Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: breastfeeding

51 Factors Related to the Success of Exclusive Breastfeeding: A Cross Sectional Study among Mothers in Cirebon City, Indonesia

Authors: Witri Pratiwi, Shopa Nur Fauzah, Dini Norviatin


WHO recommends breastfeeding exclusively for infants aged 0 to 6 months because breast milk is the best nutrition. There are several factors associated with the success of exclusive breastfeeding. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the success of exclusive breastfeeding. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 6 community health centers in Cirebon City, Indonesia. Primary data were obtained from a validated questionnaire given to mothers who have children aged 6 to 24 months. A total of 326 mothers participated in this study. Two hundred and eighteen (66.9%) mothers gave exclusive breastfeeding to their babies, and 108 (33.1%) did not give exclusive breastfeeding. The baby gender (p=0.240), birth weight (p=0.436), and place of birth (0.137) were not related to exclusive breastfeeding. Mode of delivery (p=0.029) and early initiation of breastfeeding (p=0.001) were significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Infants with early initiation of breastfeeding are three times more likely to get exclusive breastfeeding compared to those who do not get breastfeeding early (p=0.001; OR=3.696 [95% CI 1.764 – 7.746]). Early initiation of breastfeeding is the most important factor in determining the success of exclusive breastfeeding. Promotion and education on the importance of early breastfeeding initiation to prospective mothers, families, and health workers are expected to be improved.

Keywords: early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, mode of delivery, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
50 Socio-Economic Inequality in Breastfeeding Patterns in India

Authors: Ankita Shukla


The promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority with benefits for maternal and infant health, especially in low income and middle-income countries where the probability of child survival is still very low. In India too it has been well established that breastfeeding increases the survival of the child. However, the breastfeeding levels are quite low in the country. Examining the socio-economic inequality in breastfeeding pattern can help to the causal pathways responsible for early breastfeeding termination. This paper tries to understand the socio-economic differential in breastfeeding patterns among Indian women. Data is used from nationally representative National Family Health Survey-3. Using Cox regression modelling techniques, the analysis found that the likelihood of having small breastfeeding duration increased with increasing household wealth status similarly education also has negative effect on breastfeeding duration. The considerable gender difference is also visible in India, likelihood of stopping breastfeeding was significantly higher among female children compared with male children. To understand the cultural factors or norms responsible for the early termination of breastfeeding more in depth/qualitative studies are needed.

Keywords: breastfeeding, India, socio-economic inequality, women education

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49 The Effect of Skin to Skin Contact Immediately to Maternal Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy after Cesarean Section

Authors: D. Triana, I. N. Rachmawati, L. Sabri


Maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy is positively associated with increased duration of breastfeeding in different cultures and age groups. This study aims to determine the effect of skin-to-skin contact immediately after the cesarean section on maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy. The research design is Posttest quasi-experimental research design only with control groups involving 52 women with consecutive sampling in Langsa-Aceh. The data collected through breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form. The results of Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean values of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy in the intervention group and the control group (59.00 ± 6.54; 49.62 ± 7.78; p= 0.001). Skin to skin contact is proven to affect the maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy after cesarean section significantly.

Keywords: breastfeeding self-efficacy, cesarean section, skin to skin contact, immediately

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48 Determinants of Breastfeeding in Thailand

Authors: Patarapan Odton


This study investigates demographic and socio-economic factors of breastfeeding practice, including exclusively breastfeeding among children in Thailand using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3 and MICS4). Logistic regression models were used to examine the determinants of initial breastfeeding, exclusively breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding, using data from women and children section of the survey. For initial breastfeeding, women live in rural area were more likely to start breastfeeding within one day of birth rather than who live in urban area in both round of the surveys. In year 2012, there were significantly higher probabilities of women in rural area started breastfeeding within one hour of birth compare to urban area. Women in southern Thailand have higher probabilities of start breastfeeding within one hour and one day than women in Bangkok and central region. During the year 2005-2006, children aged less than 5 years old lived in rural area have been breastfed higher than children in urban area. Children live in the northeast region were more likely to have been breastfed than the other regions. Only the second wealth quintile group was significant higher probability of ever been breastfed than the poorest group. The findings in the second round of the survey are different from the year 2005-06. In 2012, there was no difference in probability of ever been breastfed among children live in urban and rural area, children in Bangkok and central region were less probability of ever been breastfed than the others.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, Exclusive Breastfeeding, Predominant Breastfeeding, Urban-Rural Difference

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47 Breastfeeding Experiences of Nutritionist who are Mothers in Quito- Ecuador

Authors: Maria Jose Mendoza Gordillo


Introduction: Research regarding breastfeeding is devoted to how essential breastfeeding is to guarantee wellbeing for the mother and the baby from a medical standpoint relegating the cultural, material and social barriers for breastfeeding. Consequently, worldwide breastfeeding rates are low, and Ecuador is not the exception, especially among working mothers. Worldwide, health care providers have low rates of breastfeeding due to several barriers to lactation, such as the work schedule, a lack of private places for pumping while at work, and negative emotions. Goals and Methods: This study aimed to explore how do Ecuadorian women embrace their identities as nutritionists and mothers within their breastfeeding experience. The primary data come from 20 synchronous semi-structured interviews, which follow a topic guide. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data analysis followed the Phronetic Iterative Approach. Results: Women shifted the preconceived idea of the ideal breastfeeding that came from the medicalized discourse of breastfeeding, and that was constructed in their training as nutritionists. Although these women believe that breast milk and breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby, the internalized ideal of breastfeeding shifted through the experience of motherhood. When these women developed their identity as mothers, they understood that the ideal breastfeeding is different from the medicalized discourse. Although they have that clash between the ideal and the external reality, they continued breastfeeding their babies and those experiences made them improve their professional practice. Conclusions: The narratives that women shared illustrate how complex it was to manage the different roles and identities that they wanted to fulfill to keep their identity of a good mother who breastfeeds her baby and, at the same time, a good healthcare provider identity. The process of breastfeeding for this group of women who are mothers and healthcare professionals appears to be a unique relational and identity negotiation process.

