Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: husband

70 Attrition of Igbo Indigenous Wives' Given Pet Names: Implications for the Igbo Language Endangerment

Authors: Ogbonna Anyanwu

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Language attrition describes the non-pathological decrease in language that had previously been acquired by an individual. It can affect some aspects of a language use or all aspects of a language use. The Igbo language, (despite its status as one of the major Nigerian languages) based on recent studies is fast losing its population of first generation speakers and therefore, increasingly becoming endangered and may be heading to extinction as warned by UNESCO if there are no conscious efforts to reverse the situation. The present paper, which contributes to the Igbo endangerment studies, examines the attrition of an aspect of the Igbo language use and practice: the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names. It surveys the level of attrition of indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names; names which Igbo married men christen their wives upon marriage. The wives’ pet names under investigation here are specifically those which a husband traditionally christens his wife to reflect the intimate marital bond between them and also to extol his wife as an integral part of him. These pet names morphologically, are always suffixed with the compound morpheme diya which is translated as 'her husband' as in enyidiya 'her husband’s friend', obidiya 'her husband’s heart', ahudiya 'her husband’s body', ugwudiya 'her husband’s honour’, etc. The data for the study were collected through questionnaire, and oral interview from 300 male and 100 female respondents of different age groups who are married, indigenous Igbo speakers and are resident in the study areas (two Local Government Areas from two different Senatorial Zones in Abia and Imo States, south-eastern, Nigeria). Findings from the study show almost a total attrition of the Igbo indigenous wives’ pet names under study across the different age groups. For the respondents within the age group of 25-54 years, there is no more christening and bearing of the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names by men and women respectively. This age group gives and bears pet names which the group members feel are contemporary and in line with modernity. This is a piece of evidence that the Igbo indigenous pet names’ use and practice are no longer part of the lifestyle of this group of respondents and therefore, they cannot transmit such names to their own children. For the respondents within the age group of 55-74 years, the indigenous Igbo wives’ pet names are also fading fast with less than 20% retention within the age group of 65-74 years with very few traces within the group of 55-64 years. These findings are further evidence that this aspect of Igbo language use and culture is severely threatened and may be on the verge of being lost. The loss of this aspect of the Igbo language or any aspect of the language has huge implications for the gradual and steady endangerment of the language as predicted by UNESCO.

Keywords: attrition, endangerment, practice, Igbo

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69 The 'Toshi-No-Sakon' Phenomenon: A Trend in Japanese Family Formations

Authors: Franco Lorenzo D. Morales

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‘Toshi-no-sakon,’ which translates to as ‘age gap marriage,’ is a term that has been popularized by celebrity couples in the Japanese entertainment industry. Japan is distinct for a developed nation for its rapidly aging population, declining marital and fertility rates, and the reinforcement of traditional gender roles. Statistical data has shown that the average age of marriage in Japan is increasing every year, showing a growing tendency for late marriage. As a result, the government has been trying to curb the declining trends by encouraging marriage and childbirth among the populace. This graduate thesis seeks to analyze the ‘toshi-no-sakon’ phenomenon in lieu of Japan’s current economic and social situation, and to see what the implications are for these kinds of married couples. This research also seeks to expound more on age gaps within married couples, which is a factor rarely-touched upon in Japanese family studies. A literature review was first performed in order to provide a framework to study ‘toshi-no-sakon’ from the perspective of four fields of study—marriage, family, aging, and gender. Numerous anonymous online statements by ‘toshi-no-sakon’ couples were then collected and analyzed, which brought to light a number of concerns. Couples wherein the husband is the older partner were prioritized in order to narrow down the focus of the research, and ‘toshi-no-sakon’ is only considered when the couple’s age gap is ten years or more. Current findings suggest that one of the perceived merits for a woman to marry an older man is that financial security would be guaranteed. However, this has been shown to be untrue as a number of couples express concern regarding their financial situation, which could be attributed to their husband’s socio-economic status. Having an older husband who is approaching the age of retirement presents another dilemma as the wife would be more obliged to provide care for her aging husband. This notion of the wife being a caregiver likely stems from an arrangement once common in Japanese families in which the wife must primarily care for her husband’s elderly parents. Childbearing is another concern as couples would be pressured to have a child right away due to the age of the husband, in addition to limiting the couple’s ideal number of children. This is another problematic aspect as the husband would have to provide income until his child has finished their education, implying that retirement would have to be delayed indefinitely. It is highly recommended that future studies conduct face-to-face interviews with couples and families who fall under the category of ‘toshi-no-sakon’ in order to gain a more in-depth perspective into the phenomenon and to reveal any undiscovered trends. Cases wherein the wife is the older partner in the relationship should also be given focus in future studies involving ‘toshi-no-sakon’.

Keywords: age gap, family structure, gender roles, marriage trends

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68 Cry, the Peacock: A Psychoanalytic Feminist Study

Authors: Taira Bano

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Cry, the Peacock is a famous novel by Anita Desai which deals with the psychic tumult of a young and sensitive female protagonist, Maya. The novel deals with the in-depth study of the psyche of Maya who is haunted by a childhood prophecy of a fatal disaster. This persistent obsession of death either for her or her husband within four years of their marriage is the main reason for Maya’s neurosis. The novel is not only concerned with the psychological aspect of Maya but is also a strong plea for the rights of women. The novel consists of both psychological as well as feministic elements. The attitude of Maya, not to submit to the authority of her husband gives perfect description of second wave feminism. Feminism is a movement which deals with the issues of inequality between men and women. Psychoanalysis is the study of the psychology of characters. It depicts how an incident in one’s life shapes the personality of an individual. This paper will deal with the study of the novel Cry, the Peacock from psychoanalytic perspective and will try to trace out the reason for such an extreme step that Maya takes in the end of the novel- crossing all the limits of a traditional submissive wife.

