Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4656

Search results for: reservoir simulation

4656 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Reservoir for Dwell Time Prediction

Authors: Nitin Dewangan, Nitin Kattula, Megha Anawat


Hydraulic reservoir is the key component in the mobile construction vehicles; most of the off-road earth moving construction machinery requires bigger side hydraulic reservoirs. Their reservoir construction is very much non-uniform and designers used such design to utilize the space available under the vehicle. There is no way to find out the space utilization of the reservoir by oil and validity of design except virtual simulation. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) helps to predict the reservoir space utilization by vortex mapping, path line plots and dwell time prediction to make sure the design is valid and efficient for the vehicle. The dwell time acceptance criteria for effective reservoir design is 15 seconds. The paper will describe the hydraulic reservoir simulation which is carried out using CFD tool acuSolve using automated mesh strategy. The free surface flow and moving reference mesh is used to define the oil flow level inside the reservoir. The first baseline design is not able to meet the acceptance criteria, i.e., dwell time below 15 seconds because the oil entry and exit ports were very close. CFD is used to redefine the port locations for the reservoir so that oil dwell time increases in the reservoir. CFD also proposed baffle design the effective space utilization. The final design proposed through CFD analysis is used for physical validation on the machine.

Keywords: reservoir, turbulence model, transient model, level set, free-surface flow, moving frame of reference

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4655 Two-Dimensional Observation of Oil Displacement by Water in a Petroleum Reservoir through Numerical Simulation and Application to a Petroleum Reservoir

Authors: Ahmad Fahim Nasiry, Shigeo Honma


We examine two-dimensional oil displacement by water in a petroleum reservoir. The pore fluid is immiscible, and the porous media is homogenous and isotropic in the horizontal direction. Buckley-Leverett theory and a combination of Laplacian and Darcy’s law are used to study the fluid flow through porous media, and the Laplacian that defines the dispersion and diffusion of fluid in the sand using heavy oil is discussed. The reservoir is homogenous in the horizontal direction, as expressed by the partial differential equation. Two main factors which are observed are the water saturation and pressure distribution in the reservoir, and they are evaluated for predicting oil recovery in two dimensions by a physical and mathematical simulation model. We review the numerical simulation that solves difficult partial differential reservoir equations. Based on the numerical simulations, the saturation and pressure equations are calculated by the iterative alternating direction implicit method and the iterative alternating direction explicit method, respectively, according to the finite difference assumption. However, to understand the displacement of oil by water and the amount of water dispersion in the reservoir better, an interpolated contour line of the water distribution of the five-spot pattern, that provides an approximate solution which agrees well with the experimental results, is also presented. Finally, a computer program is developed to calculate the equation for pressure and water saturation and to draw the pressure contour line and water distribution contour line for the reservoir.

Keywords: numerical simulation, immiscible, finite difference, IADI, IDE, waterflooding

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4654 Determination of Inflow Performance Relationship for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs: Numerical Simulation Study

Authors: Melissa Ramirez, Mohammad Awal


The Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) of a well is a relation between the oil production rate and flowing bottom-hole pressure. This relationship is an important tool for petroleum engineers to understand and predict the well performance. In the petroleum industry, IPR correlations are used to design and evaluate well completion, optimizing well production, and designing artificial lift. The most commonly used IPR correlations models are Vogel and Wiggins, these models are applicable to homogeneous and isotropic reservoir data. In this work, a new IPR model is developed to determine inflow performance relationship of oil wells in a naturally fracture reservoir. A 3D black-oil reservoir simulator is used to develop the oil mobility function for the studied reservoir. Based on simulation runs, four flow rates are run to record the oil saturation and calculate the relative permeability for a naturally fractured reservoir. The new method uses the result of a well test analysis along with permeability and pressure-volume-temperature data in the fluid flow equations to obtain the oil mobility function. Comparisons between the new method and two popular correlations for non-fractured reservoirs indicate the necessity for developing and using an IPR correlation specifically developed for a fractured reservoir.

Keywords: inflow performance relationship, mobility function, naturally fractured reservoir, well test analysis

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4653 Numerical Study for Examination of Flow Characteristics in Fractured Gas Reservoirs

Authors: M. K. Kim, C. H. Shin, W. G. Park


Recently, natural gas resources are issued due to alternative and eco-friendly energy policies, and development of even unconventional gas resources including tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas is being rapidly expanded from North America all over the world. For developing these gas reservoirs, it is necessary to investigate reservoir characteristics by using reservoir simulation. In reservoir simulation, calculation of permeability of fractured zone is very important to predict the gas production. However, it is difficult to accurately calculate the permeability by using conventional methods which use analytic solution for laminar flow. The flow in gas reservoirs exhibits complex flow behavior such as slip around the wall roughness effect and turbulence because the size of the apertures of fractures is ranged over various scales from nano-scale to centi-scale. Therefore, it is required to apply new reservoir flow analysis methods which can accurately consider complex gas flow owing to the geometric characteristics and distributions of various pores and flow paths within gas reservoirs. Hence, in this study, the flow characteristics and the relation between each characteristic variable was investigated and multi-effect was quantified when the fractures are compounded for devising a new calculation model of permeability of fractured zone in gas reservoirs by using CFD.

