Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: conformation

73 Effect of Formulation Compositions and Freezing Rates on the Conformational Changes of Influenza Virus Haemagglutinin (HA)

Authors: Thanh Phuong Doan, Narueporn Sutanthavibul

Abstract:

The influence of freezing cycle on influenza haemagglutinin (HA) conformational stability was investigated in terms of freezing rates and formulation compositions. The results showed that appropriate HA conformation could be evaluated using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy with HA concentration of greater than 0.09 mg/ml. The intermediate freezing rate of approximately 1.0oC/min preserved the original HA conformation better than at slow freezing rate (0.5oC/min) and rapid freezing rate (2.6oC/min). The changes in CD spectra of the secondary HA structure were more pronounced than those of the tertiary HA structure during the evaluation. Additionally, the formulations, which resulted in the highest conformational stability were found to have sucrose present in the composition. As opposed to when only glycine was used, the stability of HA conformation was poor.

Keywords: freezing, haemagglutinin, influenza, circular dichroism

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72 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki

Abstract:

The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

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71 Structural Analysis of Polymer Thin Films at Single Macromolecule Level

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki, Toru Asada, Tomomi Tanii

Abstract:

The properties of a spin-cast film of a polymer material are different from those in the bulk material because the polymer chains are frozen in an un-equilibrium state due to the rapid evaporation of the solvent. However, there has been little information on the un-equilibrated conformation and dynamics in a spin-cast film at the single chain level. The real-space observation of individual chains would provide direct information to discuss the morphology and dynamics of single polymer chains. The recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy methods allows the conformational analysis of single polymer chain. In the current study, the conformation of a polymer chain in a spin-cast film by the super-resolution microscopy. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with the molecular weight of 2.2 x 10^6 was spin-cast onto a glass substrate from toluene and chloroform. For the super-resolution fluorescence imaging, a small amount of the PMMA labeled by rhodamine spiroamide dye was added. The radius of gyration (Rg) was evaluated from the super-resolution fluorescence image of each PMMA chain. The mean-square-root of Rg was 48.7 and 54.0 nm in the spin-cast films prepared from the toluene and chloroform solutions, respectively. On the other hand, the chain dimension in a bulk state (a thermally annealed 10- μm-thick sample) was observed to be 43.1 nm. This indicates that the PMMA chain in the spin-cast film takes an expanded conformation compared to the unperturbed chain and that the chain dimension is dependent on the solvent quality. In a good solvent, the PMMA chain has an expanded conformation by the excluded volume effect. The polymer chain is frozen before the relaxation from an un-equilibrated expanded conformation to an unperturbed one by the rapid solvent evaporation.

Keywords: chain conformation, polymer thin film, spin-coating, super-resolution optical microscopy

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70 Principal Component Analysis of Body Weight and Morphometric Traits of New Zealand Rabbits Raised under Semi-Arid Condition in Nigeria

Authors: Emmanuel Abayomi Rotimi

Abstract:

Context: Rabbits production plays important role in increasing animal protein supply in Nigeria. Rabbit production provides a cheap, affordable, and healthy source of meat. The growth of animals involves an increase in body weight, which can change the conformation of various parts of the body. Live weight and linear measurements are indicators of growth rate in rabbits and other farm animals. Aims: This study aimed to define the body dimensions of New Zealand rabbits and also to investigate the morphometric traits variables that contribute to body conformation by the use of principal component analysis (PCA). Methods: Data were obtained from 80 New Zealand rabbits (40 bucks and 40 does) raised in Livestock Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University Dutsinma. Data were taken on body weight (BWT), body length (BL), ear length (EL), tail length (TL), heart girth (HG) and abdominal circumference (AC). Data collected were subjected to multivariate analysis using SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Key results: The descriptive statistics showed that the mean BWT, BL, EL, TL, HG, and AC were 0.91kg, 27.34cm, 10.24cm, 8.35cm, 19.55cm and 21.30cm respectively. Sex showed significant (P<0.05) effect on all the variables examined, with higher values recorded for does. The phenotypic correlation coefficient values (r) between the morphometric traits were all positive and ranged from r = 0.406 (between EL and BL) to r = 0.909 (between AC and HG). HG is the most correlated with BWT (r = 0.786). The principal component analysis with variance maximizing orthogonal rotation was used to extract the components. Two principal components (PCs) from the factor analysis of morphometric traits explained about 80.42% of the total variance. PC1 accounted for 64.46% while PC2 accounted for 15.97% of the total variances. Three variables, representing body conformation, loaded highest in PC1. PC1 had the highest contribution (64.46%) to the total variance, and it is regarded as body conformation traits. Conclusions: This component could be used as selection criteria for improving body weight of rabbits.

Keywords: conformation, multicollinearity, multivariate, rabbits and principal component analysis

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69 Quantitative Detection of the Conformational Transitions between Open and Closed Forms of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (CYPOR) at the Membrane Surface in Different Functional States

Authors: Sara Arafeh, Kovriguine Evguine

Abstract:

Cytochromes P450 are enzymes that require a supply of electrons to catalyze the synthesis of steroid hormones, fatty acids, and prostaglandin hormone. Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (CYPOR), a membrane bound enzyme, provides these electrons in its open conformation. CYPOR has two cytosolic domains (FAD domain and FMN domain) and an N-terminal in the membrane. In its open conformation, electrons flow from NADPH, FAD, and finally to FMN where cytochrome P450 picks up these electrons. In the closed conformation, cytochrome P450 does not bind to the FMN domain to take the electrons. It was found that when the cytosolic domains are isolated, CYPOR could not bind to cytochrome P450. This suggested that the membrane environment is important for CYPOR function. This project takes the initiative to better understand the dynamics of CYPOR in its full length. Here, we determine the distance between specific sites in the FAD and FMN binding domains in CYPOR by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Ultrafast TA spectroscopy with and without NADPH. The approach to determine these distances will rely on labeling these sites with red and infrared fluorophores. Mimic membrane attachment is done by inserting CYPOR in lipid nanodiscs. By determining the distances between the donor-acceptor sites in these domains, we can observe the open/closed conformations upon reducing CYPOR in the presence and absence of cytochrome P450. Such study is important to better understand CYPOR mechanism of action in various endosomal membranes including hepatic CYPOR which is vital in plasma cholesterol homeostasis. By investigating the conformational cycles of CYPOR, we can synthesize drugs that would be more efficient in affecting the steroid hormonal levels and metabolism of toxins catalyzed by Cytochrome P450.