Keywords: psyche, psychological, mental, feminist

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67 Education as an Important Correlate for Age at Marriage in Bangladesh

Authors: Forhana Rahman Noor, Shafia Jannat Khanam

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A girl’s schooling is disrupted by the very act of marriage which requires her to move away from home and her school area to live with her husband’s family, according to custom and practice. Once in her new home, her husband or her in-laws decide her continuation of schooling. A plethora of research has confirmed the inter-relationship between education and age at marriage of girls. The primary data was collected from both urban and rural area in Bangladesh. The study revealed that mean age at marriage for girls was 15.69 years, as a whole and it was lower (15.21 years) in the rural area than that of the urban area (17.13 years). These readings confirm early marriage still exists. The most important determinant of age at marriage was found as low education level of the girls. The bi-variate analysis of this study discovered the relationship or association between education and age at marriage. The study also found the education level of husbands of girls has a significant effect on age at marriage of a girl.

Keywords: education, girl, age at marriage, correlate, Bangladesh

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66 Homosexuality and Culture: A Case Study Depicting the Struggles of a Married Lady

Authors: Athulya Jayakumar, M. Manjula

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Though there has been a shift in the understanding of homosexuality from being a sin, crime or pathology in the medical and legal perspectives, the acceptance of homosexuality still remains very scanty in the Indian subcontinent. The present case study is a 24-year-old female who has completed a diploma in polytechnic engineering and residing in the state of Kerala. She initially presented with her husband with complaints of lack of sexual desire and non-cooperation from the index client. After an initial few sessions, the client revealed, in an individual session, about her homosexual orientation which was unknown to her family. She has had multiple short-term relations with females and never had any heterosexual orientation/interest. During her adolescence, she was wondering if she could change herself into a male. However, currently, she accepts her gender. She never wanted a heterosexual marriage; but, had to succumb to the pressure of mother, as a result of a series of unexpected incidents at home and had to agree for the marriage, also with a hope that she may change herself into a bi-sexual. The client was able to bond with the husband emotionally but the multiple attempts at sexual intercourse, at the insistence of the husband, had always been non-pleasurable and induced a sense of disgust. Currently, for several months, there has not been any sexual activity. Also, she actively avoids any chance to have a warm communication with him so that she can avoid chances of him approaching her in a sexual manner. The case study is an attempt to highlight the culture and the struggles of a homosexual individual who comes to therapy for wanting to be a ‘normal wife’ despite having knowledge of legal rights and scenario. There is a scarcity of Indian literature that has systematically investigated issues related to homosexuality. Data on prevalence, emotional problems faced and clinical services available are sparse though it is crucial for increasing understanding of sexual behaviour, orientation and difficulties faced in India.

Keywords: case study, culture, cognitive behavior therapy, female homosexuality

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65 Gender of the Infant and Interpersonal Relationship Correlates of Postpartum Depression among Women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Mujeeb, Farah Qadir

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The present study aimed to explore the association between interpersonal relationship and postpartum depression with a special focus on gender of the infant among women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The research was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation study with a cross-sectional study design. The target population was women between six weeks to six months after the delivery of a baby. The sample size of 158 women has been computed by using G*Power (3.0.10 version). The sample was taken through quota sampling technique which was used to gather data according to the specifically predefined groups (79 women with female infants and 79 women with male infants). The sample was selected non-randomly according to the fixed quota. A protocol which had demographic and interpersonal relationship variables alongside with the Urdu version Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to collect the relevant data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software package. A statistically significant association between the attachment with husband in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression has been found. The association between the husband’s emotional and physical support in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression had also been found significant. In case of women with a male infant, the association between support of in-laws and postpartum depression is statistically significant. An association between the violence/discrimination based on the basis of infant's gender in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression is also found. These findings points out that when studying the correlates of postpartum depression, it is imperative to carry out an analysis in the context of gender by considering gender of the infant especially in societies where strict gender preferences exists.

Keywords: infant, gender, attachment, husband, in-laws, support, violence, discrimination, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Gilgit, Pakistan

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64 The Image of Future Spouse in Indonesian Folktale: Man's Acceptance of Woman and vice Versa

Authors: Titik Wahyuningsih

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The folktale to discuss is Ande-Ande Lumut, a story that is believed to be a history of two kingdoms in East Java, Indonesia. The title refers to the main male character in the story. This research is a library research which aims to know the patriarchal values in Indonesia. The data for the research is the song in the story that is actually the conversation between Ande-Ande Lumut and a mom who adopts him. It is told in the lines that many beautiful girls come to propose Ande-Ande Lumut but he does not want to accept them and keeps on staying in his upstairs room. Finally, he says yes for Klething Kuning to whom his mom describes as a girl with ugly face. Ande-Ande Lumut's decision is taken as Klething Kuning is the only girl who doesn't let Yuyu Kangkang help her. Yuyu Kangkang is described as a very big crab that helps the girls to cross the river but ask them to kiss him. Through the lense of feminist approach, Ande-Ande Lumut shows the men’s preference and dominance to make final decision over women. Even though the girls are actively propose their future husband, but they do it without giving any requirements. Meanwhile, the future husband chooses a girl with a criterion that no male has ever touched her, although the male is a crab.

Keywords: future spouse, Indonesian folktale, acceptance, patriarchal

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63 Factors Associated with the Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Methods among Women of Reproductive Age 15-49 Years in Jinja District

Authors: Helen Nelly Naiga, Christopher Garimoi Orach

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Introduction: Long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods are highly effective. However, LARC use in Uganda is low (13%). We assessed the factors associated with the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives among women of reproductive age (15-49 yrs) in Jinja District. Methods: We conducted a facility-based cross-sectional study. A total of 314 women aged 15–49 years attending public health facilities (1 hospital and 3 health center IV) in Jinja district, were randomly selected. A total of 6 key informants and 6 in-depth interviews were conducted. Logistic regression analysis was conducted using Stata version 14. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The study found that 40.45% of the respondents had ever used LARC. The commonest LARC method used was implanting (38.22%). The factors significantly associated with use of LARC were employment (AOR =2.91; 95% CI (1.05-8.08), access to LARC methods (AOR =4.48; 95% CI (1.24-16.21), husband support (AOR =4.90; 95% CI (1.56-15.41), and experience of no side effects (AOR =3.48; 95% CI (1.00-12.19). Conclusion and recommendations: The study showed that 4 in 10 women of reproductive age in Jinja District were using LARC. The factors associated with LARC use were employment, husband support, access to LARC methods, and the lack of side effects. There is a need to strengthen client education, improve accessibility to LARC methods at all levels of health centers, improve male partner’s decision-making in LARC use and manage the side effects effectively.

