Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1118

Search results for: infant mortality

1118 Child Mortality in Portuguese Speaking Africa Countries: Levels and Trends, 1975-2021

Authors: Alcino Panguana


All Portuguese-speaking African countries are in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region that has high infant mortality rates, being responsible for 49.6% of deaths in Portuguese-speaking African countries, Angola has levels of infant mortality among children, where 2017, 156 children who died before reaching 1 year of life in 1000 live births. Although there is an increase in studies that document trends and specific causes of infant mortality in each country, historical-comparative studies of infant mortality among these countries remain rare. Understanding the trend of this indicator is important for policymakers and planners in order to improve access to successful child survival operations. Lusophone Africa continues with high infant mortality rates in the order of 64 deaths per thousand births. Assuming heterogeneities that can characterize these countries, raise an analysis investigated indicator at the country level to understand the pattern and historical trend of infant mortality within Lusophone Africa from the year 2021. The result is to understand the levels and evolution of infant mortality in Portuguese-speaking African countries.

Keywords: child mortality, levels, trends, lusophone African countries

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1117 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar


This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

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1116 A Case Comparative Study of Infant Mortality Rate in North-West Nigeria

Authors: G. I. Onwuka, A. Danbaba, S. U. Gulumbe


This study investigated of Infant Mortality Rate as observed at a general hospital in Kaduna-South, Kaduna State, North West Nigeria. The causes of infant Mortality were examined. The data used for this analysis were collected at the statistics unit of the Hospital. The analysis was carried out on the data using Multiple Linear regression Technique and this showed that there is linear relationship between the dependent variable (death) and the independent variables (malaria, measles, anaemia, and coronary heart disease). The resultant model also revealed that a unit increment in each of these diseases would result to a unit increment in death recorded, 98.7% of the total variation in mortality is explained by the given model. The highest number of mortality was recorded in July, 2005 and the lowest mortality recorded in October, 2009.Recommendations were however made based on the results of the study.

Keywords: infant mortality rate, multiple linear regression, diseases, serial correlation

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1115 Analysis of Factors Affecting the Number of Infant and Maternal Mortality in East Java with Geographically Weighted Bivariate Generalized Poisson Regression Method

Authors: Luh Eka Suryani, Purhadi


Poisson regression is a non-linear regression model with response variable in the form of count data that follows Poisson distribution. Modeling for a pair of count data that show high correlation can be analyzed by Poisson Bivariate Regression. Data, the number of infant mortality and maternal mortality, are count data that can be analyzed by Poisson Bivariate Regression. The Poisson regression assumption is an equidispersion where the mean and variance values are equal. However, the actual count data has a variance value which can be greater or less than the mean value (overdispersion and underdispersion). Violations of this assumption can be overcome by applying Generalized Poisson Regression. Characteristics of each regency can affect the number of cases occurred. This issue can be overcome by spatial analysis called geographically weighted regression. This study analyzes the number of infant mortality and maternal mortality based on conditions in East Java in 2016 using Geographically Weighted Bivariate Generalized Poisson Regression (GWBGPR) method. Modeling is done with adaptive bisquare Kernel weighting which produces 3 regency groups based on infant mortality rate and 5 regency groups based on maternal mortality rate. Variables that significantly influence the number of infant and maternal mortality are the percentages of pregnant women visit health workers at least 4 times during pregnancy, pregnant women get Fe3 tablets, obstetric complication handled, clean household and healthy behavior, and married women with the first marriage age under 18 years.

Keywords: adaptive bisquare kernel, GWBGPR, infant mortality, maternal mortality, overdispersion

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1114 An Alternative Stratified Cox Model for Correlated Variables in Infant Mortality

Authors: K. A. Adeleke


Often in epidemiological research, introducing stratified Cox model can account for the existence of interactions of some inherent factors with some major/noticeable factors. This research work aimed at modelling correlated variables in infant mortality with the existence of some inherent factors affecting the infant survival function. An alternative semiparametric Stratified Cox model is proposed with a view to take care of multilevel factors that have interactions with others. This, however, was used as a tool to model infant mortality data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) with some multilevel factors (Tetanus, Polio, and Breastfeeding) having correlation with main factors (Sex, Size, and Mode of Delivery). Asymptotic properties of the estimators are also studied via simulation. The tested model via data showed good fit and performed differently depending on the levels of the interaction of the strata variable Z*. An evidence that the baseline hazard functions and regression coefficients are not the same from stratum to stratum provides a gain in information as against the usage of Cox model. Simulation result showed that the present method produced better estimates in terms of bias, lower standard errors, and or mean square errors.

Keywords: stratified Cox, semiparametric model, infant mortality, multilevel factors, cofounding variables

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1113 Unveiling the Realities of Marrying Too Young: Evidence from Child Brides in Sub-Saharan Africa and Infant Mortality Implications

Authors: Emmanuel Olamijuwon


Despite laws against child marriage - a violation against child rights, the practice remains widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and globally partly because of persistent poverty, gender inequality, protection and the need to reinforce family ties. Using pooled data from the recent demographic and health surveys of 20-sub-Saharan African countries with a regional representative sample of 36,943 girls under 18 years, this study explores the prevalence, pattern and infant mortality implications of this marriage type while also examining its regional variations. Indications from the study are that child marriage is still very high in the region with variations above one-tenth in West, Central and Southern Africa regions except in the East African region where only about 7% of children under 18 were already married. Preliminary findings also suggest that about one-in-ten infant deaths were to child brides many of whom were residing in poor households, rural residence, unemployed and have less than secondary education. Based on these findings, it is, therefore, important that government of African countries addresses critical issues through increased policies towards increasing enrollment of girl children in schools as many of these girls are not likely to have any economic benefit to the region if the observed pattern continues.