Keywords: fractured zone, gas reservoir, permeability, CFD

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4652 Field Scale Simulation Study of Miscible Water Alternating CO2 Injection Process in Fractured Reservoirs

Authors: Hooman Fallah


Vast amounts of world oil reservoirs are in natural fractured reservoirs. There are different methods for increasing recovery from fractured reservoirs. Miscible injection of water alternating CO2 is a good choice among this methods. In this method, water and CO2 slugs are injected alternatively in reservoir as miscible agent into reservoir. This paper studies water injection scenario and miscible injection of water and CO2 in a two dimensional, inhomogeneous fractured reservoir. The results show that miscible water alternating CO2¬ gas injection leads to 3.95% increase in final oil recovery and total water production decrease of 3.89% comparing to water injection scenario.

Keywords: simulation study, CO2, water alternating gas injection, fractured reservoirs

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4651 Simulation of Surface Runoff in Mahabad Dam Basin, Iran

Authors: Leila Khosravi


A major part of the drinking water in North West of Iran is supplied from Mahabad reservoir 80 km northwest of Mahabad. This reservoir collects water from 750 km-catchment which is undergoing accelerated changes due to deforestation and urbanization. The main objective of this study is to develop a catchment modeling platform which translates ongoing land-use changes, soil data, precipitation and evaporation into surface runoff of the river discharging into the reservoir: Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT, model along with hydro -meteorological records of 1997–2011. A variety of statistical indices were used to evaluate the simulation results for both calibration and validation periods; among them, the robust Nash–Sutcliffe coefficients were found to be 0.52 and 0.62 in the calibration and validation periods, respectively. This project has developed a reliable modeling platform with the benchmark land physical conditions of the Mahabad dam basin.

Keywords: simulation, surface runoff, Mahabad dam, SWAT model

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4650 Estimating CO₂ Storage Capacity under Geological Uncertainty Using 3D Geological Modeling of Unconventional Reservoir Rocks in Block nv32, Shenvsi Oilfield, China

Authors: Ayman Mutahar Alrassas, Shaoran Ren, Renyuan Ren, Hung Vo Thanh, Mohammed Hail Hakimi, Zhenliang Guan


The significant effect of CO₂ on global climate and the environment has gained more concern worldwide. Enhance oil recovery (EOR) associated with sequestration of CO₂ particularly into the depleted oil reservoir is considered the viable approach under financial limitations since it improves the oil recovery from the existing oil reservoir and boosts the relation between global-scale of CO₂ capture and geological sequestration. Consequently, practical measurements are required to attain large-scale CO₂ emission reduction. This paper presents an integrated modeling workflow to construct an accurate 3D reservoir geological model to estimate the storage capacity of CO₂ under geological uncertainty in an unconventional oil reservoir of the Paleogene Shahejie Formation (Es1) in the block Nv32, Shenvsi oilfield, China. In this regard, geophysical data, including well logs of twenty-two well locations and seismic data, were combined with geological and engineering data and used to construct a 3D reservoir geological modeling. The geological modeling focused on four tight reservoir units of the Shahejie Formation (Es1-x1, Es1-x2, Es1-x3, and Es1-x4). The validated 3D reservoir models were subsequently used to calculate the theoretical CO₂ storage capacity in the block Nv32, Shenvsi oilfield. Well logs were utilized to predict petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability, and lithofacies and indicate that the Es1 reservoir units are mainly sandstone, shale, and limestone with a proportion of 38.09%, 32.42%, and 29.49, respectively. Well log-based petrophysical results also show that the Es1 reservoir units generally exhibit 2–36% porosity, 0.017 mD to 974.8 mD permeability, and moderate to good net to gross ratios. These estimated values of porosity, permeability, lithofacies, and net to gross were up-scaled and distributed laterally using Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) and Simulation Sequential Indicator (SIS) methods to generate 3D reservoir geological models. The reservoir geological models show there are lateral heterogeneities of the reservoir properties and lithofacies, and the best reservoir rocks exist in the Es1-x4, Es1-x3, and Es1-x2 units, respectively. In addition, the reservoir volumetric of the Es1 units in block Nv32 was also estimated based on the petrophysical property models and fund to be between 0.554368

Keywords: CO₂ storage capacity, 3D geological model, geological uncertainty, unconventional oil reservoir, block Nv32

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4649 Optimization of Hydraulic Fracturing for Horizontal Wells in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

Authors: Qudratullah Muradi


Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that can be found in abundance on our planet. Only a small fraction of it is currently converted to electrical power, though in recent years installed geothermal capacity has increased considerably all over the world. In this paper, we assumed a model for designing of Enhanced Geothermal System, EGS. We used computer modeling group, CMG reservoir simulation software to create the typical Hot Dry Rock, HDR reservoir. In this research two wells, one injection of cold water and one production of hot water are included in the model. There are some hydraulic fractures created by the mentioned software. And cold water is injected in order to produce energy from the reservoir. The result of injecting cold water to the reservoir and extracting geothermal energy is defined by some graphs at the end of this research. The production of energy is quantified in a period of 10 years.

