous literature and learning environments are not systemically described. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the criteria and the use of ubiquitous learning environments in higher education contexts. The objective was to provide a clear scope and a wide view for this research area. The original studies were collected from nine electronic databases. Seven publications in total were defined as eligible and included in the final review. An inductive content analysis was used for the data analysis. The reviewed publications described the use of ubiquitous learning environments (ULE) in higher education. Components, contents and outcomes varied between studies, but there were also many similarities. In these studies, the concept of ubiquitousness was defined as context-awareness, embeddedness, content-personalization, location-based, interactivity and flexibility and these were supported by using smart devices, wireless networks and sensing technologies. Contents varied between studies and were customized to specific uses. Measured outcomes in these studies were focused on multiple aspects as learning effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, satisfaction, and usefulness. This study provides a clear scope for ULE used in higher education. It also raises the need for transparent development and publication processes, and for practical implications of ubiquitous learning environments.

Keywords: higher education, learning environment, scoping review, ubiquitous learning, u-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
3247 The Mental Health of Indigenous People During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Scoping Review

Authors: Suzanne L. Stewart, Sarah J. Ponton, Mikaela D. Gabriel, Roy Strebel, Xinyi Lu

Abstract:

Indigenous Peoples have faced unique barriers to accessing and receiving culturally safe and appropriate mental health care while also facing daunting rates of mental health diagnoses and comorbidities. Indigenous researchers and clinicians have well established the connection of the current mental health issues in Indigenous communities as a direct result of colonization by way of intergenerational trauma throughout Canada’s colonial history. Such mental health barriers and challenges have become exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Throughout the pandemic, access to mental health, cultural, ceremonial, and community services were severely impacted and restricted; however, it is these same cultural activities and community resources that are key to supporting Indigenous mental health from a traditional and community-based perspective. This research employed a unique combination of a thorough, analytical scoping review of the existent mental health literature of Indigenous mental health in the COVID-19 pandemic, alongside narrative interviews employing an oral storytelling tradition methodology with key community informants that provide comprehensive cultural services to the Indigenous community of Toronto, as well as across Canada. These key informant interviews provided a wealth of insights into virtual transitions of Indigenous care and mental health support; intersections of historical underfunding and current financial navigation in technology infrastructure; accessibility and connection with Indigenous youth in remote locations; as well as maintaining community involvement and traditional practices in a current pandemic. Both the scoping review and narrative interviews were meticulously analyzed for overarching narrative themes to best explore the extent of the literature on Indigenous mental health and services during COVID-19; identify gaps in this literature; identify barriers and supports for the Indigenous community, and explore the intersection of community and cultural impacts to mental health. Themes of the scoping review included: Historical Context; Challenges in Culturally-Based Services; and Strengths in Culturally-Based Services. Meta themes across narrative interviews included: Virtual Transitions; Financial Support for Indigenous Services; Health Service Delivery & Wellbeing; and Culture & Community Connection. The results of this scoping review and narrative interviews provide wide application and contribution to the mental health literature, as well as recommendations for policy, service provision, autonomy in Indigenous health and wellbeing, and crucial insights into the present and enduring mental health needs of Indigenous Peoples throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: indigenous community services, indigenous mental health, indigenous scoping review, indigenous peoples and Covid-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
3246 A Scoping Review to Explore the Policies and Procedures Addressing the Implementation of Inclusive Education in BRICS Countries

Authors: Bronwyn S. Mthimunye, Athena S. Pedro, Nicolette V. Roman

Abstract:

Inclusive education is a global concern, in the context of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. These countries are all striving for inclusive education, as there are many children excluded from formal schooling. The need for inclusive education is imperative, given the increase in special needs diagnoses. Many children confronted with special needs are still not able to exercise their basic right to education. The aim of conducting this scoping review was to explore the policies and procedures addressing the implementation of inclusive education in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. The studies included were published between 2006-2016 and located in Academic Search Complete, ERIC, Medline, PsycARTICLES, JSTOR, and SAGE Journals. Seven articles were included in which all of the articles reported on inclusive education and the status of implementation. The findings identified many challenges faced by Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa that affect the implementation of policies and programmes. Challenges such as poor planning, resource-constrained communities, lack of professionals in schools, and the need for adequate teacher training were identified. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa are faced with many social and economic challenges, which serves as a barrier to the implementation of inclusive education.

Keywords: special needs, inclusion, education, scoping review

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
3245 Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Clinician Burnout: A Scoping Review

Authors: Hani Malik

Abstract:

Background: Clinician burnout is a growing phenomenon in current health systems worldwide. Increasing emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and reduced personal accomplishment threaten the effective delivery of healthcare. This can potentially be mitigated by mindfulness practice, which has shown promising results in reducing burnout, restoring compassion, and preventing moral injury in clinicians. Objectives: To conduct a scoping review and identify high-quality studies on mindfulness practice in clinician burnout, synthesize themes that emerge from these studies, and discuss the implications of the results to healthcare leadership and innovation. Methodology: A focused scoping review was carried out to investigate the effects of mindfulness practice on clinician burnout. High-ranking journals were targeted to analyse high-quality studies and synthesize common themes in the literature. Studies conducted on current, practicing physicians were included. Mindfulness practice of varying forms was the main intervention studied. Grey literature and studies conducted only on allied health personnel were excluded from this review. Analysis:31 studies were included in this scoping review. Mindfulness practice was found to decrease emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation while improving mood, responses to stress, and vigour. Self-awareness, compassion, and empathy were also increased in study participants. From this review, four themes emerged which include: innovations in mindfulness practice, mindfulness and positive psychology, the impact of mindfulness on work and patient care, and barriers and facilitators to clinician mindfulness practice. Conclusion: Mindfulness had widely been reported to benefit mental health and well-being, but the studies reviewed seemed to adopt a mono focus and omitted key considerations to healthcare leadership, systems-level culture, and practices. Mindfulness practice is a quintessential component of positive psychology and is inherently linked to effective leadership. A mindful and compassionate clinician leader will play a crucial role in addressing gaps in current practice, prioritise staff mental health, and provide a supportive platform for innovation.

