Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13187

Search results for: millennium development goals

13187 Actualizing Millennium Development Goals through a Refocused Basic Mathematics Curriculum

Authors: Ali Yaro Kankia

Abstract:

Millennium Development Goals are eight goals set by the 189 United Nations member States with 2015 as its target year of achievement. Since its signing in September 2000, individual nations have been finding ways and means of actualizing them. This paper consider how a refocused basic Mathematics curriculum could serve as an appropriate tool in achieving these goals. This was done by considering the theme in the following sub-headings. Basic Mathematics curriculum before now, basic Mathematics curriculum and the millennium development Goals and challenges of a refocused basic Mathematics curriculum for the MDGs. The appropriate conclusion was reached.

Keywords: actualizing, curriculum, MDGs, refocused

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13186 Status of India towards Achieving the Millennium Development Goals

Authors: Rupali Satsangi

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14 years ago, leaders from every country agreed on a vision for the future – a world with less poverty, hunger and disease, greater survival prospects for mothers and their infants, better educated children, equal opportunities for women, and a healthier environment; a world in which developed and developing countries work in partnership for the betterment of all. This vision took the shape of eight Millennium Development Goals, which provide countries around the world a framework for development and time-bound targets by which progress can be measured. However, India has found 35 of the indicators as relevant to India. India’s MDG-framework has been contextualized through a concordance with the existing official indicators of corresponding dimensions in the national statistical system. The present study based on secondary data analyzed the status of India towards achieving the MDGs after reviewing the data study find out that India can miss the MDGs Bus in women health, sanitation and global partnership. These goals were less addressed by India in his policies and takeoffs.

Keywords: millennium development goals, national statistical system, global partnership, healthier environment

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13185 Political Views and ICT in Tertiary Institutions in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Authors: Ibe Perpetual Nwakaego

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), were an integrated project formed to eradicate many unnatural situations the citizens of the third world country may found themselves in. The MDGs, to be a sustainable project for the future depends 100% on the actions of governments, multilateral institutions and civil society. This paper first looks at the political views on the MDGs and relates it to the current electoral situations around the country by underlining the drastic changes over the few months. The second part of the paper presents ICT in tertiary institutions as one of the solutions in terms of the success of the MDGs. ICT is vital in all phases of the educational process and development of the cloud connectivity is an added advantage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for sharing a common data bank for research purposes among UNICEF, RED CROSS, NPS, INEC, NMIC, and WHO. Finally, the paper concludes with areas that need twigging and recommendations for the tertiary institutions committed to delivering an ambitious set of goals. A combination of observation and document materials for data gathering was employed as the methodology for carrying out this research.

Keywords: MDGs, ICT, database, politics

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13184 Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, '4P’s': Breaking the Vicious Poverty Cycle

Authors: Bernadette F. De La Cruz, Susan Marie R. Dela Cruz, Georgia D. Demavibas

Abstract:

Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4P) is a conditional cash transfer program in the Philippines pay extremely poor household-beneficiaries in order to fulfill the country’s commitment to the number one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). 4P's send 10,235,256 school children aged 6-18 from a total of 4,353,597 registered households with an average of two to three children. We analyze this program in Iloilo, Philippines. We show that this program can be made efficient by selecting beneficiaries and calibrating transfer for a maximum breaking of intergenerational poverty cycle of hunger, health and achieve higher education.

Keywords: ESGP-PA, millennium development goals, house hold beneficiaries, cash transfer

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13183 Political Views and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Tertiary Institutions in Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS)

Authors: Perpetual Nwakaego Ibe

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), were an integrated project formed to eradicate many unnatural situations the citizens of the third world country may found themselves in. The MDGs, to be a sustainable project for the future depends 100% on the actions of governments, multilateral institutions and civil society. This paper first looks at the political views on the MDGs and relates it to the current electoral situations around the country by underlining the drastic changes over the few months. The second part of the paper presents ICT in tertiary institutions as one of the solutions in terms of the success of the MDGs. ICT is vital in all phases of educational process and development of the cloud connectivity is an added advantage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for sharing a common data bank for research purposes among UNICEF, RED CROSS, NPS, INEC, NMIC, and WHO. Finally, the paper concludes with areas that needs twigging and recommendations for the tertiary institutions committed to delivering an ambitious set of goals. A combination of observation, and document materials for data gathering was employed as the methodology for carrying out this research.