Keywords: geothermal energy, EGS, HDR, hydraulic fracturing

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4648 Simulation Study of Asphaltene Deposition and Solubility of CO2 in the Brine during Cyclic CO2 Injection Process in Unconventional Tight Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Sun Lu, Syed Jamal-Ud-Din, Xinzhe Zhao


A compositional reservoir simulation model (CMG-GEM) was used for cyclic CO2 injection process in unconventional tight reservoir. Cyclic CO2 injection is an enhanced oil recovery process consisting of injection, shut-in, and production. The study of cyclic CO2 injection and hydrocarbon recovery in ultra-low permeability reservoirs is mainly a function of rock, fluid, and operational parameters. CMG-GEM was used to study several design parameters of cyclic CO2 injection process to distinguish the parameters with maximum effect on the oil recovery and to comprehend the behavior of cyclic CO2 injection in tight reservoir. On the other hand, permeability reduction induced by asphaltene precipitation is one of the major issues in the oil industry due to its plugging onto the porous media which reduces the oil productivity. In addition to asphaltene deposition, solubility of CO2 in the aquifer is one of the safest and permanent trapping techniques when considering CO2 storage mechanisms in geological formations. However, the effects of the above uncertain parameters on the process of CO2 enhanced oil recovery have not been understood systematically. Hence, it is absolutely necessary to study the most significant parameters which dominate the process. The main objective of this study is to improve techniques for designing cyclic CO2 injection process while considering the effects of asphaltene deposition and solubility of CO2 in the brine in order to prevent asphaltene precipitation, minimize CO2 emission, optimize cyclic CO2 injection, and maximize oil production.

Keywords: tight reservoirs, cyclic O₂ injection, asphaltene, solubility, reservoir simulation

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4647 Performance Comparison and Visualization of COMSOL Multiphysics, Matlab, and Fortran for Predicting the Reservoir Pressure on Oil Production in a Multiple Leases Reservoir with Boundary Element Method

Authors: N. Alias, W. Z. W. Muhammad, M. N. M. Ibrahim, M. Mohamed, H. F. S. Saipol, U. N. Z. Ariffin, N. A. Zakaria, M. S. Z. Suardi


This paper presents the performance comparison of some computation software for solving the boundary element method (BEM). BEM formulation is the numerical technique and high potential for solving the advance mathematical modeling to predict the production of oil well in arbitrarily shaped based on multiple leases reservoir. The limitation of data validation for ensuring that a program meets the accuracy of the mathematical modeling is considered as the research motivation of this paper. Thus, based on this limitation, there are three steps involved to validate the accuracy of the oil production simulation process. In the first step, identify the mathematical modeling based on partial differential equation (PDE) with Poisson-elliptic type to perform the BEM discretization. In the second step, implement the simulation of the 2D BEM discretization using COMSOL Multiphysic and MATLAB programming languages. In the last step, analyze the numerical performance indicators for both programming languages by using the validation of Fortran programming. The performance comparisons of numerical analysis are investigated in terms of percentage error, comparison graph and 2D visualization of pressure on oil production of multiple leases reservoir. According to the performance comparison, the structured programming in Fortran programming is the alternative software for implementing the accurate numerical simulation of BEM. As a conclusion, high-level language for numerical computation and numerical performance evaluation are satisfied to prove that Fortran is well suited for capturing the visualization of the production of oil well in arbitrarily shaped.

Keywords: performance comparison, 2D visualization, COMSOL multiphysic, MATLAB, Fortran, modelling and simulation, boundary element method, reservoir pressure

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4646 Effect of Wettability Alteration in Low Salt Water Injection Modeling

Authors: H. Vahdani


By the adsorption of polar compounds and/or the deposition of organic material, the wettability of originally water-wet reservoir rock can be altered. The degree of alteration is determined by the interaction of the oil constituents, the mineral surface, and the brine chemistry. Recently improving oil recovery by tuning wettability alteration is believed as a new recovery method. Various researchers have demonstrated that low salt water injection has a significant impact on oil recovery. It has been shown, for instance, that additional oil can be produced from reservoir rock by managing the injection water. Large wettability sensitivity has been observed, indicating that the oil/water capillary pressure profiles play a major role during low saline water injection simulation. Although the exact physics on how this alteration occurs is still a research topic; however, it has been reported that some of its effect can be captured by a relative permeability shift from an oil-wet system to a water-wet system. Modeling of low salt water injection mainly is based on the theory of wettability alteration and is hence strongly dependent on the wettability of the reservoir. In this article, combination of different wettabilities has been simulated and it is observed that the highest recoveries were from the cases were the reservoir initially was water-wet, and the lowest recoveries was from the cases were the reservoir initially was considered oil-wet. However for the cases where the reservoir initially was oil-wet, the effect of low-salinity waterflooding was the largest.

Keywords: low salt water injection, wettability alteration, modelling, relative permeability

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4645 Reservoir Properties Effect on Estimating Initial Gas in Place Using Flowing Material Balance Method

Authors: Yousef S. Kh. S. Hashem


Accurate estimation of initial gas in place (IGIP) plays an important factor in the decision to develop a gas field. One of the methods that are available in the industry to estimate the IGIP is material balance. This method required that the well has to be shut-in while pressure is measured as it builds to average reservoir pressure. Since gas demand is high and shut-in well surveys are very expensive, flowing gas material balance (FGMB) is sometimes used instead of material balance. This work investigated the effect of reservoir properties (pressure, permeability, and reservoir size) on the estimation of IGIP when using FGMB. A gas reservoir simulator that accounts for friction loss, wellbore storage, and the non-Darcy effect was used to simulate 165 different possible causes (3 pressures, 5 reservoir sizes, and 11 permeabilities). Both tubing pressure and bottom-hole pressure were analyzed using FGMB. The results showed that the FGMB method is very sensitive for tied reservoirs (k < 10). Also, it showed which method is best to be used for different reservoir properties. This study can be used as a guideline for the application of the FGMB method.