Keywords: mindfulness practice, clinician burnout, healthcare leadership, COVID-19

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
3244 Elder Abuse Interventions: What We Know and What We Need to Know

Authors: Sepali Guruge

Abstract:

Background: There is an increase in interest among health care professionals and social workers in understanding how best to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse. Purpose & method: Based on a recently completed scoping review of related literature, this paper will focus on the current state of knowledge on elder abuse interventions. Results: The results will be presented in light of the fact that limited literature exists on primary prevention of elder abuse. The existing literature on interventions to reduce or stop abuse will be critically examined in terms of their effectiveness. Particular attention will be paid to interventions such as relocation of older adults experiencing abuse, in-home assessments, empowerment and psycho-educational support for older adults. Conclusions: Overall, multi-stakeholder collaborative, community-based interventions should be designed to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse.

Keywords: elder abuse, interventions, scoping review, prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
3243 A Delphi Study to Build Consensus for Tuberculosis Control Guideline to Achieve Who End Tb 2035 Strategy

Authors: Pui Hong Chung, Cyrus Leung, Jun Li, Kin On Kwok, Ek Yeoh

Abstract:

Introduction: Studies for TB control in intermediate tuberculosis burden countries (IBCs) comprise a relatively small proportion in TB control literature, as compared to the effort put in high and low burden counterparts. It currently lacks of consensus in the optimal weapons and strategies we can use to combat TB in IBCs; guidelines of TB control are inadequate and thus posing a great obstacle in eliminating TB in these countries. To fill-in the research and services gap, we need to summarize the findings of the effort in this regard and to seek consensus in terms of policy making for TB control, we have devised a series of scoping and Delphi studies for these purposes. Method: The scoping and Delphi studies are conducted in parallel to feed information for each other. Before the Delphi iterations, we have invited three local experts in TB control in Hong Kong to participate in the pre-assessment round of the Delphi study to comments on the validity, relevance, and clarity of the Delphi questionnaire. Result: Two scoping studies, regarding LTBI control in health care workers in IBCs and TB control in elderly of IBCs respectively, have been conducted. The result of these two studies is used as the foundation for developing the Delphi questionnaire, which tapped on seven areas of question, namely: characteristics of IBCs, adequacy of research and services in LTBI control in IBCs, importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in hospital, screening and treatment of LTBI in community, reasons of refusal to/ default from LTBI treatment, medical adherence of LTBI treatment, and importance and feasibility of interventions for TB control and prevention in elderly in IBCs. The local experts also commented on the two scoping studies conducted, thus act as the sixth phase of expert consultation in Arksey and O’Malley framework of scoping studies, to either nourish the scope and strategies used in these studies or to supplement ideas for further scoping or systematic review studies. In the subsequent stage, an international expert panel, comprised of 15 to 20 experts from IBCs in Western Pacific Region, will be recruited to join the two-round anonymous Delphi iterations. Four categories of TB control experts, namely clinicians, policy makers, microbiologists/ laboratory personnel, and public health clinicians will be our target groups. A consensus level of 80% is used to determine the achievement of consensus on particular issues. Key messages: 1. Scoping review and Delphi method are useful to identify gaps and then achieve consensus in research. 2. Lots of resources are put in the high burden countries now. However, the usually neglected intermediate-burden countries with TB is an indispensable part for achieving the ambitious WHO End TB 2035 target.

Keywords: dephi questionnaire, tuberculosis, WHO, latent TB infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3242 Scoping Review of Biological Age Measurement Composed of Biomarkers

Authors: Diego Alejandro Espíndola-Fernández, Ana María Posada-Cano, Dagnóvar Aristizábal-Ocampo, Jaime Alberto Gallo-Villegas

Abstract:

Background: With the increase in life expectancy, aging has been subject of frequent research, and therefore multiple strategies have been proposed to quantify the advance of the years based on the known physiology of human senescence. For several decades, attempts have been made to characterize these changes through the concept of biological age, which aims to integrate, in a measure of time, structural or functional variation through biomarkers in comparison with simple chronological age. The objective of this scoping review is to deepen the updated concept of measuring biological age composed of biomarkers in the general population and to summarize recent evidence to identify gaps and priorities for future research. Methods: A scoping review was conducted according to the five-phase methodology developed by Arksey and O'Malley through a search of five bibliographic databases to February 2021. Original articles were included with no time or language limit that described the biological age composed of at least two biomarkers in those over 18 years of age. Results: 674 articles were identified, of which 105 were evaluated for eligibility and 65 were included with information on the measurement of biological age composed of biomarkers. Articles from 1974 of 15 nationalities were found, most observational studies, in which clinical or paraclinical biomarkers were used, and 11 different methods described for the calculation of the composite biological age were informed. The outcomes reported were the relationship with the same measured biomarkers, specified risk factors, comorbidities, physical or cognitive functionality, and mortality. Conclusions: The concept of biological age composed of biomarkers has evolved since the 1970s and multiple methods of its quantification have been described through the combination of different clinical and paraclinical variables from observational studies. Future research should consider the population characteristics, and the choice of biomarkers against the proposed outcomes to improve the understanding of aging variables to direct effective strategies for a proper approach.

