Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: K. Sever

33 Multidimensional Poverty and Child Cognitive Development

Authors: Bidyadhar Dehury, Sanjay Kumar Mohanty


According to the Right to Education Act of India, education is the fundamental right of all children of age group 6-14 year irrespective of their status. Using the unit level data from India Human Development Survey (IHDS), we tried to understand the inter-relationship between the level of poverty and the academic performance of the children aged 8-11 years. The level of multidimensional poverty is measured using five dimensions and 10 indicators using Alkire-Foster approach. The weighted deprivation score was obtained by giving equal weight to each dimension and indicators within the dimension. The weighted deprivation score varies from 0 to 1 and grouped into four categories as non-poor, vulnerable, multidimensional poor and sever multidimensional poor. The academic performance index was measured using three variables reading skills, math skills and writing skills using PCA. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was used in the analysis. The outcome variable was ordinal. So the predicted probabilities were calculated using the ordinal logistic regression. The predicted probabilities of good academic performance index was 0.202 if the child was sever multidimensional poor, 0.235 if the child was multidimensional poor, 0.264 if the child was vulnerable, and 0.316 if the child was non-poor. Hence, if the level of poverty among the children decreases from sever multidimensional poor to non-poor, the probability of good academic performance increases.

Keywords: multidimensional poverty, academic performance index, reading skills, math skills, writing skills, India

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32 Rehabilitation of CP Using Pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM) as Indicator Instruments Suitable for CP: Saudi's Perspective

Authors: Bara M. Yousef


Kingdome of Saudi Arabia (KSA). High numbers of traffic accidents with sever, moderate and mild level of impairments admits to Sultan bin Abdulaziz humanitarian city. Over a period of 4 months the city received 111 male and 79 female subjects with CP, who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation and using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings shed the light on the fact that nearly 85% of people at admission got better after rehabilitation program services at individual sever moderate and mild and has arrange of (59 out of 128 WeeFIM score) and by the time of discharge they leave the city with better FIM score close to (72 out of 128 WeeFIM score) for the entire study sample. WeeFIM score is providing fair evidence to rehabilitation specialists to assess their outcomes. However there is a need to implement other instruments and compare it to WeeFIM in order to reach better outcomes at discharge level.

Keywords: Cerepral Palsy (CP), pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), rehabilitation, disability

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31 Household Food Insecurity, Maternal Mental Health and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Nahid Salarkia, Nasrin Omidvar, Erfan Ghassemi, Vahideh Arab-Salari, Tirang Reza Neyestani


Background: Household food insecurity has an adverse impact on the maternal mental health. This study was carried out to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, maternal depression and mother’s self-efficacy in Varamin, Iran, in 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 423 mothers with children under 2 years old, with mean age 28.1±5.2 year; weight 66.3±13.4 kg; height 160.3± 5.7 cm and BMI 25.7±4.8 kg/m2 were selected by a multistage random sampling scheme. The instruments were: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-III) and mother’s self-efficacy questionnaire. Data was analyzed using χ2 test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: Mildly, moderately and severely food insecure households were 39.5, 9.7 and 3.1%, respectively. Mild, moderate and sever depression was: 18.7, 13.9 and 5.7%. Mean score of depression in moderate and severe food insecure (8.6±5.3) was more than mild food insecure (4.8±4.7) and food secure (3.1±3.6) mothers. Frequency of very good, good and low mother’s self-efficacy were 62.8, 36.5, and 0.7%, respectively. Very good mother’s self-efficacy in food secure mothers (33.4%) was more than mild (25.4%) and moderate-sever food insecure groups (4%). There was a negative significant association between household food insecurity and mother’s self-efficacy (r= -0.297, p<0.01), and between mother’s depression and self-efficacy (r= -0.309, p=0.001). Conclusion: Empowerment of mothers with educational programs and social support can decrease mothers’ depression and increase self-efficacy that lead to improve maternal practices in food insecure households.

Keywords: Household food insecurity, Iran, mothers, physiological characteristics, self-efficacy

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30 Rice Tablet Poisoning in Iran

Authors: Somayeh Khanjani, Samaneh Nabavi, Shirin Jalili


Aluminum phosphide (ALP) is an inorganic phosphide used to control insects and is a highly effective insecticide and rodenticide used frequently to protect stored grain. Acute poisoning with this compound is common in some countries including India and Iran, and is a serious health problem. In Iran it was known as "rice tablet", for its use to preserve rice. Two kinds of rice tablets one being herbal while other containing 3g aluminum phosphide (AlP) are available for use in Iranian households to protect stored food grains from pests and rodents. The toxicity of Aluminum phosphide is attributed to the liberation of phosphine gas in contact with water or weak acid and is the major cause of poisoning and deaths. Rice tablet (Aluminum Phosphid) poisoning may be associated with serious and sometimes incurable complications. In 61.3% of patients were shown uniform ingestion. Vomiting was the most common symptoms reported by 96.4% patients. Agitation was reported in 36.9% and felling of thirsty in 27.9 %. Although many complications such as Hypotension, Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Renal Failure (ARF) AND Multi Organ Failure (MOF) were the common complications observed in these patients, but the most lethal complication was Cardiac Arrhythmias occurred in 36.9% of cases. Abdominal pain in 31.4% of the patients, nausea in 79.4% of the patients and 41.1% of the patients showed metabolic acidosis. Suicidal intention was the most common cause of poisoning leading to deaths in 18.6% of the patients. Aluminum phosphide can cause either elevation, decrease or no change in electrolytes, bicarbonate and blood glucose level. The possible mechanism for changes in blood glucose levels are complex and depend on the balance of factors which increase its concentration and those which reduce it. AlP poisoning has been postulated to stimulate cortisol which leads to increasing blood level of cortisol, also it may cause stimulation of glucagon, and Adrenaline secretion; in addition, it can inhibit insulin synthesis which may lead to hyperglycemia. Another suggested mechanism of hyperglycemia is rennin activity in some cases, an increase in magnesium level of plasma and that of tissues, and high phosphate level. Although hyperglycemia is most frequent in this poisoning and also is known as a marker of poor prognostic, hypoglycemia in aluminum phosphide poisoning is a rare finding which may be so dangerous. Patients showed sever hypotension and sever acidosis in addition to sever hypoglycemia. The presenting features of AlP intoxication are rapid onset of shock, severe metabolic acidosis, cardiac dysrhythmias and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Keywords: aluminum phosphide (ALP), rice tablet, poisoning, phosphine gas