Keywords: family planning, implants, intrauterine device, long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC)

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62 Aesthetic Preference and Consciousness in African Theatre: A Performance Appraisal of Tyrone Terrence's a Husband's Wife

Authors: Oluwatayo Isijola

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The destructive influence of Europe on Africa has also taken a tow on the aesthetic essence of the African Art, which centres on morality and value for human life. In a parallel vein, the adverse turn of this influence on the dramaturgy of some contemporary African plays, poses impedance to audience consciousness in performance engagements. Through the spectrum of African Aesthetics, this study attempts a performance appraisal of A Husband’s wife; an unpublished play written by Tyrone Terence for the African audience. The researcher proffers two variant textual interpretations of the play to evaluate performance engagement in its default realistic mode, which holds an unresolved 'Medean-impulse', and another wherein the resolution is treated to a paradigm shift for aesthetic preference. The investigation employs the mixed method, which combines the quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Keen observation on the reactions and responses of audience members that were engaged in both performances, and on-the-spot interview with selected audience members, were the primary sources for the qualitative data. However, quantitative data was captured in an on-the-spot survey with the instrument of the questionnaire served to a sample population of the audience. The study observes that the preference for African aesthetics as exemplified in the second performance which deployed a paradigm shift did enhance audience consciousness. Hinging on performance aesthetic theory, the paper recommends that all such African plays bestowed with the shortcoming of African aesthetics, should be appropriately treated to paradigm shifts for performance engagement, in the interest of enhancing audience consciousness in the Nigerian Theatre.

Keywords: African aesthetics, audience consciousness, paradigm shift, median-impulse

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61 Predictors of Ante-Natal Care and Health Facility Delivery Services Utilization in a Rural Area in Plateau State

Authors: Lilian A. Okeke, I. Okeke, N. Waziri, S. Balogun, P. Nguku, O. Fawole

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Background: Access to ante-natal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery with improved maternal and neonatal outcome. We conducted this study to identify factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) and health delivery services. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study. Households were numbered and a one in three sample was selected using a systematic sampling method. One hundred and ninety eight women who were either pregnant or had previous deliveries were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires to obtain information on their socio-demographic characteristics, and reasons for non-utilization of ANC and health delivery services. We performed univariate and bivariate analysis using Epi info version 3.5.3. Results: The age of respondents ranged from (17-55 years) with a median age of 29 years. One hundred and ninety two (97%) utilized antenatal care services. Ninety three (47.9%) attended ANC at second trimester. More than half (58.6%) had ≥ 4 visits to ANC. One hundred and thirty one (66.2%) had their last delivery at home by a traditional birth attendant. Factors associated with ANC and health facility delivery services utilization were: age group 45-55 (OR 0.01; 95% CI: 0.00-0.16) and > 55 years (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.00-0.60), wife’s educational status (OR 3.17; 95% CI: 1.66-8.30), husband’s permission (OR 11.8; 95% CI 2.19-63.62), and distance ≥ 5km (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16-0.60). Conclusion: ANC services were well utilized. Most women did not book early and had their last delivery at home. Predictors of ANC use and health facility delivery were age, wife’s educational status, husband's permission and long distance from health facility. A one-day health sensitization of the benefits of ANC utilization and the dangers of delivering at home was implemented.

Keywords: ante natal care, health facility, delivery services, rural area, Plateau state

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60 Depression among Pregnant Women with Husbands Abroad during the Pregnancy

Authors: Usama Bin Zubair, Syed Azhar Ali

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Introduction: Depression is emerging as a major public health problem in all parts of the world. Developing countries have a unique socioeconomic structure that affects the lives of its inhabitants in several ways. Going abroad for employment is one of the common social problems which have been faced by young males in developing countries. This included both highly qualified individuals as well as the labor class. Objective: To determine the difference in the presence of depressive symptoms among pregnant women with husbands living abroad and those with husbands living with them in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Methods: The sample population comprised of pregnant women reporting for an antenatal checkup at Amna hospital Rawalakot. Cases constituted the pregnant women with husbands living abroad while controls were the pregnant women with husbands living with them. Patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was used to record the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Age, gestation, parity, rural or urban origin, education, level of family income, daily contact hours on the telephone or what’s app, previous pregnancy loss or complications, number of years abroad and visits to home per year were associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. Findings: The mean age of the study participants was 29.73 ±5.395 years. Sixty-six had significant depression in the case group, while 14 had in the control group (p-value<0.001). Education and rural background had a significant difference between the case and the control group. Less number of visits per year of the husband was strongly linked with the presence of depressive symptoms among the cases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with husbands abroad were found more prone to develop depressive symptoms as compared to those with husbands living with them. Special attention should be paid to the women whose husband had a lesser number of visits to the country.

Keywords: depression, pregnancy, lack of support, war zone

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59 The Influence of Married Women's Adult Children Care Burden and Stress on Depression: Testing the Moderated Mediating Effect of Satisfaction with Husbands’ Sharing of the Care

Authors: Soo-Bi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, Zehgn Lin, Chenminxi

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Background: In South Korea, a problematic phenomenon has recently arisen whereby adult children continue to receive parentalcaregivingin some cases. These phenomena has been shown to affect the mental health of mothers. Study Goals: The purposes of this study are to verify whether the mediating effects of stress on the relationship between a woman’s care burden for their adult children and depression are moderated by their satisfaction about their husbands’ sharing of the caregiving. Methodology: This study analyzed 3,053 married women with adult children using the most recent data from the “Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women & Families 7th(2018)" conducted at the national level. The analysis was conducted using the SPSS Process Macro Model 7 to verify the moderated mediating effects and subsequently confirm their significance based on the bootstrapping method. Results and Implications: (1) Stress was identified a mediating factor in the relationship between the care burden for adult children and depression; and (2) the mediating effects of stress on depression from the burden of caring for adult children are modulated by the woman's satisfaction with her husband’s sharing of the care burden. In other words, the higher the caring burden of adult children, the higher the mother's stress, which increases depression. At this time, the higher the their satisfaction with the husband's share of care in the path of mother's care burden and stress, the lower the mother's stress and, ultimately, the depression be alleviated. Conclusion: Programs that promote the mental health of married women heavily with the caring burden for their adult children, as well as those that improve social awareness regarding husbands' sharing of the care burden, should be implemented. Also, social welfare policy alternatives are needed at the national level to reduce the caring burden caused by adult children.