Keywords: biological age, biological aging, aging, senescence, biomarker

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
3241 The Conceptualization of Patient-Centered Care in Latin America: A Scoping Review

Authors: Anne Klimesch, Alejandra Martinez, Martin HäRter, Isabelle Scholl, Paulina Bravo

Abstract:

Patient-centered care (PCC) is a key principle of high-quality healthcare. In Latin America, research on and promotion of PCC have taken place in the past. However, thorough implementation of PCC in practice is still missing. In Germany, an integrative model of patient-centeredness has been developed by synthesis of diverse concepts of PCC. The model could serve as a point of reference for further research on the implementation of PCC. However, it is predominantly based on research from Europe and North America. This scoping review, therefore, aims to accumulate research on PCC in Latin America in the past 15 years and analyse how PCC has been conceptualized. The resulting overview of PCC in Latin America will be a foundation for a subsequent study aiming at the adaptation of the integrative model of patient-centeredness to the Latin American health care context. Scientific databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, SCIELO, Redalyc.) will be searched, and reference and citation tracking will be performed. Studies will be included if they were carried out in Latin America, investigated PCC in any clinical and community setting (public and private), and were published in English, Spanish, French, or Portuguese since 2006. Furthermore, any theoretical framework or conceptual model to guide how PCC is conceptualized in Latin America will be included. Two reviewers will be responsible for the identification of articles, screening of records, and full-text assessment. The results of the scoping review will be used in the development of a mixed-methods study with the aim to understand the needs for PCC, as well as barriers and facilitators in Latin America. Based on the outcomes, the integrative model of PCC will be translated to Spanish and adapted to the Latin American context. The integrative model will enable the dissemination of the concept of PCC in Latin America and will provide a common ground for further research on the topic. The project will thereby make an important contribution to an evidence-based implementation of PCC in Latin America.

Keywords: conceptual framework, integrative model of PCC, Latin America, patient-centered care

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
3240 The Scope and Effectiveness of Interactive Voice Response Technologies in Post-Operative Care

Authors: Zanib Nafees, Amir Razaghizad, Ibtisam Mahmoud, Abhinav Sharma, Renzo Cecere

Abstract:

More than one million surgeries are performed each year in Canada, resulting in more than 100,000 associated serious adverse events (SAEs) per year. These are defined as unintended injuries or complications that adversely affect the well-being of patients. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of digital health interventions that have the potential to assist, monitor, and educate patients—facilitating self-care following post-operative discharge. Among digital health, interventions are interactive-voice response technologies (IVRs), which have been shown to be highly effective in certain medical settings. Although numerous IVR-based interventions have been developed, their effectiveness and utility remain unclear, notably in post-operative settings. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic or scoping reviews have evaluated this topic to date. Thus, the objective of this scoping review protocol is to systematically map and explore the literature and evidence describing and examining IVR tools, implementation, evaluation, outcome, and experience for post-operative patients. The focus will be primarily on the evaluation of baseline performance status, clinical assessment, treatment outcomes, and patient management, including self-management and self-monitoring. The objective of this scoping review is to assess the extent of the literature to direct future research efforts by identifying gaps and limitations in the literature and to highlight relevant determinants of positive outcomes in the emerging field of IVR monitoring for health outcomes in post-operative patients.

Keywords: digital healthcare technologies, post-surgery, interactive voice technology, interactive voice response

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
3239 Literature Review of Female Migrant Entrepreneurship Research

Authors: Dike Ike

Abstract:

Migrants foster innovation and economic development in host nations through their entrepreneurial activities. Female migrant entrepreneurship is gaining more attention from the research community, with several studies being conducted in the field. This paper presents a standalone (scoping) systematic literature review of academic literature related to female migrant entrepreneurship and focuses on their entrepreneurial experiences, strategies, outcomes, resources, and context. For this purpose, 13 articles published in research journals are studied based on their (a) objective, (b) research methods. Based on the review, several gaps in the literature were identified, and suggestions were made to fill the gaps in future research to expand the scientific knowledge on female migrant entrepreneurship.

Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship, systematic literature review, female migrant entrepreneurship outcomes, female migrant entrepreneurship experiences, female migrant entrepreneurship strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
3238 Effectiveness of Electronic Learning for Continuing Interprofessional Education on Behavior Change of Healthcare Professionals: A Scoping Review

Authors: Kailin K. Zhang, Anne W. Thompson

Abstract:

Electronic learning for continuing professional education (CPE) and interprofessional education (IPE) in healthcare have been shown to improve learners’ satisfaction, attitudes, and performance. Yet, their impact on behavior change in healthcare professionals through continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) is less known. A scoping review of 32 articles from 2010 to 2020 was conducted using the Arksey and O’Malley framework across all healthcare settings. It focused on evaluating the effectiveness of CIPE on behavior change of healthcare professionals, as well as identifying course features of electronic CIPE programs facilitating behavior change. Eight different types of electronic learning methods, including online programs, tele-education, and social media, were identified as interventions. More than 35,542 healthcare professionals participated in the interventions. Electronic learning for CIPE led to positive behavior outcomes in 30 out of 32 studies, especially through a change in patient care practices. The most successful programs provided interactive and authentic learning experiences tailored to learners’ needs while promoting the direct application of what was learned in their clinical settings. Future research should include monitoring of sustained behavior changes and their resultant patient outcomes.

Keywords: behavior change, continuing interprofessional education, distance learning, electronic learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
3237 Moving towards a General Definition of Public Happiness: A Grounded Theory Approach to the Recent Academic Research on Well-Being

Authors: Cristina Sanchez-Sanchez

Abstract:

Although there seems to be a growing interest in the study of the citizen’s happiness as an alternative measure of a country’s progress to GDP, happiness as a public concern is still an ambiguous concept, hard to define. Moreover, different notions are used indiscriminately to talk about the same thing. This investigation aims to determine the conceptions of happiness, well-being and quality of life that originate from the indexes that different governments and public institutions around the world have created to study them. Through the Scoping Review method, this study identifies the recent academic research in this field (a total of 267 documents between 2006 and 2016) from some of the most popular social sciences databases around the world, Web of Science, Scopus, JSTOR, Sage, EBSCO, IBSS and Google Scholar, and in Spain, ISOC and Dialnet. These 267 documents referenced 53 different indexes and researches. The Grounded Theory method has been applied to a sample of 13 indexes in order to identify the main categories they use to determine these three concepts. The results show that these are multi-dimensional concepts and similar indicators are used indistinctly to measure happiness, well-being and quality of life.