Keywords: flowing material balance, gas reservoir, reserves, gas simulator

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4644 Evaluation of Cyclic Steam Injection in Multi-Layered Heterogeneous Reservoir

Authors: Worawanna Panyakotkaew, Falan Srisuriyachai


Cyclic steam injection (CSI) is a thermal recovery technique performed by injecting periodically heated steam into heavy oil reservoir. Oil viscosity is substantially reduced by means of heat transferred from steam. Together with gas pressurization, oil recovery is greatly improved. Nevertheless, prediction of effectiveness of the process is difficult when reservoir contains degree of heterogeneity. Therefore, study of heterogeneity together with interest reservoir properties must be evaluated prior to field implementation. In this study, thermal reservoir simulation program is utilized. Reservoir model is firstly constructed as multi-layered with coarsening upward sequence. The highest permeability is located on top layer with descending of permeability values in lower layers. Steam is injected from two wells located diagonally in quarter five-spot pattern. Heavy oil is produced by adjusting operating parameters including soaking period and steam quality. After selecting the best conditions for both parameters yielding the highest oil recovery, effects of degree of heterogeneity (represented by Lorenz coefficient), vertical permeability and permeability sequence are evaluated. Surprisingly, simulation results show that reservoir heterogeneity yields benefits on CSI technique. Increasing of reservoir heterogeneity impoverishes permeability distribution. High permeability contrast results in steam intruding in upper layers. Once temperature is cool down during back flow period, condense water percolates downward, resulting in high oil saturation on top layers. Gas saturation appears on top after while, causing better propagation of steam in the following cycle due to high compressibility of gas. Large steam chamber therefore covers most of the area in upper zone. Oil recovery reaches approximately 60% which is of about 20% higher than case of heterogeneous reservoir. Vertical permeability exhibits benefits on CSI. Expansion of steam chamber occurs within shorter time from upper to lower zone. For fining upward permeability sequence where permeability values are reversed from the previous case, steam does not override to top layers due to low permeability. Propagation of steam chamber occurs in middle of reservoir where permeability is high enough. Rate of oil recovery is slower compared to coarsening upward case due to lower permeability at the location where propagation of steam chamber occurs. Even CSI technique produces oil quite slowly in early cycles, once steam chamber is formed deep in the reservoir, heat is delivered to formation quickly in latter cycles. Since reservoir heterogeneity is unavoidable, a thorough understanding of its effect must be considered. This study shows that CSI technique might be one of the compatible solutions for highly heterogeneous reservoir. This competitive technique also shows benefit in terms of heat consumption as steam is injected periodically.

Keywords: cyclic steam injection, heterogeneity, reservoir simulation, thermal recovery

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4643 Numerical Simulation of Different Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Scenarios on a Volatile Oil Reservoir

Authors: Soheil Tavakolpour


Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) can be considered as an undeniable action in reservoirs life period. Different kind of EOR methods are available, but suitable EOR method depends on reservoir properties, like rock and fluid properties. In this paper, we nominated fifth SPE’s Comparative Solution Projects (CSP) for testing different scenarios. We used seven EOR scenarios for this reservoir and we simulated it for 10 years after 2 years production without any injection. The first scenario is waterflooding for whole of the 10 years period. The second scenario is gas injection for ten years. The third scenario is Water-Alternation-Gas (WAG). In the next scenario, water injected for 4 years before starting WAG injection for the next 6 years. In the fifth scenario, water injected after 6 years WAG injection for 4 years. For sixth and last scenarios, all the things are similar to fourth and fifth scenarios, but gas injected instead of water. Results show that fourth scenario was the most efficient method for 10 years EOR, but it resulted very high water production. Fifth scenario was efficient too, with little water production in comparison to the fourth scenario. Gas injection was not economically attractive. In addition to high gas production, it produced less oil in comparison to other scenarios.

Keywords: WAG, SPE’s comparative solution projects, numerical simulation, EOR scenarios

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4642 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of Hydrocarbon-In-Place in Sandstone Reservoir Modeling: A Case Study

Authors: Nejoud Alostad, Anup Bora, Prashant Dhote


Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) has been producing from its major reservoirs that are well defined and highly productive and of superior reservoir quality. These reservoirs are maturing and priority is shifting towards difficult reservoir to meet future production requirements. This paper discusses the results of the detailed integrated study for one of the satellite complex field discovered in the early 1960s. Following acquisition of new 3D seismic data in 1998 and re-processing work in the year 2006, an integrated G&G study was undertaken to review Lower Cretaceous prospectivity of this reservoir. Nine wells have been drilled in the area, till date with only three wells showing hydrocarbons in two formations. The average oil density is around 300API (American Petroleum Institute), and average porosity and water saturation of the reservoir is about 23% and 26%, respectively. The area is dissected by a number of NW-SE trending faults. Structurally, the area consists of horsts and grabens bounded by these faults and hence compartmentalized. The Wara/Burgan formation consists of discrete, dirty sands with clean channel sand complexes. There is a dramatic change in Upper Wara distributary channel facies, and reservoir quality of Wara and Burgan section varies with change of facies over the area. So predicting reservoir facies and its quality out of sparse well data is a major challenge for delineating the prospective area. To characterize the reservoir of Wara/Burgan formation, an integrated workflow involving seismic, well, petro-physical, reservoir and production engineering data has been used. Porosity and water saturation models are prepared and analyzed to predict reservoir quality of Wara and Burgan 3rd sand upper reservoirs. Subsequently, boundary conditions are defined for reservoir and non-reservoir facies by integrating facies, porosity and water saturation. Based on the detailed analyses of volumetric parameters, potential volumes of stock-tank oil initially in place (STOIIP) and gas initially in place (GIIP) were documented after running several probablistic sensitivity analysis using Montecalro simulation method. Sensitivity analysis on probabilistic models of reservoir horizons, petro-physical properties, and oil-water contacts and their effect on reserve clearly shows some alteration in the reservoir geometry. All these parameters have significant effect on the oil in place. This study has helped to identify uncertainty and risks of this prospect particularly and company is planning to develop this area with drilling of new wells.