Keywords: married women, adult children care burden, stress, depression, satisfaction with husbands sharing of the care

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58 The Spiritual Distress of Women Coping with the End of Life and Death of Their Spouses

Authors: Szu-Mei Hsiao

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Many nurses have concerns about the difficulties of providing spiritual care for ethnic-Chinese patients and family members within their cultural context. This is due to a lack of knowledge and training. Most family caregivers are female. There has been little research exploring the potential impact of Chinese cultural values on the spiritual distress of couple dyadic participants in Taiwan. This study explores the spiritual issues of Taiwanese women coping with their husband’s advanced cancer during palliative care to death. Qualitative multiple case studies were used. Data was collected through participant observation and in-depth face-to-face interviews. Transcribed interview data was analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Three couples were recruited from a community-based rural hospital in Taiwan where the husbands were hospitalized in a medical ward. Four spiritual distress themes emerged from the analysis: (1) A personal conflict in trying to come to terms with love and forgiveness; the inability to forgive their husband’s mistakes; and, lack of their family’s love and support. (2) A feeling of hopelessness due to advanced cancer, such as a feeling of disappointment in their destiny and karma, including expressing doubt on survival. (3) A feeling of uncertainty in facing death peacefully, such as fear of facing the unknown world; and, (4) A feeling of doubt causing them to question the meaning and values in their lives. This research has shown that caregivers needed family support, friends, social welfare, and the help of their religion to meet their spiritual needs in coping within the final stages of life and death. The findings of this study could assist health professionals to detect the spiritual distress of ethnic-Chinese patients and caregivers in the context of their cultural or religious background as early as possible.

Keywords: advanced cancer, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, qualitative research, spiritual distress

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57 Factors Affecting the Uptake of Modern Contraception Services in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Folajinmi Oluwasina, Magbagbeola Dairo, Ikeoluwapo Ajayi

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Contraception has proven to be an effective way of controlling fertility and spacing births. Studies have shown that contraception can avert the high-risk pregnancies and consequently reduce maternal deaths up to 32%. Uptake of modern contraception is promoted as a mechanism to address the reproductive health needs of men and women, as well as the crucial challenge of rapid population increase. A cross- sectional descriptive study using a two- stage systematic sampling technique was used to select 530 women of reproductive age out of 20,000 households. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed on a 5 point score in which a score of ≤ 2 rated poor while perception was scored on 36 points score in which a score of ≤ 18 was rated low. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression at p< 0.05. There were 530 respondents. Age of respondents was 30.3 ±7.8 years, and 73.0% were married. About 90% had good knowledge of contraception while 60.8% had used contraceptives. The commonest source of information about contraception was mass media (72.8%). Minority (26.1%) obtained husbands approval before using contraceptive while 20.0% had used modern contraceptives before the first birth. Many (54.5%) of the respondents agreed that contraception helps in improving standard of living and 64.7% had good perception about contraception. Factors that hindered effective uptake of contraception services included poor service provider’s attitude (33.3%) and congestion at the service centers (4.5%). Respondents with nonuse of contraceptive before first birth are less likely to subsequently use contraceptives (OR= 0.324, 95% CI= 0.1-0.5). Husband approval of contraceptives use was the major determinant of women’s contraceptive use (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3-8.7). Respondents who had family planning centers not more than 5 kilometers walking distance to their residence did not significantly use contraception services (41.5%) more than 21.1% of those who had to take means of transportation to the service venues. This study showed that majority of the respondents were knowledgeable and aware of contraception services, but husband’s agreement on the use of modern contraceptives remains poor. Programmes that enhances husbands approval of modern contraception is thus recommended.

Keywords: contraception services, service provider’s attitude, uptake, husbands approval

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56 Lifetime Attachment: Adult Daughters Attachment to Their Old Mothers

Authors: Meltem Anafarta Şendağ, Funda Kutlu

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Attachment theory has some major postulates that direct attention of psychologists from many different domains. First, the theory suggests that attachment is a lifetime process. This means that every human being from cradle to grave needs someone stronger to depend on in times of stress. Second, the attachment is a dynamic process and as one goes through developmental stages it is being transferred from one figure to another (friends, romantic partners). Third, the quality of attachment relationships later in time directly affected by the earliest attachment relationship established between the mother and the infant. Depending on these postulates, attachment literature focuses mostly on mother – child attachment during childhood and romantic relationship during adulthood. However, although romantic partners are important attachment figures in adults’ life, parents are not dropped out from the attachment hierarchy but they keep being important attachment figures. Despite the fact that parents could still be an important figure in adults’ life, adult – parent attachment is overlooked in the literature. Accordingly, this study focuses on adult daughters’ current attachment to their old mothers in relation with early parental bonding and current attachment to husbands. Participants of the study were 383 adult women (Average age = 40, ranging between 23 and 70) whose mothers were still alive and who were married at the time of the study. Participants were completed Adult Attachment Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Experiences in Close Relationship – II together with demographic questionnaire. Results revealed that daughters’ attachment to their mothers weakens as they get older, have more children, and have longer marriages. Stronger attachment to mothers was found positively correlated with current satisfaction with the relationship, perception of maternal care before the age of 12 and negatively correlated with perception of controlling behavior before the age 12. Considering the relationship between current parental attachment and romantic attachment, it was found that as the current attachment to mother strengthens attachment avoidance towards husband decreases. Results revealed that although attachment between the adult daughters and old mothers weakens, the relationship is still critical in daughters’ lives. The strength of current attachment with the mother is related both with the early relationship with the mother and current attachment with the husband. The current study is thought to contribute to attachment theory emphasizing the attachment as a lifetime construct.