Keywords: common good, grounded theory, happiness economics, happiness index, quality of life, scoping review, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3236 Floorboards, Whitewalls and Butterflies: Ethnography of a Community Mental Health Cafe

Authors: J. N. Bardi, N. Wright, S. Timmons, P. Crawford

Abstract:

Introduction: In the United Kingdom (UK), the transfer of care from the asylums to the community has meant that some people with mental health problems (MHP) may not have access to suitable or adequate statutory community mental health services (CMHS). However, in addition to statutory CMHS, there are informal CMHS that provide spaces where people with MHP can attend such as faith communities, clubhouses, user-led organisations, day centres including drop-in-centres and community hubs and community mental health cafés (CMHCs). Aim: To qualitatively understand what happens in a community mental health café in relation to the place, people and processes, from the participant's perspective. Methodology: Ethnography Methods: Data collection will be field notes from observations written as thick description and interviews with participants. Data analysis will be thematic and narrative analysis. Relevance: The study seeks to observe what happens in a user-led community mental health café and explore if it provides the services that it claims to offer. Therefore, a literature review was conducted to examine the research evidence related to informal CMHS, focusing on similarities and differences. Results indicated that informal CMHS differ with regards to why, how, who set them up and who funds them, but they are similar because people with MHP who attend them report related psychological, vocational, and social interaction benefits. In addition to the differences listed above, CMHCs differ in their adoption of the commercial café model of social space and some CMHCs claim to address needs of social isolation and loneliness which they assert are not properly addressed by statutory CMHS and some informal CMHS. Therefore, CMHCs explicitly differentiate themselves from statutory CMHS and some informal CMHS such as day centres, hospitals and social services. However, CMHCs were found to be like drop-in-centres and community hubs which are also free for MHP to attend without the need for assessments, membership or appointments. To situate community mental health café within other informal CMHS and provide a rationale for the proposed study a scoping review was conducted to determine the scope of available research evidence on CMHCs. Findings from the scoping review reflected the literature review findings with regards to the benefits of attending informal CMHCs for people with MHP. Of the ten studies included in the scoping review, seven were on CMHCs for people living with dementia and two were on CMHCs for people with a broader range of MHP. The researcher hopes that findings from the proposed PhD study will build on the existing understanding of informal CMHS, extend the research evidence on CMHCs and address any gap in the literature.

Keywords: cafe, community, ethnography, mental health

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
3235 Pediatric Health Nursing Research in Jordan: Evaluating the State of Knowledge and Determining Future Research Direction

Authors: Inaam Khalaf, Nadin M. Abdel Razeq, Hamza Alduraidi, Suhaila Halasa, Omayyah S. Nassar, Eman Al-Horani, Jumana Shehadeh, Anna Talal

Abstract:

Background: Nursing researchers are responsible for generating knowledge that corresponds to national and global research priorities in order to promote, restore, and maintain the health of individuals and societies. The objectives of this scoping review of Jordanian literature are to assess the existing research on pediatric nursing in terms of evolution, authorship and collaborations, funding sources, methodologies, topics of research, and pediatric subjects' age groups so as to identify gaps in research. Methodology: A search was conducted using related keywords obtained from national and international databases. The reviewed literature included pediatric health articles published through December 2019 in English and Arabic, authored by nursing researchers. The investigators assessed the retrieved studies and extracted data using a data-mining checklist. Results: The review included 265 articles authored by Jordanian nursing researchers concerning children's health, published between 1987 and 2019; 95% were published between 2009 and 2019. The most commonly applied research methodology was the descriptive non-experimental method (76%). The main generic topics were health promotion and disease prevention (23%), chronic physical conditions (19%), mental health, behavioral disorders, and forensic issues (16%). Conclusion: The review findings identified a grave shortage of evidence concerning nursing care issues for children below five years of age, especially those between ages two and five years. The research priorities identified in this review resonate with those identified in international reports. Implications: Nursing researchers are encouraged to conduct more research targeting topics of national-level importance in collaboration with clinically involved nurses and international scholars.

Keywords: Jordan, scoping review, children health nursing, pediatric, adolescents

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
3234 Opportunities for Effective Communication Through the Delivery of an Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis: A Scoping Review

Authors: M. D. Antoine

Abstract:

When a child is diagnosed with an illness, condition, or developmental disorder, the process involved in understanding and accepting this diagnosis can be a very stressful and isolating experience for parents and families. The healthcare providers’ ability to effectively communicate in such situations represents a vital lifeline for parents. In this context, communication becomes a crucial element not only for getting through the period of grief but also for the future. We mobilized the five stages of grief model to summarize existing literature regarding the ways in which the experience ofan autism spectrum disorder diagnosis disclosurealigns with the experience of grief to explore how this can inform best practices for effective communication with parents through the diagnosis disclosure. Fifteen publications met inclusion criteria. Findings from the scoping review of empirical studies show that parents/families experience grief-like emotions during the diagnosis disclosure. However, grief is not an outcome of the encounter itself. In fact, the experience of the encounter can help mitigate the grief experience. The way parents/families receive and react to the ‘news’ depends on their preparedness, knowledge, and the support received through the experience. Individual communication skills, as well as policies and regulations, should be examined to alleviate adverse reactions in this context. These findings highlight the importance of further research into effective parent-provider communication strategies and their place in supporting quality autism care.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, diagnosis disclosure, parent-provider communication, parental grief

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
3233 Food Security Indicators in Deltaic and Coastal Research: A Scoping Review

Authors: Sylvia Szabo, Indrajit Pal, Seree Park

Abstract:

Deltaic and coastal regions are often strategically important both from global and regional perspectives. While river deltas are known to be breadbaskets of the world, delta inhabitants often face the risk of food and nutritional insecurity. These risks are highly exacerbated by the impacts of climate and environmental change. While numerous regional studies examined the prevalence and the determinants of food security in specific delta and coastal regions, there is still a lack of a systematic analysis on the most widely used by scientist food security indicators. In order to fill this gap, a systematic review was carried out using Covidence; a Cochrane adopted systematic review processing software. Papers included in the review were selected from the SCOPUS, Thomson Reuters Web of Science, Science Direct, ProQuest, and Google Scholar databases. Both scientific papers and grey literature (e.g., reports by international organizations) were considered. The results were analyzed by food security components (access, availability, quality, and strategy) and by world regions. Suggestions for further food security, nutrition, and health research as well as policy-related implication are also discussed.