Keywords: MDG, ICT, data bank, database

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13182 Sustainable Development Goals 2030: A Case of Malaysian Priorities from the Perspectives of Undergraduate Students

Authors: Zurina Mahadi, Hukil Sino

Abstract:

United Nations resolved 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 to complete what Millennium Development Goals did not achieve. Accommodating 17 goals and 169 targets, Sustainable Development Goals are designated to be achieved over the next 15 years. A survey was conducted in July 2019 among the undergraduate students of a public university in Selangor, Malaysia, to learn their selection over Sustainable Development Goals, which they think is the most critical in the Malaysian scenario. This study adopted a qualitative approach, and data is gathered from a single instruction questionnaire administered to a purposive sample of participants. 13 goals were selected by the participants which are Goal 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16 and 17 while none has selected Goal 7, 9, 14 and 15 which are ‘Affordable and Clean Energy’; ‘Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure’; ‘Life Below Water’ and ‘Life On Land’ respectively. The selected goals are then ranked according to the number of participants who chose that particular goal. Goal 8 is found to be at the highest position of the ranking while Goal 5, 6, 10, and 13 accommodating the lowest position. Goal 8, which is ‘Decent Work and Economic Growth’ is chosen by 13 participants as the most critical goal in Malaysia while Goal 5,6 10, and 13, which are ‘Gender Equality’; ‘Clean Water and Sanitation’; ‘Reduced Inequalities’ and ‘Climate Action’ respectively, are chosen by only one participant each. Issues highlighted by the participants are themed into 10 themes, which are job availability, cost of living, well-being, corruption, education, environment, gender, development planning, consumption, and partnership. The theme of the cost of living has the highest number of issues, followed by the theme of job availability and the environment. The theme of gender has the least number of issues, followed by the theme of corruption and development planning. In principle, these findings, therefore, conclude that from a public university students’ point of view, the most critical sustainable development goal is decent work and economic growth while the most concerning issue is the cost of living. The implications of these findings are students’ knowledge towards the current issues of development, and their views of future sustainable development are considerably high. This study, therefore, suggests their views be inculcated into local, sustainable development frameworks to increase the inclusiveness of the young generation as they are the future SDGs stakeholders.

Keywords: cost of living, inclusiveness, job availability, sustainable development goals

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13181 Achievements of Healthcare Services Vis-À-Vis the Millennium Development Goals Targets: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Saeeda Batool, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

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This study investigates the impact of public healthcare facilities and socio-economic circumstances on the status of child health in Pakistan. The complete analysis is carried out in correspondence with fourth and sixth millennium development goals. Further, the health variables chosen are also inherited from targeted indicators of the mentioned goals (MDGs). Trends in the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) for both health inequalities and coverage are analyzed using the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement (PLSM) data set for 2001-02 to 2012-13 at the national and provincial level. To reveal the relative importance of each circumstance in achieving the targeted values for child health, Shorrocks decomposition is applied on HOI. The annual point average growth rate of HOI is used to simulate the time period for the achievement of target set by MDGs and universal access also. The results indicate an improvement in HOI for a reduction in child mortality rates from 52.1% in 2001-02 to 67.3% in 2012-13, which confirms the availability of healthcare opportunities to a larger segment of society. Similarly, immunization against measles and other diseases such as Diphtheria, Polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), and Hepatitis has also registered an improvement from 51.6% to 69.9% during the period of study at the national level. On a positive note, no gender disparity has been found for child health indicators and that health outcome is mostly affected by the parental and geographical features and availability of health infrastructure. However, the study finds that this achievement has been uneven across provinces. Pakistan is not only lagging behind in achieving its health goals, disappointingly with the current rate of health care provision, but it will take many additional years to achieve its targets.

Keywords: socio-economic circumstances, unmet MDGs, public healthcare services, child and infant mortality

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13180 Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation

Authors: Esther O. Adebitan, Florence Oyelade

Abstract:

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was initiated by the UN member nations’ aspiration for the betterment of human life. It is expressed in a set of numerical ‎and time-bound targets. In more recent time, the aspiration is shifting away from just the achievement to the sustainability of achieved MDGs beyond the 2015 target. The main objective of this study was assessing how much the hotel industry within the Nigerian Federal Capital Territory (FCT) as a member of the global community is involved in the achievement of sustainable MDGs within the FCT. The study had two population groups consisting of 160 hotels and the communities where these are located. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selecting 60 hotels based on large, medium ‎and small hotels categorisation, while simple random sampling technique was used to elicit information from 30 residents of three of the hotels host communities. The study was guided by tree research questions and two hypotheses aimed to ascertain if hotels see the need to be involved in, and have policies in pursuit of achieving sustained MDGs, and to determine public opinion regarding hotels contribution towards the achievement of the MDGs in their communities. A 22 item questionnaire was designed ‎and administered to hotel managers while 11 item questionnaire was designed ‎and administered to hotels’ host communities. Frequency distribution and percentage as well as Chi-square were used to analyse data. Results showed no significant involvement of the hotel industry in achieving sustained MDGs in the FCT and that there was disconnect between the hotels and their immediate communities. The study recommended that hotels should, as part of their Corporate Social Responsibility pick at least one of the goals to work on in order to be involved in the attainment of enduring Millennium Development Goals.

