Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 42

Search results for: electroencephalography

42 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann


Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, visual, vestibular

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41 Electroencephalography-Based Intention Recognition and Consensus Assessment during Emergency Response

Authors: Siyao Zhu, Yifang Xu


After natural and man-made disasters, robots can bypass the danger, expedite the search, and acquire unprecedented situational awareness to design rescue plans. The hands-free requirement from the first responders excludes the use of tedious manual control and operation. In unknown, unstructured, and obstructed environments, natural-language-based supervision is not amenable for first responders to formulate, and is difficult for robots to understand. Brain-computer interface is a promising option to overcome the limitations. This study aims to test the feasibility of using electroencephalography (EEG) signals to decode human intentions and detect the level of consensus on robot-provided information. EEG signals were classified using machine-learning and deep-learning methods to discriminate search intentions and agreement perceptions. The results show that the average classification accuracy for intention recognition and consensus assessment is 67% and 72%, respectively, proving the potential of incorporating recognizable users’ bioelectrical responses into advanced robot-assisted systems for emergency response.

Keywords: consensus assessment, electroencephalogram, emergency response, human-robot collaboration, intention recognition, search and rescue

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40 Epileptic Seizure Onset Detection via Energy and Neural Synchronization Decision Fusion

Authors: Marwa Qaraqe, Muhammad Ismail, Erchin Serpedin


This paper presents a novel architecture for a patient-specific epileptic seizure onset detector using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). The proposed architecture is based on the decision fusion calculated from energy and neural synchronization related features. Specifically, one level of the detector calculates the condition number (CN) of an EEG matrix to evaluate the amount of neural synchronization present within the EEG channels. On a parallel level, the detector evaluates the energy contained in four EEG frequency subbands. The information is then fed into two independent (parallel) classification units based on support vector machines to determine the onset of a seizure event. The decisions from the two classifiers are then combined together according to two fusion techniques to determine a global decision. Experimental results demonstrate that the detector based on the AND fusion technique outperforms existing detectors with a sensitivity of 100%, detection latency of 3 seconds, while it achieves a 2:76 false alarm rate per hour. The OR fusion technique achieves a sensitivity of 100%, and significantly improves delay latency (0:17 seconds), yet it achieves 12 false alarms per hour.

Keywords: epilepsy, EEG, seizure onset, electroencephalography, neuron, detection

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39 EEG-Based Classification of Psychiatric Disorders: Bipolar Mood Disorder vs. Schizophrenia

Authors: Han-Jeong Hwang, Jae-Hyun Jo, Fatemeh Alimardani


An accurate diagnosis of psychiatric diseases is a challenging issue, in particular when distinct symptoms for different diseases are overlapped, such as delusions appeared in bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and schizophrenia (SCH). In the present study, we propose a useful way to discriminate BMD and SCH using electroencephalography (EEG). A total of thirty BMD and SCH patients (15 vs. 15) took part in our experiment. EEG signals were measured with nineteen electrodes attached on the scalp using the international 10-20 system, while they were exposed to a visual stimulus flickering at 16 Hz for 95 s. The flickering visual stimulus induces a certain brain signal, known as steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), which is differently observed in patients with BMD and SCH, respectively, in terms of SSVEP amplitude because they process the same visual information in own unique way. For classifying BDM and SCH patients, machine learning technique was employed in which leave-one-out-cross validation was performed. The SSVEPs induced at the fundamental (16 Hz) and second harmonic (32 Hz) stimulation frequencies were extracted using fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and they were used as features. The most discriminative feature was selected using the Fisher score, and support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. From the analysis, we could obtain a classification accuracy of 83.33 %, showing the feasibility of discriminating patients with BMD and SCH using EEG. We expect that our approach can be utilized for psychiatrists to more accurately diagnose the psychiatric disorders, BMD and SCH.

Keywords: bipolar mood disorder, electroencephalography, schizophrenia, machine learning

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38 Electroencephalography (EEG) Analysis of Alcoholic and Control Subjects Using Multiscale Permutation Entropy

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Sajjad Ahmed Nadeem, Saeed Arif Shah, Abdul Majid


Brain electrical activity as reflected in Electroencephalography (EEG) have been analyzed and diagnosed using various techniques. Among them, complexity measure, nonlinearity, disorder, and unpredictability play vital role due to the nonlinear interconnection between functional and anatomical subsystem emerged in brain in healthy state and during various diseases. There are many social and economical issues of alcoholic abuse as memory weakness, decision making, impairments, and concentrations etc. Alcoholism not only defect the brains but also associated with emotional, behavior, and cognitive impairments damaging the white and gray brain matters. A recently developed signal analysis method i.e. Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MPE) is proposed to estimate the complexity of long-range temporal correlation time series EEG of Alcoholic and Control subjects acquired from University of California Machine Learning repository and results are compared with MSE. Using MPE, coarsed grained series is first generated and the PE is computed for each coarsed grained time series against the electrodes O1, O2, C3, C4, F2, F3, F4, F7, F8, Fp1, Fp2, P3, P4, T7, and T8. The results computed against each electrode using MPE gives higher significant values as compared to MSE as well as mean rank differences accordingly. Likewise, ROC and Area under the ROC also gives higher separation against each electrode using MPE in comparison to MSE.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale permutation entropy (MPE), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), permutation entropy (PE), mann whitney test (MMT), receiver operator curve (ROC), complexity measure