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29 The Association between Food Security Status and Depression in Two Iranian Ethnic Groups Living in Northwest of Iran

Authors: A. Rezazadeh, N. Omidvar, H. Eini-Zinab


Food insecurity (FI) influences may result in poor physical and mental health outcomes. Minor ethnic group may experience higher level of FI, and this situation may be related with higher depression prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the association of depression with food security status in major (Azeri) and minor (Kurdish) ethnicity living in Urmia, West Azerbaijan, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 723 participants (427 women and 296 men) aged 20–64 years old, from two ethnic groups (445 Azeri and 278 Kurdish), were selected through a multi stage cluster systematic sampling. Depression rate was assessed by “Beck” short form questionnaire (validated in Iranians) through interviews. Household FI status (HFIS) was measured using adapted HFI access scale through face-to-face interviews at homes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of depression across HFIS. Higher percent of Kurds had moderate and severe depression in comparison with Azeri group (73 [17.3%] vs. 86 [27.9%]). There were not any significant differences between the two ethnicities in mild depression. Also, of all the subjects, moderate-to-sever FI was more prevalent in Kurds (28.5%), compared to Azeri group (17.3%) [P < 0.01]. Kurdish ethnic group living in food security or mild FI households had lower chance to have symptom of severe depression in comparison to those with sever FI (OR=0.097; 95% CI: 0.02-0.47). However, there was no significant association between depression and HFI in Azeri group. Findings revealed that the severity of HFI was related with severity depression in minor studied ethnic groups. However, in Azeri ethnicity as a major group, other confounders may have influence on the relation with depression and FI, that were not studied in the present study.

Keywords: depression, ethnicity, food security status, Iran

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28 Toxicological and Histopathological Studies on the Effect of Tartrazine in Male Albino Rats

Authors: F. Alaa Ali, S. A. Sherein Abdelgayed, S. Osama. EL-Tawil, M. Adel Bakeer


Tartrazine is an organic azo dyes food additive widely used in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study aimed to investigate the toxic effects of tartrazine on kidneys and liver biomarkers in addition to the investigation of oxidative stress and change of histopathological structure of liver and kidneys in 30 male rats. Tartrazine was orally administrated daily at dose 200 mg/ kg bw (1/ 10 LD50) for sixty days. Serum and tissue samples were collected at the end of the experiment to investigate the underlying mechanism of tartrazine through assessment oxidative stress (Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and biochemical markers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Total protein and Urea). Liver and kidneys tissue were collected and preserved in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. The obtained values were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by multiple comparison test. Biochemical analysis revealed that tartrazine induced significant increase in serum ALT, AST, total protein, urea level compared to control group. Tartrazine showed significant decrease in liver GSH and SOD where their values when compared to control group. Tartrazine induced increase in liver MDA compared to control group. Histopathology of the liver showed diffuse vacuolar degeneration in hepatic parenchyma, the portal area showed sever changes sever in hepatoportal blood vessels and in the bile ducts. The kidneys showed degenerated tubules at the cortex together with mononuclear leucocytes inflammatory cells infiltration. There is perivascular edema with inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the congested and hyalinized vascular wall of blood vessel. The present study indicates that the subchronic effects of tartrazine have a toxic effect on the liver and kidneys together with induction of oxidative stress by formation of free radicals. Therefore, people should avoid the hazards of consuming tartrazine.

Keywords: albino rats, tartrazine, toxicity, pathology

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27 Electromechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Based Electroactive Polymer

Authors: M. Sarikanat, E. Akar, I. Şen, Y. Seki, O. C. Yılmaz, B. O. Gürses, L. Cetin, O. Özdemir, K. Sever


Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, polyelectrolyte, cheap polymer. In this study, chitosan based electroactive polymer (CBEAP) was fabricated. Electroactive properties of this polymer were investigated at different voltages. It exhibited excellent tip displacement at low voltages (1, 3, 5, 7 V). Tip displacement was increased as the applied voltage increased. Best tip displacement was investigated as 28 mm at 5V. Characterization of CBEAP was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. CBEAP exhibited desired electroactive properties at low voltages. It is suitable for using in artificial muscle and various robotic applications.

Keywords: chitosan, electroactive polymer, electroactive properties

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26 Video Sharing System Based On Wi-fi Camera

Authors: Qidi Lin, Jinbin Huang, Weile Liang


This paper introduces a video sharing platform based on WiFi, which consists of camera, mobile phone and PC server. This platform can receive wireless signal from the camera and show the live video on the mobile phone captured by camera. In addition that, it is able to send commands to camera and control the camera’s holder to rotate. The platform can be applied to interactive teaching and dangerous area’s monitoring and so on. Testing results show that the platform can share the live video of mobile phone. Furthermore, if the system’s PC sever and the camera and many mobile phones are connected together, it can transfer photos concurrently.