Keywords: conformational cycle of CYPOR, cytochrome P450, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, FAD domain, FMN domain, FRET, Ultrafast TA Spectroscopy

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68 The Actuation of Semicrystalline Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Tie Molecules: A Computational and Experimental Study

Authors: Abas Mohsenzadeh, Tariq Bashir, Waseen Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Mikael Skrifvars, Kim Bolton

Abstract:

The area of artificial muscles has received significant attention from many research domains including soft robotics, biomechanics and smart textiles in recent years. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been used to form artificial muscles since it contracts upon heating when under load. In this study, PVDF fibers were produced by melt spinning technique at different solid state draw ratios and then actuation mechanism for PVDF tie molecules within the semicrystalline region of PVDF polymer has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Tie molecules are polymer chains that link two (or more) crystalline regions in semicrystalline polymers. The changes in fiber length upon heating have been investigated using a novel simulation technique. The results show that conformational changes of the tie molecules from the longer all-trans conformation at low temperature (β structure) to the shorter conformation (α structure) at higher temperature accrue by increasing the temperature. These results may be applied to understand the actuation observed for PVDF upon heating.

Keywords: poly(vinylidene fluoride), molecular dynamics, simulation, actuators, tie molecules, semicrystalline

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67 Modeling of Anode Catalyst against CO in Fuel Cell Using Material Informatics

Authors: M. Khorshed Alam, H. Takaba

Abstract:

The catalytic properties of metal usually change by intermixturing with another metal in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Pt-Ru alloy is one of the much-talked used alloy to enhance the CO oxidation. In this work, we have investigated the CO coverage on the Pt2Ru3 nanoparticle with different atomic conformation of Pt and Ru using a combination of material informatics with computational chemistry. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations used to describe the adsorption strength of CO and H with different conformation of Pt Ru ratio in the Pt2Ru3 slab surface. Then through the Monte Carlo (MC) simulations we examined the segregation behaviour of Pt as a function of surface atom ratio, subsurface atom ratio, particle size of the Pt2Ru3 nanoparticle. We have constructed a regression equation so as to reproduce the results of DFT only from the structural descriptors. Descriptors were selected for the regression equation; xa-b indicates the number of bonds between targeted atom a and neighboring atom b in the same layer (a,b = Pt or Ru). Terms of xa-H2 and xa-CO represent the number of atoms a binding H2 and CO molecules, respectively. xa-S is the number of atom a on the surface. xa-b- is the number of bonds between atom a and neighboring atom b located outside the layer. The surface segregation in the alloying nanoparticles is influenced by their component elements, composition, crystal lattice, shape, size, nature of the adsorbents and its pressure, temperature etc. Simulations were performed on different size (2.0 nm, 3.0 nm) of nanoparticle that were mixing of Pt and Ru atoms in different conformation considering of temperature range 333K. In addition to the Pt2Ru3 alloy we also considered pure Pt and Ru nanoparticle to make comparison of surface coverage by adsorbates (H2, CO). Hence, we assumed the pure and Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles have an fcc crystal structures as well as a cubo-octahedron shape, which is bounded by (111) and (100) facets. Simulations were performed up to 50 million MC steps. From the results of MC, in the presence of gases (H2, CO), the surfaces are occupied by the gas molecules. In the equilibrium structure the coverage of H and CO as a function of the nature of surface atoms. In the initial structure, the Pt/Ru ratios on the surfaces for different cluster sizes were in range of 0.50 - 0.95. MC simulation was employed when the partial pressure of H2 (PH2) and CO (PCO) were 70 kPa and 100-500 ppm, respectively. The Pt/Ru ratios decrease as the increase in the CO concentration, without little exception only for small nanoparticle. The adsorption strength of CO on the Ru site is higher than the Pt site that would be one of the reason for decreasing the Pt/Ru ratio on the surface. Therefore, our study identifies that controlling the nanoparticle size, composition, conformation of alloying atoms, concentration and chemical potential of adsorbates have impact on the steadiness of nanoparticle alloys which ultimately and also overall catalytic performance during the operations.

Keywords: anode catalysts, fuel cells, material informatics, Monte Carlo

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66 Conformation Prediction of Human Plasmin and Docking on Gold Nanoparticle

Authors: Wen-Shyong Tzou, Chih-Ching Huang, Chin-Hwa Hu, Ying-Tsang Lo, Tun-Wen Pai, Chia-Yin Chiang, Chung-Hao Li, Hong-Jyuan Jian

Abstract:

Plasmin plays an important role in the human circulatory system owing to its catalytic ability of fibrinolysis. The immediate injection of plasmin in patients of strokes has intrigued many scientists to design vectors that can transport plasmin to the desired location in human body. Here we predict the structure of human plasmin and investigate the interaction of plasmin with the gold-nanoparticle. Because the crystal structure of plasminogen has been solved, we deleted N-terminal domain (Pan-apple domain) of plasminogen and generate a mimic of the active form of this enzyme (plasmin). We conducted a simulated annealing process on plasmin and discovered a very large conformation occurs. Kringle domains 1, 4 and 5 had been observed to leave its original location relative to the main body of the enzyme and the original doughnut shape of this enzyme has been transformed to a V-shaped by opening its two arms. This observation of conformational change is consistent with the experimental results of neutron scattering and centrifugation. We subsequently docked the plasmin on the simulated gold surface to predict their interaction. The V-shaped plasmin could utilize its Kringle domain and catalytic domain to contact the gold surface. Our findings not only reveal the flexibility of plasmin structure but also provide a guide for the design of a plasmin-gold nanoparticle.