Keywords: adult daughter, attachment, old mothers, parental bonding

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55 Domestic Violence against Women and the Nutritional Status of Their Under-5 Children: A Cross Sectional Survey in Urban Slums of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Ahmed Ehsanur Rahman, Nazia Binte Ali, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Afrin Iqbal, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Salma Morium, Afsana Bhuiyan, Shams El Arifeen

Abstract:

Violence against women has been treated as a global epidemic which is as fatal as any serious disease or accidents. Like many other low-income countries it is also common in Bangladesh. In spite of existence of a few documented evidences in some other countries, in Bangladesh, domestic violence against women (DVAW) is not considered as a factor for malnutrition in children yet. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate the association between DVAW and the nutritional status of their under-5 children in the context of slum areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted among 87 women of reproductive age having at least one child under-5 years of age and staying with husband for at least last 1 year in selected slums under Chittagong City Corporation area. Data collection tools were structured questionnaire for the study participants and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) to measure the nutritional status of the under-5 children. The data underwent descriptive and regression analysis. Out of 87 respondents, 50 (57.5%) reported to suffer from domestic violence by their husband during last one year. Physical violence was found to be significantly associated with age (p=0.02), age at marriage (p=0.043), wealth score (p=0.000), and with knowledge regarding law (p=0.017). According to the measurement of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) 21% children were suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and the same percentage of children were suffering from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). However, unadjusted odds ratio suggested that there was negative association with domestic violence and nutritional status. But, the logistic regression confounding for other variable showed significant association with total family income (p=0.006), wealth score (p=0.031), age at marriage (p=0.029) and number of child (p=0.006). Domestic violence against women and under nutrition of the children, both are highly prevalent in Bangladesh. More extensive research should be performed to identify the factors contributing to the high prevalence of domestic violence and malnutrition in urban slums of Bangladesh. Household-based intervention is needed to limit this burning problem. In a nutshell, effective community participation, education and counseling are essential to create awareness among the community.

Keywords: Bangladesh, cross sectional survey, domestic violence against women, nutritional status, under-5 children, urban slums

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54 The Relationship between Violence against Women in the Family and Common Mental Disorders in Urban Informal Settlements of Mumbai, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Abigail Bentley, Audrey Prost, Nayreen Daruwalla, Apoorwa Gupta, David Osrin

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BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) can impact a woman’s physical, reproductive and mental health, including common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, people other than an intimate partner may also perpetrate violence against women in the family, particularly in India. This study aims to investigate the relationship between experiences of violence perpetrated by the husband and other members of the wider household and symptoms of common mental disorders in women residing in informal settlement (slum) areas of Mumbai. METHODS: Experiences of violence were assessed through a detailed cross-sectional survey of 598 women, including questions about specific acts of emotional, economic, physical and sexual violence across different time points in the woman’s life and the main perpetrator of each act. Symptoms of common mental disorders were assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The GHQ-12 scores were divided into four groups and the relationship between experiences of each type of violence in the last 12 months and GHQ-12 score group was analyzed using ordinal logistic regression, adjusted for the woman’s age and clustering. RESULTS: 482 (81%) women consented to interview. On average, they were 28.5 years old, had completed 7 years of education and had been married 9 years. 88% were Muslim and 47% lived in joint and 53% in nuclear families. 44% of women had experienced at least one act of violence in their lifetime (33% emotional, 22% economic, 23% physical, 12% sexual). 7% had a high GHQ-12 score (6 or above). For violence experiences in the last 12 months, the odds of being in the highest GHQ-12 score group versus the lower groups combined were 13.1 for emotional violence, 6.5 for economic, 5.7 for physical and 6.3 for sexual (p<0.001 for all outcomes). DISCUSSION: The high level of violence reported across the lifetime could be due to the detailed assessment of violent acts at multiple time points and the inclusion of perpetrators within the family other than the husband. Each type of violence was associated with greater odds of a higher GHQ-12 score and therefore more symptoms of common mental disorders. Emotional violence was far more strongly associated with symptoms of common mental disorders than physical or sexual violence. However, it is not possible to attribute causal directionality to the association. Further work to investigate the relationship between differing severity of violence experiences and women’s mental health and the components of emotional violence that make it so strongly associated with symptoms of common mental disorders would be beneficial.

Keywords: common mental disorders, family violence, India, informal settlements, mental health, violence against women

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53 Questioning the Predominant Feminism in Ahalya, a Short Film by Sujoy Ghosh

Authors: Somya Sharma

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Ahalya, the critically acclaimed short film, is known to demolish the gender constructs of the age old myth of Ahalya. The paper tries to crack the overt meaning of the short film by reading between the dialogues and deconstructing the idea of the pseudo feminism in the short film Ahalya by Sujoy Ghosh. The film, by subverting the role of male character by making it seem submissive as compared to the female character's role seems to be just a surface level reading of the text. It seems that Sujoy Ghosh has played not just with changing the paradigm, but also trying to alter the history by doing so. The age old myth of putting Ahalya as a part of the five virgins (panchkanya) of Hindu mythology is explored in the paper. God's manoeuvre cannot be questioned and the two male characters tend to again shape the deed and the life of the female character, Ahalya. It is of importance to note that even in the 21st century, progressive actors like Radhika Apte fail to acknowledge the politics of altering history, not in a progressive way. The film blinds the viewer in the first watch to fall for the female strength and ownership of her sexuality, which is reflected in the opening scene itself where she opens the gate for the police man Indra Sen (representing God Indra who seduced her) who is charmed by her white dress. White, in Hindu mythology, stands for mourning, and this can be a hint towards the prophecy of what is about to come. Ahalya, bold, strong, and confident in this scene seems to be in total ownership of her sexual identity. Further, as the film progresses, control of Ahalya over her acts becomes even more dominant. In the myth of Ahalya, Gautama Maharishi, her husband, who wins her by Brahma's courtesy, curses her for her infidelity. She is then turned into a stone because of the curse and is redeemed when Lord Rama's foot brushes the stone. In the film, it is with the help of Ahalya that Goutam Sadhu turns Indra Sen into a stone doll. Ahalya is seen as a seductress who bewitches Indra Sen, and because the latter falls for the trap laid by the husband wife duo, he is turned into a doll. The attempt made by the paper is to read Ahalya as a character of the stand in wife who is yet again a pawn in the play of Goutama's revenge from Indra (who in the myth is able to escape from any curse or punishment for the act). The paper, therefore, reverts the idea which has till now been signified by the film and attempts to study the feminism this film appropriates. It is essential to break down the structure formed by such overt transgressing films in order to provide a real outlook of how feminism is twisted and moulded according to a man’s wishes.