Keywords: MDGs, hotels, FCT, host communities, corporate social responsibility

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13179 Accessibility for the Disabled in Public Buildings: The Case of a Nigerian University

Authors: S. P. Akinbogun, P. Oloruntoyin

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One of the millennium development goals is the reduction of illiteracy. The state of user friendliness of the educational buildings is expected to play a significant role in the quest, particularly among the physically challenged. This study considers the state of access of educational buildings to disabled on wheel chair and crutches. It draws context from one of the federal universities in Nigeria. The study is basically qualitative; data were collected through structured interview and observation to assess compliance with the prescribed accessibility standard of academic buildings in the Federal University of Technology Akure. The study found that narrow entrances and routes of buildings, raised steps at entrances of the buildings, and ramps were absent. This implies exclusion as it renders most of the buildings inaccessible to wheelchair users. Perhaps, it accounts for low enrolment of wheelchair users in the institution despite many of them in the city. The implication is a challenge in the achievement of the millennium development goal concerning the reduction in the level of illiteracy in the country. The study suggests that government should strictly ensure that public buildings should satisfy or retrofitted to meet disabled access before development approval. This should be followed with the issuance of certificate of compliance upon completion.

Keywords: public building, accessibility, physically challenged, education

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13178 The Place of Open Distance Education in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Authors: Morakinyo Akintolu, Moeketsi Letseka

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In the year 2015, the United Nation member states, through the representative of all heads of states present, adopted the 17 Global goals known as the Sustainable Development Goals in their capacity to bring about social, economic, and cultural development to the world. Therefore, the need to accommodate equitable development one of the major goals is to achieve equitable and quality education for all to bring about international development. In this light, the study investigates the role of open distance learning in achieving sustainable development goals. Open distance learning comes as a second chance to individuals in disseminating educational content to students who missed the opportunity of attending the traditional school setting. Therefore, this study investigates if the SDGs reflect this type of learning (ODL) in creating Education for all according to the 2030 agenda by the United Nations. It further ascertains the role of ODL in achieving SDGs, the challenges encountered as well as the way forward.

Keywords: open distance learning, sustainable development goals, distance education, achieving, 2030 agenda

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13177 Decent Work Agenda in the Philippines: A Capacity Assessment

Authors: Dianne Lyneth Alavado

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At the turn of the millennium, development paradigms in the international scene revolved around one goal: elimination of global poverty without comprising human rights. One measure which achieved high endorsement and visibility in the world of work is the Decent Work Agenda (DWA) championed by the United Nation’s (UN) specialized agency for work, the International Labour Organization (ILO). The DWA has been thoroughly promoted and recommended as an ingredient of development planning and a poverty reduction strategy, particularly in developing countries such as the Philippines. The global imperative of economic growth is measurable not only in the numbers raked in by countries in terms of expanding economy but also by the development and realization of the full capacities of their people. Decent work (DW), as an outcome and not just a development approach, promises poverty eradication by means of providing both quantity and quality work that is accompanied by rights, representation, and protection. As a party to these international pacts, the Philippines is expected to heed the call towards a world free from poverty through well-endorsed measures such as the DWA with the aid of multilateral and donor organizations such as the ILO. This study aims to assess the capacity and readiness of the Philippines to achieve the goals of the DWA. This is a qualitative research using the sociological and juridical lens in the desk analysis of existing Philippine laws, policies, and programs vis-à-vis decent work indicators set forth by the ILO. Interview with experts on the Philippine labor situation is conducted for further validation. The paper identifies gaps within the Philippine legal system and its collection of laws, acts, presidential decrees, department orders and other policy instruments aimed towards achieving the goals of the DWA. Among the major findings of this paper are: the predisposition of Philippine labor laws towards the formal sector; the need for alternative solutions for the informal sector veering away from the usual dole-outs and livelihood projects; the needs for evaluation of policies and programs that are usually self-evaluated; the minimal reach of the labour inspectorate which ensures decent work; and the lack of substantial penalty for non-compliance with labor laws. The paper concludes with policy implications and recommendations towards addressing the potholes on the road to Decent Work.

Keywords: decent work agenda, labor laws, millennium development goals, poverty eradication, sustainable development goal

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13176 Integrating Sustainable Development Goals in Teaching Mathematics Using Project Based Learning

Authors: S. Goel

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In the current scenario, education should be realistic and nature-friendly. The earlier definition of education was restricted to the holistic development of the child which help them to increase their capacity and helps in social upliftment. But such definition gives a more individualistic aim of education. Due to that individualistic aim, we have become disconnected from nature. So, a school should be a place which provides students with an area to explore. They should get practical learning or learning from nature which is also propounded by Rousseau in the mid-eighteenth century. Integrating Sustainable development goals in the school curriculum will make it possible to connect the nature with the lives of the children in the classroom. Then, students will be more aware and sensitive towards their social and natural surroundings. The research attempts to examine the efficiency of project-based learning in mathematics to create awareness around sustainable development goals. The major finding of the research was that students are less aware of sustainable development goals, but when given time and an appropriate learning environment, students can be made aware of these goals. In this research, project-based learning was used to make students aware of sustainable development goals. Students were given pre test and post test which helped in analyzing their performance. After the intervention, post test result showed that mathematics projects can create an awareness of sustainable development goals.