Keywords: delta regions, coastal, food security, indicators, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
3232 Gait Analysis in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors: Neeraj Vij, Christian Leber, Kenneth Schmidt

Abstract:

Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty is a common procedure. It is well known that the biomechanics of the knee do not fully return to their normal state. Motion analysis has been used to study the biomechanics of the knee after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarize the current use of gait analysis in total knee arthroplasty and to identify the preoperative motion analysis parameters for which a systematic review aimed at determining the reliability and validity may be warranted. Materials and Methods: This IRB-exempt scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist strictly. Five search engines were searched for a total of 279 articles. Articles underwent a title and abstract screening process followed by full-text screening. Included articles were placed in the following sections: the role of gait analysis as a research tool for operative decisions, other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty, gait analysis as a tool in predicting radiologic outcomes, gait analysis as a tool in predicting clinical outcomes. Results: Eleven articles studied gait analysis as a research tool in studying operative decisions. Motion analysis is currently used to study surgical approaches, surgical techniques, and implant choice. Five articles studied other research applications for motion analysis in total knee arthroplasty. Other research applications for motion analysis currently include studying the role of the unicompartmental knee arthroplasty and novel physical therapy protocols aimed at optimizing post-operative care. Two articles studied motion analysis as a tool for predicting radiographic outcomes. Preoperative gait analysis has identified parameters than can predict postoperative tibial component migration. 15 articles studied motion analysis in conjunction with clinical scores. Conclusions: There is a broad range of applications within the research domain of total knee arthroplasty. The potential application is likely larger. However, the current literature is limited by vague definitions of ‘gait analysis’ or ‘motion analysis’ and a limited number of articles with preoperative and postoperative functional and clinical measures. Knee adduction moment, knee adduction impulse, total knee range of motion, varus angle, cadence, stride length, and velocity have the potential for integration into composite clinical scores. A systematic review aimed at determining the validity, reliability, sensitivities, and specificities of these variables is warranted.

Keywords: motion analysis, joint replacement, patient-reported outcomes, knee surgery

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
3231 Climate Change and Health: Scoping Review of Scientific Literature 1990-2015

Authors: Niamh Herlihy, Helen Fischer, Rainer Sauerborn, Anneliese Depoux, Avner Bar-Hen, Antoine Flauhault, Stefanie Schütte

Abstract:

In the recent decades, there has been an increase in the number of publications both in the scientific and grey literature on the potential health risks associated with climate change. Though interest in climate change and health is growing, there are still many gaps to adequately assess our future health needs in a warmer world. Generating a greater understanding of the health impacts of climate change could be a key step in inciting the changes necessary to decelerate global warming and to target new strategies to mitigate the consequences on health systems. A long term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in the field of climate change and health is currently missing in order to ensure that all priority areas are being adequately addressed. We conducted a scoping review of published peer-reviewed literature on climate change and health from two large databases, PubMed and Web of Science, between 1990 and 2015. A scoping review allowed for a broad analysis of this complex topic on a meta-level as opposed to a thematically refined literature review. A detailed search strategy including specific climate and health terminology was used to search the two databases. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied in order to capture the most relevant literature on the human health impact of climate change within the chosen timeframe. Two reviewers screened the papers independently and any differences arising were resolved by a third party. Data was extracted, categorized and coded both manually and using R software. Analytics and infographics were developed from results. There were 7269 articles identified between the two databases following the removal of duplicates. After screening of the articles by both reviewers 3751 were included. As expected, preliminary results indicate that the number of publications on the topic has increased over time. Geographically, the majority of publications address the impact of climate change and health in Europe and North America, This is particularly alarming given that countries in the Global South will bear the greatest health burden. Concerning health outcomes, infectious diseases, particularly dengue fever and other mosquito transmitted infections are the most frequently cited. We highlight research gaps in certain areas e.g climate migration and mental health issues. We are developing a database of the identified climate change and health publications and are compiling a report for publication and dissemination of the findings. As health is a major co-beneficiary to climate change mitigation strategies, our results may serve as a useful source of information for research funders and investors when considering future research needs as well as the cost-effectiveness of climate change strategies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project called 4CHealth that confronts results of the research done on scientific, political and press literature to better understand how the knowledge on climate change and health circulates within those different fields and whether and how it is translated to real world change.

Keywords: climate change, health, review, mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
3230 Data Protection and Regulation Compliance on Handling Physical Child Abuse Scenarios- A Scoping Review

Authors: Ana Mafalda Silva, Rebeca Fontes, Ana Paula Vaz, Carla Carreira, Ana Corte-Real

Abstract:

Decades of research on the topic of interpersonal violence against minors highlight five main conclusions: 1) it causes harmful effects on children's development and health; 2) it is prevalent; 3) it violates children's rights; 4) it can be prevented and 5) parents are the main aggressors. The child abuse scenario is identified through clinical observation, administrative data and self-reports. The most used instruments are self-reports; however, there are no valid and reliable self-report instruments for minors, which consist of a retrospective interpretation of the situation by the victim already in her adult phase and/or by her parents. Clinical observation and collection of information, namely from the orofacial region, are essential in the early identification of these situations. The management of medical data, such as personal data, must comply with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), in Europe, and with the General Law of Data Protection (LGPD), in Brazil. This review aims to answer the question: In a situation of medical assistance to minors, in the suspicion of interpersonal violence, due to mistreatment, is it necessary for the guardians to provide consent in the registration and sharing of personal data, namely medical ones. A scoping review was carried out based on a search by the Web of Science and Pubmed search engines. Four papers and two documents from the grey literature were selected. As found, the process of identifying and signaling child abuse by the health professional, and the necessary early intervention in defense of the minor as a victim of abuse, comply with the guidelines expressed in the GDPR and LGPD. This way, the notification in maltreatment scenarios by health professionals should be a priority and there shouldn’t be the fear or anxiety of legal repercussions that stands in the way of collecting and treating the data necessary for the signaling procedure that safeguards and promotes the welfare of children living with abuse.

