Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3369

Search results for: bond strength

3369 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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3368 An Experimental Investigation of Bond Properties of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Jee-Sang Kim, Jong Ho Park


Geopolymer concretes are a new class of construction materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. Considerable researches have been carried out on material development of geopolymer concrete, however, a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents the bond behaviors of reinforcement embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strengths of concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16, and 25 mm are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. The average bond strengths decreased from 23.06MPa to 17.26 MPa, as the diameters of reinforcements increased from 10mm to 25mm. The compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete showed no significant influence on bond strengths in this study. Also, the bond-slip relations between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement are derived using non-linear regression analysis for various experimental conditions.

Keywords: bond-slip relation, bond strength, geopolymer concrete, pull-out test

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3367 Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Bond Thickness on the Interface Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheet Bonded to Timber

Authors: Abbas Vahedian, Rijun Shrestha, Keith Crews


The bond mechanism between timber and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) is relatively complex and is influenced by a number of variables including bond thickness, bond width, bond length, material properties, and geometries. This study investigates the influence of bond thickness on the behaviour of interface, failure mode, and bond strength of externally bonded FRP-to-timber interface. In the present study, 106 single shear joint specimens have been investigated. Experiment results showed that higher layers of FRP increase the ultimate load carrying capacity of interface; conversely, such increase led to decrease the slip of interface. Moreover, samples with more layers of FRPs may fail in a brittle manner without noticeable warning that collapse is imminent.

Keywords: fibre reinforced polymer, FRP, single shear test, bond thickness, bond strength

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3366 Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Root-End Filling Materials in Root-End Cavities Prepared by Er,Cr: YSGG Laser or Ultrasonic Technique

Authors: Noushin Shokouhinejad, Hasan Razmi, Reza Fekrazad, Saeed Asgary, Ammar Neshati, Hadi Assadian, Sanam Kheirieh


This study compared the push-out bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a new endodontic cement (NEC) as root-end filling materials in root-end cavities prepared by ultrasonic technique (US) or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (L). Eighty single-rooted extracted human teeth were endodontically treated, apicectomised and randomly divided into four following groups (n = 20): US/MTA, US/NEC, L/MTA and L/NEC. In US/MTA and US/NEC groups, rooted cavities were prepared with ultrasonic retrotip and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. In L/MTA and L/NEC groups, root-end cavities were prepared using Er, Cr:YSGG laser and filled with MTA and NEC, respectively. Each root was cut apically to create a 2 mm-thick root slice for measurement of bond strength using a universal testing machine. Then, all slices were examined to determine the mode of bond failure. Data were analysed using two-way ANOVA. Root-end filling materials showed significantly higher bond strength in root-end cavities prepared using the ultrasonic technique (US/MTA and US/NEC) (P < 0.001). The bond strengths of MTA and NEC did not differ significantly. The failure modes were mainly adhesive for MTA, but cohesive for NEC. In conclusion, bond strengths of MTA and NEC to root-end cavities were comparable and higher in ultrasonically prepared cavities.

Keywords: bond strength, Er, Cr:YSGG laser, MTA, NEC, root-end cavity

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3365 Effect of the Concrete Cover on the Bond Strength of the FRP Wrapped and Non-Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Beam with Lap Splice under Uni-Direction Cyclic Loading

Authors: Rayed Alyousef, Tim Topper, Adil Al-Mayah


Many of the reinforced concrete structures subject to cyclic load constructed before the modern bond and fatigue design code. One of the main issue face on exists structure is the bond strength of the longitudinal steel bar and the surrounding concrete. A lap splice is a common connection method to transfer the force between the steel rebar in a reinforced concrete member. Usually, the lap splice is the weak connection on the bond strength. Fatigue flexural loading imposes severe demands on the strength and ductility of the lap splice region in reinforced concrete structures and can lead to a brittle and sudden failure of the member. This paper investigates the effect of different concrete covers on the fatigue bond strength of reinforcing concrete beams containing a lap splice under a fatigue loads. It includes tests of thirty-seven beams divided into three groups. Each group has beams with 30 mm and 50 mm clear side and bottom concrete covers. The variables that were addressed where the concrete cover, the presence or absence of CFRP or GFRP sheet wrapping, the type of loading (monotonic or fatigue) and the fatigue load ranges. The test results showed that an increase in the concrete cover led to an increase in the bond strength under both monotonic and fatigue loading for both the unwrapped and wrapped beams. Also, the FRP sheets increased both the fatigue strength and the ductility for both the 30 mm and the 50 mm concrete covers.