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37 Event Related Brain Potentials Evoked by Carmen in Musicians and Dancers

Authors: Hanna Poikonen, Petri Toiviainen, Mari Tervaniemi


Event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by simple tones in the brain have been extensively studied. However, in reality the music surrounding us is spectrally and temporally complex and dynamic. Thus, the research using natural sounds is crucial in understanding the operation of the brain in its natural environment. Music is an excellent example of natural stimulation, which, in various forms, has always been an essential part of different cultures. In addition to sensory responses, music elicits vast cognitive and emotional processes in the brain. When compared to laymen, professional musicians have stronger ERP responses in processing individual musical features in simple tone sequences, such as changes in pitch, timbre and harmony. Here we show that the ERP responses evoked by rapid changes in individual musical features are more intense in musicians than in laymen, also while listening to long excerpts of the composition Carmen. Interestingly, for professional dancers, the amplitudes of the cognitive P300 response are weaker than for musicians but still stronger than for laymen. Also, the cognitive P300 latencies of musicians are significantly shorter whereas the latencies of laymen are significantly longer. In contrast, sensory N100 do not differ in amplitude or latency between musicians and laymen. These results, acquired from a novel ERP methodology for natural music, suggest that we can take the leap of studying the brain with long pieces of natural music also with the ERP method of electroencephalography (EEG), as has already been made with functional magnetic resonance (fMRI), as these two brain imaging devices complement each other.

Keywords: electroencephalography, expertise, musical features, real-life music

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36 Enabling Oral Communication and Accelerating Recovery: The Creation of a Novel Low-Cost Electroencephalography-Based Brain-Computer Interface for the Differently Abled

Authors: Rishabh Ambavanekar


Expressive Aphasia (EA) is an oral disability, common among stroke victims, in which the Broca’s area of the brain is damaged, interfering with verbal communication abilities. EA currently has no technological solutions and its only current viable solutions are inefficient or only available to the affluent. This prompts the need for an affordable, innovative solution to facilitate recovery and assist in speech generation. This project proposes a novel concept: using a wearable low-cost electroencephalography (EEG) device-based brain-computer interface (BCI) to translate a user’s inner dialogue into words. A low-cost EEG device was developed and found to be 10 to 100 times less expensive than any current EEG device on the market. As part of the BCI, a machine learning (ML) model was developed and trained using the EEG data. Two stages of testing were conducted to analyze the effectiveness of the device: a proof-of-concept and a final solution test. The proof-of-concept test demonstrated an average accuracy of above 90% and the final solution test demonstrated an average accuracy of above 75%. These two successful tests were used as a basis to demonstrate the viability of BCI research in developing lower-cost verbal communication devices. Additionally, the device proved to not only enable users to verbally communicate but has the potential to also assist in accelerated recovery from the disorder.

Keywords: neurotechnology, brain-computer interface, neuroscience, human-machine interface, BCI, HMI, aphasia, verbal disability, stroke, low-cost, machine learning, ML, image recognition, EEG, signal analysis

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35 Experimental Simulation Set-Up for Validating Out-Of-The-Loop Mitigation when Monitoring High Levels of Automation in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Oliver Ohneiser, Francesca De Crescenzio, Gianluca Di Flumeri, Jan Kraemer, Bruno Berberian, Sara Bagassi, Nicolina Sciaraffa, Pietro Aricò, Gianluca Borghini, Fabio Babiloni


An increasing degree of automation in air traffic will also change the role of the air traffic controller (ATCO). ATCOs will fulfill significantly more monitoring tasks compared to today. However, this rather passive role may lead to Out-Of-The-Loop (OOTL) effects comprising vigilance decrement and less situation awareness. The project MINIMA (Mitigating Negative Impacts of Monitoring high levels of Automation) has conceived a system to control and mitigate such OOTL phenomena. In order to demonstrate the MINIMA concept, an experimental simulation set-up has been designed. This set-up consists of two parts: 1) a Task Environment (TE) comprising a Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) simulator as well as 2) a Vigilance and Attention Controller (VAC) based on neurophysiological data recording such as electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking devices. The current vigilance level and the attention focus of the controller are measured during the ATCO’s active work in front of the human machine interface (HMI). The derived vigilance level and attention trigger adaptive automation functionalities in the TE to avoid OOTL effects. This paper describes the full-scale experimental set-up and the component development work towards it. Hence, it encompasses a pre-test whose results influenced the development of the VAC as well as the functionalities of the final TE and the two VAC’s sub-components.