Keywords: Wifi Camera, socket mobile, platform video monitoring, remote control

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25 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: K. Sever, Y. Seki, Z. Yenier, İ. Şen, M. Sarikanat


It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: chitosan, graphene, viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity

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24 Liquid Sulphur Storage Tank

Authors: Roya Moradifar, Naser Agharezaee


In this paper corrosion in the liquid sulphur storage tank at South pars gas complex phases 2&3 is presented. This full hot insulated field-erected storage tanks are used for the temporary storage of 1800m3 of molten sulphur. Sever corrosion inside the tank roof was observed during over haul inspections, in the direction of roof gradient. Investigation shown, in spite of other parts of tank there was no insulation around these manholes. Internal steam coils do not maintain a sufficiently high tank roof temperature in the vapor space. Sulphur and formation of liquid water at cool metal surface, this combination leads to the formation of iron sulfide. By employing a distributed external heating system, the temperatures of any point of the tank roof should be based on ambient dew point and the liquid storage solidification point. Also other construction and operation of tank is more important. This paper will review potential corrosion mechanism and operational case study which illustrate the importance of heating systems.

Keywords: tank, steam, corrosion, sulphur

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23 Investigation of Failures in Wadi-Crossing Pipe Culverts, Sennar State, Sudan

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi


Crossing culverts are essential element of rural roads. The paper aims to investigate failures of recently constructed wadi-crossing pipe culverts in Sennar state and provide necessary remedial measures. The investigation is conducted to provide an extensive diagnosis study in order to find out the main structural and hydrological weaknesses of the culverts. Literature of steel pipe culverts related to construction practices and common types of culvert failures and their appropriate mitigation measures were reviewed. A detailed field survey was conducted to detect failures and defects appeared on the existing culverts. The results revealed that seepage of water through the embankment and foundation of the culverts leads to excessive erosion and scouring causing sever failures and damages. The design mistakes and poor construction were detected as the main causes of culverts failures. For sustainability of the culverts, various remedial measures are recommended to be considered in urgent rehabilitation of the existing crossings.

Keywords: culvert, erosion, failure, sustainability

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22 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Aluminum Composite Reinforced with Carbon Nano Tube Dispersion via Ultrasonic and Ball Mill Attrition after Sever Plastic Deformation

Authors: Hassan Zare, Mohammad Jahedi, Mohammad Reza Toroghinejad, Mahmoud Meratian, Marko Knezevic


In this study, the carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced Al matrix nanocomposites were fabricated by ECAP. Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process is one of the most important methods for powder densification due to the presence of shear strain. This method samples with variety passes (one, two, four and eight passes) in C route were prepared at room temperature. A few study about metal matrix nanocomposite reinforced carbon nanotube done, the reaction intersection of interface and carbon nanotube cause to reduce the efficiency of nanocomposite. In this paper, we checked mechanical and physical properties of aluminum-CNT composite that manufactured by ECAP when the composite is deformed. The non-agglomerated CNTs were distributed homogeneously with 2% consolidation in the Aluminum matrix. The ECAP process was performed on the both monolithic and composite with distributed CNT samples for 8 passes.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, ball mill attrition, ultrasonic, consolidation

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21 Modeling Sustainable Truck Rental Operations Using Closed-Loop Supply Chain Network

Authors: Khaled S. Abdallah, Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed


Moving industries consume numerous resources and dispose masses of used packaging materials. Proper sorting, recycling and disposing the packaging materials is necessary to avoid a sever pollution disaster. This research paper presents a conceptual model to propose sustainable truck rental operations instead of the regular one. An optimization model was developed to select the locations of truck rental centers, collection sites, maintenance and repair sites, and identify the rental fees to be charged for all routes that maximize the total closed supply chain profits. Fixed costs of vehicle purchasing, costs of constructing collection centers and repair centers, as well as the fixed costs paid to use disposal and recycling centers are considered. Operating costs include the truck maintenance, repair costs as well as the cost of recycling and disposing the packing materials, and the costs of relocating the truck are presented in the model. A mixed integer model is developed followed by a simulation model to examine the factors affecting the operation of the model.

Keywords: modeling, truck rental, supply chains management.

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20 Evaluation of Vine Stem Waste as a Filler Material for High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Y. Seki, A. Ç. Kılıç, M. Atagür, O. Özdemir, İ. Şen, K. Sever, Ö. Seydibeyoğlu, M. Sarikanat, N. Küçükdoğan


Cheap and abundant waste materials have been investigated as filler materials in thermoplastic polymers instead of wood- based materials because of deforestation. Vine stem, as an agricultural waste, was used as a filler material for a thermoplastic polymer, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in this study. Agricultural waste of vine stem was collected from Manisa region, Turkey. Vine stem at different rations was used to reinforce HDPE. The effect of vine stem loading on tensile strength and Young’s modulus of composites were obtained. It was clearly observed that tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE was increased by vine stem loading. Thermal stabilities of composites were obtained by using thermogravimetric analysis. Water absorption behavior of HDPE was improved by loading vine stem into HDPE. The crystallinity index values of neat HDPE and vine stem loaded HDPE composites were investigated byX-ray diffraction analysis. From this study, it was inferred that vine stem, as an agricultural waste, can be used as a filler material for HDPE.