Keywords: docking, gold nanoparticle, molecular simulation, plasmin

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65 Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on Growth Performance and Body Conformation of Two Omani Goat Breeds

Authors: Fahad Al Yahyaey, Ihab Shaat, Russell Bush

Abstract:

This study was conducted at the Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Oman, on two local goat breeds (Jabbali and Sahrawi) due to their importance to Omani livestock production and food security. The Jabbali is characterized by increased growth rates and a higher twinning rate, while the Sahrawi has increased milk production. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina supplementation on live weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG), and body conformation measurements; chest girth (CG), wither height (WH), body length (BL), and body condition score (BCS). Thirty-six males (approximately nine-months-old and 16.44 ± 0.33 kg average of initial body weight) were used across an eleven-week study from November–February 2019-2020. Each breed was divided into three groups (n = 6/group) and fed one of three rations: (1) concentrate mixture (Control) with crude protein 14% and energy 11.97% MJ/kg DM; (2) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 2 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 1) and (3) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 4 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 2). Analysis of weekly data collections for all traits indicated a significant effect of feeding Spirulina on all the studied traits except WH and BL. Analysis of variance for fixed effects in this study (damage and kid birth type i.e., single, twin or triple) were not significant for all studied traits. However, the breed effect was highly significant (P < 0.001) on BWT, ADG, BCS, and CG traits. On the other hand, when the analysis was done for the treatment effect within breeds for ADG, the Sahrawi breed had a significant effect (P < 0.05) at 56.52, 85.51, and 85.50 g/day for control, treatment 1 and treatment 2, respectively. This is a 51% difference between the control and treatment 1 (2 gm /capita). Whereas for the Jabbali breed, the treatment effect was not significant for ADG (P =0.55), and the actual ADG was 104.59, 118.84, and 114.25 g/day for control, treatment 1, and treatment 2, respectively, providing a 14% difference between the control group and the treated group (4 gm /capita). These findings indicate using Spirulina supplementation in Omani goat diets is recommended at 2 gm per capita as there was no benefit in feeding at 4 gm per capita for either breed. Farmers feeding Spirulina supplementation to kids after weaning at six-months could increase their herd performance and growth rate and facilitate buck selection at an earlier age.

Keywords: body conformation, goats, live weight, spirulina

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64 Binding Studies and Structure Determination of the Recombinantly Produced Type-II 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase from Acinetobacter Baumannii

Authors: Naseer Iqbal, Mukesh Kumar, Pradeep Sharma, Satya Prakash Yadav, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, T. P. Singh

Abstract:

Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC 4.2.1.10) is involved in shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. Shikimate pathway is important drug target as this pathway is absent in mammals. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl, and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized by transferring them into reservoir solution to which 25% glycerol was added for data collection at 100K. The X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.0Å resolution. The crystals belong to monoclinic space group P21 with cell dimensions, a = 82.3, b = 95.3, c = 132.3Å and β = 95.7°. The structure was solved with molecular replacement method and refined to Rcryst/Rfree factors of 0.200/0.232. The structures of 12 crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetry unit were identical with r.m.s shifts for the C atoms ranging from 0.3 Å to 0.8 Å. They formed a dodecamer with four trimers arranged in a tetrahedral manner. The classical lid adopted an open conformation although a sulfate ion was observed in the substrate binding site. As a result of which, the compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid did not bind to AbDHQD.

Keywords: acinetobacter Bauman Nii, dehydroquinate dehydratase, dodecamer, open conformation

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63 Enhanced Stability of Piezoelectric Crystalline Phase of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) (PVDF) and Its Copolymer upon Epitaxial Relationships

Authors: Devi Eka Septiyani Arifin, Jrjeng Ruan

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As an approach to manipulate the performance of polymer thin film, epitaxy crystallization within polymer blends of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) was studied in this research, which involves the competition between phase separation and crystal growth of constitutive semicrystalline polymers. The unique piezoelectric feature of poly(vinylidene fluoride) crystalline phase is derived from the packing of molecular chains in all-trans conformation, which spatially arranges all the substituted fluorene atoms on one side of the molecular chain and hydrogen atoms on the other side. Therefore, the net dipole moment is induced across the lateral packing of molecular chains. Nevertheless, due to the mutual repulsion among fluorene atoms, this all-trans molecular conformation is not stable, and ready to change above curie temperature, where thermal energy is sufficient to cause segmental rotation. This research attempts to explore whether the epitaxial interactions between piezoelectric crystals and crystal lattice of hexamethylbenzene (HMB) crystalline platelet is able to stabilize this metastable all-trans molecular conformation or not. As an aromatic crystalline compound, the melt of HMB was surprisingly found able to dissolve the poly(vinylidene fluoride), resulting in homogeneous eutectic solution. Thus, after quenching this binary eutectic mixture to room temperature, subsequent heating or annealing processes were designed to explore the involve phase separation and crystallization behavior. The phase transition behaviors were observed in-situ by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular packing was observed via transmission electron microscope (TEM) and the principles of electron diffraction were brought to study the internal crystal structure epitaxially developed within thin films. Obtained results clearly indicated the occurrence of heteroepitaxy of PVDF/PVDF-TrFE on HMB crystalline platelet. Both the concentration of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and the mixing ratios of these two constitutive polymers have been adopted as the influential factors for studying the competition between the epitaxial crystallization of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) on HMB crystalline. Furthermore, the involved epitaxial relationship is to be deciphered and studied as a potential factor capable of guiding the wide spread of piezoelectric crystalline form.