Keywords: bond strength, fatigue, Lap splice, FRp wrapping

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3364 A Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of VMK Master Porcelain with Three Base-Metal Alloys (Ni-Cr-T3, Verabond, Super Cast) and One Noble Alloy (X-33) in Metal-Ceramic Restorations

Authors: Ammar Neshati, Elham Hamidi Shishavan


Statement of Problem: The increase in the use of metal-ceramic restorations and a high prevalence of porcelain chipping entails introducing an alloy which is more compatible with porcelain and which causes a stronger bond between the two. This study is to compare shear bond strength of three base-metal alloys and one noble alloy with the common VMK Master Porcelain. Materials and Method: Three different groups of base-metal alloys (Ni-cr-T3, Super Cast, Verabond) and one group of noble alloy (x-33) were selected. The number of alloys in each group was 15. All the groups went through the casting process and change from wax pattern into metal disks. Then, VMK Master Porcelain was fired on each group. All the specimens were put in the UTM and a shear force was loaded until a fracture occurred. The fracture force was then recorded by the machine. The data was subjected to SPSS Version 16 and One-Way ANOVA was run to compare shear strength between the groups. Furthermore, the groups were compared two by two through running Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study revealed that shear bond strength of Ni-Cr-T3 alloy was higher than the three other alloys (94 Mpa or 330 N). Super Cast alloy had the second greatest shear bond strength (80. 87 Mpa or 283.87 N). Both Verabond (69.66 Mpa or 245 N) and x-33 alloys (66.53 Mpa or 234 N) took the third place. Conclusion: Ni-Cr-T3 with VMK Master Porcelain has the greatest shear bond strength. Therefore, the use of this low-cost alloy is recommended in metal-ceramic restorations.

Keywords: shear bond, base-metal alloy, noble alloy, porcelain

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3363 Effect of Different FRP Wrapping and Thickness of Concrete Cover on Fatigue Bond Strength of Spliced Concrete Beam

Authors: Rayed Alyousef, Tim Topper, Adil Al-Mayah


This paper presents results of an ongoing research program at University of Waterloo to study the effect of external FRP sheet wrap confinement along a lap splice of reinforced concrete (RC) beams on their fatigue bond strength. Fatigue loading of RC beams containing a lap splice resulted in an increase in the number and width of cracks, an increase in deflection and a decrease of the bond strength between the steel rebar and the surrounding concrete. The phase of the research described here consists of monotonic and fatigue tests of thirty two reinforced concrete beam with dimensions 2200⨉350⨉250 mm. Each beam was reinforced with two 20M bars lap spliced in the constant moment region of the tension zone and two 10M bars in the compression zone outside the constant moment region. The test variables were the presence or absence of a FRP wrapping, the type of the FRP wrapping (GFRP or CFRP), the type of loading and the fatigue load range. The test results for monotonic loading showed that the stiffness of all beams was almost same, but that the FRP sheet wrapping increased the bond strength and the deflection at ultimate load. All beams tested under fatigue loading failed by a bond failure except one CFRP wrapped beam that failed by fatigue of the main reinforcement. The FRP sheet increased the bond strength for all specimens under fatigue loading.

Keywords: lap splice, bond strength, fatigue loading, FRP

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3362 Testing of the Decreasing Bond Strength of Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive by Low Temperatures

Authors: Pavel Boška, Jan Bomba, Tomáš Beránek, Jiří Procházka


When using wood products bonded by polyvinyl acetate, glues such as windows are the most limiting element of degradation of the glued joint due to weather changes. In addition to moisture and high temperatures, the joint may damage the low temperature below freezing point, where dimensional changes in the material and distortion of the adhesive film occur. During the experiments, the joints were exposed to several degrees of sub-zero temperatures from 0 °C to -40 °C and then to compare how the decreasing temperature affects the strength of the joint. The experiment was performed on wood beech samples (Fagus sylvatica), bonded with PVAc with D3 resistance and the shear strength of bond was measured. The glued and treated samples were tested on a laboratory testing machine, recording the strength of the joint. The statistical results have given us information that the strength of the joint gradually decreases with decreasing temperature, but a noticeable and statistically significant change is achieved only at very low temperatures.