Keywords: deconstructing, Hindu mythology, Panchkanya, predominant feminism, seductress, stone doll

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52 The Relationship between Violence against Women and Levels of Self-Esteem in Urban Informal Settlements of Mumbai, India: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: A. Bentley, A. Prost, N. Daruwalla, D. Osrin

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Background: This study aims to investigate the relationship between experiences of violence against women in the family, and levels of self-esteem in women residing in informal settlement (slum) areas of Mumbai, India. The authors hypothesise that violence against women in Indian households extends beyond that of intimate partner violence (IPV), to include other members of the family and that experiences of violence are associated with lower levels of self-esteem. Methods: Experiences of violence were assessed through a cross-sectional survey of 598 women, including questions about specific acts of emotional, economic, physical and sexual violence across different time points, and the main perpetrator of each. Self-esteem was assessed using the Rosenberg self-esteem questionnaire. A global score for self-esteem was calculated and the relationship between violence in the past year and Rosenberg self-esteem score was assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for years of education completed, and clustering using robust standard errors. Results: 482 (81%) women consented to interview. On average, they were 28.5 years old, had completed 6 years of education and had been married 9.5 years. 88% were Muslim and 46% lived in joint families. 44% of women had experienced at least one act of violence in their lifetime (33% emotional, 22% economic, 24% physical, 12% sexual). Of the women who experienced violence after marriage, 70% cited a perpetrator other than the husband for at least one of the acts. 5% had low self-esteem (Rosenberg score < 15). For women who experienced emotional violence in the past year, the Rosenberg score was 2.6 points lower (p < 0.001). It was 1.2 points lower (p = 0.03) for women who experienced economic violence. For physical or sexual violence in the past year, no statistically significant relationship with Rosenberg score was seen. However, for a one-unit increase in the number of different acts of each type of violence experienced in the past year, a decrease in Rosenberg score was seen (-0.62 for emotional, -0.76 for economic, -0.53 for physical and -0.47 for sexual; p < 0.05 for all). Discussion: The high prevalence of violence experiences across the lifetime was likely due to the detailed assessment of violence and the inclusion of perpetrators within the family other than the husband. Experiences of emotional or economic violence in the past year were associated with lower Rosenberg scores and therefore lower self-esteem, but no relationship was seen between experiences of physical or sexual violence and Rosenberg score overall. For all types of violence in the past year, a greater number of different acts were associated with a decrease in Rosenberg score. Emotional violence showed the strongest relationship with self-esteem, but for all types of violence the more complex the pattern of perpetration with different methods used, the lower the levels of self-esteem. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study causal directionality cannot be attributed. Further work to investigate the relationship between severity of violence and self-esteem and whether self-esteem mediates relationships between violence and poorer mental health would be beneficial.

Keywords: family violence, India, informal settlements, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, self-esteem, violence against women

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51 A Cross-Sectional Study of Knowledge and Attitudes among College Students in a South Indian City about Intimate Partner Violence

Authors: Krithika Lakshmi Sathiya Moorthy

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Introduction: Young people’s attitude towards Intimate partner violence (IPV) is likely to influence their indulgence in or abstinence from IPV in future. We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of college students in a south Indian city regarding IPV, its associated factors and redressal mechanisms. Methods: A convenient sample of 247 students, pursuing medicine and engineering, participated in this analytical cross sectional study. They responded to a self-administered questionnaire developed and pretested for this study. The questionnaire comprises statements from a third person’s perspective and vignettes to reduce social desirability bias. Clearance was obtained from the Institute Ethical Committee of Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai, India. Data were entered in Epidata Entry v3.1, Odense, Denmark and analysed using SPSS v20.0. Results: Among 247 students, 116 (47%) were males and 59 (24.9%) hailed from rural areas. About 18% (43) of students believed that IPV was a problem only among females. Almost half of the students had witnessed IPV; at home between their parents (9.7%), other family members (13.4%), in their neighbourhood (13%) or public places (15%). Only 118 (47.8%) were aware that a law was in place in India to address IPV. The perceived risk factors for IPV were alcoholic spouse (78.9%), low income families (53.8%), personality traits (52.2%) and dowry system (51%). A sizeable number of students (38.4%) believed that some amount of physical violence was allowable in a marital relationship while 57.6% even considered IPV as an expression of love. Males as compared to females were more in agreement with negative gender stereotypes such as husband can– ‘threaten wife to ensure welfare of family’ (55% vs. 34%, p < 0.001), ‘spy on wife to check fidelity’ (41% vs. 27%, p < 0.001), ‘financially deprive housewife to punish’ (13% vs. 3.8%, p=0.001) and agreed with the statement that it is ‘duty of wife to comply with demands for sex from the husband’ (9.5% vs 4.6%, p=0.3). About 32% males and 25.6% females foresaw themselves as perpetrators of IPV in future. Conclusion: Knowledge about IPV and the associated risk factors among the study population was satisfactory. However, there was widespread acceptance of negative societal gender stereotypes, more so among males and some degrees of IPV were acceptable between married couples. The study advocates the need to halt the propagation of negative gender stereotypes in the impressionable young minds and the necessity to spread the awareness that no degree of IPV is acceptable. This knowledge is also required to plan the content and choose the appropriate media to effectively communicate the awareness about IPV among young persons.

Keywords: attitude, India, intimate partner violence, knowledge, students

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50 The Impact of Customary Law on Children's Rights in Botswana

Authors: Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema

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Botswana has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law. This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, numerous human rights of children are infringed. Firstly, if parents are married under customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are not entitled to inherit property. Thirdly, there is no age for marriage under customary law and even a child at the age of 10 years can get married. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interests of children and conflicts with Botswana’s international obligations. Botswana is a signatory of various international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children.