Keywords: automation, human factors, air traffic controller, MINIMA, OOTL (Out-Of-The-Loop), EEG (Electroencephalography), HMI (Human Machine Interface)

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34 Study of Mobile Game Addiction Using Electroencephalography Data Analysis

Authors: Arsalan Ansari, Muhammad Dawood Idrees, Maria Hafeez


Use of mobile phones has been increasing considerably over the past decade. Currently, it is one of the main sources of communication and information. Initially, mobile phones were limited to calls and messages, but with the advent of new technology smart phones were being used for many other purposes including video games. Despite of positive outcomes, addiction to video games on mobile phone has become a leading cause of psychological and physiological problems among many people. Several researchers examined the different aspects of behavior addiction with the use of different scales. Objective of this study is to examine any distinction between mobile game addicted and non-addicted players with the use of electroencephalography (EEG), based upon psycho-physiological indicators. The mobile players were asked to play a mobile game and EEG signals were recorded by BIOPAC equipment with AcqKnowledge as data acquisition software. Electrodes were places, following the 10-20 system. EEG was recorded at sampling rate of 200 samples/sec (12,000samples/min). EEG recordings were obtained from the frontal (Fp1, Fp2), parietal (P3, P4), and occipital (O1, O2) lobes of the brain. The frontal lobe is associated with behavioral control, personality, and emotions. The parietal lobe is involved in perception, understanding logic, and arithmetic. The occipital lobe plays a role in visual tasks. For this study, a 60 second time window was chosen for analysis. Preliminary analysis of the signals was carried out with Acqknowledge software of BIOPAC Systems. From the survey based on CGS manual study 2010, it was concluded that five participants out of fifteen were in addictive category. This was used as prior information to group the addicted and non-addicted by physiological analysis. Statistical analysis showed that by applying clustering analysis technique authors were able to categorize the addicted and non-addicted players specifically on theta frequency range of occipital area.

Keywords: mobile game, addiction, psycho-physiology, EEG analysis

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33 Electroencephalography Correlates of Memorability While Viewing Advertising Content

Authors: Victor N. Anisimov, Igor E. Serov, Ksenia M. Kolkova, Natalia V. Galkina


The problem of memorability of the advertising content is closely connected with the key issues of neuromarketing. The memorability of the advertising content contributes to the marketing effectiveness of the promoted product. Significant directions of studying the phenomenon of memorability are the memorability of the brand (detected through the memorability of the logo) and the memorability of the product offer (detected through the memorization of dynamic audiovisual advertising content - commercial). The aim of this work is to reveal the predictors of memorization of static and dynamic audiovisual stimuli (logos and commercials). An important direction of the research was revealing differences in psychophysiological correlates of memorability between static and dynamic audiovisual stimuli. We assumed that static and dynamic images are perceived in different ways and may have a difference in the memorization process. Objective methods of recording psychophysiological parameters while watching static and dynamic audiovisual materials are well suited to achieve the aim. The electroencephalography (EEG) method was performed with the aim of identifying correlates of the memorability of various stimuli in the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. All stimuli (in the groups of statics and dynamics separately) were divided into 2 groups – remembered and not remembered based on the results of the questioning method. The questionnaires were filled out by survey participants after viewing the stimuli not immediately, but after a time interval (for detecting stimuli recorded through long-term memorization). Using statistical method, we developed the classifier (statistical model) that predicts which group (remembered or not remembered) stimuli gets, based on psychophysiological perception. The result of the statistical model was compared with the results of the questionnaire. Conclusions: Predictors of the memorability of static and dynamic stimuli have been identified, which allows prediction of which stimuli will have a higher probability of remembering. Further developments of this study will be the creation of stimulus memory model with the possibility of recognizing the stimulus as previously seen or new. Thus, in the process of remembering the stimulus, it is planned to take into account the stimulus recognition factor, which is one of the most important tasks for neuromarketing.

Keywords: memory, commercials, neuromarketing, EEG, branding

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32 EEG and ABER Abnormalities in Children with Speech and Language Delay