Keywords: breastfeeding, identity, nutritionist, qualitative

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46 Factors Adversely Associated with Breastfeeding among Obese Mothers in Malaysia

Authors: Syahrul Bariah Abdul Hamid, Colin W. Binns, Jun Hui Chih


The total of obese mothers is growing throughout Asia. Breastfeeding provides the perfect nutrition for infants, by promoting a higher IQ and protecting against childhood and adult diseases. A prospective cohort study was carried out of mothers attending eight antenatal clinics run by the Ministry of Health in Selangor, Malaysia to document the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with breastfeeding outcomes. Mothers were enrolled during the antenatal period and followed up until 6 months postpartum to document breastfeeding outcomes. A total of 652 Malay mothers were recruited for the study a response rate of 93.1 %. The pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) of the mothers showed that 36.5% of the mothers were overweight or obese. There were a total of 78 obese mothers in the sample and 41 (52.6%) of these mothers were able to initiate breastfeeding within one hour of birth compared to 238/337 (70.6 %, χ² 9.35, p<0.001) of those with a normal BMI. At 6 months, 23.1 % of obese mothers were exclusively breastfeeding their infants, compared to 56.0 % of the normal BMI mothers. On the other hand, the rate of infant formula feeding was higher in the obese mothers by 53.8 % compared to 19.0 % among normal weight mothers, χ² 37.6, p<0.001). Further analysis suggested these factors were found to be positively associated with discontinued exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months among obese mothers; mothers whom delayed breastfeeding initiation, had health problems during pregnancy, caesarean delivery, reported had insufficient colostrum/milk and babies had sucking problems at or before 4 weeks. Besides that, mothers who perceived their biological mothers had preference towards formula feeding or were ambivalent about the feeding method and had biological mothers without experience in breastfeeding for more than 1 month also were more likely to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months. These findings suggested that the greater the pre-pregnant BMI, the earlier the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and they were also less likely to initiate breastfeeding and have less adequate milk supply. Future investigations of the effects of maternal obesity on breastfeeding outcomes should be conducted along with effective interventions to advance the care of obese women at reproductive age and their children.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, body mass index (BMI), breastfeeding discontinuation, maternal obesity

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45 Fathers' Knowledge and Attitude towards Breastfeeding: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Jacqueline R. Llamas, Agnes Regal


Objective: To determine the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of fathers seen at the University of Santo Tomas Hospital. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: University of Santo Tomas Hospital (USTH). Participants: 156 fathers who were accompanying their wives/children at the USTH. Findings: Outcome of the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale showed fathers to be generally unbiased whether their child be fed breast milk or milk formula. About 85% agreed that breast milk is the ideal food for babies, 79% believed that breastfed babies are healthier than formula fed and 55% of them do not believe that breast milk lacks iron. About 80% agreed that it is easily digested, 87% are aware of the economical value and 57% agreed of its convenience. Breastfeeding support was noted when 55% of the fathers would encourage mothers to breastfeed so as not to miss the joys of motherhood, 91% believed that breastfeeding increased mother-infant bonding. About 57% do not feel left out whenever the mothers breastfeed. However, 46.6% support the decision of their wives to switch to formula feeding once they go back to work, 42% only find breastfeeding in public to be acceptable and 57% will not allow breast feeding to mothers who drink alcohol. Conclusion: In the study, although fathers’ attitude toward breastfeeding is unbiased towards breastfeeding or formula feeding, the majority of the fathers appreciate breastfeeding and its benefits. Also, how the father’s level of education, age, profession, household income and number of children had an effect on their attitude towards breastfeeding.

Keywords: father, breastfeeding, breast milk, knowledge

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44 Effectiveness of Educational and Supportive Interventions for Primiparous Women on Breastfeeding Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Mei Sze Wong, Huanyu Mou, Wai-Tong Chien


Background: Breastmilk is the most nutritious food for infants to support their growth and protect them from infection. Therefore, breastfeeding promotion is an important topic for infant health; whereas, different educational and supportive approaches to interventions have been prompted and targeted at antenatal, postnatal, or both periods to promote and sustain exclusive breastfeeding. This systematic review aimed to identify the effective approaches of educational and supportive interventions to improve breastfeeding. Outcome measures were exclusive breastfeeding, partial breastfeeding, and breastfeeding self-efficacy, being analyzed in terms of ≤ 2 months, 3-5 months, and ≥ 6 months postpartum. Method: Eleven electronic databases and the reference lists of eligible articles were searched. English or Chinese articles of randomized controlled trials on educational and supportive intervention with the above breastfeeding outcomes over recent 20 years were searched. Quality appraisal and risk of bias of the studies were checked by Effective Public Health Practice Project tool and Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, respectively. Results: 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included; and they had acceptable quality and risk of bias. The optimal structure, format, and delivery of the interventions significantly increased exclusive breastfeeding rate at ≤ 2 months and ≥ 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy at ≤ 2 months included: (a) delivering from antenatal to postnatal period, (b) multicomponent involving antenatal group education, postnatal individual breastfeeding coaching and telephone follow-ups, (c) both individual and group basis, (d) being guided by self-efficacy theory, and (e) having ≥ 3 sessions. Conclusion: The findings showed multicomponent theory-based interventions with ≥ 3 sessions that delivered across antenatal and postnatal period; using both face-to-face teaching and telephone follow-ups can be useful to enhance exclusive breastfeeding rate for more than 6 months and breastfeeding self-efficacy over the first two months of postpartum.

Keywords: breastfeeding self-efficacy, education, exclusive breastfeeding, primiparous, support

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43 Effect of Co-Parenting Support on Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding in a Developing Nation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

Authors: Phomid Techi, L. N. Padmasini, Mohan Mathew


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of co-parent support on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding by a randomized control trial. Introduction: The current rates of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months in India is 46% (NFHS3 2008.). The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of co-parenting support on duration of exclusive breastfeeding in primi mothers. Design: RCT: Willing parents of healthy TAGA babies born in our hospital were explained about the study purpose and randomly assigned to either trial or control group. The control group was given the usual care. The intervention group received usual care and in addition the trial intervention. Follow-up data was collected at the end of 6 mon. Intervention: Face to face 30-minute discussion in post partum unit on breast feeding benefits, techniques, and problem-solving information followed up by phone calls to mother every 4 weeks to answer questions/concerns. Outcome measures: Duration of exclusive breastfeeding Baseline demographic variables were measured. Results: After obtaining IEC approval a total of 100 couples were recruited, 100 is each group. In the intervention group, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 97.2% while in the control group it was 64% (p-value 0.00). Conclusion: Co-parenting support has an important role in promoting exclusive breastfeeding.