Keywords: child marriage, infant mortality, Africa, child brides

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1112 Neonatal Mortality, Infant Mortality, and Under-five Mortality Rates in the Provinces of Zimbabwe: A Geostatistical and Spatial Analysis of Public Health Policy Provisions

Authors: Jevonte Abioye, Dylan Savary


The aim of this research is to present a disaggregated geostatistical analysis of the subnational provincial trends of child mortality variation in Zimbabwe from a child health policy perspective. Soon after gaining independence in 1980, the government embarked on efforts towards promoting equitable health care, namely through the provision of primary health care. Government intervention programmes brought hope and promise, but achieving equity in primary health care coverage was hindered by previous existing disparities in maternal health care disproportionately concentrated in urban settings to the detriment of rural communities. The article highlights policies and programs adopted by the government during the millennium development goals period between 1990-2015 as a response to the inequities that characterised the country’s maternal health care. A longitudinal comparative method for a spatial variation on child mortality rates across provinces is developed based on geostatistical analysis. Cross-sectional and time-series data was extracted from the World Health Organisation (WHO) global health observatory data repository, demographic health survey reports, and previous academic and technical publications. Results suggest that although health care policy was uniform across provinces, not all provinces received the same antenatal and perinatal services. Accordingly, provincial rates of child mortality growth between 1994 and 2015 varied significantly. Evidence on the trends of child mortality rates and maternal health policies in Zimbabwe can be valuable for public child health policy planning and public service delivery design both in Zimbabwe and across developing countries pursuing the sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: antenatal care, perinatal care, infant mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, millennium development goals, sustainable development agenda

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1111 Impact of Health Indicators on Economic Growth: Application of Ardl Model on Pakistan’s Data Set

Authors: Sheraz Ahmad Choudhary


Health plays a vital role in the growth. The study examined the effect of health indicator on the growth of Pakistan. ARDL model is used to check the growth rate which is affected by the health by using the time series date of Pakistan from 1990 to 2017. Health indicator, fertility rate, life expectancy, foreign direct investment, and infant mortality rate are variables Where the unit root is applied to check the stationarity of the model. consequences find a significant relationship between GDP, foreign direct investment, fertility rate, and life expectancy in the short run, whereas mortality rate effected negatively to economic growth but have significant values. In the long run, foreign direct investment (FDI) and fertility rate(FR) have significantly influenced the GDP. The results show thateconomic growth is positively stimulated by most of the health indicators. The study accomplishes that nations can achieve a high level of economic growth by increasing wellbeing human capital.

Keywords: economic growth, health expenditures, fertility rate, human capital, life expectancy, foreign direct investment, and infant mortality rate

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1110 Lee-Carter Mortality Forecasting Method with Dynamic Normal Inverse Gaussian Mortality Index

Authors: Funda Kul, İsmail Gür


Pension scheme providers have to price mortality risk by accurate mortality forecasting method. There are many mortality-forecasting methods constructed and used in literature. The Lee-Carter model is the first model to consider stochastic improvement trends in life expectancy. It is still precisely used. Mortality forecasting is done by mortality index in the Lee-Carter model. It is assumed that mortality index fits ARIMA time series model. In this paper, we propose and use dynamic normal inverse gaussian distribution to modeling mortality indes in the Lee-Carter model. Using population mortality data for Italy, France, and Turkey, the model is forecasting capability is investigated, and a comparative analysis with other models is ensured by some well-known benchmarking criterions.

Keywords: mortality, forecasting, lee-carter model, normal inverse gaussian distribution

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1109 Physiological Assessment for Straightforward Symptom Identification (PASSify): An Oral Diagnostic Device for Infants

Authors: Kathryn Rooney, Kaitlyn Eddy, Evan Landers, Weihui Li


The international mortality rate for neonates and infants has been declining at a disproportionally low rate when compared to the overall decline in child mortality in recent decades. A significant portion of infant deaths could be prevented with the implementation of low-cost and easy to use physiological monitoring devices, by enabling early identification of symptoms before they progress into life-threatening illnesses. The oral diagnostic device discussed in this paper serves to continuously monitor the key vital signs of body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. The device mimics an infant pacifier, designed to be easily tolerated by infants as well as orthodontically inert. The fundamental measurements are gathered via thermistors and a pulse oximeter, each encapsulated in medical-grade silicone and wired internally to a microcontroller chip. The chip then translates the raw measurements into physiological values via an internal algorithm, before outputting the data to a liquid crystal display screen and an Android application. Additionally, a biological sample collection chamber is incorporated into the internal portion of the device. The movement within the oral chamber created by sucking on the pacifier-like device pushes saliva through a small check valve in the distal end, where it is accumulated and stored. The collection chamber can be easily removed, making the sample readily available to be tested for various diseases and analytes. With the vital sign monitoring and sample collection offered by this device, abnormal fluctuations in physiological parameters can be identified and appropriate medical care can be sought. This device enables preventative diagnosis for infants who may otherwise have gone undiagnosed, due to the inaccessibility of healthcare that plagues vast numbers of underprivileged populations.