Keywords: epitaxy, crystallization, crystalline platelet, thin film and mixing ratio

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62 Molecular Dynamics Study of Ferrocene in Low and Room Temperatures

Authors: Feng Wang, Vladislav Vasilyev

Abstract:

Ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2, i.e., di-cyclopentadienyle iron (FeCp2) or Fc) is a unique example of ‘wrong but seminal’ in chemistry history. It has significant applications in a number of areas such as homogeneous catalysis, polymer chemistry, molecular sensing, and nonlinear optical materials. However, the ‘molecular carousel’ has been a ‘notoriously difficult example’ and subject to long debate for its conformation and properties. Ferrocene is a dynamic molecule. As a result, understanding of the dynamical properties of ferrocene is very important to understand the conformational properties of Fc. In the present study, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations are performed. In the simulation, we use 5 geometrical parameters to define the overall conformation of Fc and all the rest is a thermal noise. The five parameters are defined as: three parameters d---the distance between two Cp planes, α and δ to define the relative positions of the Cp planes, in which α is the angle of the Cp tilt and δ the angle the two Cp plane rotation like a carousel. Two parameters to position the Fe atom between two Cps, i.e., d1 for Fe-Cp1 and d2 for Fe-Cp2 distances. Our preliminary MD simulation discovered the five parameters behave differently. Distances of Fe to the Cp planes show that they are independent, practically identical without correlation. The relative position of two Cp rings, α, indicates that the two Cp planes are most likely not in a parallel position, rather, they tilt in a small angle α≠ 0°. The mean plane dihedral angle δ ≠ 0°. Moreover, δ is neither 0° nor 36°, indicating under those conditions, Fc is neither in a perfect eclipsed structure nor a perfect staggered structure. The simulations show that when the temperature is above 80K, the conformers are virtually in free rotations, A very interesting result from the MD simulation is the five C-Fe bond distances from the same Cp ring. They are surprisingly not identical but in three groups of 2, 2 and 1. We describe the pentagon formed by five carbon atoms as ‘turtle swimming’ for the motion of the Cp rings of Fc as shown in their dynamical animation video. The Fe- C(1) and Fe-C(2) which are identical as ‘the turtle back legs’, Fe-C(3) and Fe-C(4) which are also identical as turtle front paws’, and Fe-C(5) ---’the turtle head’. Such as ‘turtle swimming’ analog may be able to explain the single substituted derivatives of Fc. Again, the mean Fe-C distance obtained from MD simulation is larger than the quantum mechanically calculated Fe-C distances for eclipsed and staggered Fc, with larger deviation with respect to the eclipsed Fc than the staggered Fc. The same trend is obtained for the five Fe-C-H angles from same Cp ring of Fc. The simulated mean IR spectrum at 7K shows split spectral peaks at approximately 470 cm-1 and 488 cm-1, in excellent agreement with quantum mechanically calculated gas phase IR spectrum for eclipsed Fc. As the temperature increases over 80K, the clearly splitting IR spectrum become a very board single peak. Preliminary MD results will be presented.

Keywords: ferrocene conformation, molecular dynamics simulation, conformer orientation, eclipsed and staggered ferrocene

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61 Process Development of pVAX1/lacZ Plasmid DNA Purification Using Design of Experiment

Authors: Asavasereerat K., Teacharsripaitoon T., Tungyingyong P., Charupongrat S., Noppiboon S. Hochareon L., Kitsuban P.

Abstract:

Third generation of vaccines is based on gene therapy where DNA is introduced into patients. The antigenic or therapeutic proteins encoded from transgenes DNA triggers an immune-response to counteract various diseases. Moreover, DNA vaccine offers the customization of its ability on protection and treatment with high stability. The production of DNA vaccines become of interest. According to USFDA guidance for industry, the recommended limits for impurities from host cell are lower than 1%, and the active conformation homogeneity supercoiled DNA, is more than 80%. Thus, the purification strategy using two-steps chromatography has been established and verified for its robustness. Herein, pVax1/lacZ, a pre-approved USFDA DNA vaccine backbone, was used and transformed into E. coli strain DH5α. Three purification process parameters including sample-loading flow rate, the salt concentration in washing and eluting buffer, were studied and the experiment was designed using response surface method with central composite face-centered (CCF) as a model. The designed range of selected parameters was 10% variation from the optimized set point as a safety factor. The purity in the percentage of supercoiled conformation obtained from each chromatography step, AIEX and HIC, were analyzed by HPLC. The response data were used to establish regression model and statistically analyzed followed by Monte Carlo simulation using SAS JMP. The results on the purity of the product obtained from AIEX and HIC are between 89.4 to 92.5% and 88.3 to 100.0%, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation showed that the pVAX1/lacZ purification process is robust with confidence intervals of 0.90 in range of 90.18-91.00% and 95.88-100.00%, for AIEX and HIC respectively.

Keywords: AIEX, DNA vaccine, HIC, puification, response surface method, robustness

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60 Slaughter and Carcass Characterization, and Sensory Qualities of Native, Pure, and Upgraded Breeds of Goat Raised in the Philippines

Authors: Jonathan N. Nayga, Emelita B. Valdez, Mila R. Andres, Beulah B. Estrada, Emelina A. Lopez, Rogelio B. Tamayo, Aubrey Joy M. Balbin

Abstract:

Goat production is one of the activities included in integrated farming in the Philippines. Goats are raised for its meat and regardless of breed the animal is slaughtered for this purpose. In order to document the carcass yield of different goats slaughtered, five (5) different breeds of goats to include Purebred Boer and Anglo-nubian, Crossbred Boer and Anglo-nubian and Philippine Native goat were used in the study. Data on slaughter parameters, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation were gathered and analyzed using Complete Random Design (CRD) at 5% level of significance and the results of carcass conformation were assessed descriptively. Results showed that slaughter data such as slaughter/live weight, hot and chilled carcass weights, dressing percentage and percentage drip loss were significantly different (P>0.05) among breeds. On carcass and meat characteristics, pure breed and upgraded Boer were found to be moderately muscular while Native goat was rated as thin muscular. The color of the carcass also revealed that Purebred and crossbred Boer were described dark red, while Native goat was noted to be slightly pale. On sensory evaluation, the results indicated that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) among breeds evaluated. It is therefore concluded that purebred goat has heavier carcass, while both purebred Boer and upgrade are rated slightly muscular. It is further confirms that regardless of breed, goat will have the same sensory characteristics. Thus, it is recommended to slaughter heavier goats to obtain more carcasses with better conformation and quality.