Authors: Bharati Mehta, Manish Parakh, Bharti Bhandari, Sneha Ambwani


Speech and language delay (SLD) is seen commonly as a co-morbidity in children having severe resistant focal and generalized, syndromic and symptomatic epilepsies. It is however not clear whether epilepsy contributes to or is a mere association in the pathogenesis of SLD. Also, it is acknowledged that Auditory Brainstem Evoked Responses (ABER), besides used for evaluating hearing threshold, also aid in prognostication of neurological disorders and abnormalities in the hearing pathway in the brainstem. There is no circumscribed or surrogate neurophysiologic laboratory marker to adjudge the extent of SLD. The current study was designed to evaluate the abnormalities in Electroencephalography (EEG) and ABER in children with SLD who do not have an overt hearing deficit or autism. 94 children of age group 2-8 years with predominant SLD and without any gross motor developmental delay, head injury, gross hearing disorder, cleft lip/palate and autism were selected. Standard video Electroencephalography using the 10:20 international system and ABER after click stimulus with intensities 110 db until 40 db was performed in all children. EEG was abnormal in 47.9% (n= 45; 36 boys and 9 girls) children. In the children with abnormal EEG, 64.5% (n=29) had an abnormal background, 57.8% (n=27) had presence of generalized interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), 20% (n=9) had focal epileptiform discharges exclusively from left side and 33.3% (n=15) had multifocal IEDs occurring both in isolation or associated with generalised abnormalities. In ABER, surprisingly, the peak latencies for waves I, III & V, inter-peak latencies I-III & I-V, III-V and wave amplitude ratio V/I, were found within normal limits in both ears of all the children. Thus in the current study it is certain that presence of generalized IEDs in EEG are seen in higher frequency with SLD and focal IEDs are seen exclusively in left hemisphere in these children. It may be possible that even with generalized EEG abnormalities present in these children, left hemispheric abnormalities as a part of this generalized dysfunction may be responsible for the speech and language dysfunction. The current study also emphasizes that ABER may not be routinely recommended as diagnostic or prognostic tool in children with SLD without frank hearing deficit or autism, thus reducing the burden on electro physiologists, laboratories and saving time and financial resources.

Keywords: ABER, EEG, speech, language delay

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31 A Combination of Independent Component Analysis, Relative Wavelet Energy and Support Vector Machine for Mental State Classification

Authors: Nguyen The Hoang Anh, Tran Huy Hoang, Vu Tat Thang, T. T. Quyen Bui


Mental state classification is an important step for realizing a control system based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals which could benefit a lot of paralyzed people including the locked-in or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Considering that EEG signals are nonstationary and often contaminated by various types of artifacts, classifying thoughts into correct mental states is not a trivial problem. In this work, our contribution is that we present and realize a novel model which integrates different techniques: Independent component analysis (ICA), relative wavelet energy, and support vector machine (SVM) for the same task. We applied our model to classify thoughts in two types of experiment whether with two or three mental states. The experimental results show that the presented model outperforms other models using Artificial Neural Network, K-Nearest Neighbors, etc.

Keywords: EEG, ICA, SVM, wavelet

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30 EEG-Based Screening Tool for School Student’s Brain Disorders Using Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Abdelrahman A. Ramzy, Bassel S. Abdallah, Mohamed E. Bahgat, Sarah M. Abdelkader, Sherif H. ElGohary


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), epilepsy, and autism affect millions of children worldwide, many of which are undiagnosed despite the fact that all of these disorders are detectable in early childhood. Late diagnosis can cause severe problems due to the late treatment and to the misconceptions and lack of awareness as a whole towards these disorders. Moreover, electroencephalography (EEG) has played a vital role in the assessment of neural function in children. Therefore, quantitative EEG measurement will be utilized as a tool for use in the evaluation of patients who may have ADHD, epilepsy, and autism. We propose a screening tool that uses EEG signals and machine learning algorithms to detect these disorders at an early age in an automated manner. The proposed classifiers used with epilepsy as a step taken for the work done so far, provided an accuracy of approximately 97% using SVM, Naïve Bayes and Decision tree, while 98% using KNN, which gives hope for the work yet to be conducted.

Keywords: ADHD, autism, epilepsy, EEG, SVM

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29 Statistical Wavelet Features, PCA, and SVM-Based Approach for EEG Signals Classification

Authors: R. K. Chaurasiya, N. D. Londhe, S. Ghosh


The study of the electrical signals produced by neural activities of human brain is called Electroencephalography. In this paper, we propose an automatic and efficient EEG signal classification approach. The proposed approach is used to classify the EEG signal into two classes: epileptic seizure or not. In the proposed approach, we start with extracting the features by applying Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in order to decompose the EEG signals into sub-bands. These features, extracted from details and approximation coefficients of DWT sub-bands, are used as input to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The classification is based on reducing the feature dimension using PCA and deriving the support-vectors using Support Vector Machine (SVM). The experimental are performed on real and standard dataset. A very high level of classification accuracy is obtained in the result of classification.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, electroencephalogram, pattern recognition, principal component analysis, support vector machine

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28 Real Time Acquisition and Psychoacoustic Analysis of Brain Wave

Authors: Shweta Singh, Dipali Bansal, Rashima Mahajan


Psychoacoustics has become a potential area of research due to the growing interest of both laypersons and medical and mental health professionals. Non-invasive brain computer interface like Electroencephalography (EEG) is widely being used in this field. An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the response of EEG signals to acoustic stimuli further analysing the brain electrical activity. The real time EEG is acquired for 6 participants using a cost effective and portable EMOTIV EEG neuron headset. EEG data analysis is further done using EMOTIV test bench, EDF browser and EEGLAB (MATLAB Tool) application software platforms. Spectral analysis of acquired neural signals (AF3 channel) using these software platforms are clearly indicative of increased brain activity in various bands. The inferences drawn from such an analysis have significant correlation with subject’s subjective reporting of the experiences. The results suggest that the methodology adopted can further be used to assist patients with sleeping and depressive disorders.