Keywords: holistic development, natural learning, project based learning, sustainable development goals

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13175 Is Swaziland on Track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals?

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman

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Background: The importance of maternal and child healthcare services cannot be stressed enough. These services are very important for the health and health outcomes of the mother and that of the child and in ensuring that both maternal and child deaths are prevented. The objective of the study is to inspire good quality maternal and child health care services in Swaziland. Specifically, is Swaziland on track with the 2015 Millennium Development Goals? Methods: The study used secondary data from the Swaziland Demographic and Health Survey 2006-07. This is an explorative and descriptive study which used pre-selected variables to study factors influencing the use of maternal and child healthcare services in Swaziland. Different types of examinations, such as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analysis were adopted. Results: The study findings showed a high use rate of antenatal care (97.3%) and delivery care (74.0%), and a low rate of postnatal care use (20.5%). The uptake childhood immunization is also high in the country, averaging more than 80.0%. Moreover, certain factors which were found to be influencing the use of maternal healthcare and childhood immunization include: woman’s age, parity, media exposure, maternal education, wealth status, and residence. The findings also revealed that these factors affect the use of maternal and child health differently. Conclusion: It is important to study factors related to maternal and child health uptake to inform relevant stakeholders about possible areas of improvement. Programs to educate families about the importance of maternal and child healthcare services should be implemented. Swaziland needs to work hard on child survival and maternal health care services, no doubt it is on track with the MDG 4 & 5.

Keywords: maternal healthcare, antenatal care, delivery care, postnatal care, child health, immunization, socio-economic and demographic factors

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13174 Neonatal Mortality, Infant Mortality, and Under-five Mortality Rates in the Provinces of Zimbabwe: A Geostatistical and Spatial Analysis of Public Health Policy Provisions

Authors: Jevonte Abioye, Dylan Savary

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The aim of this research is to present a disaggregated geostatistical analysis of the subnational provincial trends of child mortality variation in Zimbabwe from a child health policy perspective. Soon after gaining independence in 1980, the government embarked on efforts towards promoting equitable health care, namely through the provision of primary health care. Government intervention programmes brought hope and promise, but achieving equity in primary health care coverage was hindered by previous existing disparities in maternal health care disproportionately concentrated in urban settings to the detriment of rural communities. The article highlights policies and programs adopted by the government during the millennium development goals period between 1990-2015 as a response to the inequities that characterised the country’s maternal health care. A longitudinal comparative method for a spatial variation on child mortality rates across provinces is developed based on geostatistical analysis. Cross-sectional and time-series data was extracted from the World Health Organisation (WHO) global health observatory data repository, demographic health survey reports, and previous academic and technical publications. Results suggest that although health care policy was uniform across provinces, not all provinces received the same antenatal and perinatal services. Accordingly, provincial rates of child mortality growth between 1994 and 2015 varied significantly. Evidence on the trends of child mortality rates and maternal health policies in Zimbabwe can be valuable for public child health policy planning and public service delivery design both in Zimbabwe and across developing countries pursuing the sustainable development agenda.

Keywords: antenatal care, perinatal care, infant mortality rate, neonatal mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, millennium development goals, sustainable development agenda

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13173 Impact of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystem Services: In situ Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Forest Resources in Tropical Forests

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Pandey

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Forest genetic resources not only represent regional biodiversity but also have immense value as the wealth for securing livelihood of poor people. These are vulnerable to ecological due to depletion/deforestation and /or impact of climate change. These resources of various plant categories are vulnerable on the floor of natural tropical forests, and leading to the threat on the growth and development of future forests. More than 170 species, including NTFPs, are in critical condition for their survival in natural tropical forests of Central India. Forest degradation, commensurate with biodiversity loss, is now pervasive, disproportionately affecting the rural poor who directly depend on forests for their subsistence. Looking ahead the interaction between forest and water, soil, precipitation, climate change, etc. and its impact on biodiversity of tropical forests, it is inevitable to develop co-operation policies and programmes to address new emerging realities. Forests ecosystem also known as the 'wealth of poor' providing goods and ecosystem services on a sustainable basis, are now recognized as a stepping stone to move poor people beyond subsistence. Poverty alleviation is the prime objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, environmental sustainability including other MDGs, is essential to ensure successful elimination of poverty and well being of human society. Loss and degradation of ecosystem are the most serious threats to achieving development goals worldwide. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA, 2005) was an attempt to identify provisioning and regulating cultural and supporting ecosystem services to provide livelihood security of human beings. Climate change may have a substantial impact on ecological structure and function of forests, provisioning, regulations and management of resources which can affect sustainable flow of ecosystem services. To overcome these limitations, policy guidelines with respect to planning and consistent research strategy need to be framed for conservation and sustainable development of forest genetic resources.