Keywords: child abuse, disease notifications, ethics, healthcare assistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
3229 Exercise and Geriatric Depression: a Scoping Review of the Research Evidence

Authors: Samira Mehrabi

Abstract:

Geriatric depression is a common late-life mental health disorder that increases morbidity and mortality. It has been shown that exercise is effective in alleviating symptoms of geriatric depression. However, inconsistencies across studies and lack of optimal dose-response of exercise for improving geriatric depression have made it challenging to draw solid conclusions on the effectiveness of exercise in late-life depression. Purpose: To further investigate the moderators of the effectiveness of exercise on geriatric depression across the current body of evidence. Methods: Based on the Arksey and O’Malley framework, an extensive search strategy was performed by exploring PubMed, Scopus, Sport Discus, PsycInfo, ERIC, and IBSS without limitations in the time frame. Eight systematic reviews with empirical results that evaluated the effect of exercise on depression among people aged ≥ 60 years were identified and their individual studies were screened for inclusion. One additional study was found through the hand searching of reference lists. After full-text screening and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 studies were retained for inclusion. Results: The review revealed high variability in characteristics of the exercise interventions and outcome measures. Sample characteristics, nature of comparators, main outcome assessment, and baseline severity of depression also varied notably. Mind-body and aerobic exercises were found to significantly reduce geriatric depression. However, results on the relationship between resistance training and improvements in geriatric depression were inconsistent, and results of the intensity-related antidepressant effects of exercise interventions were mixed. Extensive use of self-reported questionnaires for the main outcome assessment and lack of evidence on the relationship between depression severity and observed effects were of the other important highlights of the review. Conclusion: Several literature gaps were found regarding the potential effect modifiers of exercise and geriatric depression. While acknowledging the complexity of establishing recommendations on the exercise variables and geriatric depression, future studies are required to understand the interplay and threshold effect of exercise for treating geriatric depression.

Keywords: exercise, geriatric depression, healthy aging, older adults, physical activity intervention, scoping review

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
3228 Capturing Healthcare Expert’s Knowledge Digitally: A Scoping Review of Current Approaches

Authors: Sinead Impey, Gaye Stephens, Declan O’Sullivan

Abstract:

Mitigating organisational knowledge loss presents challenges for knowledge managers. Expert knowledge is embodied in people and captured in ‘routines, processes, practices and norms’ as well as in the paper system. These knowledge stores have limitations in so far as they make knowledge diffusion beyond geography or over time difficult. However, technology could present a potential solution by facilitating the capture and management of expert knowledge in a codified and sharable format. Before it can be digitised, however, the knowledge of healthcare experts must be captured. Methods: As a first step in a larger project on this topic, a scoping review was conducted to identify how expert healthcare knowledge is captured digitally. The aim of the review was to identify current healthcare knowledge capture practices, identify gaps in the literature, and justify future research. The review followed a scoping review framework. From an initial 3,430 papers retrieved, 22 were deemed relevant and included in the review. Findings: Two broad approaches –direct and indirect- with themes and subthemes emerged. ‘Direct’ describes a process whereby knowledge is taken directly from subject experts. The themes identified were: ‘Researcher mediated capture’ and ‘Digital mediated capture’. The latter was further distilled into two sub-themes: ‘Captured in specified purpose platforms (SPP)’ and ‘Captured in a virtual community of practice (vCoP)’. ‘Indirect’ processes rely on extracting new knowledge using artificial intelligence techniques from previously captured data. Using this approach, the theme ‘Generated using artificial intelligence methods’ was identified. Although presented as distinct themes, some papers retrieved discuss combining more than one approach to capture knowledge. While no approach emerged as superior, two points arose from the literature. Firstly, human input was evident across themes, even with indirect approaches. Secondly, a range of challenges common among approaches was highlighted. These were (i) ‘Capturing an expert’s knowledge’- Difficulties surrounding capturing an expert’s knowledge related to identifying the ‘expert’ say from the very experienced and how to capture their tacit or difficult to articulate knowledge. (ii) ‘Confirming quality of knowledge’- Once captured, challenges noted surrounded how to validate knowledge captured and, therefore, quality. (iii) ‘Continual knowledge capture’- Once knowledge is captured, validated, and used in a system; however, the process is not complete. Healthcare is a knowledge-rich environment with new evidence emerging frequently. As such, knowledge needs to be reviewed, updated, or removed (redundancy) as appropriate. Although some methods were proposed to address this, such as plausible reasoning or case-based reasoning, conclusions could not be drawn from the papers retrieved. It was, therefore, highlighted as an area for future research. Conclusion: The results described two broad approaches – direct and indirect. Three themes were identified: ‘Researcher mediated capture (Direct)’; ‘Digital mediated capture (Direct)’ and ‘Generated using artificial intelligence methods (Indirect)’. While no single approach was deemed superior, common challenges noted among approaches were: ‘capturing an expert’s knowledge’, ‘confirming quality of knowledge’, and ‘continual knowledge capture’. However, continual knowledge capture was not fully explored in the papers retrieved and was highlighted as an important area for future research. Acknowledgments: This research is partially funded by the ADAPT Centre under the SFI Research Centres Programme (Grant 13/RC/2106) and is co-funded under the European Regional Development Fund.