Keywords: OM chant, spectral analysis, EDF browser, EEGLAB, EMOTIV, real time acquisition

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27 A Systematic Review of Electroencephalography Measures in Neuromarketing

Authors: A. M. Byrne, E. Bonfiglio, C. Rigby, N. Edelstyn


Introduction: Neuromarketing is a diverse field, employing numerous methodologies to investigate the effectiveness of products, brands, and advertisements. Electroencephalography (EEG), a non-invasive measure that detects electrical activity in the brain using small electrodes attached to the scalp, is commonly used in neuromarketing research. EEG activity is measured in the form of electrical waves, which can be categorised according to their individual signatures (phase, frequency, and amplitude). EEG data can be considered using time-frequency (TF) analysis, where changes in the frequency of brainwaves are calculated to make inferences about participant’s mental states or event-related potential (ERP) analysis, where sharp increases in electrical activity are observed in direct response to a stimulus. This presentation discusses the findings of a systematic review of EEG measures in neuromarketing. A systematic review summarises evidence on a specific research question, using systematic and explicit measures to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research papers. This systematic review identifies which EEG measures are the most robust and consistent predictor of customer preference and purchase intention. Methods: Key search terms identified papers that used EEG in combination with marketing-related stimuli. Publications were excluded if they were primarily written in a language other than English or were not published as journal articles (e.g., book chapters). 174 papers were selected for the systematic review, all of which used EEG measures to investigate marketing-related stimuli. The review investigated which TF effect (e.g., theta-band power), and ERP component (e.g., N400) was most consistently reflective of self-reported like/dislike ratings and purchase intentions. Machine-learning prediction of like/dislike ratings and purchase intention was also investigated, along with the use of EEG when combined with physiological measures such as eye-tracking. Results: Frontal alpha asymmetry was the most reliable TF signal across papers, where an increase in activity over the left side of the frontal lobe indexed a positive response to an advertisement or product, while an increase in activity over the right side indexed a negative response. The late positive potential was the most reliable ERP component and is a positive increase in amplitude occurring around 600 ms after the presentation of a stimulus, reflecting the immediate conscious emotional evaluation of products and advertising. However, there was limited consistency across papers, with each measure showing mixed results when related to self-reported like/dislike and purchase behavior. Predictive accuracy was greatly improved through the use of machine-learning predictions such as deep neural networks, especially when combined with eye-tracking or facial expression analyses. Discussion: Exciting findings to emerge from the systematic review are results identifying frontal alpha asymmetry and the late positive potential as key markers of emotional responses to marketing stimuli. These measures can be further improved through the use of machine learning, which reached predictive accuracies as high as 97%. Future neuromarketing research should therefore focus on the use of machine learning prediction when using EEG data patterns to investigate consumer preference and purchase intention.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, neuromarketing, machine-learning, systematic review, time-frequency

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26 Device Control Using Brain Computer Interface

Authors: P. Neeraj, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh


In current years, Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) scheme based on steady-state Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) have earned much consideration. This study tries to evolve an SSVEP based BCI scheme that can regulate any gadget mock-up in two unique positions ON and OFF. In this paper, two distinctive gleam frequencies in low-frequency part were utilized to evoke the SSVEPs and were shown on a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen utilizing Lab View. Two stimuli shading, Yellow, and Blue were utilized to prepare the system in SSVEPs. The Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded from the occipital part. Elements of the brain were separated by utilizing discrete wavelet Transform. A prominent system for multilayer system diverse Neural Network Algorithm (NNA), is utilized to characterize SSVEP signals. During training of the network with diverse calculation Regression plot results demonstrated that when Levenberg-Marquardt preparing calculation was utilized the exactness turns out to be 93.9%, which is superior to another training algorithm.

Keywords: brain computer interface, electroencephalography, steady-state visual evoked potential, wavelet transform, neural network

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25 Identification of EEG Attention Level Using Empirical Mode Decompositions for BCI Applications

Authors: Chia-Ju Peng, Shih-Jui Chen


This paper proposes a method to discriminate electroencephalogram (EEG) signals between different concentration states using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Brain-computer interface (BCI), also called brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device without the inherent pathway such as the peripheral nervous system or skeletal muscles. Attention level is a common index as a control signal of BCI systems. The EEG signals acquired from people paying attention or in relaxation, respectively, are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMF) by EMD. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis is then applied to each IMF to obtain the frequency spectrums. By observing power spectrums of IMFs, the proposed method has the better identification of EEG attention level than the original EEG signals between different concentration states. The band power of IMF3 is the most obvious especially in β wave, which corresponds to fully awake and generally alert. The signal processing method and results of this experiment paves a new way for BCI robotic system using the attention-level control strategy. The integrated signal processing method reveals appropriate information for discrimination of the attention and relaxation, contributing to a more enhanced BCI performance.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain computer interface, electroencephalography, rehabilitation

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24 Gender Effects in EEG-Based Functional Brain Networks