Keywords: waste filler, high density polyethylene, composite, composite materials

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19 Extracting Therapeutic Grade Essential Oils from the Lamiaceae Plant Family in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): Highlights on Great Possibilities and Sever Difficulties

Authors: Suzan M. Shahin, Mohammed A. Salem


Essential oils are expensive phytochemicals produced and extracted from specific species belonging to particular families in the plant kingdom. In the United Arab Emirates country (UAE), which is located in the arid region of the world, nine species, from the Lamiaceae family, having the capability to produce therapeutic grade essential oils. These species include; Mentha spicata, Ocimum forskolei, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia aegyptiaca, Salvia macilenta, Salvia spinosa, Teucrium polium, Teucrium stocksianum, and Zataria multiflora. Although, such potential species are indigenous to the UAE, however, there are almost no studies available to investigate the chemical composition and the quality of the extracted essential oils under the UAE climatological conditions. Therefore, great attention has to be given to such valuable natural resources, through conducting highly supported research projects, tailored to the UAE conditions, and investigating different extraction techniques, including the application of the latest available technologies, such as superficial fluid CO2. This is crucially needed; in order to accomplish the greatest possibilities in the medicinal field, specifically in the discovery of new therapeutic chemotypes, as well as, to achieve the sustainability of this natural resource in the country.

Keywords: essential oils, extraction techniques, Lamiaceae, traditional medicine, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

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18 A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection

Authors: Ankur Dixit, Hiroaki Wagatsuma


The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coarse component, fine component, MCA, Sobel edge detector and wavelet transform

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17 Ultrastructural Changes Occur in Mice Lungs After Cessation to Exposure of Incense Smoke

Authors: Samar Rabah


Background: Incense woods are special kind of trees called Agarwood, which characterized by good smelling odors and many medical benefits. Incense smoke is heavily used in Saudi Arabia although comprehensive studies of its effects on health are limited. The present study demonstrated lung ultrastructure changes of mice after exposure and cessation to Incense smoke. Eighty mice are divided equally into four groups, three groups are exposed to different concentrations of Incense smoke (2, 4 and 6 gm) for three months, while the fourth group is control one. At the end of each month, lungs of five animals from each group are gathered, while the last five animals from each group are kept for another 60 days without exposure to the Incense smoke to allow for recovery. Results: Transmission electron microscope investigations of all exposed groups showed hypertrophy and hyperplasia in Clara Cells and some an enlargement of the macrophage to the point that it fills a large part of the alveolar lumen. Scanning electron microscope marks presence of mucus materials attached to the epithelial bronchioles. After prevention of exposure to the Incense smoke for 60 days, necrosis and degeneration in some cells of epithelial bronchioles, fibrosis of peribronchial, thickening in alveolar walls and aggregation of lymphoid cells were demonstrated. Conclusion: Based on the above findings and other related studies (not published), we conclude that exposure to Incense smoke causes harmful effects due to sever changes in pulmonary ultrastructure, such effects do not disappear even when Incense smoke inhalation was stopped. Therefore, we recommend that Incense smoke should use only in open places to reduce its harms.

Keywords: Incense smoke, lungs, ultrastructure of lungs, Agarwood

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16 Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy in Gastroesophageal Junction Tumours

Authors: Ihab Saad Ahmed


Background For Siewert type I and II gastroesophageal junction tumor (GEJ) laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy can be performed. It is associated with several perioperative benefits compared with open proximal gastrectomy. The use of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has become an increasingly popular approach for select tumors Methods We describe our technique for LPG, including the preoperative work-up, illustrated images of the main principle steps of the surgery, and our postoperative course. Results Thirteen pts (nine males, four female) with type I, II (GEJ) adenocarcinoma had laparoscopic radical proximal gastrectomy and D2 lymphadenectomy. All of our patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, eleven patients had intrathoracic anastomosis through mini thoracotomy (two hand sewn end to end anastomoses and the other 9 patient end to side using circular stapler), two patients with intrathoracic anastomosis had flap and wrap technique, two patients had thoracoscopic esophageal and mediastinal lymph node dissection with cervical anastomosis The mean blood loss 80ml, no cases were converted to open. The mean operative time 250 minute Average LN retrieved 19-25, No sever complication such as leakage, stenosis, pancreatic fistula ,or intra-abdominal abscess were reported. Only One patient presented with empyema 1.5 month after discharge that was managed conservatively. Conclusion For carefully selected patients, LPG in GEJ tumour type I and II is a safe and reasonable alternative for open technique , which is associated with similar oncologic outcomes and low morbidity. It showed less blood loss, respiratory infections, with similar 1- and 3-year survival rates.

Keywords: LPG(laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy, GEJ( gastroesophageal junction tumour), d2 lymphadenectomy, neoadjuvant cth

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15 Numerical Investigation of Material Behavior During Non-Equal Channel Multi Angular Extrusion

Authors: Mohamed S. El-Asfoury, Ahmed Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed N. A. Nasr


The current study uses finite element modeling to investigate and analyze a modified form of the from the conventional equal channel multi-angular pressing (ECMAP), using non-equal channels, on the workpiece material plastic deformation. The modified process non-equal channel multi-angular extrusion (NECMAE) is modeled using two-dimensional plane strain finite element model built using the commercial software ABAQUS. The workpiece material used is pure aluminum. The model was first validated by comparing its results to analytical solutions for single-pass equal channel angular extrusion (ECAP), as well as previously published data. After that, the model was used to examine the effects of different % of reductions of the area (for the second stage) on material plastic deformation, corner gap, and required the load. Three levels of reduction in the area were modeled; 10%, 30%, and 50%, and compared to single-pass and double-pass ECAP. Cases with a higher reduction in the area were found to have smaller corner gaps, higher and much uniform plastic deformation, as well as higher required loads. The current results are mainly attributed to the back pressure effects exerted by the second stage, as well as strain hardening effects experienced during the first stage.