Keywords: neonate mortality, infant mortality, low-cost diagnostics, vital signs, saliva testing, preventative care

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1108 Learning Participation and Baby Care Ability in Mothers of Preterm Infant

Authors: Yi-Chuan Cheng, Li-Chi Huang, Yu-Shan Chang


Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the learning number, care knowledge, care skills and maternal confidence in preterm infant care in Taiwan. Background: Preterm infants care has been stressful for mother caring at home. Many programs have been applied for improving the infant care maternal confident. But less to know the learning behavior in mothers of preterm infant. Methods: The sample consisted of 55 mothers with preterm infants were recruited in a neonatal intermediate unit at a medical center in central Taiwan. The self-reported questionnaires including knowledge and skills of preterm infant care scales and maternal confidence scale were used to evaluation, which were conducted during hospitalization, before hospital discharge, and one month after discharge. We performed by using Pearson correlation of the collected data using SPSS 18. Results: The study showed that the learning number and knowledge in preterm infant care was a significant positive correlation (r = .40), and the skills and confidence preterm infant care was positively correlated (r = .89). Conclusions: Study results showed the mother had more learning number in preterm infant care will be stronger knowledge, and the skills and confidence in preterm infant care were also positively correlated. Thus, we found the learning behavior change significant care knowledge. And the maternal confidence change significant with skill on preterm infant’s care. But bondage still needs further study and develop the participation in hospital-based instructional programs, which could lead to greater long-term retention of learning.

Keywords: learning behavior, care knowledge, care skills, maternal confidence

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1107 Mike Hat: Coloured-Tape-in-Hat as a Head Circumference Measuring Instrument for Early Detection of Hydrocephalus in an Infant

Authors: Nyimas Annissa Mutiara Andini


Every year, children develop hydrocephalus during the first year of life. If it is not treated, hydrocephalus can lead to brain damage, a loss in mental and physical abilities, and even death. To be treated, first, we have to do a proper diagnosis using some examinations especially to detect hydrocephalus earlier. One of the examination that could be done is using a head circumference measurement. Increased head circumference is a first and main sign of hydrocephalus, especially in infant (0-1 year age). Head circumference is a measurement of a child's head largest area. In this measurement, we want to get the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head using a measurement tape. If the head circumference of an infant is larger than normal, this infant might potentially suffer hydrocephalus. If early diagnosis and timely treatment of hydrocephalus could be done most children can recover successfully. There are some problems with early detection of hydrocephalus using regular tape for head circumference measurement. One of the problem is the infant’s comfort. We need to make the infant feel comfort along the head circumference measurement to get a proper result of the examination. For that, we can use a helpful stuff, like a hat. This paper is aimed to describe the possibility of using a head circumference measuring instrument for early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant with a mike hat, coloured-tape-in-hat. In the first life, infants’ head size is about 35 centimeters. First three months after that infants will gain 2 centimeters each month. The second three months, infant’s head circumference will increase 1 cm each month. And for the six months later, the rate is 0.5 cm per month, and end up with an average of 47 centimeters. This formula is compared to the WHO’s head circumference growth chart. The shape of this tape-in-hat is alike an upper arm measurement. This tape-in-hat diameter is about 47 centimeters. It contains twelve different colours range by age. If it is out of the normal colour, the infant potentially suffers hydrocephalus. This examination should be done monthly. If in two times of measurement there still in the same range abnormal of head circumference, or a rapid growth of the head circumference size, the infant should be referred to a pediatrician. There are the pink hat for girls and blue hat for boys. Based on this paper, we know that this measurement can be used to help early detection of hydrocephalus in an infant.

Keywords: head circumference, hydrocephalus, infant, mike hat

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1106 Maternal Health Care Utilization and Its Effect on Pregnancy Outcome in Nepal

Authors: Adrita Banerjee, Ajeet Kumar Singh


Antenatal care (ANC) from a skilled provider is important to monitor the pregnancy and reduce the risk of morbidity for mother and baby during pregnancy and delivery. The quality of antenatal care can be monitored through the content of services received and the kind of information mothers are given during their visit. Objective: The paper tries to examine the association between ANC check-ups and size/ birth weight. It also focuses on investigating the relationship between utilization of recommended prenatal care for mothers and its effect on infant survival in Nepal. Data and methods: This paper uses data from Nepal demographic Health Survey 2011. To understand the relationship bi-variate statistical analysis and logistic regressions has been done. Maternal health care utilization include ANC check-ups i.e. the type of ante-natal care providers, the number and timing of the visit. The various components of the check-ups include intake of iron tablets/syrups, intestinal parasitic drugs, etc. Results: The results show that women who had no antenatal care visits about 40% had small sized babies at the time of birth compared to women to had at least 3 ANC check up. Women who had at least 3 check-ups 17% of the babies have a small size. It has also been found that about 50 % of the women prefer ANC check-ups during pregnancies which have resulted in lowering the infant mortality by about 40% during 1996-2011. Conclusion: Ante natal care check is care and monitoring of the pregnant woman and her foetus throughout pregnancy. ANC checks have an effect on the infant health and child survival. A woman who had at least three check-ups the possibilities of adverse effect on infant health and infant survival was significantly lower. The findings argue for a more enhanced focus on ANC check-ups for improving the maternal and child health in Nepal.