Keywords: co-parenting, exclusive breastfeeding, developing nation, randomised control trial

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42 Breastfeeding in Childhood Asthma: A Boon or a Bane

Authors: Harish Peri, Amit Devgan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding on asthma and lung function in childhood asthma. A case-control study comprising 80 cases (children with asthma) and 80 controls(children without asthma) in the age group 6-12 years were included. A diagnosis was made by the treating pediatrician. A parental questionnaire was given and data regarding the name, age, sex of the child, duration of asthma, whether breastfed or not, duration, exclusiveness of breastfeeding and maternal asthmatic status were collected. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate was measured for every child using a Peak Expiratory Flow Meter. Results showed Exclusively Breastfed children were found to better protected against asthma and have improved lung function as compared to Non-exclusively Breastfeed children, irrespective of the mother’s asthmatic status. This study demonstrated that exclusive breastfeeding has a protective action against childhood asthma.

Keywords: asthmatic mothers, childhood asthma, exclusive breastfeeding, non-asthmatic mothers

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41 Evaluation of Video Development about Exclusive Breastfeeding as a Nutrition Education Media for Posyandu Cadre

Authors: Ari Istiany, Guspri Devi Artanti, M. Si


Based on the results Riskesdas, it is known that breastfeeding awareness about the importance of exclusive breastfeeding is still low at only 15.3 %. These conditions resulted in a very infant at risk for infectious diseases, such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. Therefore, the aim of this study to evaluate the video development about exclusive breastfeeding as a nutrition education media for posyandu cadre. This research used development methods for making the video about exclusive breastfeeding. The study was conducted in urban areas Rawamangun, East Jakarta. Respondents of this study were 1 media experts from the Department of Educational Technology - UNJ, 2 subject matter experts from Department of Home Economics - UNJ and 20 posyandu cadres to assess the quality of the video. Aspects assessed include the legibility of text, image display quality, color composition, clarity of sound, music appropriateness, duration, suitability of the material and language. Data were analyzed descriptively likes frequency distribution table, the average value, and deviation standard. The result of this study showed that the average score assessment according to media experts, subject matter experts, and posyandu cadres respectively was 3.43 ± 0.51 (good), 4.37 ± 0.52 (very good) and 3.6 ± 0.73 (good). The conclusion is on exclusive breastfeeding video as feasible as a media for nutrition education. While suggestions for the improvement of visual media is multiply illustrations, add material about the correct way of breastfeeding and healthy baby pictures.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, posyandu cadre, video, nutrition education

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40 The Effect of Early Skin-To-Skin Contact with Fathers on Their Supporting Breastfeeding

Authors: Shu-Ling Wang


Background: Multiple studies showed early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) with mothers was beneficial to newborns such as breastfeeding and maternal childcare. In cases of newborns unable to have early SSC with mothers, fathers’ involvement could let early SSC continue without interruption. However, few studies had explored the effects of early SSC by fathers in comparison to early SSC with mothers. Paternal involvement of early SSC should be equally important in term of childcare and breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of early SSC by fathers in particular in their support of breastfeeding. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was employed by the study. One hundred and forty-four father-infant pairs had participated the study, in which infants were assigned either to SSC with their fathers (n = 72) or to routine care (n = 72) as the control group. The study was conducted at a regional hospital in northern Taiwan. Participants included parents of both vaginal delivery (VD) and caesarean section birth (CS) infants. To be eligible for inclusion, infants must be over 37-week gestational ages. Data were collected twice: as pretest upon admission and as posttest with online questionnaire during first, second, and third postpartum months. The questionnaire included items for Breastfeeding Social Support, methods of feeding, and the mother-infant 24-hour rooming-in rate. The efficacy of early SSC with fathers was evaluated using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling. Research Result: The primary finding was that SSC with fathers had positive impact on fathers’ support of breastfeeding. Analysis of the online questionnaire indicated that early SSC with fathers improved the support of breastfeeding than the control group (VD: t = -4.98, p < .001; CS: t = -2.37, p = .02). Analysis of mother-infant 24-hour rooming-in rate showed that SSC with fathers after CS had a positive impact on the rooming-in rate (χ² = 5.79, p = .02); however, with VD the difference between early SSC with fathers and the control group was insignificant (χ² = .23, p = .63). Analysis of the rate of exclusive breastfeeding indicated that early SSC with fathers had a higher rate than the control group during first three postpartum months for both delivery methods (VD: χ² = 12.51, p < .001 on 1st postpartum month, χ² = 8.13, p < .05 on 2nd postpartum month, χ² = 4.43, p < .05 on 3rd postpartum month; CS: χ² = 6.92, p < .05 on 1st postpartum month, χ² = 7.41, p < .05 on 2nd postpartum month, χ² = 6.24, p < .05 on 3rd postpartum month). No significant difference was found on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding with both methods of delivery between two groups during hospitalization. (VD: χ² =2 .00, p = .16; CS: χ² = .73, p = .39). Conclusion: Implementing early SSC with fathers has many benefits to both parents. The result of this study showed increasing fathers’ support of breastfeeding. This encourages our nursing personnel to focus the needs of father during breastfeeding, therefore further enhancing the quality of parental care, the rate and duration of breastfeeding.

Keywords: breastfeeding, skin-to-skin contact, support of breastfeeding, rooming-in

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39 Debate between Breast Milk and Formula Milk in Nutritional Value

Authors: Nora Alkharji, Wafa Fallatah


Introduction: One of the major issues to consider when is deciding on what to feed a baby is the quality of the food itself. Whilst commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients, most major medical organizations consider breastfeeding the best nutritional option for babies. Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is one of the first decisions expectant parents will make. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is in agreement with other organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Dietetic Association (ADA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) in recommending breastfeeding as the best nutrition for babies and best suited for a baby's digestive system. In addition, breastfeeding helps in the combatting of infections, prevention of allergies, and protection against various chronic conditions. The decision to breastfeed or formula feed one’s baby is a very personal one. However, certain points need to be clarified regarding the nutritional value of breastfeeding versus formula feeding to allow for informed decision-making. Methodology: -A formal debate about whether to breastfeed or formula feed babies as the better choice. -There will be two debaters, both lactation consultants -Arguments will be based on evidence-based medicine -Duration period of debated: 45 min Result: Clarification and heightened awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding. Conclusion: This debate will make the choice between breastfeeding or formula feeding a relatively easy one to make by both health worker and parents.