Keywords: climate change, forest ecosystem services, sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation

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13172 Evaluating India's Smart Cities against the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Suneet Jagdev

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17 Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the world leaders in September 2015 at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit. These goals were adopted by UN member states to promote prosperity, health and human rights while protecting the planet. Around the same time, the Government of India launched the Smart City Initiative to speed up development of state of the art infrastructure and services in 100 cities with a focus on sustainable and inclusive development. These cities are meant to become role models for other cities in India and promote sustainable regional development. This paper examines goals set under the Smart City Initiative and evaluates them in terms of the Sustainable Development Goals, using case studies of selected Smart Cities in India. The study concludes that most Smart City projects at present actually consist of individual solutions to individual problems identified in a community rather than comprehensive models for complex issues in cities across India. Systematic, logical and comparative analysis of important literature and data has been done, collected from government sources, government papers, research papers by various experts on the topic, and results from some online surveys. Case studies have been used for a graphical analysis highlighting the issues of migration, ecology, economy and social equity in these Smart Cities.

Keywords: housing, migration, smart cities, sustainable development goals, urban infrastructure

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13171 Ongoing Gender-Based Challenges in Post-2015 Development Agenda: A Comparative Study between Qatar and Arab States

Authors: Abdel-Samad M. Ali, Ali A. Hadi Al-Shawi

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Discrimination against women and girls impairs progress in all domains of development articulated either in the framework of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) or in the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Paper aspires to create greater awareness among researchers and policy makers of the challenges posed by gender gaps and the opportunities created by reducing them within the Arab region. The study reveals how Arab countries are closing in on gender-oriented targets of the third and fifth MDGs. While some countries can claim remarkable achievements particularly in girls’ equality in education, there is still a long way to go to keep Arab’s commitments to current and future generations in other countries and subregions especially in the economic participation or in the political empowerment of women. No country has closed or even expected to close the economic participation gap or the political empowerment gap. This should provide the incentive to keep moving forward in the Post-2015 Agenda. Findings of the study prove that while Arab states have uneven achievements in reducing maternal mortality, Arab women remain at a disadvantage in the labour market. For Arab region especially LDCs, improving maternal health is part of the unmet agenda for the post-2015 period and still calls for intensified efforts and procedures. While antenatal care coverage is improving across the Arab region, progress is marginal in LDCs. To achieve proper realization of gender equality and empowerment of women in the Arab region in the post-2015 agenda, the study presents critical key challenges to be addressed. These challenges include: Negative cultural norms and stereotypes; violence against women and girls; early marriage and child labour; women’s limited control over their own bodies; limited ability of women to generate their own income and control assets and property; gender-based discrimination in law and in practice; women’s unequal participation in private and public decision making autonomy; and limitations in data. However, in all Arab states, gender equality must be integrated as a goal across all issues, particularly those that affect the future of a country.

Keywords: gender, equity, millennium development goals, post-2015 development agenda

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13170 Annual August Meetings as a Stimulator for Female Empowerment: Case Study Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka Evelyn Udeh

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Women’s economic participation and empowerment are fundamental to strengthening women’s rights and enabling women to have control over their lives and exert influence in the society. The economic empowerment of women is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the achievement of all the millennium development Goals (MDGs). For women to be in development they need to be empowered morally, socially, economically, and financially and this is why women in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria meet every August, the eighth month of the year to discuss matters relating to the pursuit of women empowerment, community welfare, and national development. This exploratory study depicts how annual august meetings serve as a stimulator for female empowerment with a case study Udi Local Government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. The paper finds that ‘August Meeting’ is a regular annual occurrence in Udi Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria particularly for married women and is designed to better the lot of women, the child, family, the church, and the Community. Through this forum, with its seminars and workshops, women have the opportunity to learn everything about womanhood and how to chart new courses of action and sources of empowerment. The gathering gives women the opportunity to be integrated into their community development projects, and having women as stakeholders and not mere observers helps guarantee a speedy and steady community and overall national development progress. Funds are raised for community development projects through annual dues, levies, donations, fines, sales, income from money-yielding ventures, endowment and investiture. Annual August meeting also known as ‘Mothers Summit’ is indeed a powerful stimulator for female empowerment. Support and invigoration of this women initiative is essential for sustainable emancipation of female gender, not just in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria but globally.