Keywords: carcass quality, goat, sensory evaluation, slaughter

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59 High-Pressure Polymorphism of 4,4-Bipyridine Hydrobromide

Authors: Michalina Aniola, Andrzej Katrusiak

Abstract:

4,4-Bipyridine is an important compound often used in chemical practice and more recently frequently applied for designing new metal organic framework (MoFs). Here we present a systematic high-pressure study of its hydrobromide salt. 4,4-Bipyridine hydrobromide monohydrate, 44biPyHBrH₂O, at ambient-pressure is orthorhombic, space group P212121 (phase a). Its hydrostatic compression shows that it is stable to 1.32 GPa at least. However, the recrystallization above 0.55 GPa reveals a new hidden b-phase (monoclinic, P21/c). Moreover, when the 44biPyHBrH2O is heated to high temperature the chemical reactions of this compound in methanol solution can be observed. High-pressure experiments were performed using a Merrill-Bassett diamond-anvil cell (DAC), modified by mounting the anvils directly on the steel supports, and X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out on a KUMA and Excalibur diffractometer equipped with an EOS CCD detector. At elevated pressure, the crystal of 44biPyHBrH₂O exhibits several striking and unexpected features. No signs of instability of phase a were detected to 1.32 GPa, while phase b becomes stable at above 0.55 GPa, as evidenced by its recrystallizations. Phases a and b of 44biPyHBrH2O are partly isostructural: their unit-cell dimensions and the arrangement of ions and water molecules are similar. In phase b the HOH-Br- chains double the frequency of their zigzag motifs, compared to phase a, and the 44biPyH+ cations change their conformation. Like in all monosalts of 44biPy determined so far, in phase a the pyridine rings are twisted by about 30 degrees about bond C4-C4 and in phase b they assume energy-unfavorable planar conformation. Another unusual feature of 44biPyHBrH2O is that all unit-cell parameters become longer on the transition from phase a to phase b. Thus the volume drop on the transition to high-pressure phase b totally depends on the shear strain of the lattice. Higher temperature triggers chemical reactions of 44biPyHBrH2O with methanol. When the saturated methanol solution compound precipitated at 0.1 GPa and temperature of 423 K was required to dissolve all the sample, the subsequent slow recrystallization at isochoric conditions resulted in disalt 4,4-bipyridinium dibromide. For the 44biPyHBrH2O sample sealed in the DAC at 0.35 GPa, then dissolved at isochoric conditions at 473 K and recrystallized by slow controlled cooling, a reaction of N,N-dimethylation took place. It is characteristic that in both high-pressure reactions of 44biPyHBrH₂O the unsolvated disalt products were formed and that free base 44biPy and H₂O remained in the solution. The observed reactions indicate that high pressure destabilized ambient-pressure salts and favors new products. Further studies on pressure-induced reactions are carried out in order to better understand the structural preferences induced by pressure.

Keywords: conformation, high-pressure, negative area compressibility, polymorphism

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58 Modification of Escherichia coli PtolT Expression Vector via Site-Directed Mutagenesis

Authors: Yakup Ulusu, Numan Eczacıoğlu, İsa Gökçe, Helen Waller, Jeremy H. Lakey

Abstract:

Besides having the appropriate amino acid sequence to perform the function of proteins, it is important to have correct conformation after this sequence to process. To consist of this conformation depends on the amino acid sequence at the primary structure, hydrophobic interaction, chaperones and enzymes in charge of folding etc. Misfolded proteins are not functional and tend to be aggregated. Cysteine originating disulfide cross-links make stable this conformation of functional proteins. When two of the cysteine amino acids come side by side, disulfide bond is established that forms a cystine bridge. Due to this feature cysteine plays an important role on the formation of three-dimensional structure of many proteins. There are two cysteine amino acids (C44, C69) in the Tol-A-III protein. Unlike protein disulfide bonds from within his own, any non-specific cystine bridge causes a change in the three dimensional structure of the protein. Proteins can be expressed in various host cells as directly or fusion (chimeric). As a result of overproduction of the recombinant proteins, aggregation of insoluble proteins in the host cell can occur by forming a crystal structure called inclusion body. In general fusion proteins are produced for provide affinity tags to make proteins more soluble and production of some toxic proteins via fusion protein expression system like pTolT. Proteins can be modified by using a site-directed mutagenesis. By this way, creation of non-specific disulfide crosslinks can be prevented at fusion protein expression system via the present cysteine replaced by another amino acid such as serine, glycine or etc. To do this, we need; a DNA molecule that contains the gene that encodes for the target protein, required primers for mutation to be designed according to site directed mutagenesis reaction. This study was aimed to be replaced cysteine encoding codon TGT with serine encoding codon AGT. For this sense and reverse primers designed (given below) and used site-directed mutagenesis reaction. Several new copy of the template plasmid DNA has been formed with above mentioned mutagenic primers via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR product consists of both the master template DNA (wild type) and the new DNA sequences containing mutations. Dpn-l endonuclease restriction enzyme which is specific for methylated DNA and cuts them to the elimination of the master template DNA. E. coli cells obtained after transformation were incubated LB medium with antibiotic. After purification of plasmid DNA from E. coli, the presence of the mutation was determined by DNA sequence analysis. Developed this new plasmid is called PtolT-δ.