Keywords: maternal, health, pregnancy, outcome

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1105 Diarrheal Management Practices in Children Under Five Years and Its Associated Factors Attending Health Clinic in Kalimantan Timur Indonesia

Authors: Tri Murti, Muhammad Hanafiah Juni, Hejar Abdul Rahman, Salmiah Binti Said


The diarrhoeal disease continues to be a leading cause of childhood mortality in countries such as Indonesia, where it is estimated to be responsible for 300,000 deaths annually in children under the age of years. Morbidity survey the Ministry of Health of Indonesia from 2000 to 2010 showed incidence diarrhoea remains a leading cause of infant mortality. Causes of death from diarrhoea is related to poor governance both at home and in health facilities. Despite the improvement of health facilities and government effort to reduce the occurrence of diarrhoea among children and death from diarrhoea, the incidence of diarrhoea among children area still high.

Keywords: management diarrheal disease, practices mother, treatment, diarrhoea among children

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1104 Association between Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission and Under-Five Mortality: Panel Data Evidence from 100 Countries

Authors: Mahadev Bhise, Nabanita Majumder


Recent studies have found association between air pollutants and mortality, particularly how concentration of air pollutant explains under-five mortality across the countries. Thus, the present study evaluates the relationship between Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and under-five mortality, while controlling other well-being determinant of Under-five mortality in 100 countries using panel unbalanced cross sectional data. We have used PCSE and GMM model for the period 1990-2011 to meet our objectives. Our findings suggest that, the positive relationship between lagged periods of carbon dioxide and under-five mortality; the percentage of rural population with access of improved water is negatively associated with under-five mortality, while in case of urban population with access of improved water, is positively related to under-five mortality. Access of sanitation facility, food production index, GDP per capita, and concentration of urban population have significant negative impact on under-five mortality. Further, total fertility rate is significantly associated (positive) with under-five mortality which indicates relative change in fertility is related to relative change in under-five mortality.

Keywords: arbon dioxide (CO2), under-five mortality (0q5), gross domestic product (GDP), urban population, food production, panel corrected standard errors (PCSE), generalized method of moments (GMM)

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1103 Heavy Metals in Selected Infant Milk Formula

Authors: Suad M. Abuzariba, M. Gazette


To test for the presence of toxic heavy metals, specifically Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in formula milk available in Misrata city north of Libya for infants aged 6-12 months through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer,30 samples of imported milk formula in Libyan markets subjected to test to accurate their pollution with heavy metals, We get concentration of Hg, Ar, Pb in milk formula samples was between 0.002-1.37, 1.62-0.04–2.16, 0.15–0.65 respectively, when compared the results with Libyan &WHO standards ,they were within standards of toxic heavy metals. The presence or absence of toxic heavy metals (Lead, Arsenic, and Mercury) in selected infant formula milk and their levels within or beyond standards set by the WHO. The three infant formulas tested, all were negative for Arsenic and Lead, while two out of the three infant formulas tested positive for Mercury with levels of 0.6333ppm and 0.8333ppm. The levels of Mercury obtained, expressed in parts per million (ppm), from the two infant formulas tested were above the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of total Mercury, which is 0.005ppm, as set by the FAO, WHO, and JECFA.

Keywords: heavy metals, milk formula, Libya, toxic

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1102 Association between Maternal Personality and Postnatal Mother-to-Infant Bonding

Authors: Tessa Sellis, Marike A. Wierda, Elke Tichelman, Mirjam T. Van Lohuizen, Marjolein Berger, François Schellevis, Claudi Bockting, Lilian Peters, Huib Burger


Introduction: Most women develop a healthy bond with their children, however, adequate mother-to-infant bonding cannot be taken for granted. Mother-to-infant bonding refers to the feelings and emotions experienced by the mother towards her child. It is an ongoing process that starts during pregnancy and develops during the first year postpartum and likely throughout early childhood. The prevalence of inadequate bonding ranges from 7 to 11% in the first weeks postpartum. An impaired mother-to-infant bond can cause long-term complications for both mother and child. Very little research has been conducted on the direct relationship between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. This study explores the associations between maternal personality and postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. The main hypothesis is that there is a relationship between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding. Methods: Data for this study were used from the Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression Study (2010-2014), which examined symptoms of and risk factors for anxiety or depression during pregnancy and the first year postpartum of 6220 pregnant women who received primary, secondary or tertiary care in the Netherlands. The study was expanded in 2015 to investigate postnatal mother-to-infant bonding. For the current research 3836 participants were included. During the first trimester of gestation, baseline characteristics, as well as personality, were measured through online questionnaires. Personality was measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which covers the big five of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, altruism and conscientiousness). Mother-to-infant bonding was measured postpartum by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). Univariate linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations. Results: 5% of the PBQ-respondents reported impaired bonding. A statistically significant association was found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding (p < .001): mothers scoring higher on neuroticism, reported a lower score on mother-to-infant bonding. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the personality traits extraversion (b: -.081), openness (b: -.014), altruism (b: -.067), conscientiousness (b: -.060) and mother-to-infant bonding. Discussion: This study is one of the first to demonstrate a direct association between the personality of the mother and mother-to-infant bonding. A statistically significant relationship has been found between neuroticism and mother-to-infant bonding, however, the percentage of variance predictable by a personality dimension is very small. This study has examined one part of the multi-factorial topic of mother-to-infant bonding and offers more insight into the rarely investigated and complex matter of mother-to-infant bonding. For midwives, it is important recognize the risks for impaired bonding and subsequently improve policy for women at risk.