Authors: Mahdi Jalili


Functional connectivity in the human brain can be represented as a network using electroencephalography (EEG) signals. Network representation of EEG time series can be an efficient vehicle to understand the underlying mechanisms of brain function. Brain functional networks – whose nodes are brain regions and edges correspond to functional links between them – are characterized by neurobiologically meaningful graph theory metrics. This study investigates the degree to which graph theory metrics are sex dependent. To this end, EEGs from 24 healthy female subjects and 21 healthy male subjects were recorded in eyes-closed resting state conditions. The connectivity matrices were extracted using correlation analysis and were further binarized to obtain binary functional networks. Global and local efficiency measures – as graph theory metrics– were computed for the extracted networks. We found that male brains have a significantly greater global efficiency (i.e., global communicability of the network) across all frequency bands for a wide range of cost values in both hemispheres. Furthermore, for a range of cost values, female brains showed significantly greater right-hemispheric local efficiency (i.e., local connectivity) than male brains.

Keywords: EEG, brain, functional networks, network science, graph theory

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23 The Enhancement of Training of Military Pilots Using Psychophysiological Methods

Authors: G. Kloudova, M. Stehlik


Optimal human performance is a key goal in the professional setting of military pilots, which is a highly challenging atmosphere. The aviation environment requires substantial cognitive effort and is rich in potential stressors. Therefore, it is important to analyze variables such as mental workload to ensure safe conditions. Pilot mental workload could be measured using several tools, but most of them are very subjective. This paper details research conducted with military pilots using psychophysiological methods such as electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate (HR) monitoring. The data were measured in a simulator as well as under real flight conditions. All of the pilots were exposed to highly demanding flight tasks and showed big individual response differences. On that basis, the individual pattern for each pilot was created counting different EEG features and heart rate variations. Later on, it was possible to distinguish the most difficult flight tasks for each pilot that should be more extensively trained. For training purposes, an application was developed for the instructors to decide which of the specific tasks to focus on during follow-up training. This complex system can help instructors detect the mentally demanding parts of the flight and enhance the training of military pilots to achieve optimal performance.

Keywords: cognitive effort, human performance, military pilots, psychophysiological methods

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22 An Investigation of the Effects of Emotional Experience Induction on Mirror Neurons System Activity with Regard to Spectrum of Depressive Symptoms

Authors: Elyas Akbari, Jafar Hasani, Newsha Dehestani, Mohammad Khaleghi, Alireza Moradi


The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of emotional experience induction in the mirror neurons systems (MNS) activity with regard to the spectrum of depressive symptoms. For this purpose, at first stage, 449 students of Kharazmi University of Tehran were selected randomly and completed the second version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Then, 36 students with standard Z-score equal or above +1.5 and equal or equal or below -1.5 were selected to construct two groups of high and low spectrum of depressive symptoms. In the next stage, the basic activity of MNS was recorded (mu wave) before presenting the positive and negative emotional video clips by Electroencephalography (EEG) technique. The findings related to emotion induction (neutral, negative and positive emotion) demonstrated that the activity of recorded mirror neuron areas had a significant difference between the depressive and non-depressive groups. These findings suggest that probably processing of negative emotions in depressive individuals is due to the idea that the mirror neurons in motor cortex matched up the activity of cognitive regions with the person’s schema. Considering the results of the present study, it could be said that the MNS provides a substrate where emotional disorders can be studied and evaluated.

Keywords: emotional experiences, mirror neurons, depressive symptoms, negative and positive emotion

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21 EEG Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Language Disorders

Authors: Hamed Alizadeh Dashagholi, Hossein Yousefi-Banaem, Mina Naeimi


Current study established for EEG signal analysis in patients with language disorder. Language disorder can be defined as meaningful delay in the use or understanding of spoken or written language. The disorder can include the content or meaning of language, its form, or its use. Here we applied Z-score, power spectrum, and coherence methods to discriminate the language disorder data from healthy ones. Power spectrum of each channel in alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and theta frequency bands was measured. In addition, intra hemispheric Z-score obtained by scoring algorithm. Obtained results showed high Z-score and power spectrum in posterior regions. Therefore, we can conclude that peoples with language disorder have high brain activity in frontal region of brain in comparison with healthy peoples. Results showed that high coherence correlates with irregularities in the ERP and is often found during complex task, whereas low coherence is often found in pathological conditions. The results of the Z-score analysis of the brain dynamics showed higher Z-score peak frequency in delta, theta and beta sub bands of Language Disorder patients. In this analysis there were activity signs in both hemispheres and the left-dominant hemisphere was more active than the right.