Keywords: adhesives, bond strength, low temperatures, polyvinyl acetate

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3361 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi


In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: bond stress, compressive strength, elevated temperatures, fiber reinforced concrete, modulus of rapture

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3360 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: Alaa Al-Mosawe, Riadh Al-Mahaidi


Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joints, bond strength, CFRP laminate, impact tensile loading

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3359 Model-Independent Price Bounds for the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003

Authors: Raj Kumari Bahl, Sotirios Sabanis


In this paper, we are concerned with the valuation of the first Catastrophic Mortality Bond that was launched in the market namely the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003. This bond encapsulates the behavior of a well-defined mortality index to generate payoffs for the bondholders. Pricing this bond is a challenging task. We adapt the payoff of the terminal principal of the bond in terms of the payoff of an Asian put option and present an approach to derive model-independent bounds exploiting comonotonic theory. We invoke Jensen’s inequality for the computation of lower bounds and employ Lagrange optimization technique to achieve the upper bound. The success of these bounds is based on the availability of compatible European mortality options in the market. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the bond price and illustrate the strength of these bounds across a variety of models. The fact that our bounds are model-independent is a crucial breakthrough in the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds.

Keywords: mortality bond, Swiss Re Bond, mortality index, comonotonicity

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3358 Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers

Authors: Rajkamal Kumar, Sudhir Mishra


The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.

Keywords: adhesion, cohesion, compressive stress, micro-concrete, shear stress, slant shear test

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3357 Effect of Primer on Bonding between Resin Cement and Zirconia Ceramic

Authors: Deog-Gyu Seo, Jin-Soo Ahn


Objectives: Recently, the development of adhesive primers on stable bonding between zirconia and resin cement has been on the increase. The bond strength of zirconia-resin cement can be effectively increased with the treatment of primer composed of the adhesive monomer that can chemically bond with the oxide layer, which forms on the surface of zirconia. 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) that contains phosphate ester and acidic monomer 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic anhydride(4-META) have been suggested as monomers that can form chemical bond with the surface oxide layer of zirconia. Also, these suggested monomers have proved to be effective zirconia surface treatment for bonding to resin cement. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of primer treatment on the bond strength of Zirconia-resin cement by using three different kinds of primers on the market. Methods: Zirconia blocks were prepared into 60 disk-shaped specimens by using a diamond saw. Specimens were divided into four different groups: first three groups were treated with zirconiaLiner(Sun Medical Co., Ltd., Furutaka-cho, Moriyama, Shiga, Japan), Alloy primer (Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Sakaju, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan), and Universal primer (Tokuyama dental Corp., Taitou, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) respectively. The last group was the control with no surface treatment. Dual cured resin cement (Biscem, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) was luted to each group of specimens. And then, shear bond strengths were measured by universal tesing machine. The significance of the result was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The failure sites in each group were inspected under a magnifier. Results: Mean shear bond strength were 0.60, 1.39, 1.03, 1.38 MPa for control, Zirconia Liner (ZL), Alloy primer (AP), Universal primer (UP), respectively. Groups with application of each of the three primers showed significantly higher shear bond strength compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Among the three groups with the treatment, ZL and UP showed significantly higher shear bond strength than AP (p < 0.05), and there were no significant differences in mean shear bond strength between ZL and UP (p < 0.05). While the most specimens of control groups showed adhesive failure (80%), the most specimens of three primer-treated groups showed cohesive or mixed failure (80%).

Keywords: primer, resin cement, shear bond strength, zirconia

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3356 Effect of Surface Preparation of Concrete Substrate on Bond Tensile Strength of Thin Bonded Cement Based Overlays