Keywords: mother-to-infant bonding, personality, postpartum, pregnancy

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1101 Gender of the Infant and Interpersonal Relationship Correlates of Postpartum Depression among Women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Mujeeb, Farah Qadir


The present study aimed to explore the association between interpersonal relationship and postpartum depression with a special focus on gender of the infant among women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The research was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation study with a cross-sectional study design. The target population was women between six weeks to six months after the delivery of a baby. The sample size of 158 women has been computed by using G*Power (3.0.10 version). The sample was taken through quota sampling technique which was used to gather data according to the specifically predefined groups (79 women with female infants and 79 women with male infants). The sample was selected non-randomly according to the fixed quota. A protocol which had demographic and interpersonal relationship variables alongside with the Urdu version Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to collect the relevant data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software package. A statistically significant association between the attachment with husband in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression has been found. The association between the husband’s emotional and physical support in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression had also been found significant. In case of women with a male infant, the association between support of in-laws and postpartum depression is statistically significant. An association between the violence/discrimination based on the basis of infant's gender in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression is also found. These findings points out that when studying the correlates of postpartum depression, it is imperative to carry out an analysis in the context of gender by considering gender of the infant especially in societies where strict gender preferences exists.

Keywords: infant, gender, attachment, husband, in-laws, support, violence, discrimination, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Gilgit, Pakistan

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1100 Bringing the Confidence Intervals into Choropleth Mortality Map: An Example of Tainan, Taiwan

Authors: Tzu-Jung Tseng, Pei-Hsuen Han, Tsung-Hsueh Lu


Background: Choropleth mortality map is commonly used to identify areas with higher mortality risk. However, the use of choropleth map alone might result in the misinterpretation of differences in mortality rates between areas. Two areas with different color shades might not actually have a significant difference in mortality rates. The mortality rates estimated for an area with a small population would be less stable. We suggest of bringing the 95% confidence intervals (CI) into the choropleth mortality map to help users interpret the areal mortality rate difference more properly. Method: In the first choropleth mortality map, we used only three color to indicate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for each district in Tainan, Taiwan. The red color denotes that the SMR of that district was significantly higher than the Tainan average; on the contrary, the green color suggests that the SMR of that district was significantly lower than the Tainan average. The yellow color indicates that the SMR of that district was not statistically significantly different from the Tainan average. In the second choropleth mortality map, we used traditional sequential color scheme (color ramp) for different SMR in 37 districts in Tainan City with bar chart of each SMR with 95% CI in which the users could examine if the line of 95% CI of SMR of two districts overlapped (nonsignificant difference). Results: The all-causes SMR of each district in Tainan for 2008 to 2013 ranged from 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.80) in East District to 1.39 Beimen (95% CI 1.25 to 1.52). In the first choropleth mortality map, only 16 of 37 districts had red color and 8 districts had green color. For different causes of death, the number of districts with red color differed. In the first choropleth mortality map we added a bar chart with line of 95% CI of SMR in each district, in which the users could visualize the SMR differences between districts. Conclusion: Through the use of 95% CI the users could interpret the aral mortality differences more properly.

Keywords: choropleth map, small area variation, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), Taiwan

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1099 Model-Independent Price Bounds for the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003

Authors: Raj Kumari Bahl, Sotirios Sabanis


In this paper, we are concerned with the valuation of the first Catastrophic Mortality Bond that was launched in the market namely the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003. This bond encapsulates the behavior of a well-defined mortality index to generate payoffs for the bondholders. Pricing this bond is a challenging task. We adapt the payoff of the terminal principal of the bond in terms of the payoff of an Asian put option and present an approach to derive model-independent bounds exploiting comonotonic theory. We invoke Jensen’s inequality for the computation of lower bounds and employ Lagrange optimization technique to achieve the upper bound. The success of these bounds is based on the availability of compatible European mortality options in the market. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the bond price and illustrate the strength of these bounds across a variety of models. The fact that our bounds are model-independent is a crucial breakthrough in the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds.

Keywords: mortality bond, Swiss Re Bond, mortality index, comonotonicity

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1098 Examining Relationship between Resource-Curse and Under-Five Mortality in Resource-Rich Countries

Authors: Aytakin Huseynli


The paper reports findings of the study which examined under-five mortality rate among resource-rich countries. Typically when countries obtain wealth citizens gain increased wellbeing. Societies with new wealth create equal opportunities for everyone including vulnerable groups. But scholars claim that this is not the case for developing resource-rich countries and natural resources become the curse for them rather than the blessing. Spillovers from natural resource curse affect the social wellbeing of vulnerable people negatively. They get excluded from the mainstream society, and their situation becomes tangible. In order to test this hypothesis, the study compared under-5 mortality rate among resource-rich countries by using independent sample one-way ANOVA. The data on under-five mortality rate came from the World Bank. The natural resources for this study are oil, gas and minerals. The list of 67 resource-rich countries was taken from Natural Resource Governance Institute. The sample size was categorized and 4 groups were created such as low, low-middle, upper middle and high-income countries based on income classification of the World Bank. Results revealed that there was a significant difference in the scores for low, middle, upper-middle and high-income countries in under-five mortality rate (F(3(29.01)=33.70, p=.000). To find out the difference among income groups, the Games-Howell test was performed and it was found that infant mortality was an issue for low, middle and upper middle countries but not for high-income countries. Results of this study are in agreement with previous research on resource curse and negative effects of resource-based development. Policy implications of the study for social workers, policy makers, academicians and social development specialists are to raise and discuss issues of marginalization and exclusion of vulnerable groups in developing resource-rich countries and suggest interventions for avoiding them.