Keywords: EEG, electroencephalography, coherence methods, language disorder, power spectrum, z-score

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20 Unstructured-Data Content Search Based on Optimized EEG Signal Processing and Multi-Objective Feature Extraction

Authors: Qais M. Yousef, Yasmeen A. Alshaer


Over the last few years, the amount of data available on the globe has been increased rapidly. This came up with the emergence of recent concepts, such as the big data and the Internet of Things, which have furnished a suitable solution for the availability of data all over the world. However, managing this massive amount of data remains a challenge due to their large verity of types and distribution. Therefore, locating the required file particularly from the first trial turned to be a not easy task, due to the large similarities of names for different files distributed on the web. Consequently, the accuracy and speed of search have been negatively affected. This work presents a method using Electroencephalography signals to locate the files based on their contents. Giving the concept of natural mind waves processing, this work analyses the mind wave signals of different people, analyzing them and extracting their most appropriate features using multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, and then classifying them using artificial neural network to distinguish among files with similar names. The aim of this work is to provide the ability to find the files based on their contents using human thoughts only. Implementing this approach and testing it on real people proved its ability to find the desired files accurately within noticeably shorter time and retrieve them as a first choice for the user.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, data contents search, human active memory, mind wave, multi-objective optimization

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19 Generation of Electro-Encephalography Readiness Potentials by Intention

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, Gilwon Yoon


The readiness potential in brain waves is a brain activity related with an intention whose potential arises even before its conscious intention. This study was carried out in order to understand the generation and mechanism of the readiness potential more. The experiment with two subjects was conducted in two ways following the Oddball task protocol. Firstly, auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the subjects. The subject was allowed to press the keyboard with the right index finger only when the subject heard the target stimulus but not the standard stimulus. Secondly, unlike the first one, the auditory stimuli were randomly presented, and the subjects pressed the keyboard in the same manner, but at the same time with grasping action of the left hand. The readiness potential showed up for both of these experiments. In the first Oddball experiment, the readiness potential was detected only when the target stimulus was presented. However, in the second Oddball experiment with the left hand action of grasping something, the readiness potential was detected at the presentation of for both standard and target stimuli. However, detected readiness potentials with the target stimuli were larger than those of the standard stimuli. We found an interesting phenomenon that the readiness potential was able to be detected even the standard stimulus. This indicates that motor-related readiness potentials can be generated only by the intention to move. These results present a new perspective in psychology and brain engineering since subconscious brain action may be prior to conscious recognition of the intention.

Keywords: readiness potential, auditory stimuli, event-related potential, electroencephalography, oddball task

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18 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya


In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, speech recognition, artificial neural network, electroencephalography, EEG, wernicke area

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17 Changes in EEG and Emotion Regulation in the Course of Inward-Attention Meditation Training

Authors: Yuchien Lin


This study attempted to investigate the changes in electroencephalography (EEG) and emotion regulation following eight-week inward-attention meditation training program. The subjects were 24 adults without meditation experiences divided into meditation and control groups. The quantitatively analyzed changes in psychophysiological parameters during inward-attention meditation, and evaluated the emotion scores assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Emotion Regulation Scale (ERS). The results were found: (1) During meditation, significant EEG increased for theta-band activity in the frontal and the bilateral temporal areas, for alpha-band activity in the left and central frontal areas, and for gamma-band activity in the left frontal and the left temporal areas. (2) The meditation group had significantly higher positive affect in posttest than in pretest. (3) There was no significant difference in the changes of EEG spectral characteristics and emotion scores in posttest and pretest for the control group. In the present study, a unique meditative concentration task with a constant level of moderate mental effort focusing on the center of brain was used, so as to enhance frontal midline theta, alpha, and gamma-band activity. These results suggest that this mental training allows individual reach a specific mental state of relaxed but focused awareness. The gamma-band activity, in particular, enhanced over left frontoparietal area may suggest that inward-attention meditation training involves temporal integrative mechanisms and may induce short-term and long-term emotion regulation abilities.

Keywords: meditation, EEG, emotion regulation, gamma activity

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16 Feature Selection of Personal Authentication Based on EEG Signal for K-Means Cluster Analysis Using Silhouettes Score

Authors: Jianfeng Hu


Personal authentication based on electroencephalography (EEG) signals is one of the important field for the biometric technology. More and more researchers have used EEG signals as data source for biometric. However, there are some disadvantages for biometrics based on EEG signals. The proposed method employs entropy measures for feature extraction from EEG signals. Four type of entropies measures, sample entropy (SE), fuzzy entropy (FE), approximate entropy (AE) and spectral entropy (PE), were deployed as feature set. In a silhouettes calculation, the distance from each data point in a cluster to all another point within the same cluster and to all other data points in the closest cluster are determined. Thus silhouettes provide a measure of how well a data point was classified when it was assigned to a cluster and the separation between them. This feature renders silhouettes potentially well suited for assessing cluster quality in personal authentication methods. In this study, “silhouettes scores” was used for assessing the cluster quality of k-means clustering algorithm is well suited for comparing the performance of each EEG dataset. The main goals of this study are: (1) to represent each target as a tuple of multiple feature sets, (2) to assign a suitable measure to each feature set, (3) to combine different feature sets, (4) to determine the optimal feature weighting. Using precision/recall evaluations, the effectiveness of feature weighting in clustering was analyzed. EEG data from 22 subjects were collected. Results showed that: (1) It is possible to use fewer electrodes (3-4) for personal authentication. (2) There was the difference between each electrode for personal authentication (p<0.01). (3) There is no significant difference for authentication performance among feature sets (except feature PE). Conclusion: The combination of k-means clustering algorithm and silhouette approach proved to be an accurate method for personal authentication based on EEG signals.