Keywords: site directed mutagenesis, Escherichia coli, pTolT, protein expression

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57 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti

Abstract:

The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: nanostructures, nanotubes, carbon, pyrolysis

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56 Electrical Investigations of Polyaniline/Graphitic Carbon Nitride Composites Using Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

Authors: M. A. Moussa, M. H. Abdel Rehim, G.M. Turky

Abstract:

Polyaniline composites with carbon nitride, to overcome compatibility restriction with graphene, were prepared with the solution method. FTIR and Uv-vis spectra were used for structural conformation. While XRD and XPS confirmed the structures in addition to estimation of nitrogen atom surroundings, the pore sizes and the active surface area were determined from BET adsorption isotherm. The electrical and dielectric parameters were measured and calculated with BDS .

Keywords: carbon nitride, dynamic relaxation, electrical conductivity, polyaniline

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55 Genetic Variation of Lactoferrin Gene and Its Association with Productive Traits in Egyptian Goats

Authors: Othman E. Othman, Hassan R. Darwish, Amira M. Nowier

Abstract:

Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein involved in economically production traits like milk protein composition and skeletal structure in small ruminants including sheep and goat. So, LF gene - with its genetic polymorphisms associated with production traits - is considered a candidate genetic marker used in marker-assisted selection in goats. This study aimed to identify the different alleles and genotypes of this gene in three Egyptian goat breeds using PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism) and DNA sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from 120 animals belonging to Barki, Zaraibi, and Damascus goat breeds. Using specific primers, PCR amplified 247-bp fragments from exon 2 of LF goat gene. The PCR products were subjected to Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The results showed the presence of two genotypes GG and AG in the tested animals. The frequencies of both genotypes varied among the three tested breeds with the highest frequencies of GG genotype in all tested goat breeds. The sequence analysis of PCR products representing these two detected genotypes declared the presence of an SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms) substitution (G/A) among G and A alleles of this gene. The association between different LF genotypes and milk composition as well as body measurement was estimated. The comparison showed that the animals possess AG genotypes are superior over those with GG genotypes for different parameters of milk protein compositions and skeletal structures. This finding declared that allele A of LF gene is considered the promising marker for the productive traits in goat. In conclusion, the Egyptian goat breeds will be needed to enhance their milk protein composition and growth trait parameters through the increasing of allele A frequency in their herds depending on the superior production traits of this allele in goats.

Keywords: lLactoferrin gene, PCR-SSCP, SNPs, Egyptian goat

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54 Analytical Modeling of Globular Protein-Ferritin in α-Helical Conformation: A White Noise Functional Approach

Authors: Vernie C. Convicto, Henry P. Aringa, Wilson I. Barredo

Abstract:

This study presents a conformational model of the helical structures of globular protein particularly ferritin in the framework of white noise path integral formulation by using Associated Legendre functions, Bessel and convolution of Bessel and trigonometric functions as modulating functions. The model incorporates chirality features of proteins and their helix-turn-helix sequence structural motif.

Keywords: globular protein, modulating function, white noise, winding probability

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53 Finite Element Molecular Modeling: A Structural Method for Large Deformations

Authors: A. Rezaei, M. Huisman, W. Van Paepegem

Abstract:

Atomic interactions in molecular systems are mainly studied by particle mechanics. Nevertheless, researches have also put on considerable effort to simulate them using continuum methods. In early 2000, simple equivalent finite element models have been developed to study the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene in composite materials. Afterward, many researchers have employed similar structural simulation approaches to obtain mechanical properties of nanostructured materials, to simplify interface behavior of fiber-reinforced composites, and to simulate defects in carbon nanotubes or graphene sheets, etc. These structural approaches, however, are limited to small deformations due to complicated local rotational coordinates. This article proposes a method for the finite element simulation of molecular mechanics. For ease in addressing the approach, here it is called Structural Finite Element Molecular Modeling (SFEMM). SFEMM method improves the available structural approaches for large deformations, without using any rotational degrees of freedom. Moreover, the method simulates molecular conformation, which is a big advantage over the previous approaches. Technically, this method uses nonlinear multipoint constraints to simulate kinematics of the atomic multibody interactions. Only truss elements are employed, and the bond potentials are implemented through constitutive material models. Because the equilibrium bond- length, bond angles, and bond-torsion potential energies are intrinsic material parameters, the model is independent of initial strains or stresses. In this paper, the SFEMM method has been implemented in ABAQUS finite element software. The constraints and material behaviors are modeled through two Fortran subroutines. The method is verified for the bond-stretch, bond-angle and bond-torsion of carbon atoms. Furthermore, the capability of the method in the conformation simulation of molecular structures is demonstrated via a case study of a graphene sheet. Briefly, SFEMM builds up a framework that offers more flexible features over the conventional molecular finite element models, serving the structural relaxation modeling and large deformations without incorporating local rotational degrees of freedom. Potentially, the method is a big step towards comprehensive molecular modeling with finite element technique, and thereby concurrently coupling an atomistic domain to a solid continuum domain within a single finite element platform.

Keywords: finite element, large deformation, molecular mechanics, structural method

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52 Protein Tertiary Structure Prediction by a Multiobjective Optimization and Neural Network Approach

Authors: Alexandre Barbosa de Almeida, Telma Woerle de Lima Soares

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Protein structure prediction is a challenging task in the bioinformatics field. The biological function of all proteins majorly relies on the shape of their three-dimensional conformational structure, but less than 1% of all known proteins in the world have their structure solved. This work proposes a deep learning model to address this problem, attempting to predict some aspects of the protein conformations. Throughout a process of multiobjective dominance, a recurrent neural network was trained to abstract the particular bias of each individual multiobjective algorithm, generating a heuristic that could be useful to predict some of the relevant aspects of the three-dimensional conformation process formation, known as protein folding.