Keywords: non-equal channel angular extrusion, multi-pass, sever plastic deformation, back pressure, Finite Element Modelling (FEM)

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14 Light and Electron Microscopy Study of Acrylamide-Induced Hypothalamic Neuropathy

Authors: Keivan Jmahidi, Afshin Zahedi


To evaluate neurotoxic effects of ACR on hypothalamus of rat, amino-cupric silver staining technique of de Olmos and electron microscopic examination were conducted. For this purpose 60 adult male Wistar rats (± 250 g) were selected. Randomly assigned groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group, as A, B, C, D, E) were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 and 500 mg/kg per day×11days i.p. respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group F as control group. Control rats received daily i.p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). As indices of developing neurotoxicity, daily weight gain, gait scores and landing hindlimb foot splay (LHF) were determined. After 11 days, two rats for silver stain, and two rats for EM, were randomly selected, dissected and proper samples were collected from hypothalamus. Rats in groups D and E died within 1-2 hours due to sever toxemia. In histopathological studies no argyrophilic neurons or processes were observed in stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to groups A, B and F, while moderate to severe argyrophilic changes were observed in different nuclei and regions of stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to group C. In ultrastructural studies some variations in the myelin sheet of injured axons including decompactation, interlaminar space formation, disruption of the laminar sheet, accumulation of neurofilaments, vacculation and clumping inside the axolem, and finaly complete disappearance of laminar sheet were observed.

Keywords: acrylamide (ACR), amino-cupric silver staining technique of de Olmos, argyrophilia, hypothalamic neuropathy

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13 Light and Electron Study of Acrylamide–Induced Hypothalamic Changes

Authors: Keivan Jamshidi


Distal swelling and eventual degeneration of axon in the CNS and PNS have been considered to be the characteristic neuropathological effects of acrylamide (ACR) neuropathy. This study was conducted to determine the neurotoxic effects of different doses of ACR (0.5, 5, 50, 100, and 500 mg/kg per day × 11days i. p.) on hypothalamus of rat using the de Olmos amino cupric-silver stain and electron microscopy. For this purpose 60 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were randomly assigned in 5 treatment groups as A, B, C, D, E) exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100, and 500 mg/kg per dayx11days i. p. and one control group as F received daily i. p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). As indices of developing neurotoxicity, weight gain, gait scores and landing hindlimb foot splay were determined. After 11 days, two rats for silver stain, and two rats for EM were randomly selected; dissected and proper samples were collected from hypothalamus. Results did show no neurological behavior in groups A, B and F were observed in group C. Rats in groups D and E died within 1-2 hours due to sever toxemia. In histopathological studies based on de Olmos technique no argyrophilic neurons or processes were observed in stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to groups A, B, and F while moderate to severe argyrophilic changes were observed in different nuclei and regions of stained sections obtained from hypothalamus of rats belong to group C. In ultra-structural studies some variations in the myelin sheet of injured axons including decompactation, interlaminar space formation, disruption of the laminar sheet, accumulation of neurofilaments, vacculation, and clumping inside the axolem, and finally complete disappearance of laminar sheet were observed.

Keywords: acrylamide, hypothalamus, rat, de Olmos amino cupric, silver stain, electron microscopy

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12 Experimental Analyses of Thermoelectric Generator Behavior Using Two Types of Thermoelectric Modules for Marine Application

Authors: A. Nour Eddine, D. Chalet, L. Aixala, P. Chessé, X. Faure, N. Hatat


Thermal power technology such as the TEG (Thermo-Electric Generator) arouses significant attention worldwide for waste heat recovery. Despite the potential benefits of marine application due to the permanent heat sink from sea water, no significant studies on this application were to be found. In this study, a test rig has been designed and built to test the performance of the TEG on engine operating points. The TEG device is built from commercially available materials for the sake of possible economical application. Two types of commercial TEM (thermo electric module) have been studied separately on the test rig. The engine data were extracted from a commercial Diesel engine since it shares the same principle in terms of engine efficiency and exhaust with the marine Diesel engine. An open circuit water cooling system is used to replicate the sea water cold source. The characterization tests showed that the silicium-germanium alloys TEM proved a remarkable reliability on all engine operating points, with no significant deterioration of performance even under sever variation in the hot source conditions. The performance of the bismuth-telluride alloys was 100% better than the first type of TEM but it showed a deterioration in power generation when the air temperature exceeds 300 °C. The temperature distribution on the heat exchange surfaces revealed no useful combination of these two types of TEM with this tube length, since the surface temperature difference between both ends is no more than 10 °C. This study exposed the perspective of use of TEG technology for marine engine exhaust heat recovery. Although the results suggested non-sufficient power generation from the low cost commercial TEM used, it provides valuable information about TEG device optimization, including the design of heat exchanger and the types of thermo-electric materials.