Authors: S. Asad Ali Gillani, Ahmed Toumi, Anaclet Turatsinze


After a certain period of time, the degradation of concrete structures is unavoidable. For large concrete areas, thin bonded cement-based overlay is a suitable rehabilitation technique. Previous research demonstrated that durability of bonded cement-based repairs is always a problem and one of its main reasons is deboning at interface. Since durability and efficiency of any repair system mainly depend upon the bond between concrete substrate and repair material, the bond between concrete substrate and repair material can be improved by increasing the surface roughness. The surface roughness can be improved by performing surface treatment of the concrete substrate to enhance mechanical interlocking which is one of the basic mechanisms of adhesion between two surfaces. In this research, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays having substrate surface prepared using different techniques has been characterized. In first step cement based substrate was prepared and then cured for three months. After curing two different types of the surface treatments were performed on this substrate; cutting and sandblasting. In second step overlay was cast on these prepared surfaces, which were cut and sandblasted surfaces. The overlay was also cast on the surface without any treatment. Finally, bond tensile strength of cement-based overlays was evaluated in direct tension test and the results are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: concrete substrate, surface preparation, overlays, bond tensile strength

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3355 Empirical Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress and Anchorage of Tensile Bars in Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Maruful H. Mazumder, Raymond I. Gilbert


The design specifications for calculating development and lapped splice lengths of reinforcement in concrete are derived from a conventional empirical modelling approach that correlates experimental test data using a single mathematical equation. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program to assess the effects of different structural parameters on the development length requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars, including the case of lapped splices in large-scale reinforced concrete members. The normalized average bond stresses for the different variations of anchorage lengths are assessed according to the general form of a typical empirical analytical model of bond and anchorage. Improved analytical modelling equations are developed in the paper that better correlate the normalized bond strength parameters with the structural parameters of an empirical model of bond and anchorage.

Keywords: bond stress, development length, lapped splice length, reinforced concrete

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3354 Effect of Three Desensitizers on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion and Bond Strength of Dentin Adhesives

Authors: Zou Xuan, Liu Hongchen


The ideal dentin desensitizing agent should not only have good biological safety, simple clinical operation mode, the superior treatment effect, but also should have a durable effect to resist the oral environmental temperature change and oral mechanical abrasion, so as to achieve a persistent desensitization effect. Also, when using desensitizing agent to prevent the post-operative hypersensitivity, we should not only prevent it from affecting crowns’ retention, but must understand its effects on bond strength of dentin adhesives. There are various of desensitizers and dentin adhesives in clinical treatment. They have different chemical or physical properties. Whether the use of desensitizing agent would affect the bond strength of dentin adhesives still need further research. In this in vitro study, we built the hypersensitive dentin model and post-operative dentin model, to evaluate the sealing effects and durability on exposed tubule by three different dentin desensitizers and to evaluate the sealing effects and the bond strength of dentin adhesives after using three different dentin desensitizers on post-operative dentin. The result of this study could provide some important references for clinical use of dentin desensitizing agent. 1. As to the three desensitizers, the hypersensitive dentin model was built to evaluate their sealing effects on exposed tubule by SEM observation and dentin permeability analysis. All of them could significantly reduce the dentin permeability. 2. Test specimens of three groups treated by desensitizers were subjected to aging treatment with 5000 times thermal cycling and toothbrush abrasion, and then dentin permeability was measured to evaluate the sealing durability of these three desensitizers on exposed tubule. The sealing durability of three groups were different. 3. The post-operative dentin model was built to evaluate the sealing effects of the three desensitizers on post-operative dentin by SEM and methylene blue. All of three desensitizers could reduce the dentin permeability significantly. 4. The influences of three desensitizers on the bonding efficiency of total-etch and self-etch adhesives were evaluated with the micro-tensile bond strength study and bond interface morphology observation. The dentin bond strength for Green or group was significantly lower than the other two groups (P<0.05).

Keywords: dentin, desensitizer, dentin permeability, thermal cycling, micro-tensile bond strength

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3353 Oriented Strandboard-GEOGYPTM Undelayment, a Novel Composite Flooring System

Authors: B. Noruziaan, A. Shvarzman, R. Leahy


An innovative flooring underlayment was produced and tested. The composite system is made of common OSB boards and a layer of eco-friendly non-cement gypsum based material (GeoGypTM). It was found that the shear bond between the two materials is sufficient to secure the composite interaction between the two. The very high compressive strength and relatively high tensile strength of the non-cement based component together with its high modulus of elasticity provides enough strength and stiffness for the composite product to cover wider spacing between the joists. The initial findings of this study indicate that with joist spacing as wide as 800 mm, the flooring system provides enough strength without compromising the serviceability requirements of the building codes.