Keywords: original oil-in-place, sensitivity, uncertainty, sandstone, reservoir modeling, Monte-Carlo simulation

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4641 Optimization of Dez Dam Reservoir Operation Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Alireza Nikbakht Shahbazi, Emadeddin Shirali


Since optimization issues of water resources are complicated due to the variety of decision making criteria and objective functions, it is sometimes impossible to resolve them through regular optimization methods or, it is time or money consuming. Therefore, the use of modern tools and methods is inevitable in resolving such problems. An accurate and essential utilization policy has to be determined in order to use natural resources such as water reservoirs optimally. Water reservoir programming studies aim to determine the final cultivated land area based on predefined agricultural models and water requirements. Dam utilization rule curve is also provided in such studies. The basic information applied in water reservoir programming studies generally include meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and water reservoir related data, and the geometric characteristics of the reservoir. The system of Dez dam water resources was simulated applying the basic information in order to determine the capability of its reservoir to provide the objectives of the performed plan. As a meta-exploratory method, genetic algorithm was applied in order to provide utilization rule curves (intersecting the reservoir volume). MATLAB software was used in order to resolve the foresaid model. Rule curves were firstly obtained through genetic algorithm. Then the significance of using rule curves and the decrease in decision making variables in the system was determined through system simulation and comparing the results with optimization results (Standard Operating Procedure). One of the most essential issues in optimization of a complicated water resource system is the increasing number of variables. Therefore a lot of time is required to find an optimum answer and in some cases, no desirable result is obtained. In this research, intersecting the reservoir volume has been applied as a modern model in order to reduce the number of variables. Water reservoir programming studies has been performed based on basic information, general hypotheses and standards and applying monthly simulation technique for a statistical period of 30 years. Results indicated that application of rule curve prevents the extreme shortages and decrease the monthly shortages.

Keywords: optimization, rule curve, genetic algorithm method, Dez dam reservoir

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4640 Production Optimization under Geological Uncertainty Using Distance-Based Clustering

Authors: Byeongcheol Kang, Junyi Kim, Hyungsik Jung, Hyungjun Yang, Jaewoo An, Jonggeun Choe


It is important to figure out reservoir properties for better production management. Due to the limited information, there are geological uncertainties on very heterogeneous or channel reservoir. One of the solutions is to generate multiple equi-probable realizations using geostatistical methods. However, some models have wrong properties, which need to be excluded for simulation efficiency and reliability. We propose a novel method of model selection scheme, based on distance-based clustering for reliable application of production optimization algorithm. Distance is defined as a degree of dissimilarity between the data. We calculate Hausdorff distance to classify the models based on their similarity. Hausdorff distance is useful for shape matching of the reservoir models. We use multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) to describe the models on two dimensional space and group them by K-means clustering. Rather than simulating all models, we choose one representative model from each cluster and find out the best model, which has the similar production rates with the true values. From the process, we can select good reservoir models near the best model with high confidence. We make 100 channel reservoir models using single normal equation simulation (SNESIM). Since oil and gas prefer to flow through the sand facies, it is critical to characterize pattern and connectivity of the channels in the reservoir. After calculating Hausdorff distances and projecting the models by MDS, we can see that the models assemble depending on their channel patterns. These channel distributions affect operation controls of each production well so that the model selection scheme improves management optimization process. We use one of useful global search algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO), for our production optimization. PSO is good to find global optimum of objective function, but it takes too much time due to its usage of many particles and iterations. In addition, if we use multiple reservoir models, the simulation time for PSO will be soared. By using the proposed method, we can select good and reliable models that already matches production data. Considering geological uncertainty of the reservoir, we can get well-optimized production controls for maximum net present value. The proposed method shows one of novel solutions to select good cases among the various probabilities. The model selection schemes can be applied to not only production optimization but also history matching or other ensemble-based methods for efficient simulations.

Keywords: distance-based clustering, geological uncertainty, particle swarm optimization (PSO), production optimization

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4639 Water Dumpflood into Multiple Low-Pressure Gas Reservoirs