Keywords: custody, marital power, children's best interest, customary law

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49 Dowry System and Gender Discrimination

Authors: Vanitha Dapparabail

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Dowry is a system attached to Indian marriage system, it is practice of exchanging the goods and articles in a majority of Indian weddings. Although its practice became illegal in 1961, dowry flourishes among all social classes. Families of the bride and groom negotiate transfer of assets to the groom and his family in exchange for marrying the bride, often within the context of an arranged marriage. Dissatisfaction with the amount of dowry may result in abuse of the bride. In extreme cases “dowry deaths” or the murder of the bride by her husband and his family take place. This article conducts a feminist psychological analysis of the dowry phenomenon, its link to domestic violence against women, and the role of the perpetrators. Existing and new explanations of the dowry system and its ramifications are explored. Psychologically dowry system is greater mental stress for the Indian women and it is a really a part of gender discrimination. This part of the study can explore the amount of gender discrimination in Indian society.

Keywords: Dowry system, violence, gender discrimination, India

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48 Investigating Problems and Social Support for Mothers of Poor Households

Authors: Niken Hartati

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This study provides a description of the problem and sources of social support that given to 90 mothers from poor households. Data were collected using structured interviews with the three main questions: 1) what kind of problem in mothers daily life, 2) to whom mothers ask for help to overcome it and 3) the form of the assistances that provided. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using content analysis techniques were then coded and categorized. The results of the study illustrate the problems experienced by mothers of poor households in the form of: subsistence (37%), child care (27%), management of money and time (20%), housework (5%), bad place of living (5%), the main breadwinner (3%), and extra costs (3%). While the sources of social support that obtained by mothers were; neighbors (10%), extended family (8%), children (8%), husband (7%), parents (7%), and siblings (5%). Unfortunately, more mothers who admitted not getting any social support when having problems (55%). The form of social support that given to mother from poor household were: instrumental support (91%), emotional support (5%) and informational support (2%). Implications for further intervention also discussed in this study.

Keywords: household problems, social support, mothers, poor households

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47 Wadjda, a Film That Quietly Sets the Stage for a Cultural Revolution in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anouar El Younssi

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This study seeks to shed some light on the political and social ramifications and implications of Haifaa al-Mansour’s 2012 film Wadjda. The film made international headlines following its release, and was touted as the first film ever to be shot in its entirety inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and also the first to be directed by a female (Haifaa al-Mansour). Wadjda revolves around a simple storyline: A teenage Saudi girl living in the capital city Riyadh—named Wadjda—wants to have a bicycle just like her male teenage neighbor and friend Abdullah, but her ultra-conservative Saudi society places so many constraints on its female population—including not allowing girls and women to ride bicycles. Wadjda, who displays a rebellious spirit, takes concrete steps to save money in order to realize her dream of buying a bicycle. For example, she starts making and selling sports bracelets to her school mates, and she decides to participate in a Qur’an competition in hopes of winning a sum of money that comes with the first prize. In the end, Wadjda could not beat the system on her own, but the film reverses course, and the audience gets a happy ending: Wadjda’s mother, whose husband has decided to take a second wife, defies the system and buys her daughter the very bicycle Wadjda has been dreaming of. It is quite significant that the mother takes her daughter’s side on the subject of the bicycle at the end of the film, for this shows that she finally came to the realization that she and her daughter are both oppressed by the cultural norms prevalent in Saudi society. It is no coincidence that this change of heart and action on the part of the mother takes place immediately after the wedding night celebrating her husband’s second marriage. Gender inequality is thus placed front and center in the film. Nevertheless, a major finding of this study is that the film carries out its social critique in a soft and almost covert manner. The female actors in the film never issue a direct criticism of Saudi society or government; the criticism is consistently implied and subtle throughout. It is a criticism that relies more on showing than telling. The film shows us—rather than tells us directly—what is wrong, and lets us, the audience, decide and make a judgment. In fact, showing could arguably be more powerful and impactful than telling. Regarding methodology, this study will focus on and analyze the visuals and a number of key utterances by the main actor Wadjda in order to corroborate the study’s argument about the film’s bent on critiquing patriarchy. This research will attempt to establish a link between the film as an art object and as a social text. Ultimately, Wadjda sends a message of hope, that change is possible and that it is already happening slowly inside the Kingdom. It also sends the message that an insurrectional approach regarding women’s rights in Saudi Arabia is perhaps not the right one, at least at this historical juncture.

Keywords: bicycle, gender inequality, social critique, Wadjda, women’s rights

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46 Determinants of Domestic Violence among Married Women Aged 15-49 Years in Sierra Leone by an Intimate Partner: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Tesfaldet Mekonnen Estifanos, Chen Hui, Afewerki Weldezgi

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Background: Intimate partner violence (hereafter IPV) is a major global public health challenge that tortures and disables women in the place where they are ought to be most secure within their own families. The fact that the family unit is commonly viewed as a private circle, violent acts towards women remains undermined. There are limited research and knowledge about the influencing factors linked to IPV in Sierra Leone. This study, therefore, estimates the prevalence rate and the predicting factors associated with IPV. Methods: Data were taken from Sierra-Leone Demographic and Health Survey (SDHS, 2013): the first in its form to incorporate information on domestic violence. Multistage cluster sampling research design was used, and information was gathered by a standard questionnaire. A total of 5185 respondents selected were interviewed, out of whom 870 were never been in union, thus excluded. To analyze the two dependent variables: experience of IPV, ‘ever’ and 'last 12 months prior to the survey', a total of 4315 (currently or formerly married) and 4029 women (currently in union) were included respectively. These dependent variables were constructed from the three forms of violence namely physical, emotional and sexual. Data analysis was applied using SPSS version 23, comprising three-step process. First, descriptive statistics were used to show the frequency distribution of both the outcome and explanatory variables. Second, bivariate analysis adopting chi-square test was applied to assess the individual relationship between the outcome and explanatory variables. Third, multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken using hierarchical modeling strategy to identify the influence of the explanatory variables on the outcome variables. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were utilized to examine the association of the variables considering p-values less than 0.05 statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of lifetime IPV among ever married women was 48.4%, while 39.8% of those currently married experienced IPV in the previous year preceding the survey. Women having 1 to 4 and more than 5 number of ever born babies were almost certain to encounter lifetime IPV. However, women who own a property, and those who referenced 3-5 reasons for which wife-beating is acceptable were less probably to experience lifetime IPV. Attesting parental violence, partner’s dominant marital behavior, and women afraid of their partner were the variables related to both experience of IPV ‘ever’ and ‘the previous year prior to the survey’. Respondents who concur that wife-beating is sensible in certain situations and occupations under the professional category had diminished chances of revealing IPV in the year prior to the data collection. Conclusion: This study indicated that factors significantly correlated with IPV in Sierra-Leone are mostly linked with husband related factors specifically, marital controlling behaviors. Addressing IPV in Sierra-Leone requires joint efforts that target men raise awareness to address controlling behavior and empower security in affiliations.