Keywords: breastmilk, formula milk, nutritional, comparison

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38 A Qualitative Exploration of the Socio-Cultural Determinants of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice among Rural Mothers in Bindawa and Baure Local Government Areas, Katsina, North West Nigeria

Authors: Friday I. Joseph


Background: Nigeria has an under-five mortality rate that is 128 per 1000 live birth which is higher than the rate for the African region. Optimal breastfeeding practice has the potential to reduce under-five mortality by 13% in developing countries. However, documented exclusive breastfeeding rate in Nigeria from birth to six months is just 17%. Aim: To explore perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding for six months among rural mothers in Bindawa and Baure Local Government Area (LGA), Katsina state, North West Nigeria, to inform policies, intervention or strategies to improve exclusive breastfeeding practice in Nigeria. Methods: The social constructionism-interpretivist epistemological approach informed the use of an exploratory study to understand mothers’ experiences and views. Twenty mothers, all from rural areas between 19-35 years old were conveniently sampled from two LGA in Katsina state, north –west Nigeria for semi-structured interviews. Sample size had representation of both Hausa and Fulani ethnic group. Thematic content analysis was utilized for analysis. Results: Three major themes emerged from the study: (1) Breastfeeding initiation - Immediate traditional newborn care practices, birth attendant, place of delivery, the perception of about colostrum determines how soon a mother initiate breastfeeding. (2) Exclusive breastfeeding and introduction of food-Motivation to sustain exclusive breastfeeding relies on the interplay between the obligation to perform traditional rites; mother’s awareness and family support. (3) Decision making about infant feeding – It is not independent of the influence of key social figures like the father, mother-in-law, traditional birth attendant and the health workers. Overall, in spite of awareness of exclusive breastfeeding benefits, mothers expressed concerns that they may not win their family support if they shared contrary views. Conclusions: Health promotion intervention should be tailored, taking cognizant and addressing the sociocultural barriers to the practice of optimal breastfeeding by a focused community and family-based participatory approach. Implementers of interventions should employ culture-sensitive approaches in community-based intervention.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, perception, qualitative, sociocultural determinants

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37 Early Initiation of Breastfeeding and Its Determinants among Non-Caesarean Deliveries at Primary and Secondary Health Facilities: A Case Observational Study

Authors: Farhana Karim, Abdullah N. S. Khan, Mohiuddin A. K. Chowdhury, Nabila Zaka, Alexander Manu, Shams El Arifeen, Sk Masum Billah


Breastfeeding, an integral part of newborn care, can reduce 55-87% of all-cause neonatal mortality and morbidity. Early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth can avert 22% of newborn mortality. Only 45% of world’s newborns and 42% of newborns in South-Asia are put to the breast within one hour of birth. In Bangladesh, only a half of the mothers practice early initiation of breastfeeding which is less likely to be practiced if the baby is born in a health facility. This study aims to generate strong evidence for early initiation of breastfeeding practices in the government health facilities and to explore the associated factors influencing the practice. The study was conducted in selected health facilities in three neighbouring districts of Northern Bangladesh. Total 249 normal vaginal delivery cases were observed for 24 hours since the time of birth. The outcome variable was initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour while the explanatory variables included type of health facility, privacy, presence of support person, stage of labour at admission, need for augmentation of labour, complications during delivery, need for episiotomy, spontaneous cry of the newborn, skin-to-skin contact with mother, post-natal contact with the service provider, receiving a post-natal examination and counselling on breastfeeding during postnatal contact. The simple descriptive statistics were employed to see the distribution of samples according to socio-demographic characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis test was carried out for testing the equality of medians among two or more categories of each variable and P-value is reported. A series of simple logistic regressions were conducted with all the potential explanatory variables to identify the determining factors for breastfeeding within 1 hour in a health facility. Finally, multiple logistic regression was conducted including the variables found significant at bi-variate analyses. Almost 90% participants initiated breastfeeding at the health facility and median time to initiate breastfeeding was 38 minutes. However, delivering in a sub-district hospital significantly delayed the breastfeeding initiation in comparison to delivering in a district hospital. Maintenance of adequate privacy and presence of separate staff for taking care of newborn significantly reduced the time in early breastfeeding initiation. Initiation time was found longer if the mother had an augmented labour, obstetric complications, and the newborn needed resuscitation. However, the initiation time was significantly early if the baby was put skin-to-skin on mother’s abdomen and received a postnatal examination by a provider. After controlling for the potential confounders, the odds of initiating breastfeeding within one hour of birth is higher if mother gives birth in a district hospital (AOR 3.0: 95% CI 1.5, 6.2), privacy is well-maintained (AOR 2.3: 95% CI 1.1, 4.5), babies cry spontaneously (AOR 7.7: 95% CI 3.3, 17.8), babies are put to skin-to-skin contact with mother (AOR 4.6: 95% CI 1.9, 11.2) and if the baby is examined by a provider in the facility (AOR 4.4: 95% CI 1.4, 14.2). The evidence generated by this study will hopefully direct the policymakers to identify and prioritize the scopes for creating and supporting early initiation of breastfeeding in the health facilities.

Keywords: Bangladesh, early initiation of breastfeeding, health facility, normal vaginal delivery, skin to skin contact

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36 Exclusive Breastfeeding Abandonment among Adolescent Mothers: A Cohort Study

Authors: Maria I. Nuñez-Hernández, Maria L. Riesco


Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) up to 6 months old infant have been considered one of the most important factors in the overall development of children. Nevertheless, as resources are scarce, it is essential to identify the most vulnerable groups that have major risk of EBF abandonment, in order to deliver the best strategies. Children of adolescent mothers are within these groups. Aims: To determine the EBF abandonment rate among adolescent mothers and to analyze the associated factors. Methods: Prospective cohort study of adolescent mothers in the southern area of Santiago, Chile, conducted in primary care services of public health system. The cohort was established from 2014 to 2015, with a sample of 105 adolescent mothers and their children at 2 months of life. The inclusion criteria were: adolescent mother from 14 to 19 years old; not twin babies; mother and baby leaving the hospital together after birthchild; correct attachment of the baby to the breast; no difficulty understanding the Spanish language or communicating. Follow-up was performed at 4 and 6 months old infant. Data were collected by interviews, considering EBF as breastfeeding only, without adding other milk, tea, juice, water or other product that not breast milk, except drugs. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, by Kaplan-Meier estimator and Log-Rank test, admitting the probability of occurrence of type I error of 5% (p-value = 0.05). Results: The cumulative EBF abandonment rate at 2, 4 and 6 months was 33.3%, 52.2% and 63.8%, respectively. Factors associated with EBF abandonment were maternal perception of the quality of milk as poor (p < 0.001), maternal perception that the child was not satisfied after breastfeeding (p < 0.001), use of pacifier (p < 0.001), maternal consumption of illicit drugs after delivery (p < 0.001), mother return to school (p = 0.040) and presence of nipple trauma (p = 0.045). Conclusion: EBF abandonment rate was higher in the first 4 months of life and is superior to the population of women who breastfeed. Among the EBF abandonment factors, one of them is related to the adolescent condition, and two are related to the maternal subjective perception.