Keywords: Composite, floor deck, gypsum based, lumber joist, non-cement, oriented strandboard, shear bond

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3352 Bond Strength between Concrete and AR-Glass Roving with Variables of Development Length

Authors: Jongho Park, Taekyun Kim, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park


Recently, the climate change is the one of the main problems. This abnormal phenomenon is consisted of the scorching heat, heavy rain and snowfall, and cold wave that will be enlarged abnormal climate change repeatedly. Accordingly, the width of temperature change is increased more and more by abnormal climate, and it is the main factor of cracking in the reinforced concrete. The crack of the reinforced concrete will affect corrosion of steel re-bar which can decrease durability of the structure easily. Hence, the elimination of the durability weakening factor (steel re-bar) is needed. Textile which weaves the carbon, AR-glass and aramid fiber has been studied actively for exchanging the steel re-bar in the Europe for about 15 years because of its good durability. To apply textile as the concrete reinforcement, the bond strength between concrete and textile will be investigated closely. Therefore, in this paper, pull-out test was performed with change of development length of textile. Significant load and stress was increasing at D80. But, bond stress decreased by increasing development length.

Keywords: bond strength, climate change, pull-out test, substitution of reinforcement material, textile

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3351 Research of Interaction between Layers of Compressed Composite Columns

Authors: Daumantas Zidanavicius


In order to investigate the bond between concrete and steel in the circular steel tube column filled with concrete, the 7 series of specimens were tested with the same geometrical parameters but different concrete properties. Two types of specimens were chosen. For the first type, the expansive additives to the concrete mixture were taken to increase internal forces. And for the second type, mechanical components were used. All 7 series of the short columns were modeled by FEM and tested experimentally. In the work, big attention was taken to the bond-slip models between steel and concrete. Results show that additives to concrete let increase the bond strength up to two times and the mechanical anchorage –up to 6 times compared to control specimens without additives and anchorage.

Keywords: concrete filled steel tube, push-out test, bond slip relationship, bond stress distribution

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3350 Bond Strength of Different Strengthening Systems: Concrete Elements under Freeze–Thaw Cycles and Salt Water Immersion Exposure

Authors: Firas Al-Mahmoud, Jean-Michel Mechling, Mohamed Shaban


The long-term durability of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is often stated as being the main reason for the use of these materials. Indeed, structures externally or Near Surface Mounted (NSM) reinforced with Carbon Fibre Reinforcement Polymer CFRP are often in contact with temperature cycles and salt water immersion and other environmental conditions that reduce the expected durability of the system. Bond degradation is a frequent cause of premature failure of structural elements and environmental conditions are known to relate to such failures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of environmental exposure on the bond for different CFRP strengthening systems. Bending tests were conducted to evaluate the bond with and without environmental exposure. The specimens were strengthened with CFRP sheets, CFRP plates and NSM CFRP rods embedded in two filling materials: epoxy resin and mortar. Then, they were exposed to up to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. One freeze–thaw cycle consisted of four stages according to ASTM or immersed in 3.5% salted tap water. A total of thirty-six specimens were prepared for this purpose. Results showed a decrease in ultimate bond strength for specimens strengthened by CFRP sheets that were immersed in salt water for 120 days, while a reduction was shown for CFRP sheet and plate bonded specimens that were subjected to 300 freeze–thaw cycles. Exposing NSM CFRP rod strengthened specimens, embedded in resin or mortar, to freeze–thaw cycles or to immersion in salt water does not affect the bond strength.

Keywords: durability, strengthening, FRP, bond, freeze–thaw

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3349 A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Jong-sup Park, Jae-yoon Kang, Moon-seoung Keum


CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength, and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), tendon, anchor, tensile property, bond strength

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3348 Bond-Slip Response of Reinforcing Bars Embedded in High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: Lee Siong Wee, Tan Kang Hai, Yang En-Hua


This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to evaluate the local bond stress-slip response of short embedment of reinforcing bars in normal concrete (NC) and high performance fiber reinforced cement composites (HPFRCC) blocks. Long embedment was investigated as well to gain insights on the distribution of strain, slip, bar stress and bond stress along the bar especially in post-yield range. A total of 12 specimens were tested, by means of pull-out of the reinforcing bars from concrete blocks. It was found that the enhancement of local bond strength can be reached up to 50% and ductility of the bond behavior was improved significantly if HPFRCC is used. Also, under a constant strain at loaded end, HPFRCC has delayed yielding of bars at other location from the loaded end. Hence, the reduction of bond stress was slower for HPFRCC in comparison with NC. Due to the same reason, the total slips at loaded end for HPFRCC was smaller than NC as expected. Test results indicated that HPFRCC has better bond slip behavior which makes it a suitable material to be employed in anchorage zone such as beam-column joints.