Keywords: husband behavior, married women, partner violence, Sierra Leone

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45 Exploring the Prevailing Unfairness in Muslim Marriage and Divorce Laws in Singapore's Dual Court System

Authors: J. Jayaletchmi

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In seeking to manage a multiracial and multi-religious society, Singapore provides a unique solution – a dual court system whereby a common law system co-exists with a Syariah law system that administers Syariah law for the Muslim population. In this respect, Singapore seems to provide a feasible example of legal pluralism to countries grappling with a burgeoning Muslim population. However, problems have arisen regarding this peaceful coexistence of secular and religious laws that seek to balance the rights of women and religious freedom. Singapore’s interpretation of Syariah law in the context of marriage and divorce has resulted in certain inequalities for Muslim women, which are exemplified in light of the Women’s Charter, a landmark piece of legislation which provides the legal basis for equity between husband and wife, but excludes Muslims from its ambit. The success of Singapore’s dual court system has largely been at the expense of Muslim women’s rights, and, as a result, the Muslim community as a whole has begun trailing behind the progressive society it forms a part of. This paper explores the prevailing unfairness of rules governing Muslim marriage and divorce in Singapore, and puts forth bold reforms.

Keywords: legal pluralism, Singapore, Syariah law, women’s rights

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44 Men's Relationships in D. H. Lawrence's 'Sons and Lovers'

Authors: Chaich Hamza Walid

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The primary goal of this paper is to question the situation of men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. Our question is what is the role of each man in the novel? And how a mother’s possessiveness had changed the life of all men in the family? David Herbert Lawrence was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century. He wrote many great works, one of his most popular novels, Sons and Loves, is an autobiographical account of his youth. This novel is about the life of the Morels. The author develops the story by portraying the relationships between many characters, especially the male ones we focus on. ‘Sons and Lovers’ seems to be written especially to women, all what Lawrence wrote is about women but when we go deeper, we see that Lawrence was also interested in men. This work will approach the question in two ways. The first chapter will deal with men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, more exactly with Paul and his father Walter Morel, and with Baxter Dawes. We will focus on each man’s behavior with one another. In the second chapter, we will analyze possessiveness, that is to say, the desire of holding or having someone as one’s own or under one’s control. We will try to prove this view from the spiritual and symbolic possession of different relationships. Our study will be through an intensive psychological analysis of a wife’s possessiveness to her husband, and a mother’s possessiveness to her son’s; William and Paul. The conclusion will review all the important aspects of this analysis. It is very important to know about men’s relationships in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers this will give us another vision of the novel, and where we can situate Paul’s true relationships, that is to say, his relationships with his father and the other men in the novel.

Keywords: language, literature, English, civilisation

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43 Challenges of Women Leadership in a Patriarchy Society: Implications for Development of African Women

Authors: Catherine Oluyemo

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In Africa, patriarchy has manifested itself in the socio-cultural, political, economic and legal institutions. The decree of the father as the male head of the family has contributed to the powerlessness of women in African nations. To buttress this perception, in his work Meno, Plato made a declaration in the platonic dialogue that the desirable quality of a man should be the capacity to administer the state, and in the administration of it to benefit his friends and harm his enemies; and he must also be careful not to suffer harm himself. Furthermore, he said: a woman's good worth may also be easily described as ordering her house, keep what is indoors, and obey her husband. The works of Aristotle portrayed women as morally, intellectually, and physically inferior to men; they saw women as the property of men; claimed that women's role in society was to reproduce and serve men in the household; and saw male domination of women as natural and virtuous. This has been sustained for ages and is incessantly impinging on the involvement of women in African leadership positions. The purpose of this paper is to make sense of the concept of patriarchy in relations to women participation in Africa leadership, and its challenges in the participation of women in the leadership positions of Africa. It seeks to discover what women should do to make their voices heard, to participate in leadership arrangements so as to actualize their potentials in contributing to the development of Africa.

Keywords: women, leadership, patriarchy, development, actualize, potentials

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42 Motivating Factors of Couple Involvement in Copreneurship Businesses in Malaysia

Authors: Norasmah Othman, Suzana Mohamed, Salpiah Suradi

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Copreneurship is a term used to describe the business pattern of operations run by married couples who share commitment, goals, and responsibilities in handling a business. Research conducted overseas showed that copreneurship business activities grew quickly and played a role in elevating families’ and nations’ socio-economic standards. In Malaysia, copreneurship has long been cultivated by spouses. Thus, this study aimed to explore the factors that motivate married partners to start a copreneurship business, and who is the dominant partner in the management of this business. The study participants are four entrepreneurial couples who are SME business operators selected through purposive sampling. In-depth interviews and direct observation were used as methods of measurement for triangulation of qualitative data in this study. The findings of the interviews were administered using NVivo 8.0 software. The result shows that freedom is a key factor that drives entrepreneurs to set up copreneurship businesses, and that the husband dominates the management aspects of the business. The study gives an overview of the parties involved in entrepreneurship to provide understanding of the copreneurship concept as it is practiced. This study provides academic value by creating understanding of the importance of a harmonious family institution specifically for forming entrepreneurs in the familial environment in Malaysia.

Keywords: copreneurs, copreneurship, business management, enterprise

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41 Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski

Authors: Rajani Bogati, Gopini Pathak

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Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.

Keywords: arranged marriage, women, family class, domestic violence

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