Keywords: internal combustion engine application, Seebeck, thermo-electricity, waste heat recovery

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11 Patterns of Occurrence of Bovine Haemoparasitic Diseases and Its Co-Incidence with Viral Epidemics of Foot and Mouth Disease and Lumpy Skin Disease

Authors: Amir Hamed Abd-Elrahman, Mohamed Bessat


450 fattening cattle and buffaloes aged from 6 to 30 months old were examined clinically to determine patterns of occurrence of hemoparasitic diseases and the efficacy of different anti theilerial drugs. 420 animals examined clinically to determine relation between different outbreak of FMD and LSD in Egypt 2012- 2013 and haemoprotozoal diseases. The clinical pictures of haemoprotozoal diseases are variable, from sever to mild, depending on the endemic situation which governed by frequent previous exposure and tick infestation. B. bigemina is the most common haemoprotozoal diseases in the area of study and the infection rate in a descending manner for B. bigemina, A. marginale and T. annulata were 20%, 9.7% and 6.6% respectively. The species susceptibility of B. bigemina and T. annulata showed a higher incidence in cattle than buffaloes while in A. marginale showed a little difference in cattle and buffaloes susceptibility by 10% and 9.2% respectively. The breed susceptibility of B. bigemina and T. annulata showed a higher incidence in crossbred cattle than native baladi cattle while A. marginale showed a higher incidence in native baladi cattle than crossbred cattle. The maximal infection rates were recorded during summer months. The infection rates of B. bigemina and A. marginale were higher among young animals over 6 months and declined above 2 year old while in T. annulata the infection rates were lower among young animals and increased above 2 year old. The case fatality of T. annulata was higher than A. marginale and B. bigemina. Efficacy of different anti theilerial drugs were studied, cure rate of chlouroquine group and Butalex group were 60% disappearance of schizont in lymph node smear after 9 days and 5 days respectively while cure rate of Oxytetracycline Dihydrate (Alamycine) group 20% with disappearance of schizont in lymph node smear after 14 days. FMD and LSD infection enhancement the occurrence of bovine haemoprotozoal diseases.

Keywords: Babesia bigemina, Anaplasma marginale, Theileria annulata, FMD, LSD, ephemeral fever

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10 Study and Simulation of a Sever Dust Storm over West and South West of Iran

Authors: Saeed Farhadypour, Majid Azadi, Habibolla Sayyari, Mahmood Mosavi, Shahram Irani, Aliakbar Bidokhti, Omid Alizadeh Choobari, Ziba Hamidi


In the recent decades, frequencies of dust events have increased significantly in west and south west of Iran. First, a survey on the dust events during the period (1990-2013) is investigated using historical dust data collected at 6 weather stations scattered over west and south-west of Iran. After statistical analysis of the observational data, one of the most severe dust storm event that occurred in the region from 3rd to 6th July 2009, is selected and analyzed. WRF-Chem model is used to simulate the amount of PM10 and how to transport it to the areas. The initial and lateral boundary conditions for model obtained from GFS data with 0.5°×0.5° spatial resolution. In the simulation, two aerosol schemas (GOCART and MADE/SORGAM) with 3 options (chem_opt=106,300 and 303) were evaluated. Results of the statistical analysis of the historical data showed that south west of Iran has high frequency of dust events, so that Bushehr station has the highest frequency between stations and Urmia station has the lowest frequency. Also in the period of 1990 to 2013, the years 2009 and 1998 with the amounts of 3221 and 100 respectively had the highest and lowest dust events and according to the monthly variation, June and July had the highest frequency of dust events and December had the lowest frequency. Besides, model results showed that the MADE / SORGAM scheme has predicted values and trends of PM10 better than the other schemes and has showed the better performance in comparison with the observations. Finally, distribution of PM10 and the wind surface maps obtained from numerical modeling showed that the formation of dust plums formed in Iraq and Syria and also transportation of them to the West and Southwest of Iran. In addition, comparing the MODIS satellite image acquired on 4th July 2009 with model output at the same time showed the good ability of WRF-Chem in simulating spatial distribution of dust.

Keywords: dust storm, MADE/SORGAM scheme, PM10, WRF-Chem

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9 Influence of Deficient Materials on the Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Sami W. Tabsh


The strength of reinforced concrete depends on the member dimensions and material properties. The properties of concrete and steel materials are not constant but random variables. The variability of concrete strength is due to batching errors, variations in mixing, cement quality uncertainties, differences in the degree of compaction and disparity in curing. Similarly, the variability of steel strength is attributed to the manufacturing process, rolling conditions, characteristics of base material, uncertainties in chemical composition, and the microstructure-property relationships. To account for such uncertainties, codes of practice for reinforced concrete design impose resistance factors to ensure structural reliability over the useful life of the structure. In this investigation, the effects of reductions in concrete and reinforcing steel strengths from the nominal values, beyond those accounted for in the structural design codes, on the structural reliability are assessed. The considered limit states are flexure, shear and axial compression based on the ACI 318-11 structural concrete building code. Structural safety is measured in terms of a reliability index. Probabilistic resistance and load models are compiled from the available literature. The study showed that there is a wide variation in the reliability index for reinforced concrete members designed for flexure, shear or axial compression, especially when the live-to-dead load ratio is low. Furthermore, variations in concrete strength have minor effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and sever effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. On the other hand, changes in steel yield strength have great effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and mild effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. Based on the outcome, it can be concluded that the reliability of beams is sensitive to changes in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement, whereas the reliability of columns is sensitive to variations in the concrete strength. Since the embedded target reliability in structural design codes results in lower structural safety in beams than in columns, large reductions in material strengths compromise the structural safety of beams much more than they affect columns.