Authors: S. Lertsakulpasuk, S. Athichanagorn


As depletion-drive gas reservoirs are abandoned when there is insufficient production rate due to pressure depletion, waterflooding has been proposed to increase the reservoir pressure in order to prolong gas production. Due to high cost, water injection may not be economically feasible. Water dumpflood into gas reservoirs is a new promising approach to increase gas recovery by maintaining reservoir pressure with much cheaper costs than conventional waterflooding. Thus, a simulation study of water dumpflood into multiple nearly abandoned or already abandoned thin-bedded gas reservoirs commonly found in the Gulf of Thailand was conducted to demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method and to determine the most suitable operational parameters for reservoirs having different system parameters. A reservoir simulation model consisting of several thin-layered depletion-drive gas reservoirs and an overlying aquifer was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Two producers were initially used to produce gas from the reservoirs. One of them was later converted to a dumpflood well after gas production rate started to decline due to continuous reduction in reservoir pressure. The dumpflood well was used to flow water from the aquifer to increase pressure of the gas reservoir in order to drive gas towards producer. Two main operational parameters which are wellhead pressure of producer and the time to start water dumpflood were investigated to optimize gas recovery for various systems having different gas reservoir dip angles, well spacings, aquifer sizes, and aquifer depths. This simulation study found that water dumpflood can increase gas recovery up to 12% of OGIP depending on operational conditions and system parameters. For the systems having a large aquifer and large distance between wells, it is best to start water dumpflood when the gas rate is still high since the long distance between the gas producer and dumpflood well helps delay water breakthrough at producer. As long as there is no early water breakthrough, the earlier the energy is supplied to the gas reservoirs, the better the gas recovery. On the other hand, for the systems having a small or moderate aquifer size and short distance between the two wells, performing water dumpflood when the rate is close to the economic rate is better because water is more likely to cause an early breakthrough when the distance is short. Water dumpflood into multiple nearly-depleted or depleted gas reservoirs is a novel study. The idea of using water dumpflood to increase gas recovery has been mentioned in the literature but has never been investigated. This detailed study will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost and risk.

Keywords: dumpflood, increase gas recovery, low-pressure gas reservoir, multiple gas reservoirs

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4638 Architectural and Sedimentological Parameterization for Reservoir Quality of Miocene Onshore Sandstone, Borneo

Authors: Numair A. Siddiqui, Usman Muhammad, Manoj J. Mathew, Ramkumar M., Benjamin Sautter, Muhammad A. K. El-Ghali, David Menier, Shiqi Zhang


The sedimentological parameterization of shallow-marine siliciclastic reservoirs in terms of reservoir quality and heterogeneity from outcrop study can help improve the subsurface reservoir prediction. An architectural analysis has documented variations in sandstone geometry and rock properties within shallow-marine sandstone exposed in the Miocene Sandakan Formation of Sabah, Borneo. This study demonstrates reservoir sandstone quality assessment for subsurface rock evaluation, from well-exposed successions of the Sandakan Formation, Borneo, with which applicable analogues can be identified. The analyses were based on traditional conventional field investigation of outcrops, grain-size and petrographic studies of hand specimens of different sandstone facies and gamma-ray and permeability measurements. On the bases of these evaluations, the studied sandstone was grouped into three qualitative reservoir rock classes; high (Ø=18.10 – 43.60%; k=1265.20 – 5986.25 mD), moderate (Ø=17.60 – 37%; k=21.36 – 568 mD) and low quality (Ø=3.4 – 15.7%; k=3.21 – 201.30 mD) for visualization and prediction of subsurface reservoir quality. These results provided analogy for shallow marine sandstone reservoir complexity that can be utilized in the evaluation of reservoir quality of regional and subsurface analogues.

Keywords: architecture and sedimentology, subsurface rock evaluation, reservoir quality, borneo

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4637 Evaluation of Double Displacement Process via Gas Dumpflood from Multiple Gas Reservoirs

Authors: B. Rakjarit, S. Athichanagorn


Double displacement process is a method in which gas is injected at an updip well to displace the oil bypassed by waterflooding operation from downdip water injector. As gas injection is costly and a large amount of gas is needed, gas dump-flood from multiple gas reservoirs is an attractive alternative. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of the novel approach of double displacement process via gas dump-flood from multiple gas reservoirs. A reservoir simulation model consisting of a dipping oil reservoir and several underlying layered gas reservoirs was constructed in order to investigate the performance of the proposed method. Initially, water was injected via the downdip well to displace oil towards the producer located updip. When the water cut at the producer became high, the updip well was shut in and perforated in the gas zones in order to dump gas into the oil reservoir. At this point, the downdip well was open for production. In order to optimize oil recovery, oil production and water injection rates and perforation strategy on the gas reservoirs were investigated for different numbers of gas reservoirs having various depths and thicknesses. Gas dump-flood from multiple gas reservoirs can help increase the oil recovery after implementation of waterflooding upto 10%. Although the amount of additional oil recovery is slightly lower than the one obtained in conventional double displacement process, the proposed process requires a small completion cost of the gas zones and no operating cost while the conventional method incurs high capital investment in gas compression facility and high-pressure gas pipeline and additional operating cost. From the simulation study, oil recovery can be optimized by producing oil at a suitable rate and perforating the gas zones with the right strategy which depends on depths, thicknesses and number of the gas reservoirs. Conventional double displacement process has been studied and successfully implemented in many fields around the world. However, the method of dumping gas into the oil reservoir instead of injecting it from surface during the second displacement process has never been studied. The study of this novel approach will help a practicing engineer to understand the benefits of such method and can implement it with minimum cost.