Keywords: adolescent, breastfeeding, midwifery, nursing

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35 Infant and Young Child-Feeding Practices in Mongolia

Authors: Otgonjargal Damdinbaljir


Background: Infant feeding practices have a major role in determining the nutritional status of children and are associated with household socioeconomic and demographic factors. In 2010, Mongolia used WHO 2008 edition of Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices for the first time. Objective: To evaluate the feeding status of infants and young children under 2 years old in Mongolia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by cluster random sampling. The data on breastfeeding and complementary food supplement of the 350 infants and young children aged 0-23 months in 21 provinces of the 4 economic regions of the country and capital Ulaanbaatar city were collected through questionnaires. The feeding status was analyzed according to the WHO 2008 edition of Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Analysis of data: Survey data was analysed using the PASW statistics 18.0 and EPI INFO 2000 software. For calculation of overall measures for the entire survey sample, analyses were stratified by region. Age-specific feeding patterns were described using frequencies, proportions and survival analysis. Logistic regression was done with feeding practice as dependent and socio demographic factors as independent variables. Simple proportions were calculated for each IYCF indicator. The differences in the feeding practices between sexes and age-groups, if any, were noted using chi-square test. Ethics: The Ethics Committee under the auspices of the Ministry of Health approved the study. Results: A total of 350 children aged 0-23 months were investigated. The rate of ever breastfeeding of children aged 0-23 months reached up to 98.2%, while the percentage of early initiation of breastfeeding was only 85.5%. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months, continued breastfeeding for 1 year, and continued breastfeeding for 2 years were 71.3%, 74% and 54.6%, respectively. The median time of giving complementary food was the 6th month and the weaning time was the 9th month. The rate of complementary food supplemented from 6th-8th month in time was 80.3%. The rates of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods among children aged 6-23 months were 52.1%, 80.8% (663/813) and 30.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The main problems revealed from the study were inadequate category and frequency of complementary food, and the low rate of consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods were the main issues to be concerned on infant feeding in Mongolia. Our findings have highlighted the need to encourage mothers to enrich their traditional wheat- based complementary foods add more animal source foods and vegetables.

Keywords: complementary feeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, minimum meal frequency

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34 Drivers and Barriers to the Acceptability of a Human Milk Bank Among Malaysians: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Kalaashini Ramachandran, Maznah Dahlui, Nik Daliana Nik Farid


WHO recommends all babies to be exclusively breastfed and donor milk is the next best alternative in the absence of mother’s own milk. The establishment of a human milk bank (HMB) is still being debated due to religious concerns in Malaysia leading to informal milk sharing practices, but little is known on the knowledge, attitude and perception of women towards HMB and its benefits. This study hypothesizes that there is no association between knowledge and attitude and the acceptance towards the establishment of human milk bank among Malaysian women and healthcare providers. The aim of this study is to determine the drivers and barriers among Malaysian towards the acceptance of an HMB. A cross-sectional study with 367 participants was enrolled within a period of 3 months to answer an online self-administered questionnaire. Data on sociodemographic, knowledge on breastfeeding benefits, knowledge and attitude on HMB and its specific issues were analyzed in terms of frequency and then proceed to multiple logistic regression. Majority of the respondents are of Islamis religion (73.3%), have succeesfully completed their tertiary education (82.8%), and are employed (70.8%). Only 55.9% of respondents have heard of an HMB stating internet as their main source of information but a higher prevalence is agreeable to the establishment of a human milk bank (67.8%). Most respondents have a good score on knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and on HMB specific issues (70% and 54.2% respectively) while 63.8% of them have a positive attitude towards HMB. In the multivariate analysis, mothers with a good score on general knowledge of breastfeeding (AOR: 1.715) were more likely to accept the establishment of an HMB while Islamic religion was negatively associated with its establishment (AOR:0.113). This study has found a high prevalence rate of mothers who are willing to accept the establishment of an HMB. This action can be potentially shaped by educating mothers on the benefits of breastfeeding as well as addressing their religious concerns so the establishment of a religiously abiding HMB in Malaysia may be accepted without compromising their belief or the health benefit of donor milk.

Keywords: acceptability, attitude, human milk bank, knowledge

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33 Chocomerr (Merr Leaves Chocolate) Alternative Food in Increasing Breastmilk Quantity

Authors: Rara Wulan Anggareni, Narita Putri, Riski Septianing Astuti


Breastfeeding is a key to prevent mortality and morbidity in children. It is also the second highest risk responsible for Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) among children below five years old. UNICEF estimates that during 1995 – 2003, there are only about 38% infants in developing countries who get to be exclusively breastfed during the first six months of their lives. According to Demography and Health Survey in Indonesia 2007, breastfeed practice rate still considered as low which is about 41%. One of the factors causing the low breastfeed practice rate in Indonesia is the anxiety and postpartum depression, and also the weanling dilemma in which mother feels that her breastmilk cannot suffice infant needs. Those factors finally resulting into low or even stopped production of breastmilk. Breastmilk production can be enhanced by consuming food containing phytosterol and lactogoga effect. Food with the highest phytosterol level is Sauropus androgynus (L.) Merr leaf (merr leaf). In this study, we made alternative food which named Chocomerr for breastfeeding mothers. Chocomerr consists of merr leaves which have lactogoga effect and chocolate for relaxation. Based on organoleptic tests conducted towards 2 age groups, which are 18 – 21 and 25 – 40 years old, this product gets good acceptance in taste, texture, and colour categories. Chocomerr can be used as an alternative way for increasing breastmilk production to aim for the decreasing number of DALYs among children aged under 5 years old.