Keywords: personal authentication, K-mean clustering, electroencephalogram, EEG, silhouettes

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15 Studying Second Language Development from a Complex Dynamic Systems Perspective

Authors: L. Freeborn


This paper discusses the application of complex dynamic system theory (DST) to the study of individual differences in second language development. This transdisciplinary framework allows researchers to view the trajectory of language development as a dynamic, non-linear process. A DST approach views language as multi-componential, consisting of multiple complex systems and nested layers. These multiple components and systems continuously interact and influence each other at both the macro- and micro-level. Dynamic systems theory aims to explain and describe the development of the language system, rather than make predictions about its trajectory. Such a holistic and ecological approach to second language development allows researchers to include various research methods from neurological, cognitive, and social perspectives. A DST perspective would involve in-depth analyses as well as mixed methods research. To illustrate, a neurobiological approach to second language development could include non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate areas of brain activation during language-related tasks. A cognitive framework would further include behavioural research methods to assess the influence of intelligence and personality traits, as well as individual differences in foreign language aptitude, such as phonetic coding ability and working memory capacity. Exploring second language development from a DST approach would also benefit from including perspectives from the field of applied linguistics, regarding the teaching context, second language input, and the role of affective factors such as motivation. In this way, applying mixed research methods from neurobiological, cognitive, and social approaches would enable researchers to have a more holistic view of the dynamic and complex processes of second language development.

Keywords: dynamic systems theory, mixed methods, research design, second language development

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14 A Rare Form of Rapidly Progressive Parkinsonism Associated with Dementia

Authors: Murat Emre, Zeynep Tufekcioglu


Objective: We describe a patient with late onset phenylketonuria which presented with rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism that were reversible after management. Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxlase gene. It normally presents in childhood, in rare cases, however, it may have its onset in adulthood and may mimic other neurological disorders. Case description: A previously normal functioning, 59 year old man was admitted for blurred vision, cognitive impairment and gait difficulty which emerged over the past eight months. In neurological examination he had brisk reflexes, slow gait and left-dominant parkinsonism. Mini-mental state examination score was 25/30, neuropsychological testing revealed a dysexecutive syndrome with constructional apraxia and simultanagnosia. In cranial MRI there were bilateral diffuse hyper-intense lesions in parietal and occipital white matter with no significant atrophy. Electroencephalography showed diffuse slowing with predominance of teta waves. In cerebrospinal fluid examination protein level was slightly elevated (61mg/dL), oligoclonal bands were negative. Electromyography was normal. Routine laboratory examinations for rapidly progressive dementia and parkinsonism were also normal. Serum amino acid levels were determined to explore metabolic leukodystrophies and phenylalanine level was found to be highly elevated (1075 µmol/L) with normal tyrosine (61,20 µmol/L). His cognitive impairment and parkinsonian symptoms improved following three months of phenylalanine restricted diet. Conclusions: Late onset phenylketonuria is a rare, potentially reversible cause of rapidly progressive parkinsonism with dementia. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspicious features.

Keywords: dementia, neurology, Phenylketonuria, rapidly progressive parkinsonism

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13 Examining Predictive Coding in the Hierarchy of Visual Perception in the Autism Spectrum Using Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation

Authors: Min L. Stewart, Patrick Johnston


Predictive coding has been proposed as a general explanatory framework for understanding the neural mechanisms of perception. As such, an underweighting of perceptual priors has been hypothesised to underpin a range of differences in inferential and sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders. However, empirical evidence to support this has not been well established. The present study uses an electroencephalography paradigm involving changes of facial identity and person category (actors etc.) to explore how levels of autistic traits (AT) affect predictive coding at multiple stages in the visual processing hierarchy. The study uses a rapid serial presentation of faces, with hierarchically structured sequences involving both periodic and aperiodic repetitions of different stimulus attributes (i.e., person identity and person category) in order to induce contextual expectations relating to these attributes. It investigates two main predictions: (1) significantly larger and late neural responses to change of expected visual sequences in high-relative to low-AT, and (2) significantly reduced neural responses to violations of contextually induced expectation in high- relative to low-AT. Preliminary frequency analysis data comparing high and low-AT show greater and later event-related-potentials (ERPs) in occipitotemporal areas and prefrontal areas in high-AT than in low-AT for periodic changes of facial identity and person category but smaller ERPs over the same areas in response to aperiodic changes of identity and category. The research advances our understanding of how abnormalities in predictive coding might underpin aberrant perceptual experience in autism spectrum. This is the first stage of a research project that will inform clinical practitioners in developing better diagnostic tests and interventions for people with autism.

Keywords: hierarchical visual processing, face processing, perceptual hierarchy, prediction error, predictive coding

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