Keywords: gas dump-flood, multi-gas layers, double displacement process, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
4636 Thermodynamic Modeling of Methane Injection in Gas-Condensate Reservoir Core: A Case Study

Authors: F. S. Alavi, D. Mowla, F. Esmaeilzadeh


In this paper, the core of Sarkhoon Gas Condensate Reservoir located in the south of Iran was thermodynamically modeled in order to study the natural depletion process and methane injection phenomena for enhanced gas-condensate recovery using the Eclipse 300 compositional simulator. Modeling was performed for three different core lengths with different production and injection flow rates in both vertical and horizontal cases. According to the results, the final condensate in place value in the natural depletion process is approximately independent of the production rate for a given pressure drop. The final condensate in place value is lower in vertical cases compared to horizontal cases. An increase in the injection flow rate leads to a decrease in the percentage of gascondensate recovery. In cores of equal length, gas condensate recovery percent is higher in vertical cases in comparison to horizontal cases. For a constant injection rate, decreasing the core length leads to a decrease in gas condensate recovery.

Keywords: reservoir simulation, methane injection, enhanced condensate recovery, reservoir core, modeling

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4635 A Study on the Influence of Aswan High Dam Reservoir Loading on Earthquake Activity

Authors: Sayed Abdallah Mohamed Dahy


Aswan High Dam Reservoir extends for 500 km along the Nile River; it is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It was created as a result of the construction of the Aswan High Dam between 1958 and 1970; about 95% of the main water resources for Egypt are from it. The purpose of this study is to discuss and understand the effect of the fluctuation of the water level in the reservoir on natural and human-induced environmental like earthquakes in the Aswan area, Egypt. In summary, the correlation between the temporal variations of earthquake activity and water level changes in the Aswan reservoir from 1982 to 2014 are investigated and analyzed. This analysis confirms a weak relation between the fluctuation of the water level and earthquake activity in the area around Aswan reservoir. The result suggests that the seismicity in the area becomes active during a period when the water level is decreasing from the maximum to the minimum. Behavior of the water level in this reservoir characterized by a special manner that is the unloading season extends to July or August, and the loading season starts to reach its maximum in October or November every year. Finally, daily rate of change in the water level did not show any direct relation with the size of the earthquakes, hence, it is not possible to be used as a single tool for prediction.

Keywords: Aswan high dam reservoir, earthquake activity, environmental, Egypt

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
4634 Study on Inverse Solution from Remote Displacements to Reservoir Process during Flow Injection

Authors: Sumei Cai, Hong Li


Either during water or gas injection into reservoir, in order to understand the areal flow pressure distribution underground, associated bounding deformation is prevalently monitored by ground or downhole tiltmeters. In this paper, an inverse solution to elastic response of far field displacements induced by reservoir pressure change due to flow injection was studied. Furthermore, the fundamental theory on inverse solution to elastic problem as well as its spatial smoothing approach is presented. Taking advantage of source code development based on Boundary Element Method, numerical analysis on the monitoring data of ground surface displacements to further understand the behavior of reservoir process was developed. Numerical examples were also conducted to verify the effectiveness.

Keywords: remote displacement, inverse problem, boundary element method, BEM, reservoir process

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
4633 Estimation of Reservoir Capacity and Sediment Deposition Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Tapas Karmaker, Richa Babbar


In this study, the reservoir capacity and sediment deposition were estimated using remote sensing data. The satellite images were synchronized with water level and storage capacity to find out the change in sediment deposition due to soil erosion and transport by streamflow. The water bodies spread area was estimated using vegetation indices, e.g., normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI) and normalize differences water index (NDWI). The 3D reservoir bathymetry was modeled by integrated water level, storage capacity, and area. From the models of different time span, the change in reservoir storage capacity was estimated. Another reservoir with known water level, storage capacity, area, and sediment deposition was used to validate the estimation technique. The t-test was used to assess the results between observed and estimated reservoir capacity and sediment deposition.

Keywords: satellite data, normalize differences vegetation index, NDVI, normalize differences water index, NDWI, reservoir capacity, sedimentation, t-test hypothesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
4632 An Assessment of Bathymetric Changes in the Lower Usuma Reservoir, Abuja, Nigera

Authors: Rayleigh Dada Abu, Halilu Ahmad Shaba


Siltation is a serious problem that affects public water supply infrastructures such as dams and reservoirs. It is a major problem which threatens the performance and sustainability of dams and reservoirs. It reduces the dam capacity for flood control, potable water supply, changes water stage, reduces water quality and recreational benefits. The focus of this study is the Lower Usuma reservoir. At completion the reservoir had a gross storage capacity of 100 × 106 m3 (100 million cubic metres), a maximum operational level of 587.440 m a.s.l., with a maximum depth of 49 m and a catchment area of 241 km2 at dam site with a daily designed production capacity of 10,000 cubic metres per hour. The reservoir is 1,300 m long and feeds the treatment plant mainly by gravity. The reservoir became operational in 1986 and no survey has been conducted to determine its current storage capacity and rate of siltation. Hydrographic survey of the reservoir by integrated acoustic echo-sounding technique was conducted in November 2012 to determine the level and rate of siltation. The result obtained shows that the reservoir has lost 12.0 meters depth to siltation in 26 years of its operation; indicating 24.5% loss in installed storage capacity. The present bathymetric survey provides baseline information for future work on siltation depth and annual rates of storage capacity loss for the Lower Usuma reservoir.