Keywords: breastfeeding, increasing, chocolate, merr leaves

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32 Concentration of Zinc Micronutrients in Breast Milk Based on Determinant of Mother and Baby in Kassi-Kassi Health Center

Authors: Andi Tenri Ayu Rahman, Citrakesumasari, Devintha Virani


Breast milk is the complex biological fluid mix of macronutrient and micronutrient that are considered as perfect food for babies. Zinc has a role in various biological functions and physical growth. This research aims to know the average zinc (Zn) micronutrients content of breast milk by determinants of infant (birth weight) and mother (nutritional status and food intake) and description of the pattern of mothers breastfeeding. The type of research used is observational analytic with cross-sectional study design. The population was 41 mothers in Kassi-Kassi health center within one month. Sample research is mothers who gave birth at term and breastfed her baby. Sampling was done with random sampling technique involving 37 people. Samples of breast milk were analyzed in the laboratory by using the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrofotometry (AAS). This research find that from the samples (n=37) the average contents of zinc in the breast milk is 0,88±0,54 mg/L with the highest value on the group of low birth weight babies (1,13 ± 0,67mg/L), mothers who had normal nutritional status (0,981 ± 0,514 mg/L) and intake low zinc (0,94 ± 0,54 mg/L). Regarding breastfeeding pattern, 67,6% of the samples had had breastfeeding experience and 81,1% of breastfed more than eight times a day. In summary, the highest average value of the zinc content of breast milk was in the group of low birth weight babies, mother with normal nutritional status, and mothers having relatively low intake pattern.

Keywords: zinc, breastmilk, mother, baby

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31 An Online Questionnaire Investigating UK Mothers' Experiences of Bottle Refusal by Their Breastfed Baby

Authors: Clare Maxwell, Lorna Porcellato, Valerie Fleming, Kate Fleming


A review of global online forums and social media reveals large numbers of mothers experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. It is difficult to determine precise numbers due to a lack of data, however, established virtual communities illustrate thousands of posts in relation to the issue. Mothers report various negative consequences of bottle refusal including delaying their return to work, time and financial outlay spent on methods to overcome it and experiencing stress, anxiety, and resentment of breastfeeding. A search of the literature revealed no studies being identified, and due to a lack of epidemiological data, a study investigating mother’s experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby was undertaken. The aim of the study was to investigate UK mothers’ experiences of bottle refusal by their breastfed baby. Data were collected using an online questionnaire collecting quantitative and qualitative data. 841 UK mothers who had experienced or were experiencing bottle refusal by their breastfed baby completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric testing. The results showed 61% (516/840) of mothers reported their breastfed baby was still refusing/had never accepted a bottle, with 39% (324/840) reporting their baby had eventually accepted. The most frequently reported reason to introduce a bottle was so partner/family could feed the baby 59% (499/839). 75% (634/841) of mothers intended their baby to feed on a bottle ‘occasionally’. Babies who accepted a bottle were more likely to be older at 1st attempt to introduce one than those babies who refused (Mdn = 12 weeks v 8 weeks, n = 286) (p = <0.001). Length of time taken to acceptance was 9 weeks (Mdn = 9, IQR = 18, R = 103.9, n = 306) with the older the baby was at 1st attempt to introduce a bottle being associated with a shorter length of time to acceptance (p = < 0.002). 60% (500/841) of mothers stated that none of the methods they used had worked. 26% (222/841) of mothers reported bottle refusal had had a negative impact upon their overall breastfeeding experience. 47% (303/604) reported they would have tried to introduce a bottle earlier to prevent refusal. This study provides a unique insight into the scenario of bottle refusal by breastfed babies. It highlights that bottle refusal by breastfed babies is a significant issue, which requires recognition from those communicating breastfeeding information to mothers.

Keywords: bottle feeding, bottle refusal, breastfeeding, infant feeding

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30 Child Feeding Practices of Mothers (Childbearing) and Exploration of Their Household Food Insecurity in a Coastal Region of Bangladesh

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Mamun


Background: The current situation of Ensuring WHO recommended feeding practices for infant and young children which is becoming a challenge nowadays in many developing countries, especially in areas where household food security is at risk. Because many households of the developing countries often encounter severe food insecurity hence provision of adequate child nutrition is threatened. Aim: The study aimed to assess the child feeding practices of 0-24 months childbearing mothers and explore their household food insecurity in a coastal region of Bangladesh. Methods: This study was conducted in Suborno Char (one of the coastal suburbs in Noakhali District in Bangladesh) from October 2019 to April 2020. A total of 400 mothers were selected with their children of 0-24 months following a cross sectional study sampling procedure of the population. Data were collected through a standard questionnaire and analyzed using statistical tests in SPSS version 20.0.0. Results: The frequency of exclusive breastfeeding, timely initiation of complementary feeding, and giving foods from four food groups to the children were 53.5%, 75.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. Mother's level of education showed a strong association with the child feeding practices of the mothers. Mothers of severely food insecure households showed lower odds in exclusive breastfeeding practice (COR 0.233 at 95% CI 0.083, 0.655; and AOR 0.478 at 95% CI 0.133, 1.713) than mothers of food secured households. Similar results have also been found in case of timely initiation of complementary feeding and minimum dietary diversity of the children.

Keywords: household food insecurity, exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, maternal education, mothers age, household income

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29 Comparative Evaluation of Weaning Knowledge, Attitudes and Feeding Practices among Mothers in Benue and Zamfara States of Nigeria

Authors: Apityan Tume, Sefater Gbashi, Stephanie Dillon


The present study was aimed at investigating the weaning knowledge, attitudes and practices among mothers with infants in Benue and Zamfara States, Nigeria. A questionnaire consisting of both open and close-ended questions was adopted for this study. Socio-demographic information was captured with this questionnaire. This is in addition to capturing data linked to respondents' knowledge and attitude to weaning and the weaning practice itself. 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 329 was filled and returned. Results obtained from the study revealed that the mother's location; mother's level of education, her occupation, her age; and her level of education would have an effect on her practice of and attitude to weaning. Essentially, mothers based in Zamfara who were full-time housewives, tailor or trader were more likely to start weaning at a later age than mothers who have the same occupation but based in Benue. Furthermore, the results revealed mothers who were uneducated and based in Zamfara were more likely to wean their babies later than the uneducated mothers, mothers educated to primary, secondary or tertiary level based in Benue. It was also evident that mothers who were low-income earners and based in Zamfara were more likely to start weaning later than the low, average or high-income earning mothers in Benue. Moreover, younger mothers in Zamfara age 20-25 years were more likely to start weaning later than mothers of other age groups. In overall, mothers had a good understanding of best practices with regards to weaning. Notwithstanding, mothers could be further encouraged and educated about the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices as well as the benefits therein to enhance the healthy growth of the children.