Keywords: Ab initio heuristic modeling, multiobjective optimization, protein structure prediction, recurrent neural network

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51 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař

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Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

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50 Switchable Lipids: From a Molecular Switch to a pH-Sensitive System for the Drug and Gene Delivery

Authors: Jeanne Leblond, Warren Viricel, Amira Mbarek

Abstract:

Although several products have reached the market, gene therapeutics are still in their first stages and require optimization. It is possible to improve their lacking efficiency by the use of carefully engineered vectors, able to carry the genetic material through each of the biological barriers they need to cross. In particular, getting inside the cell is a major challenge, because these hydrophilic nucleic acids have to cross the lipid-rich plasmatic and/or endosomal membrane, before being degraded into lysosomes. It takes less than one hour for newly endocytosed liposomes to reach highly acidic lysosomes, meaning that the degradation of the carried gene occurs rapidly, thus limiting the transfection efficiency. We propose to use a new pH-sensitive lipid able to change its conformation upon protonation at endosomal pH values, leading to the disruption of the lipidic bilayer and thus to the fast release of the nucleic acids into the cytosol. It is expected that this new pH-sensitive mechanism promote endosomal escape of the gene, thereby its transfection efficiency. The main challenge of this work was to design a preparation presenting fast-responding lipidic bilayer destabilization properties at endosomal pH 5 while remaining stable at blood pH value and during storage. A series of pH-sensitive lipids able to perform a conformational switch upon acidification were designed and synthesized. Liposomes containing these switchable lipids, as well as co-lipids were prepared and characterized. The liposomes were stable at 4°C and pH 7.4 for several months. Incubation with siRNA led to the full entrapment of nucleic acids as soon as the positive/negative charge ratio was superior to 2. The best liposomal formulation demonstrated a silencing efficiency up to 10% on HeLa cells, very similar to a commercial agent, with a lowest toxicity than the commercial agent. Using flow cytometry and microscopy assays, we demonstrated that drop of pH was required for the transfection efficiency, since bafilomycin blocked the transfection efficiency. Additional evidence was brought by the synthesis of a negative control lipid, which was unable to switch its conformation, and consequently exhibited no transfection ability. Mechanistic studies revealed that the uptake was mediated through endocytosis, by clathrin and caveolae pathways, as reported for previous lipid nanoparticle systems. This potent system was used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The switchable lipids were able to knockdown PCSK9 expression on human hepatocytes (Huh-7). Its efficiency is currently evaluated on in vivo mice model of PCSK9 KO mice. In summary, we designed and optimized a new cationic pH-sensitive lipid for gene delivery. Its transfection efficiency is similar to the best available commercial agent, without the usually associated toxicity. The promising results lead to its use for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia on a mice model. Anticancer applications and pulmonary chronic disease are also currently investigated.

Keywords: liposomes, siRNA, pH-sensitive, molecular switch

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49 Alterations of Malondialdehyde and Heat Shock Protein-27 in Sheep with Naturally Infected Liver Cystic Echinococcosis

Authors: K. Azimzadeh, S. Rasouli

Abstract:

The present study investigates whether malondialdehyde (MDA) and heat shock protein-27 (HSP-27) are altered in sheep with cystic echinococcosis (CE). For this purpose, forty parasitized and thirty healthy sheep were selected based on severe cystic form observation in liver and lack of blood parasite along with no cystic conformation in carcass respectively. The results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.01) in albumin (Alb) and total plasma protein (TPP) and a significant increase (p<0.01) in HSP-27, MDA, total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin in the infected group compared with healthy ones.The results indicate low levels of TPP and Alb reveal liver damage in suffered sheep and MDA elevation demonstrates oxidative stress in infected group. In addition, HSP-27 enhancement may attribute to disease-induced stress conditions.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, heat shock protein-27, Echinococcosis, blood parasites

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48 Mesoporous Tussah Silk Fibroin Microspheres for Drug Delivery

Authors: Weitao Zhou, Qing Wang, Jianxin He, Shizhong Cui

Abstract:

Mesoporous Tussah silk fibroin (TSF) spheres were fabricated via the self-assembly of TSF molecules in aqueous solutions. The results showed that TSF particles were approximately three-dimensional spheres with the diameter ranging from 500nm to 6μm without adherence. More importantly, the surface morphology is mesoporous structure with nano-pores of 20nm - 200nm in size. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that mesoporous TSF spheres mainly contained beta-sheet conformation (44.1 %) as well as slight amounts of random coil (13.2 %). Drug release test was performed with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as a model drug and the result indicated the mesoporous TSF microspheres had a good capacity of sustained drug release. It is expected that these stable and high-crystallinity mesoporous TSF sphere produced without organic solvents, which have significantly improved drug release properties, is a very promising material for controlled gene medicines delivery.

Keywords: Tussah silk fibroin, porous materials, microsphere, drug release

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47 Role of GM1 in the Interaction between Amyloid Prefibrillar Oligomers of Salmon Calcitonin and Model Membranes

Authors: Cristiano Giordani, Marco Diociaiuti, Cecilia Bombelli, Laura Zanetti-Polzi, Marcello Belfiore, Raoul Fioravanti, Gianfranco Macchia

Abstract:

We investigated induced functional effects by evaluating Ca2+-influx in liposomes and cell viability in HT22-DIFF neurons. Only solutions rich in unstructured Prefibrillar-Oligomers (PFOs) were able, in the presence of Monosialoganglioside-GM1 (GM1), to induce Ca2+-influx and were also neurotoxic, suggesting a correlation between the two phenomena. Thus, in the presence of GM1, we investigated the protein conformation and liposome modification due to the interaction. Circular Dichroism showed that GM1 fostered the formation of β-structures and Energy Filtered-Transmission Electron Microscopy that PFOs formed “amyloid-channels” as reported for Aβ. We speculate that electrostatic forces occurring between the positive PFOs and negative GM1 drive the initial binding, while the hydrophobic profile of the flexible PFO is responsible for the subsequent pore formation. Conversely, the rigid β-structured mature/fibers (MFs) and proto-fibers (PFs) were unable to induce membrane damage and Ca2+- influx.