Keywords: sedimentation, lower Usuma reservoir, acoustic echo sounder, bathymetric survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
4631 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Taekyoon Park, Seokgoo Lee, Sungho Kim, Ung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Chonghun Han


CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: CCS, caron dioxide, carbon capture and storage, simulation, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
4630 An Approach to Correlate the Statistical-Based Lorenz Method, as a Way of Measuring Heterogeneity, with Kozeny-Carman Equation

Authors: H. Khanfari, M. Johari Fard


Dealing with carbonate reservoirs can be mind-boggling for the reservoir engineers due to various digenetic processes that cause a variety of properties through the reservoir. A good estimation of the reservoir heterogeneity which is defined as the quality of variation in rock properties with location in a reservoir or formation, can better help modeling the reservoir and thus can offer better understanding of the behavior of that reservoir. Most of reservoirs are heterogeneous formations whose mineralogy, organic content, natural fractures, and other properties vary from place to place. Over years, reservoir engineers have tried to establish methods to describe the heterogeneity, because heterogeneity is important in modeling the reservoir flow and in well testing. Geological methods are used to describe the variations in the rock properties because of the similarities of environments in which different beds have deposited in. To illustrate the heterogeneity of a reservoir vertically, two methods are generally used in petroleum work: Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V) and Lorenz coefficient (L) that are reviewed briefly in this paper. The concept of Lorenz is based on statistics and has been used in petroleum from that point of view. In this paper, we correlated the statistical-based Lorenz method to a petroleum concept, i.e. Kozeny-Carman equation and derived the straight line plot of Lorenz graph for a homogeneous system. Finally, we applied the two methods on a heterogeneous field in South Iran and discussed each, separately, with numbers and figures. As expected, these methods show great departure from homogeneity. Therefore, for future investment, the reservoir needs to be treated carefully.

Keywords: carbonate reservoirs, heterogeneity, homogeneous system, Dykstra-Parsons permeability variations (V), Lorenz coefficient (L)

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
4629 Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in Waterflooded Reservoir

Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology which can be implemented after either primary or secondary recovery, resulting in favorable conditions for the displacement mechanism in order to lower the residual oil in the reservoir. Polymer substances can lower the mobility ratio of the whole process by increasing the viscosity of injected water. Therefore, polymer flooding can increase volumetric sweep efficiency, which leads to a better recovery factor. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast with high heterogeneity. Due to the reduction of the absolute permeability, effective permeability to water, representing flow ability of the injected fluid, is also reduced. Once polymer is adsorbed onto rock surface, polymer molecule can be desorbed when different fluids are injected. This study is performed to evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by reservoir simulation program called STAR® commercialized by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected values of polymer desorption degrees including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The higher the value, the more adsorbed polymer molecules to return back to flowing fluid. According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Furthermore, starting time of polymer flooding and injection rate affect the oil production. The results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor while the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration is related to polymer consumption due to the two main benefits of polymer flooding control described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Even though waterflooding supports polymer injectivity, water cut at the producer can prematurely terminate the oil production. The injection rate decreases polymer adsorption due to decreased retention time of polymer flooding process.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery technology, polymer adsorption and desorption, polymer flooding, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
4628 Combination of Geological, Geophysical and Reservoir Engineering Analyses in Field Development: A Case Study

Authors: Atif Zafar, Fan Haijun


A sequence of different Reservoir Engineering methods and tools in reservoir characterization and field development are presented in this paper. The real data of Jin Gas Field of L-Basin of Pakistan is used. The basic concept behind this work is to enlighten the importance of well test analysis in a broader way (i.e. reservoir characterization and field development) unlike to just determine the permeability and skin parameters. Normally in the case of reservoir characterization we rely on well test analysis to some extent but for field development plan, the well test analysis has become a forgotten tool specifically for locations of new development wells. This paper describes the successful implementation of well test analysis in Jin Gas Field where the main uncertainties are identified during initial stage of field development when location of new development well was marked only on the basis of G&G (Geologic and Geophysical) data. The seismic interpretation could not encounter one of the boundary (fault, sub-seismic fault, heterogeneity) near the main and only producing well of Jin Gas Field whereas the results of the model from the well test analysis played a very crucial rule in order to propose the location of second well of the newly discovered field. The results from different methods of well test analysis of Jin Gas Field are also integrated with and supported by other tools of Reservoir Engineering i.e. Material Balance Method and Volumetric Method. In this way, a comprehensive way out and algorithm is obtained in order to integrate the well test analyses with Geological and Geophysical analyses for reservoir characterization and field development. On the strong basis of this working and algorithm, it was successfully evaluated that the proposed location of new development well was not justified and it must be somewhere else except South direction.

Keywords: field development plan, reservoir characterization, reservoir engineering, well test analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
4627 Optimization of Multi-Zone Unconventional (Shale) Gas Reservoir Using Hydraulic Fracturing Technique

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. G. Nasr


Hydraulic fracturing is one of the most important stimulation techniques available to the petroleum engineer to extract hydrocarbons in tight gas sandstones. It allows more oil and gas production in tight reservoirs as compared to conventional means. The main aim of the study is to optimize the hydraulic fracturing as technique and for this purpose three multi-zones layer formation is considered and fractured contemporaneously. The three zones are named as Zone1 (upper zone), Zone2 (middle zone) and Zone3 (lower zone) respectively and they all occur in shale rock. Simulation was performed with Mfrac integrated software which gives a variety of 3D fracture options. This simulation process yielded an average fracture efficiency of 93.8%for the three respective zones and an increase of the average permeability of the rock system. An average fracture length of 909 ft with net height (propped height) of 210 ft (average) was achieved. Optimum fracturing results was also achieved with maximum fracture width of 0.379 inches at an injection rate of 13.01 bpm with 17995 Mscf of gas production.

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, optimisation, shale, tight reservoir

Procedia PDF Downloads 358