Keywords: women empowerment, annual august meeting, Udi Lga, mothers' summit, stimulator, emancipation, sustainability, community welfare, national development, millennium development goal

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13169 Using a Train-the-Trainer Model to Deliver Post-Partum Haemorrhage Simulation in Rural Uganda

Authors: Michael Campbell, Malaz Elsaddig, Kevin Jones

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Background: Despite encouraging progress, global maternal mortality has remained stubbornly high since the declaration of the Millennium development goals. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for well over half of maternal deaths with Post-Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) being the lead cause. ‘In house’ simulation training delivered by local doctors may be a sustainable approach for improving emergency obstetric care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Train-the-Trainer (TtT) model in a rural Ugandan hospital to ascertain whether it can feasibly improve practitioners’ management of PPH. Methods: Three Ugandan doctors underwent a training course to enable them to design and deliver simulation training. These doctors used MamaNatalie® models to simulate PPH scenarios for midwives, nurses and medical students. The main outcome was improvement in participants’ knowledge and confidence, assessed using self-reported scores on a 10-point scale. Results: The TtT model produced significant improvements in the confidence and knowledge scores of the ten participants. The mean confidence score rose significantly (p=0.0005) from 6.4 to 8.6 following the simulation training. There was also a significant increase in the mean knowledge score from 7.2 to 9.0 (p=0.04). Medical students demonstrated the greatest overall increase in confidence scores whilst increases in knowledge scores were largest amongst nurses. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a TtT model can be used in a low resource setting to improve healthcare professionals’ confidence and knowledge in managing obstetric emergencies. This Train-the-Trainer model represents a sustainable approach to addressing skill deficits in low resource settings. We believe that its expansion across healthcare institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa will help to reduce the region’s high maternal mortality rate and step closer to achieving the ambitions of the Millennium development goals.

Keywords: low resource setting, post-partum haemorrhage, simulation training, train the trainer

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13168 Study of Village Scale Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation Program (Pamsimas) in Indonesia

Authors: Reza Eka Putra

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Pamsimas is a community based drinking water supply and sanitation program which is contributed by local community, local government, central government, and World Bank with the aim of achieving Water Supply and Sanitation - the Millennium Development Goals (WSS-MDGs) target. This program is supported by the Ministry of Public Works as the executing agency with the cooperation of Ministry of Interior and the Ministry of Health. Field observations were conducted in two rural samples of 2009 beneficiaries Pamsimas West Java, which is in Ponggang Village, Subang District. The study was evaluated through several parameters, including technical, health, and empowerment aspect. Evaluation was done by comparing the parameters of success that has been set by Pamsimas through Pamsimas book manuals with the parameters from Sanitation & Infrastructure course regarding the appropriate application of technology in society. The result of the study is that the potency of the community before the program is implemented in the village is the determining factor. Stronger cooperation pattern in Ponggang Vilage results in a successful program. Both villages showed a pattern of behavior changes from indiscriminate defecation to sanitary latrine use. Besides, there is a decline in the number of cases of diarrheal disease since the year of Pamsimas implementation.

Keywords: millenium development goals, community develpoment, water supply, sanitation

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13167 The Millennium Development Goals and Algerian Economic Policy: Some Evidences

Authors: Abdelkader Guendouz, Fatima Zohra Adel

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Even if both the economic and the human development are an axial pillar in its global policy, Algerian government seems to be more and more engaged in the international context aiming to reach of the so called millennium development goals, and this since its beginning. By looking closely at the Algerian economic policy, it is easy to mention the existence of several programs in which both economic and social realisations including among others, poverty reduction, enhancement of education level and conditions, woman statute and gender equity amelioration targets. The efforts of Algerian government in the field of these targets had been acheminated through three main plans, which are: -PSRE (Plan de Soutien à la Relance Economique), for the period of 2001 to 2004, initiated with about 7 billion US dollar, had been focused on three objectives, namely, poverty reduction, job creation and regional equilibrium with rural areas revitalization. -PCSC (le Programme complémentaire de soutien à la croissance économique), for the period of 2005 to 2009, with a starting funding of 114 billion US dollar. This program aims to develop public services and supporting public investments, especially in which concerns social infrastructures. Now, and at the end of the maturity of the MDGs agenda, an important question is to be asked: what are the main realizations regarding these MDGs? In order to answer this question, the present paper tries to examine the Algerian economic policy (but also the social one) by considering the MDGs challenges, for the period from 2000 to 2010, but also until 2015. This examination is focused on three main targets, namely poverty, education, and health. Firstly, statistical assessment for the Algerian economic and social situation shows that almost all MDGs had been reached during the period of 2000 to 2009 and it continues to maintain and improve them. This observation can be endorsed by invoking some achievements. Starting by the reduction of poverty, the proportion of population living with less than 1 US dollar per a day passed from 8.0 % in 2000 to 0.5 % in 2009, and 0.3 % in 2015. For education sphere, the enrolment ratio of six-year child, which is the most significant index for school attendance, is about 98 % for 2009 against 93 % in 1999, and only 43 % in 1966. Concluding with health care and relevant services; the Algerian government has accomplished big steps in providing easy access to this sector for the population. Moreover, the percentage of assisted accouchement had been raised from 91.2 % in 2000 to 97.2 % in 2009.