Keywords: bond stress, high performance fiber reinforced cement composites, slip, strain

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3347 Modified Tendon Model Considered Structural Nonlinearity in PSC Structures

Authors: Yangsu Kwon, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak


Nonlinear tendon constitutive model for nonlinear analysis of pre-stressed concrete structures are presented. Since the post-cracking behavior of concrete structures, in which bonded reinforcements such as tendons and/or reinforcing steels are embedded, depends on many influencing factors(the tensile strength of concrete, anchorage length of reinforcements, concrete cover, and steel spacing) that are deeply related to the bond characteristics between concrete and reinforcements, consideration of the tension stiffening effect on the basis of the bond-slip mechanism is necessary to evaluate ultimate resisting capacity of structures. In this paper, an improved tendon model, which considering the slip effect between concrete and tendon, and effect of tension stiffening, is suggested. The validity of the proposed models is established by comparing between the analytical results and experimental results in pre-stressed concrete beams.

Keywords: bond-slip, prestressed concrete, tendon, ultimate strength

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3346 Numerical Simulation of the Bond Behavior Between Concrete and Steel Reinforcing Bars in Specialty Concrete

Authors: Camille A. Issa, Omar Masri


In the study, the commercial finite element software Abaqus was used to develop a three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model capable of simulating the pull-out test of reinforcing bars from underwater concrete. The results of thirty-two pull-out tests that have different parameters were implemented in the software to study the effect of the concrete cover, the bar size, the use of stirrups, and the compressive strength of concrete. The interaction properties used in the model provided accurate results in comparison with the experimental bond-slip results, thus the model has successfully simulated the pull-out test. The results of the finite element model are used to better understand and visualize the distribution of stresses in each component of the model, and to study the effect of the various parameters used in this study including the role of the stirrups in preventing the stress from reaching to the sides of the specimens.

Keywords: pull-out test, bond strength, underwater concrete, nonlinear finite element analysis, abaqus

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3345 Bond Strength of Nano Silica Concrete Subjected to Corrosive Environments

Authors: Muhammad S. El-Feky, Mohamed I. Serag, Ahmed M. Yasien, Hala Elkady


Reinforced concrete requires steel bars in order to provide the tensile strength that is needed in structural concrete. However, when steel bars corrode, a loss in bond between the concrete and the steel bars occurs due to the formation of rust on the bars surface. Permeability of concrete is a fundamental property in perspective of the durability of concrete as it represents the ease with which water or other fluids can move through concrete, subsequently transporting corrosive agents. Nanotechnology is a standout amongst active research zones that envelops varies disciplines including construction materials. The application of nanotechnology in the corrosion protection of metal has lately gained momentum as nano scale particles have ultimate physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, which may enhance the corrosion protection in comparison to large size materials. The presented research aims to study the bond performance of concrete containing relatively high volume nano silica (up to 4.5%) exposed to corrosive conditions. This was extensively studied through tensile, bond strengths as well as the permeability of nano silica concrete. In addition micro-structural analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effect of nano silica on the properties of concrete at both; the micro and nano levels. The results revealed that by the addition of nano silica, the permeability of concrete mixes decreased significantly to reach about 50% of the control mix by the addition of 4.5% nano silica. As for the corrosion resistance, the nano silica concrete is comparatively higher resistance than ordinary concrete. Increasing Nano Silica percentage increased significantly the critical time corresponding to a metal loss (equal to 50 ϻm) which usually corresponding to the first concrete cracking due to the corrosion of reinforcement to reach about 49 years instead of 40 years as for the normal concrete. Finally, increasing nano Silica percentage increased significantly the residual bond strength of concrete after being subjected to corrosive environment. After being subjected to corrosive environment, the pullout behavior was observed for the bars embedded in all of the mixes instead of the splitting behavior that was observed before being corroded. Adding 4.5% nano silica in concrete increased the residual bond strength to reach 79% instead of 27% only as compared to control mix (0%W) before the subjection of the corrosive environment. From the conducted study we can conclude that the Nano silica proved to be a significant pore blocker material.