Keywords: amyloid proteins, neurotoxicity, lipid-rafts, GM1

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46 Synthesis, Characterization and Coating of the Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Cotton Fabric by Mechanical Thermo-Fixation Techniques to Impart Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Imana Shahrin Tania, Mohammad Ali

Abstract:

The present study reports the synthesis, characterization and application of nano-sized zinc-oxide (ZnO) particles on a cotton fabric surface. The aim of the investigations is to impart the antimicrobial activity on textile cloth. Nanoparticle is synthesized by wet chemical method from zinc sulphate and sodium hydroxide. SEM (scanning electron micrograph) images are taken to demonstrate the surface morphology of nanoparticles. XRD analysis is done to determine the crystal size of the nanoparticle. With the conformation of nanoformation, the cotton woven fabric is treated with ZnO nanoparticle by mechanical thermo-fixation (pad-dry-cure) technique. To increase the wash durability of nano treated fabric, an acrylic binder is used as a fixing agent. The treated fabric shows up to 90% bacterial reduction for S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and 87% for E. coli (Escherichia coli) which is appreciable for bacteria protective clothing.

Keywords: nanoparticle, zinc oxide, cotton fabric, antibacterial activity, binder

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45 Transfer Learning for Protein Structure Classification at Low Resolution

Authors: Alexander Hudson, Shaogang Gong

Abstract:

Structure determination is key to understanding protein function at a molecular level. Whilst significant advances have been made in predicting structure and function from amino acid sequence, researchers must still rely on expensive, time-consuming analytical methods to visualise detailed protein conformation. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to make accurate (≥80%) predictions of protein class and architecture from structures determined at low (>3A) resolution, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on high-resolution (≤3A) structures represented as 2D matrices. Thus, we provide proof of concept for high-speed, low-cost protein structure classification at low resolution, and a basis for extension to prediction of function. We investigate the impact of the input representation on classification performance, showing that side-chain information may not be necessary for fine-grained structure predictions. Finally, we confirm that high resolution, low-resolution and NMR-determined structures inhabit a common feature space, and thus provide a theoretical foundation for boosting with single-image super-resolution.

Keywords: transfer learning, protein distance maps, protein structure classification, neural networks

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44 Transition Metal Bis(Dicarbollide) Complexes in Design of Molecular Switches

Authors: Igor B. Sivaev

Abstract:

Design of molecular machines is an extraordinary growing and very important area of research that it was recognized by awarding Sauvage, Stoddart and Feringa the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 'for the design and synthesis of molecular machines'. Based on the type of motion being performed, molecular machines can be divided into two main types: molecular motors and molecular switches. Molecular switches are molecules or supramolecular complexes having bistability, i.e., the ability to exist in two or more stable forms, among which may be reversible transitions under external influence (heating, lighting, changing the medium acidity, the action of chemicals, exposure to magnetic or electric field). Molecular switches are the main structural element of any molecular electronics devices. Therefore, the design and the study of molecules and supramolecular systems capable of performing mechanical movement is an important and urgent problem of modern chemistry. There is growing interest in molecular switches and other devices of molecular electronics based on transition metal complexes; therefore choice of suitable stable organometallic unit is of great importance. An example of such unit is bis(dicarbollide) complexes of transition metals [3,3’-M(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]ⁿ⁻. The control on the ligand rotation in such complexes can be reached by introducing substituents which could provide stabilization of certain rotamers due to specific interactions between the ligands, on the one hand, and which can participate as Lewis bases in complex formation with external metals resulting in a change in the rotation angle of the ligands, on the other hand. A series of isomeric methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes containing methyl sulfide substituents at boron atoms in different positions of the pentagonal face of the dicarbollide ligands [8,8’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻, rac-[4,4’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ and meso-[4,7’-(MeS)₂-3,3’-Co(1,2-C₂B₉H₁₀)₂]⁻ were synthesized by the reaction of CoCl₂ with the corresponding methyl sulfide carborane derivatives [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻ and [10-MeS-7,8-C₂B₉H₁₁)₂]⁻. In the case of asymmetrically substituted cobalt bis(dicarbollide) complexes the corresponding rac- and meso-isomers were successfully separated by column chromatography as the tetrabutylammonium salts. The compounds obtained were studied by the methods of ¹H, ¹³C, and ¹¹B NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that in the solid state, the transoid- and gauche-conformations of the 8,8’- and 4,4’-isomers are stabilized by four intramolecular CH···S(Me)B hydrogen bonds each one (2.683-2.712 Å and 2.709-2.752 Å, respectively), whereas gauche-conformation of the 4,7’-isomer is stabilized by two intramolecular CH···S hydrogen bonds (2.699-2.711 Å). The existence of the intramolecular CH·S(Me)B hydrogen bonding in solutions was supported by the 1H NMR spectroscopy. These data are in a good agreement with results of the quantum chemical calculations. The corresponding iron and nickel complexes were synthesized as well. The reaction of the methyl sulfide derivatives of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) with various labile transition metal complexes results in rupture of intramolecular hydrogen bonds and complexation of the methyl sulfide groups with external metal. This results in stabilization of other rotational conformation of cobalt bis(dicarbollide) and can be used in design of molecular switches. This work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (16-13-10331).

Keywords: molecular switches, NMR spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, transition metal bis(dicarbollide) complexes, quantum chemical calculations

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