Keywords: Algerian economic policy, MDGs, poverty, education, health

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13166 Entrepreneurship as a Strategy for National Development and Attainment of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Authors: Udokporo Emeka Leonard

Abstract:

The thrust of this paper is to examine how entrepreneurship can assist in the attainment of the first goal among the MDGs – eradication of extreme poverty and hunger in Nigeria. The paper discusses how national development can be driven through employment creation and wealth generation that can lead to reduction in widespread poverty so as to attain one crucial target, in fewer years. The task before Nigeria is certainly a herculean one; it is, in fact a race against time. However, in view of the clear and present danger that the increasing rate of poverty portends for our democracy and our nation, is a race we must; for it is a time bomb on our hands. The paper has been structured into sections; with the introduction as section one. Section two discusses the concept of entrepreneurship; Section three examines the link between entrepreneurship and economic development, while section four examines the challenges facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria. In section five, measures and recommendations to boost entrepreneurship that can drive economic development that translates into poverty reduction and employment creation in Nigeria are suggested. This work is a literature review with some understanding of current trends and situations. It outlines some of the difficulties facing entrepreneurship in Nigeria as the operating environment, inadequate understanding and skewed incentive. It also makes recommendations on possible ways to significantly reduce poverty in 2015.

Keywords: development, entrepreneur, Nigeria, poverty

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13165 Modeling a Sustainable City in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Study of Ibadan Oyo State Nigeria

Authors: K. J. Jegede, O. O. Odekunle

Abstract:

The challenges facing government at all levels in the area of urban development are two folds, first is how to provide basic services for urban dwellers especially the urban poor and second, how to make cities and towns as model of good places for economic development. The key ingredients and catalysts for achieving these goals are strong and virile institutional capacity, urban infrastructure and a supportive urban policy framework. The government at all levels have been upgrading and expanding city infrastructure and services in Ibadan, the state capital to support sustainable economic development of the city, particularly in the areas of electricity, neighbourhood, solid waste management, transport, water supply, education, health facilities and markets developments to discourage street trading. This paper attempts to present Ibadan in the millennium as 'a model of a sustainable city'. A planned development strategy that had sustained the growth of the city from a war camp in the 19th century to a cosmopolitan city in the 21st century with the potential to become a megacity. The presentation examines, among others, the physical structure and population density of Ibadan city, the challenges of economic development, the development of urban infrastructure and services in Ibadan metropolitan area. The paper submitted by mapping out a strategy to achieve sustainable development of Ibadan city.

Keywords: megacity, physical structure, sustainable city, urban infrastructure

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13164 Greywater Water Reuse in South Africa

Authors: Onyeka Nkwonta, Christopher Iheukwumere

Abstract:

It is a waste to irrigate with great quantities of drinking water when plants thrive on used water containing small bits of compost. Unlike a lot of ecological stopgap measures, greywater reuse is a part of the fundamental solution to many ecological problems and will probably remain essentially unchanged in the distant future. Water is abused and wasted by both the wealthy and the poor. Education about water conservation is also needed. This study gives an outline of the sources of grey water in our home and provides a process of creating awareness on the importance of re-using grey water in our home, in order to achieve the 7th aim of the millennium development goals by 2015, which is ensuring environmental sustainability.

Keywords: tickling filter, education, grey water, environmental sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
13163 Governance of Clean Energy in Rural Northwest Pakistan

Authors: Inayatullah Jan, Sidra Pervez

Abstract:

Effective institutional arrangements at local and national levels are quintessential for promotion of renewable energy in a country. This study attempts to examine the institutional arrangements for development of domestic renewable energy in rural northwest Pakistan. The study describes that very limited number of public and private organizations were working on clean development in the area. Surprisingly, no institutional arrangements exclusively meant for domestic clean energy promotion were observed in the area. The study concludes that the objectives of Kyoto Protocol in Pakistan can be achieved only if the government and non-governmental organizations work together to launch cost-effective renewable energy interventions, particularly in rural areas. The need is to have a coordinated, consistent, and focused cooperation of all stakeholders involved in promotion of domestic renewable energy at all levels. This will not only improve the socioeconomic and environmental conditions in the local context, but will play a key role in achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals(MDGs).

Keywords: governance, clean energy, greenhouse gases, CDM, Northwest Pakistan

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13162 Analyzing a Human Rights Approach to Poverty and Development Goals in the ASEAN Region

Authors: Nithya Devi

Abstract:

Poverty, hunger and water scarcity are threats to human rights and are assaults on human dignity. The very existence of man is questioned when his basic rights are violated. Addressing this social phenomenon should be a key objective of any human rights discourse. The origins of these problems have various root causes. For Asia, colonisation was an essential factor that caused great inequalities in the distribution of wealth. In the post-colonial era, the colonised states were developing nations grappling with these issues. Today, some of the developing states have progressed to developed nations. However, others remain as economically vulnerable countries. Within states, the widening income gap poses further threat to human rights. Hence ASEAN states have prioritised socio-economic rights, particularly basic needs, in the human rights discourse in this region. To date, poverty and development goals are given primary importance. This paper seeks to show how a human rights approach has dealt with poverty and development goals in this region and evaluates its effectiveness in addressing these concerns.