Keywords: children, natural resource, extractive industries, resource-based development, vulnerable groups

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1097 Infant Care Practice in Hadiya Culture: Case Study of Harche Auyaya

Authors: Dawit Thomas


Feeding and weaning practices vary from culture to culture and depend on different child-rearing values. The socio-cultural dimensions that influence the acceptable infant feeding practices are varied and complex. Understanding cultural differences in beliefs and practices relating to infant feeding is important to enhance designing programs for delivering successful psychological, social, physiological and economic well-being of mothers and infants. The main purpose of this study was exploring mothers infant feeding practices in the context of Hadiyya culture. After purposively selecting Harche Huyaya Uyaya Kebele eight infant feeding mothers were selected using snowball sampling technique. The study employed interviews and focus group discussion. The study found out early initiation and prolonged breastfeeding and early complementary feeding in some instances immediately after birth. In addition, infants were not forced to wean unless the mothers encounter pressing issues like pregnancy and health related problems. Furthermore, the main weaning techniques were putting unpleasant materials on the tip of nipples and sending infants to grandparents home. The study also found out gender difference in weaning, i.e., early initiation of weaning for girls. This can be indicative of gender-based bias on weaning practice. Finally, health extension workers, office of women and children affairs and Hadiyya Zone Tourism office should organize awareness raising programs to preserve vital infant feeding practices like prolonged breastfeeding and length of weaning. In addition, the offices should raise awareness among communities on negative side effects of sending infant to grandparents home that may weaken infant-mothers attachment and create favorable ground for the development of phobia.

Keywords: feeding, infant, practices, weaning

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1096 Interactions on Silent Mode: Parental Smartphone Distractions on Infant Mental Health

Authors: Terry Gomez


This interpretive phenomenological qualitative study explored potential risks related to infant mental health with parental smartphone use while caring for infants. Data were collected through nine online interviews of first-time parents with infants under one-year-old. All parents reported using their smartphone during child-bonding activities such as playtime, feeding, and sleep-time. Results indicated that smartphone distractions appear to influence the synchrony of parent-child interactions. Infants displayed physical, verbal, or emotional reactions to parents’ smartphone distractions, indicating that smartphone use influences infants’ behaviors. Parents shared information on how smartphones helped them with their transition into parenthood. The findings of this study provide insights helpful to inform infant mental health professionals and parents about potential developmental consequences associated with parental technoference and absent presence.

Keywords: absent presence, infant mental health, parental distractions, smartphones, technoference

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1095 Determinants of Cessation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Ankesha Guagusa Woreda, Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Tebikew Yeneabat, Tefera Belachew, Muluneh Haile


Background: Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is the practice of feeding only breast milk (including expressed breast milk) during the first six months and no other liquids and solid foods except medications. The time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding, however, is different in different countries depending on different factors. Studies showed the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality is higher among none exclusive breast-feeding infants, common during starting other foods. However, there is no study that evaluated the time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding in the study area. The aim of this study was to show time to cessation of EBF and its predictors among mothers of index infants less than twelve months old. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study from February 13 to March 3, 2012 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This study included a total of 592 mothers of index infant using multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Results: Cessation of exclusive breast-feeding occurred in 392 (69.63%) cases. Among these, 224 (57.1%) happened before six months, while 145 (37.0%) and 23 (5.9%) occurred at six months and after six months of age of the index infant respectively. The median time for infants to stay on exclusive breast-feeding was 6.36 months in rural and 5.13 months in urban, and this difference was statistically significant on a Log rank (Cox-mantel) test. Maternal and paternal occupation, place of residence, postnatal counseling on exclusive breast-feeding, mode of delivery, and birth order of the index infant were significant predictors of cessation of exclusive breast-feeding. Conclusion: Providing postnatal care counseling on EBF, routine follow-up and support of those mothers having infants stressing for working mothers can bring about implementation of national strategy on infant and young child feeding.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, cessation, median duration, Ankesha Guagusa Woreda

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1094 The Recorded Interaction Task: A Validation Study of a New Observational Tool to Assess Mother-Infant Bonding

Authors: Hannah Edwards, Femke T. A. Buisman-Pijlman, Adrian Esterman, Craig Phillips, Sandra Orgeig, Andrea Gordon