Keywords: expert knowledge, healthcare, knowledge capture and knowledge management

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
3227 A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Oil and Gas Critical Infrastructures in the Niger Delta

Authors: Justin A. Udie, Subhes C. Bhatthacharyya, Leticia Ozawa-Meida

Abstract:

The impact of climate change is severe in the Niger Delta and critical oil and gas infrastructures are vulnerable. This is partly due to lack of specific impact assessment framework to assess impact indices on both existing and new infrastructures. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the assessment of climate change impact on critical oil and gas infrastructure in the region. Comparative and documentary methods as well as analysis of frameworks were used to develop a flexible, integrated and conceptual four dimensional framework underpinning; 1. Scoping – the theoretical identification of inherent climate burdens, review of exposure, adaptive capacities and delineation of critical infrastructure; 2. Vulnerability assessment – presents a systematic procedure for the assessment of infrastructure vulnerability. It provides real time re-scoping, practical need for data collection, analysis and review. Physical examination of systems is encouraged to complement the scoped data and ascertain the level of exposure to relevant climate risks in the area; 3. New infrastructure – consider infrastructures that are still at developmental level. It seeks to suggest the inclusion of flexible adaptive capacities in original design of infrastructures in line with climate threats and projections; 4. The Mainstreaming Climate Impact Assessment into government’s environmental decision making approach. Though this framework is designed specifically for the estimation of exposure, adaptive capacities and criticality of vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in the Niger Delta to climate burdens; it is recommended for researchers and experts as a first-hand generic and practicable tool which can be used for the assessment of other infrastructures perceived as critical and vulnerable. The paper does not provide further tools that synch into the methodological approach but presents pointers upon which a pragmatic methodology can be developed.

Keywords: adaptation, assessment, conceptual, climate, change, framework, vulnerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
3226 Sexual Health in the Over Forty-Fives: A Cross-Europe Project

Authors: Tess Hartland, Moitree Banerjee, Sue Churchill, Antonina Pereira, Ian Tyndall, Ruth Lowry

Abstract:

Background: Sexual health services and policies for middle-aged and older adults are underdeveloped, while global sexually transmitted infections in this age group are on the rise. The Interreg cross-Europe Sexual Health In Over 45s (SHIFT) project aims to increase participation in sexual health services and improve sexual health and wellbeing in people aged over 45, with an additional focus on disadvantaged groups. Methods: A two-pronged mixed-methodology is being used to develop a model for good service provision in sexual health for over 45s. (1) Following PRISMA-ScR guidelines, a scoping review is being conducted, using the databases PsychINFO, Web of Science, ERIC and PubMed. A key search strategy using terms around sexual health, good practice, over 45s and disadvantaged groups. The initial search for literature yielded 7914 results. (2) Surveys (n=1000) based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour are being administered across the UK, Belgium and Netherlands to explore current sexual health knowledge, awareness and attitudes. Expected results: It is expected that sexual health needs and potential gaps in service provision will be identified in order to inform good practice for sexual health services for the target population. Results of the scoping review are being analysed, while focus group and survey data is being gathered. Preliminary analysis of the survey data highlights barriers to access such as limited risk awareness and stigma. All data analysis will be completed by the time of the conference. Discussion: Findings will inform the development of a model to improve sexual health and wellbeing for among over 45s, a population which is often missed in sexual health policy improvement.

Keywords: adult health, disease prevention, health promotion, over 45s, sexual health

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
3225 A Proposed Inclusive Motor Skill Intervention Programme for Pre-schoolers in Low Resources Areas in Preparation of School Readiness

Authors: J. Van der Walt, N. A. Plastow, M. Unger

Abstract:

Gross and fine motor skill difficulties among children affect their ability to learn and progress in school. Research indicates that children in low socio-economic areas are at a higher risk of motor skill difficulties, while therapy resources are limited. The Hopscotch motor skill programme is a well-researched accessible in-school intervention developed by occupational and physiotherapists through complex intervention development. The development stage of the complex intervention development model firstly included a prevalence study in a low-resourced area in the West Coast of South Africa, indicating a high prevalence with significant motor skill difficulties among pre-school children at 14.5% with fine motor skill difficulties at 24.6%. A scoping review identifies motor skill interventions for pre-school children and a proposed a framework of fundamental concepts to consider when developing a motor skill intervention. a Delphi-study considered the framework and encouraged collaboration between therapists and educators to make the programme accessible, resource and cost effective, specifically geared towards a rural, low resourced area. The results from the Delphi study, together with the proposed framework from the scoping review was used to develop the Hopscotch programme, adopting a task-shifting approach. The eight-week small-group programme is facilitated by teachers with the support of therapists. The programme aims to improve the motor skills of pre-school aged children with motor skill difficulties to promote academic readiness through obstacle courses, ball skill games and fine motor games and crafts. A randomised controlled trial is planned as a next stage to determine the preliminary effect of the programme on the motor and early academic skills of pre-school children.

Keywords: accesible learning, motor skill intervention, school readiness, task shifting

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
3224 Exploring the Link between Hoarding Disorder and Trauma: A Scoping Review

Authors: Murray Anderson, Galina Freed, Karli Jahn

Abstract:

Trauma is increasingly recognized as an important construct that has health implications for those who struggle with various mental health issues. For those individuals who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of hoarding disorder (HD), many have experienced some form of trauma. Further, some of the therapeutic interventions for those with HD can further perpetuate or magnify the experience of trauma. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to identify and document the nature and extent of research evidence related to trauma as it connects with HD. This review was guided by the questions, ‘How can our understanding of the trauma cycle help us to better appreciate the experiences of individuals who hoard, and how will a trauma informed lens inform the interventions for hoarding disorder? A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify original studies that contained the words “hoarding” and “trauma.” PsychINFO”,''EBSCO host,” “CINAHL” and “PubMed” were searched between January 2005 and April 2021. Articles were screened by three reviewers. Data extracted included publication date, demographics, study design, type of analysis, and noted connections between hoarding and trauma. Of the 329 articles, all duplicates, articles on hoardings of animals, articles not in English, and those without full-text availability were removed. Five categories were found in the remaining 45 articles, including (a) traumatic and stressful life events; (b) the link between posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and hoarding; (c) the relationships between different comorbidities, trauma, and hoarding; (d) the lack of early emotional expression and other forms of parental deprivation; and (e) the role of attachment. Lastly, the literature explains how the links between hoarding and trauma are difficult to study due to the highly stigmatized identities with this population. The review provided strong support for the connections between the experience of trauma and HD. What is missing from the literature is the use of a trauma-informed lens to better account for the ways in which hoarding disorder is understood. Other missing pieces in the literature are the potential uses of a trauma-informed lens to enhance the therapeutic process, to understand and reduce treatment attrition, and to improve treatment outcomes. The application of a trauma informed lens could improve our understanding of effective interactions among clients, families, and communities and improve the education around hoarding-related matters. Exploring the connections between trauma and HD can improve therapeutic delivery and destigmatize the experience of dealing with clutter and hoarding concerns. This awareness can also provide health care professionals with both the language and skills to liberate them from a reductionist view on HD.

Keywords: hoarding, attachment, parental deprivation, trauma

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
3223 Healthcare Learning From Near Misses in Aviation Safety

Authors: Nick Woodier, Paul Sampson, Iain Moppett

Abstract:

Background: For years, healthcare across the world has recognised that patients are coming to harm from the very processes meant to help them. In response, healthcare tells itself that it needs to ‘be more like aviation.’ Aviation safety is highly regarded by those in healthcare and is seen as an exemplar. Specifically, healthcare is keen to learn from how aviation uses near misses to make their industry safer. Healthcare is rife with near misses; however, there has been little progress addressing them, with most research having focused on reporting. Addressing the factors that contribute to near misses will potentially help reduce the number of significant, harm patientsafety incidents. While the healthcare literature states the need to learn from aviation’s use of near misses, there is nothing that describes how best to do this. The authors, as part of a larger study of near-miss management in healthcare, sought to learn from aviation to develop principles for how healthcare can identify, report, and learn from near misses to improve patient safety. Methods: A Grounded Theory (GT) methodology, augmented by a scoping review, was used. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and the literature. The review protocol is accessible online. The GT aimed to develop theories about how aviation, amongst other safety-critical industries, manages near misses. Results: Twelve aviation interviews contributed to the GT across passenger airlines, air traffic control, and bodies involved in policy, regulation, and investigation. The scoping review identified 83 articles across a range of safety-critical industries, but only seven focused on aviation. The GT identified that aviation interprets the term ‘near miss’ in different ways, commonly using it to specifically refer to near-miss air collisions, also known as Airproxes. Other types of near misses exist, such as health and safety, but the reporting of these and the safety climate associated with them is not as mature. Safety culture in aviation was regularly discussed, with evidence that culture varies depending on which part of the industry is being considered (e.g., civil vs. business aviation). Near misses are seen as just one part of an extensive safety management system, but processes to support their reporting and their analysis are not consistent. Their value alone is also questionable, with the challenge to long-held beliefs originating from the ‘common cause hypothesis.’ Conclusions: There is learning that healthcare can take from how parts of aviation manage and learn from near misses. For example, healthcare would benefit from a formal safety management system that currently does not exist. However, it may not be as simple as ‘healthcare should learn from aviation’ due to variation in safety maturity across the industry. Healthcare needs to clarify how to incorporate near misses into learning and whether allocating resources to them is of value; it was heard that catastrophes have led to greater improvements in safety in aviation.

Keywords: aviation safety, patient safety, near miss, safety management systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
3222 Understanding the Strategies Underpinning the Marketing of E-Cigarettes: A Content Analysis of Video Advertisements

Authors: Laura Struik, Sarah Dow-Fleisner, Robert Janke

Abstract:

Introduction: The use of e-cigarettes, also known as vaping, has risen exponentially among North American youth and young adults (YYA) in recent years and has become a critical public health concern. The marketing strategies used by e-cigarette companies have been associated with the uptick in use among YYA, with video advertisements on TV and other electronic platforms being the most pervasive strategy. It is unknown if or how these advertisements capitalize on the recently documented multi-faceted influences that contribute to the initiation of vaping among this demographic (e.g., stress, anxiety, gender, peers, etc.), which is examined in this study. Methods: This content analysis is phase one of a two-phased research project that aims to inform meaningful approaches to anti-vaping messaging and campaigns. As part of this first phase, a scoping review has been conducted to identify various influences (environmental, cognitive, contextual, social, and emotional) on e-cigarette uptake among YYA. The results of this scoping review will inform the development of a coding framework to analyze the multiple influences present in vaping advertisements, as seen on two popular television channels (Discovery and AMC). In addition, advertisement characteristics will be incorporated into the coding framework (e.g., the number of people present, demographic details, context, and setting, etc.), and analyzed. Findings: Findings will reveal the types of influences being leveraged in vaping advertisements, and identify the underlying messages that may be particularly attractive to YYA. This will contribute to a more nuanced understanding of how e-cigarette companies market their products and to whom. The results will also inform the next phase of this research project, which will encompass an analysis of anti-vaping advertisements and how the underpinning strategies align with those of the pro-vaping advertisements. Conclusions: Findings of this will study bring forward important implications for developing effective anti-vaping messages, and assist public health professionals in providing more comprehensive prevention and cessation support as it relates to e-cigarette use. Understanding which marketing strategies e-cigarette companies use is vital to our understanding of how to combat them. Findings will inform recommendations for public health efforts aimed at curbing e-cigarette use among YYA, and ultimately contribute to the health and well-being of YYA.

Keywords: e-cigarettes, youth and young adults, advertisements, public health

Procedia PDF Downloads 49