Keywords: breastfeeding, complementary feeding, socio-demographic, weaning

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28 Feeding Practices and Malnutrition among under Five Children in Communities of Kuje Area Council, Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Clementina Ebere Okoro, Olumuyiwa Adeyemi Owolabi, Doris Bola James, Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo, Andrew Lingililani Mbewe, Christopher Osaruwanmwen Isokpunwu


Poor dietary practices and malnutrition, including severe acute malnutrition among under-five children in Nigeria has remained a great public health concern. This study assessed infant and young child feeding practices and nutritional status of under-five children to determine the prevalence of malnutrition of under-five children in Kuje area council, Abuja. The study was a cross-sectional study. Multi-stage sampling techniques was used in selecting the population that was studied. Probability proportion by size was applied in choosing 30 clusters for the survey using ENA for SMART software 2011 version. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from the population, while appropriate equipment was used for measurements of anthropometric parameters. The data was also subjected to statistical analysis. Results were presented in tables and figures. The result showed that 96.7% of the children were breastfed, 30.6% had early initiation to breastfeeding within first hour of birth and 22.4% were breastfed exclusively up to 6 months, 69.8% fed infants’ colostrum, while 30.2% discarded colostrum. About half of the respondents (49.1%) introduced complementary feeding before six months and 23.2% introduced it after six months while 27.7% had age appropriate timely introduction of complementary feeding. The anthropometric result showed that the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) was 12.8%, severe wasting prevalence was 5.4%, moderate wasting was 7.4%, underweight was 24.4%, stunting was 40.3% and overweight was 7.0%. The result showed that there is a high prevalence of malnutrition among under-five children in Kuje

Keywords: malnutrition, under five children, breastfeeding, complementary feeding

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27 Maternal Care Practices on Nutritional Status of Pre School Children in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebusoye Michael, Okunola Olayinka, Owolabi Abdulateef, Jacob Anayo


Introduction: Child undernutrition remains one of Africa’s most fundamental challenges for improved human development because the time and capacities of caregivers are limited; far too many children are unable to access effectively amenities they need for a healthy life. Methods and procedures: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the maternal care practices on nutritional status of pre-school children, 150 mothers were selected by systematic random sampling in Dass L.G.A., Bauchi-State, Nigeria. Information on relevant parameters were collected by questionaire, analysed by various indices of descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16.0.Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test for associations between the variables. Results: Thirty-five (23.3%) of the respondents were aged 21-25 years. Thirty-three (28.0%) had secondary education, while forty-nine (32.7%) were full housewives. Majority 79(52.7) earned NI,000- N10,000 monthly versus 10(6.7%) who earned N11,000- N20,000.113(75.3%) married while 7(4.7%) of respondents were separated. Sixty-one (40.7%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding within six months. Only seventy-one (47.3%) initiated breastfeeding between 7 and 13 months. Five (3.3%) of children were mildly underweight while nine (6.0%) were severely stunted. Conclusion: The outcome suggested that working time of mothers is a major determinant on their child nutritional status. However, there is a significant relationship on the working time of mothers, income level and educational level of mothers to the nutritional status of their children (P<0.05). Recommendation: Good policy programmes should aim at eradicating poverty, better child care practices that would reduce malnutrition among under-five children.

Keywords: maternal care, nutritional status, preschool children, Dass L.G.A.

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26 Infant and Young Child Dietary Diversification Using Locally Available Foods after Nutrition Education in Rural Malawi

Authors: G. C. Phiri, E. A. Heil, A. A. Kalimbira, E. Muehlhoff, C. Masangano, B. M. Mtimuni, J. Herrmann, M. B. Krawinkel, I. Jordan


Background and objectives: High prevalence of undernutrition in Malawi is caused by poor complementary foods. Lack of knowledge of age appropriate food within the household might affect utilization of available resources. FAO-Malawi implemented nutrition education (NE) sessions in 200 villages in Kasungu and Mzimba districts from December 2012 to April 2013 targeting 15 caregivers per village of children aged 6-18 months, grandmothers, spouses and community leaders. Two trained volunteers per village facilitated 10 NE sessions on breastfeeding, food safety and hygiene and complementary feeding using locally available resources. This study assessed the reported dietary diversification practices of infant and young child after nutrition education and the factors that influenced adoption of the practice. Methodology: Questionnaire-based interviews with caregivers were conducted in 16 randomly selected villages (n=108) before training-(t1) and seven months after training-(t2). Knowledge score (KS) was calculated on the indicators breastfeeding, hygiene and complementary feeding. Count regression was performed using SPSS 22. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were separately conducted among caregivers and grandmothers in 4 villages. Content analysis was used to analyze FGDs data. Results: Following NE, caregivers' KS significantly increased (p<0.001) between t1 and t2 for breastfeeding (7.7 vs. 9.8, max=18), hygiene (3.8 vs. 5.9, max=7) and complementary feeding (10.2 vs. 16.2, max=26). Caregivers indicated that they stopped preparation of plain-refined maize meal porridge after they gained knowledge on dietary diversification of complementary foods. They learnt mushing and pounding of ingredients for enriched porridge. Whole-maize meal or potatoes were often enriched with vegetables, legumes, small fish or eggs and cooking oil. Children liked the taste of enriched porridge. Amount of enriched porridge consumed at each sitting increase among previously fussy-eater children. Meal frequency increased by including fruits as snacks in child’s diet. Grandmothers observed preparation of enriched porridge among the mothers using locally available foods. Grandmothers liked the taste of enriched porridge and not the greenish color of the porridge. Both grandmothers and mothers reported that children were playing independently after consuming enriched porridge and were strong and healthy. These motivated adoption of the practice. Conclusion: Increased knowledge and skill of preparation and utilisation of locally available foods promoted children’s dietary diversification. Children liking the enriched porridge motivated adoption of dietary diversification.