Mother-infant bonding is a term which refers to the early emotional connectedness between a mother and her infant. Strong mother-infant bonding promotes higher quality mother and infant interactions including prolonged breastfeeding, secure attachment and increased sensitive parenting and maternal responsiveness. Strengthening of all such interactions leads to improved social behavior, and emotional and cognitive development throughout childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The positive outcomes observed following strong mother-infant bonding emphasize the need to screen new mothers for disrupted mother-infant bonding, and in turn the need for a robust, valid tool to assess mother-infant bonding. A recent scoping review conducted by the research team identified four tools to assess mother-infant bonding, all of which employed self-rating scales. Thus, whilst these tools demonstrated both adequate validity and reliability, they rely on self-reported information from the mother. As such this may reflect a mother’s perception of bonding with their infant, rather than their actual behavior. Therefore, a new tool to assess mother-infant bonding has been developed. The Recorded Interaction Task (RIT) addresses shortcomings of previous tools by employing observational methods to assess bonding. The RIT focusses on the common interaction between mother and infant of changing a nappy, at the target age of 2-6 months, which is visually recorded and then later assessed. Thirteen maternal and seven infant behaviors are scored on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, and a final combined score of mother-infant bonding is determined. The aim of the current study was to assess the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the RIT. A panel of six experts with specialized expertise in bonding and infant behavior were consulted. Experts were provided with the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet, a visual recording of a nappy change interaction, and a feedback form. Experts scored the mother and infant interaction on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and completed the feedback form which collected their opinions on the validity of each item on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet and the RIT as a whole. Twelve of the 20 items on the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet were scored ‘Valid’ by all (n=6) or most (n=5) experts. Two items received a ‘Not valid’ score from one expert. The remainder of the items received a mixture of ‘Valid’ and ‘Potentially Valid’ scores. Few changes were made to the RIT Observation Scoring Sheet following expert feedback, including rewording of items for clarity and the exclusion of an item focusing on behavior deemed not relevant for the target infant age. The overall ICC for single rater absolute agreement was 0.48 (95% CI 0.28 – 0.71). Experts (n=6) ratings were less consistent for infant behavior (ICC 0.27 (-0.01 – 0.82)) compared to mother behavior (ICC 0.55 (0.28 – 0.80)). Whilst previous tools employ self-report methods to assess mother-infant bonding, the RIT utilizes observational methods. The current study highlights adequate content validity and moderate inter-rater reliability of the RIT, supporting its use in future research. A convergent validity study comparing the RIT against an existing tool is currently being undertaken to confirm these results.

Keywords: content validity, inter-rater reliability, mother-infant bonding, observational tool, recorded interaction task

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1093 Assessment of Toxic Impact of Metals on Different Instars of Silkworm, Bombyx Mori

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, M. Sufian, Ahmad Nawaz, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Waleed Afzal Naveed


Larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori) exhibit very high mortality when reared on mulberry leaves collected from mulberry orchards which get contaminated with metallic/nonmetallic compounds through either drift-deposition or chemigation. There is need to screen out such metallic compound for their toxicity at their various concentrations. The present study was carried out to assess toxicity of metals in different instars of silkworm. Aqueous solutions of nine heavy-metal based salts were prepared by dissolving 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 mg of each salt in one liter of water and were applied on the mulberry leaves by leaf-dip methods. The results reveal that mortality in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae caused by each heavy metal salts increased with an increase in their concentrations. The 1st instar larvae were found more susceptible to metal salts followed by 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of silkworm. Overall, Nickel chloride proved more toxic for all larval instar as it demonstrated approximately 40-99% mortality. On the basis of LC2 and larval mortality, the order of toxicity of heavy metals against all five larval instar was Nickel chloride (LC₂ = 1.9-13.9 mg/L; & 15.0±1.2-69.2±1.7% mortality) followed by Chromium nitrate (LC₂ = 3.3-14.8 mg/L; & 13.3±1.4-62.4±2.8% mortality), Cobalt nitrate (LC₂ = 4.3-30.9; &11.4±0.07-54.9±2.0% mortality), Lead acetate (LC₂ =8.8-53.3 mg/L; & 9.5±1.3-46.4±2.9% mortality), Aluminum sulfate (LC₂ = 15.5-76.6 mg/L; & 8.4±0.08-42.1±2.8% mortality), Barium sulfide (LC₂ = 20.9-105.9; & 7.7±1.1-39.2±2.5% mortality), Copper sulfate (LC2 = 28.5-12.4 mg/L; & 7.3±0.06-37.1±2.4% mortality), Manganese chloride (LC₂ = 29.9-136.9 mg/L; & 6.8±0.09-35.3±1.6% mortality) and Zinc nitrate (LC₂ = 36.3-15 mg/L; & 6.2±1.2-32.1±1.9% mortality). Zinc nitrate @ 50 and 100 mg/L, Barium sulfide @ 50 mg/L, Manganese chloride @ 50 and 100 mg/L and Copper sulfate @ 50 mg/L proved safe for 5th instar larvae as these interaction attributed no mortality. All the heavy metal salts at a concentration of 50 mg/L demonstrated less than 10% mortality.