Keywords: code, flexure, limit states, random variables, reinforced concrete, reliability, reliability index, shear, structural safety

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8 The Study of Self-Management of Stress (SMS) of Yoga Program for Pregnant Women in Early Pregnancy in Taiwan

Authors: Shau-Ping Shiu, Shu-Ling Lin


Pregnancy lead a process of changing in the endocrine system. Either pregnancy itself or the surrounding affect such as the attitude of family to the pregnant lady can bring lots of stress. Sever stress may lead pregnant women display serious mental problem such as mood swings, impulsivity, and abnormal behavior. A method of self management of stress(SMS) has been proved that help patient of cancer in release their stress. This study were going to use SMS to help pregnant women. Methods: In this study, 42 ladies in the first to third months of pregnancy process applied to join SMS of program have divided into 21 participants in both control and experimental group by draw. 24 sessions of Yoga program were conducted once a week for 6 months for experimental group. Verbatim used to gather more feedbacks from the interview followed by each Yoga sessions. Brief symptom Rating scale also conducted pre and post experiment for 42 participations. Results: Overall score of Brief Symptom Rating Scale reduced 17.82 points and suicide drop 9 points in experimental group, compared to the control group increasing 10.24 point of overall score and suicide add 7 points. Feedback from interviews showed participations improved in emotion, physical health and stress management. They indicated having more positive emotion daily, having better gastrointestinal peristalsis movement, releasing back tention, well weight control, reducing stress and changing the quality of interpersonal relationships. Conclusion: SMS of Yoga program in this study included four key training directions which were stimulation, relaxation, awareness and pranayama lead a great improvment of stress management for pregnant lady. Throughout this Yoga program, women learned to ignite eustress, remove distress, create calmness and breath slows down. As the result, Yoga program has helped women in experiment group lower their tension, and bring the extra benifits in emotion and relationships. It support women to overcome their pregnancy. Suggestion: An unexpected result of this study showed all participants had no morning sickness since they engaged in SMS program, and no one absent from course due to the benefits of it. We strongly suggest that SMS of Yoga program can be a add of medication for women in pregnancy, however, the position of Forward in the SMS sequence has been point out pressing participant’s stomach, which can be replace to Bridge position to comfort participants.

Keywords: self-management of stress(SMS), yoga program, pregnant women, early pregnancy

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7 Community Based Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Maternal Depression and Infant Development in Bangladesh

Authors: S. Yesmin, N. F.Rahman, R. Akther, T. Begum, T. Tahmid, T. Chowdury, S. Afrin, J. D. Hamadani


Abstract: Maternal depression is one of the risk factors of developmental delay in young children in low-income countries. Maternal depressions during pregnancy are rarely reported in Bangladesh. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of a community based psychosocial intervention on women with mild to moderate depressive illness during the perinatal period and on their children from birth to 12 months on mothers’ mental status and their infants’ growth and development. Methodology: The study followed a prospective longitudinal approach with a randomized controlled design. Total 250 pregnant women aged between 15 and 40 years were enrolled in their third trimester of pregnancy of which 125 women were in the intervention group and 125 in the control group. Women in the intervention group received the “Thinking Healthy (CBT based) program” at their home setting, from their last month of pregnancy till 10 months after delivery. Their children received psychosocial stimulation from birth till 12 months. The following instruments were applied to get the outcome information- Bangla version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (BEPDS), Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI), Maternal Attachment Inventory (MAI), Bayley Scale of Infant Development-Third version (Bayley–III) and Family Care Indicator (FCI). In addition, sever morbidity; breastfeeding, immunization, socio-economic and demographic information were collected. Data were collected at three time points viz. baseline, midline (6 months after delivery) and endline (12 months after delivery). Results: There was no significant difference between any of the socioeconomic and demographic variables at baseline. A very preliminary analysis of the data shows an intervention effect on Socioemotional behaviour of children at endline (p<0.001), motor development at midline (p=0.016) and at endline (p=0.065), language development at midline (p=0.004) and at endline (p=0.023), cognitive development at midline (p=0.008) and at endline (p=0.002), and quality of psychosocial stimulation at midline (p=0.023) and at endline (p=0.010). EPDS at baseline was not different between the groups (p=0.419), but there was a significant improvement at midline (p=0.027) and at endline (p=0.024) between the groups following the intervention. Conclusion: Psychosocial intervention is found effective in reducing women’s low and moderate depressive illness to cope with mental health problem and improving development of young children in Bangladesh.

Keywords: mental health, maternal depression, infant development, CBT, EPDS

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6 The Effect of Alternative Organic Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Nitrogen and Yield of Peppermint (Mentha peperita)

Authors: Seyed Ali Mohammad, Modarres Sanavy, Hamed Keshavarz, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli


One of the biggest challenges for the current and future generations is to produce sufficient food for the world population with the existing limited available water resources. Peppermint is a specialty crop used for food and medicinal purposes. Its main component is menthol. It is used predominantly for oral hygiene, pharmaceuticals, and foods. Although drought stress is considered as a negative factor in agriculture, being responsible for severe yield losses; medicinal plants grown under semi-arid conditions usually produce higher concentrations of active substances than same species grown under moderate climates. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is central to the profitability and sustainability of forage crop production. Sub-optimal N supply will result in poor yields, and excess N application can lead to nitrate leaching and environmental pollution. In order to determine the response of peppermint to drought stress and different fertilizer treatments, a field experiment with peppermint was conducted in a sandy loam soil at a site of the Tarbiat Modares University, Agriculture Faculty, Tehran, Iran. The experiment used a complete randomized block design, with six rates of fertilizer strategies (F1: control, F2: Urea, F3: 75% urea + 25% vermicompost, F4: 50% urea + 50% vermicompost, F5: 25% urea + 75% vermicompost and F6: vermicompost) and three irrigation regime (S1: 45%, S2: 60% and S3: 75% FC) with three replication. The traits such as nitrogen, chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanin, flavonoid and fresh biomass were studied. The results showed that the treatments had a significant effect on the studied traits as drought stress reduced photosynthetic pigment concentration. Also, drought stress reduced fresh yield of peppermint. Non stress condition had the greater amount of chlorophyll and fresh yield more than other irrigation treatments. The highest concentration of chlorophyll and the fresh biomass was obtained in F2 fertilizing treatments. Sever water stress (S1) produced decreased photosynthetic pigment content fresh yield of peppermint. Supply of N could improve photosynthetic capacity by enhancing photosynthetic pigment content. Perhaps application of vermicompost significantly improved the organic carbon, available N, P and K content in soil over urea fertilization alone. To get sustainable production of peppermint, application of vermicompost along with N through synthetic fertilizer is recommended for light textured sandy loam soils.