Keywords: behaviour change, complementary feeding, dietary diversification, IYCN

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25 Infant Care Practice in Hadiya Culture: Case Study of Harche Auyaya

Authors: Dawit Thomas


Feeding and weaning practices vary from culture to culture and depend on different child-rearing values. The socio-cultural dimensions that influence the acceptable infant feeding practices are varied and complex. Understanding cultural differences in beliefs and practices relating to infant feeding is important to enhance designing programs for delivering successful psychological, social, physiological and economic well-being of mothers and infants. The main purpose of this study was exploring mothers infant feeding practices in the context of Hadiyya culture. After purposively selecting Harche Huyaya Uyaya Kebele eight infant feeding mothers were selected using snowball sampling technique. The study employed interviews and focus group discussion. The study found out early initiation and prolonged breastfeeding and early complementary feeding in some instances immediately after birth. In addition, infants were not forced to wean unless the mothers encounter pressing issues like pregnancy and health related problems. Furthermore, the main weaning techniques were putting unpleasant materials on the tip of nipples and sending infants to grandparents home. The study also found out gender difference in weaning, i.e., early initiation of weaning for girls. This can be indicative of gender-based bias on weaning practice. Finally, health extension workers, office of women and children affairs and Hadiyya Zone Tourism office should organize awareness raising programs to preserve vital infant feeding practices like prolonged breastfeeding and length of weaning. In addition, the offices should raise awareness among communities on negative side effects of sending infant to grandparents home that may weaken infant-mothers attachment and create favorable ground for the development of phobia.

Keywords: feeding, infant, practices, weaning

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24 Determinants of Cessation of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Ankesha Guagusa Woreda, Awi Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Tebikew Yeneabat, Tefera Belachew, Muluneh Haile


Background: Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is the practice of feeding only breast milk (including expressed breast milk) during the first six months and no other liquids and solid foods except medications. The time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding, however, is different in different countries depending on different factors. Studies showed the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality is higher among none exclusive breast-feeding infants, common during starting other foods. However, there is no study that evaluated the time to cessation of exclusive breast-feeding in the study area. The aim of this study was to show time to cessation of EBF and its predictors among mothers of index infants less than twelve months old. Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study from February 13 to March 3, 2012 using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This study included a total of 592 mothers of index infant using multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Results: Cessation of exclusive breast-feeding occurred in 392 (69.63%) cases. Among these, 224 (57.1%) happened before six months, while 145 (37.0%) and 23 (5.9%) occurred at six months and after six months of age of the index infant respectively. The median time for infants to stay on exclusive breast-feeding was 6.36 months in rural and 5.13 months in urban, and this difference was statistically significant on a Log rank (Cox-mantel) test. Maternal and paternal occupation, place of residence, postnatal counseling on exclusive breast-feeding, mode of delivery, and birth order of the index infant were significant predictors of cessation of exclusive breast-feeding. Conclusion: Providing postnatal care counseling on EBF, routine follow-up and support of those mothers having infants stressing for working mothers can bring about implementation of national strategy on infant and young child feeding.

Keywords: exclusive breastfeeding, cessation, median duration, Ankesha Guagusa Woreda

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23 Disparity in New Born Care Practices Reducing in Uttar Pradesh: Evidences from NFHS and DLHS

Authors: Gudakesh Yadav


Utter Pradesh, which is one of the largest states of India with unequal distribution of resources and different socioeconomic and cultural characteristics, level of different new born health care indicators varies a lot from one district to another district. State shared more than 21 percent of total live births of India; whereas, it accounts for 28 percent of total infant deaths of the country, with the 53 per thousand infant mortality rate. The present paper attempts to examine tempo-spatial changes in new born care practices during NFHS-1 to NFHS-3 and DLHS-2 to DLHS-3 in Uttar Pradesh and different regions. Descriptive statistics, rate-ratios, concentration index, multivariate and decomposition analysis has been used for the study. Findings of the study reveal that new born care practices have improved over the time in the state and across all the regions because of giving more emphasis on venerable groups like poor, rural, less educated mothers and scheduled caste & tribes but still it did not achieve the desired successes. Regional analysis of third rounds of DLHS shows that, coverage of intuitional delivery was the lowest in the central region. Performance of the southern region was the lowest in terms of initiation of breastfeeding, keeping baby warm and dry after the birth. The study calls for proper follow up of new born children to accelerate new born and child health care service and prioritises increasing antenatal check-ups and institutional delivery, which helps to improve level of other new born care services. At the policy level there is need to reach venerable groups like scheduled caste and tribes, poor and uneducated, and new mother especially in rural areas. High focused district should be allocated for better implementation of new born care promotion programme in low performing districts. Partnership with the private sector health professional is necessary to reach the every part of population.

Keywords: decomposition, inequality, initiation of breastfeeding, institutional delivery

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22 Maternal and Child Health Care: A Study among the Rongmeis of Manipur, India

Authors: Lorho Mary Maheo, Arundhati Maibam Devi


Background: Maternal and child health (MCH) cares are the health services provided to mothers and children. It includes the health promotion, preventive, curative and rehabilitation health care for mothers and children. Materials and method: The present study sample comprises of 208 women within the age range 15-69 years from two remote villages of Tamenglong District in Manipur. They were randomly chosen for assessing their health as well as the child’s health adopting an interview schedule method. Results: The findings of the study revealed that majority (80%) of the women have their first conception in their first year of married life. A decadal change has been observed with regard to the last pregnancy i.e., antenatal check-up, place of delivery as well as the service provider. However, irrespective of age of the women, home delivery is still preferred though very few are locally trained. Pre- and post-delivery resting period vary depending on the busy schedule of the agricultural works as the population under study is basically agriculturist. Postnatal care remains to be traditional as they are strongly associated with cultural beliefs and practices that continue to prevail in the studied community. Breast feeding practices such as colostrums given, initiation of breastfeeding, weaning was all taken into account.  Immunization of children has not reached the expected target owing to a variety of reasons. Maternal health care also includes use of birth control measures. The health status of women would invariably improve if family planning is meaningfully adopted. Only 10.1% of the women adopted the modern birth control implying its deep-rooted value attached to the children. Based on the self-assessment report on their health treatment a good number of the respondents resorted to self-medication even to the extent of buying allopathic medicine without a doctor’s prescription. One important finding from the study is the importance attributed to the traditional health care system which is easily affordable and accessible to the villagers. Conclusion: The overall condition of maternal and child care is way behind till now as no adequate/proper health services are available.

Keywords: antenatal, breastfeeding, child health, maternal, Tamenglong District

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