Keywords: heavy-metals, larval-instars, lethal-concentration, mortality, silkworm

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1092 Rural Sanitation in India: Special Context in the State of Odisa

Authors: Monalisha Ghosh, Asit Mohanty


The lack of sanitation increases living costs, decreases spend on education and nutrition, lowers income earning potential, and threatens safety and welfare. This is especially true for rural India. Only 32% of rural households have their own toilets and that less than half of Indian households have a toilet at home. Of the estimated billion people in the world who defecate in the open, more than half reside in rural India. It is empirically established that poor sanitation leads to high infant mortality rate and low income generation in rural India. In India, 1,600 children die every day before reaching their fifth birthday and 24% of girls drop out of school as the lack of basic sanitation. Above all, lack of sanitation is not a symptom of poverty but a major contributing factor. According to census 2011, 67.3% of the rural households in the country still did not have access to sanitation facilities. India’s sanitation deficit leads to losses worth roughly 6% of its gross domestic product (GDP) according to World Bank estimates by raising the disease burden in the country. The dropout rate for girl child is thirty percent in schools in rural areas because of lack of sanitation facilities for girl students. The productivity loss per skilled labors during a year is calculated at Rs.44, 160 in Odisha. The performance of the state of Odisha has not been satisfactory in improving sanitation facilities. The biggest challenge is triggering behavior change in vast section of rural population regarding need to use toilets. Another major challenge is funding and implementation for improvement of sanitation facility. In an environment of constrained economic resources, Public Private Partnership in form of performance based management or maintenance contract will be all the more relevant to improve the sanitation status in rural sector.

Keywords: rural sanitation, infant mortality rate, income, granger causality, pooled OLS method test public private partnership

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1091 Basic Study on a Thermal Model for Evaluating The Environment of Infant Facilities

Authors: Xin Yuan, Yuji Ryu


The indoor environment has a significant impact on occupants and a suitable indoor thermal environment can improve the children’s physical health and study efficiency during school hours. In this study, we explored the thermal environment in infant facilities classrooms for infants and children aged 1-5 and evaluated their thermal comfort. An infant facility in Fukuoka, Japan was selected for a case study to capture the infant and children’s thermal comfort characteristics in summer and winter from August 2019 to February 2020. Previous studies have pointed out using PMV indices to evaluate the thermal comfort for children could create errors that may lead to misleading results. Thus, to grasp the actual thermal environment and thermal comfort characteristics of infants and children, we retrieved the operative temperature of each child through the thermal model, based on the sensible heat transfer from the skin to the environment, and the measured classroom indoor temperature, relative humidity, and pocket temperature of children’s shorts. The statistical and comparative analysis of the results shows that (1) the operative temperature showed a large individual difference among children, with the maximum reached 6.25 °C. (2) The children might feel slightly cold in the classrooms in summer, with the frequencies of operative temperature within the interval of 26-28 ºC were only 5.33% and 16.6% for children respectively. (3) The thermal environment around children is more complicated in winter the operative temperature could exceed or fail to reach the thermal comfort temperature zone (20-23 ºC interval). (4) The environmental conditions surrounding the children may account for the reduction of their thermal comfort. The findings contribute to improving the understanding of the infant and children’s thermal comfort and provide valuable information for designers and governments to develop effective strategies for the indoor thermal environment considering the perspective of children.

Keywords: infant and children, thermal environment, thermal model, operative temperature.

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1090 Maternal Awareness of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Jordanian Study

Authors: Nemeh Ahmad Al-Akour, Ibrahem Alfaouri


Objective: To examine the level of maternal awareness of SIDS and its prevention amongst Jordanian mothers in the north of Jordan, as well as to determine their SIDS-related infant care practices. Design: A cross-sectional design. Setting: The study was conducted in maternal out-patients clinics of two teaching hospitals and three maternal and child health clinic in three major health care centers in Northern Jordan. Participants: A total of 356 mothers of infants attending the maternal and child health clinics were included in this study. Measurements and findings: A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data study. In this study, 64%of mothers didn’t hear about SIDS, while only 7% of mothers were able to identify factors risk-reducing recommendations. Avoidance of prone sleeping was the most frequently identified recommendation (5%). There were 67.7% of mothers who put their infant in a lateral position to sleep, 61% used soft mattress surface for their babies sleep and 25.8% who shared a bed with their babies. Employed mother, mothers of higher age, and mothers living within a nuclear family were the only factors associated with maternal awareness of SIDS. Friends were the highest a source of knowledge of SIDS for mothers (44.7%). Key conclusions: There was a low level of awareness of SIDS and its associated risk factor among the mothers in Jordan. The mothers' misconception about smoking and sleeping position for their infants requires further efforts. Implications for practice: To ensure raising awareness of infant care practice regarding SIDS, a national educational intervention on SIDS risk reduction strategies and recommendations is necessary for maintaining a low rate of SIDS in the population.

Keywords: bed sharing, infant care, Jordan, sleep position, sudden infant death

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1089 Transportation Accidents Mortality Modeling in Thailand

Authors: W. Sriwattanapongse, S. Prasitwattanaseree, S. Wongtrangan


The transportation accidents mortality is a major problem that leads to loss of human lives, and economic. The objective was to identify patterns of statistical modeling for estimating mortality rates due to transportation accidents in Thailand by using data from 2000 to 2009. The data was taken from the death certificate, vital registration database. The number of deaths and mortality rates were computed classifying by gender, age, year and region. There were 114,790 cases of transportation accidents deaths. The highest average age-specific transport accident mortality rate is 3.11 per 100,000 per year in males, Southern region and the lowest average age-specific transport accident mortality rate is 1.79 per 100,000 per year in females, North-East region. Linear, poisson and negative binomial models were chosen for fitting statistical model. Among the models fitted, the best was chosen based on the analysis of deviance and AIC. The negative binomial model was clearly appropriate fitted.

Keywords: transportation accidents, mortality, modeling, analysis of deviance

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