Keywords: bond strength, concrete, corrosion resistance, nano silica, permeability

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3344 The Effect of Enamel Surface Preparation on the Self-Etch Bonding of Orthodontic Tubes: An in Vitro Study

Authors: Fernandes A. C. B. C. J., de Jesus V. C., Sepideh N., Vilela OFGG, Somarin K. K., França R., Pinheiro F. H. S. L.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of pre-treatment of enamel with pumice and/or 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic tubes bonded to enamel while simultaneously evaluating the efficacy of orthodontic tubes bonded by self-etch primer (SEP). Materials and Methods: 39 of the crown halves were divided into 3 groups at random. Group, I was the control group utilizing both prophy paste and the conventional double etching pre-treatment method. Group II excluded the use of prophy paste prior to double etching. Group III excluded the use of both prophy paste and double etching and only utilized SEP. Bond strength of the orthodontic tubes was measured by SBS. One way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test were used to compare SBS values between the three groups. The statistical significance was set to p<0.05. Results: The difference in SBS values of groups I (36.672 ± 9.315 Mpa), II (34.242 ± 9.986 Mpa), and III (39.055 ± 5.565) were not statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that the use of prophy paste or pre-acid etch of the enamel surface did not provide a statistically significant difference in SBS between the three groups.

Keywords: shear bond strength, orthodontic bracket, self-etch primer, pumice, prophy

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3343 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods

Authors: P. van Tonder, U. Bagdadi, B. M. D. Lario, Z. Masina, T. R. Motshwari


This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.

Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel bars

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3342 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan


This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

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3341 Investigation of Effective Parameters on Pullout Capacity in Soil Nailing with Special Attention to International Design Codes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, M. Mortezaee


An important and influential factor in design and determining the safety factor in Soil Nailing is the ultimate pullout capacity, or, in other words, bond strength. This important parameter depends on several factors such as material and soil texture, method of implementation, excavation diameter, friction angle between the nail and the soil, grouting pressure, the nail depth (overburden pressure), the angle of drilling and the degree of saturation in soil. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), a customary regulation in the design of nailing, is considered only the effect of the soil type (or rock) and the method of implementation in determining the bond strength, which results in non-economic design. The other regulations are each of a kind, some of the parameters affecting bond resistance are not taken into account. Therefore, in the present paper, at first the relationships and tables presented by several valid regulations are presented for estimating the ultimate pullout capacity, and then the effect of several important factors affecting on ultimate Pullout capacity are studied. Finally, it was determined, the effect of overburden pressure (in method of injection with pressure), soil dilatation and roughness of the drilling surface on pullout strength is incremental, and effect of degree of soil saturation on pullout strength to a certain degree of saturation is increasing and then decreasing. therefore it is better to get help from nail pullout-strength test results and numerical modeling to evaluate the effect of parameters such as overburden pressure, dilatation, and degree of soil saturation, and so on to reach an optimal and economical design.

Keywords: soil nailing, pullout capacity, federal highway administration (FHWA), grout

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3340 Effect of Clinical Parameters on Strength of Reattached Tooth Fragment in Anterior Teeth: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Neeraj Malhotra, Ramya Shenoy


Objective: To assess the effect of clinical parameters (bonding agent, preparation design & storage media) on the strength of reattached anterior tooth fragment. Methodology: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis for articles referred from MEDLINE, PUBMED, and GOOGLE SCHOLAR. The articles on tooth reattachment and clinical factors affecting fracture strength/bond strength/fracture resistance of the reattached tooth fragment in anterior teeth and published in English from 1999 to 2016 were included for final review. Results: Out of 120 shortlisted articles, 28 articles were included for the systematic review and meta-analysis based on 3 clinical parameters i.e. bonding agent, tooth preparation design & storage media. Forest plot & funnel plots were generated based on individual clinical parameter and their effect on strength of reattached anterior tooth fragment. Results based on analysis suggest combination of both conclusive evidence favoring the experimental group as well as in-conclusive evidence for individual parameter. Conclusion: There is limited evidence as there are fewer articles supporting each parameter in human teeth. Bonding agent had showed better outcome in selected studies.

Keywords: bonding agent, bond strength, fracture strength, preparation design, reattachment, storage media

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