Keywords: fresh yield, peppermint, synthetic nitrogen, vermicompost, water stress

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5 The Epidemiology of Dengue in Taiwan during 2014-15: A Descriptive Analysis of the Severe Outbreaks of Central Surveillance System Data

Authors: Chu-Tzu Chen, Angela S. Huang, Yu-Min Chou, Chin-Hui Yang


Dengue is a major public health concern throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ocean and overlying the tropical and subtropical zones. The island remains humid throughout the year and receives abundant rainfall, and the temperature is very hot in summer at southern Taiwan. It is ideal for the growth of dengue vectors and would be increasing the risk on dengue outbreaks. During the first half of the 20th century, there were three island-wide dengue outbreaks (1915, 1931, and 1942). After almost forty years of dormancy, a DEN-2 outbreak occurred in Liuchiu Township, Pingtung County in 1981. Thereafter, more dengue outbreaks occurred with different scales in southern Taiwan. However, there were more than ten thousands of dengue cases in 2014 and in 2015. It did not only affect human health, but also caused widespread social disruption and economic losses. The study would like to reveal the epidemiology of dengue on Taiwan, especially the severe outbreak in 2015, and try to find the effective interventions in dengue control including dengue vaccine development for the elderly. Methods: The study applied the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System database of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control as data source. All cases were reported with the uniform case definition and confirmed by NS1 rapid diagnosis/laboratory diagnosis. Results: In 2014, Taiwan experienced a serious DEN-1 outbreak with 15,492 locally-acquired cases, including 136 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which caused 21 deaths. However, a more serious DEN-2 outbreak occurred with 43,419 locally-acquired cases in 2015. The epidemic occurred mainly at Tainan City (22,760 cases) and Kaohsiung City (19,723 cases) in southern Taiwan. The age distribution for the cases were mainly adults. There were 228 deaths due to dengue infection, and the case fatality rate was 5.25 ‰. The average age of them was 73.66 years (range 29-96) and 86.84% of them were older than 60 years. Most of them were comorbidities. To review the clinical manifestations of the 228 death cases, 38.16% (N=87) of them were reported with warning signs, while 51.75% (N=118) were reported without warning signs. Among the 87 death cases reported to dengue with warning signs, 89.53% were diagnosed sever dengue and 84% needed the intensive care. Conclusion: The year 2015 was characterized by large dengue outbreaks worldwide. The risk of serious dengue outbreak may increase significantly in the future, and the elderly is the vulnerable group in Taiwan. However, a dengue vaccine has been licensed for use in people 9-45 years of age living in endemic settings at the end of 2015. In addition to carry out the research to find out new interventions in dengue control, developing the dengue vaccine for the elderly is very important to prevent severe dengue and deaths.

Keywords: case fatality rate, dengue, dengue vaccine, the elderly

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4 Status and Management of Grape Stem Borer, Celosterna scrabrator with Soil Application of Chlorantraniliprole 0.4 gr

Authors: D. N. Kambrekar, S. B. Jagginavar, J. Aruna


Grape stem borer, Celosterna scrabrator is an important production constraint in grapes in India. Hitherto this pest was a severe menace only on the aged and unmanaged fields but during the recent past it has also started damaging the newly established fields. In India, since Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are the major grape production states, the incidence of stem borer is also restricted and severe in these states. The grubs of the beetle bore in to the main stem and even the branches, which affect the translocation of nutrients to the areal parts of the plant. Since, the grubs bore inside the stem, the chewed material along with its excreta is discharged outside the holes and the frass is found on the ground just below the bored holes. The portion of vines above the damaged part has a sticky appearance. The leaves become pale yellow which looks like a deficiency of micronutrients. The leaves ultimately dry and drop down. The status of the incidence of the grape stem borer in different grape growing districts of Northern Karnataka was carried out during three years. In each taluka five locations were surveyed for the incidence of grape stem borer. Further, the experiment on management of stem borer was carried out in the grape gardens of Vijayapur districts under farmers field during three years. Stem borer infested plants that show live holes were selected per treatments and it was replicated three times. Live and dead holes observed during pre-treatment were closely monitored and only plants with live holes were selected and tagged. Different doses of chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR were incorporated into the soil around the vine basins near root zone surrounded to trunk region by removing soils up to 5-10 cm with a peripheral distance of 1 to 1.5 feet from the main trunk where feeder roots are present. Irrigation was followed after application of insecticide for proper incorporation of the test chemical. The results indicated that there was sever to moderate incidence of the stem borer in all the grape growing districts of northern Karnataka. Maximum incidence was recorded in Belagavi (11 holes per vine) and minimum was in Gadag district (8.5 holes per vine). The investigations carried out to study the efficacy of chlorantraniliprole on grape stem borer for successive three years under farmers field indicated that chlorantraniliprole @ 15g/vine applied just near the active root zone of the plant followed by irrigation has successfully managed the pest. The insecticide has translocated to all the parts of the plants and thereby stopped the activity of the pest which has resulted in to better growth of the plant and higher berry yield compared to other treatments under investigation. Thus, chlorantraniliprole 0.4 GR @ 15g/vine can be effective means in managing the stem borer.

Keywords: chlorantraniliprole, grape stem borer, Celosterna scrabrator, management

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