Keywords: ASEAN, development, human rights, poverty

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13161 Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Relation to Arsenic Contamination in Drinking Water in Liberia: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of Ensuring Clean Water and Sanitation

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr., Jiang Wenchao, Daniel Mmereki, Yasinta John

Abstract:

The fundamentals of public health are access to safe and clean drinking water. The presence of arsenic and other contaminants in drinking water leads to the potential risk to public health and the environment particularly in most developing countries where there’s inadequate access to safe and clean water and adequate sanitation. Liberia has taken steps to improve its drinking water status so as to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation but there is still a lot to be done. The Sustainable Development Goals are a United Nation initiative also known as transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. It contains seventeen goals with 169 targets to be met by respective countries. Liberia is situated within in the gold belt region where there exist the presence of arsenic and other contaminants in the underground water due to mining and other related activities. While there are limited or no epidemiological studies conducted in Liberia to confirm illness or death as a result of arsenic contamination in Liberia, it remains a public health concern. This paper assesses the drinking water quality, the presence of arsenic in groundwater/drinking water in Liberia, and proposes strategies for mitigating contaminants in drinking water and suggests options for improvement with regards to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of ensuring clean water and effective sanitation in Liberia by 2030.

Keywords: arsenic, action plan, contaminants, environment, groundwater, sustainable development goals (SDGs), Monrovia, Liberia, public health, drinking water

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13160 Geographic Information Systems as a Tool to Support the Sustainable Development Goals

Authors: Gulnara N. Nabiyeva, Stephen M. Wheeler

Abstract:

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a multipurpose computer-based tool that provides a sophisticated ability to map and analyze data on different spatial layers. However, GIS is far more easily applied in some policy areas than others. This paper seeks to determine the areas of sustainable development, including environmental, economic, and social dimensions, where GIS has been used to date to support efforts to implement the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and to discuss potential areas where it might be used more. Based on an extensive analysis of published literature, we ranked the SDGs according to how frequently GIS has been used to study related policy. We found that SDG#15 “Life on Land” is most often addressed with GIS, following by SDG#11 “Sustainable Cities and Communities”, and SDG#13 “Climate Action”. On the other hand, we determined that SDG#2 “Zero Hunger”, SDG#8 “Decent Work and Economic Growth”, and SDG#16 “Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions” are least addressed with GIS. The paper outlines some specific ways that GIS might be applied to the SDGs least linked to this tool currently.

Keywords: GIS, GIS application, sustainable community development, sustainable development goals

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13159 Upward Millennium: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Development and Implementation in Pakistani Organizations

Authors: Sara Aziz, Madiha Arooj, Hira Rizwani, Wasim Irshad

Abstract:

Enterprise Resource Planning (ER) as component of Information Resource System has turned up as one of the most demanding software in market for the new millennium. ERP system automates the core activities of any organization such as finance, manufacturing and supply chain management, human resource etc. to generate an access to the information in real time environment. Despite this fact many of the organizations globally particularly in developing country Pakistan are unaware and avoid adopting it. The development and implementation of ERP system is a complex and challenging process. This research was aimed to explore the benefits and coping strategies (with reference to end user reaction) of organizations those have implemented ERP. The problems addressed in this study focused the challenges and key success factors regarding implementing ERP Pakistani Organizations. Secondly, it has explored the stumbling blocks and business integration of those organizations that are not implementing ERP. The public and corporate sector organizations in Pakistan were selected to collect the data. The research finding shows that the organizational culture, openness towards adoption and learning, deployment and development, top management commitment and change systems, business processes and compatibility and user acceptance and reaction are contributing factors for successful implementation and development of ERP system. This research is thus an addition to enhance knowledge and understanding of implementation of ERP system in Pakistan.

Keywords: ERP system, user acceptance and involvement, change management, organizational culture

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13158 Sustainable Development Goals: The Effect of a Board Structure on the Sustainability Performance

Authors: V. Naciti, L. Pulejo, F. Cesaroni

Abstract:

This study empirically analyzes whether the composition of the board of directors (BoD) enhances sustainability performance, in order to understand how the BoD contribute to the integration of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their businesses. Hypotheses are developed based on the agency theory and stakeholder theory. Using a system generalized method of the moment (SGMM) two-step estimator, with data from Sustainalytics and Compustat databases for 362 firms in six regions, we find that firms with more diversity on the board and a separation of chair and CEO roles have higher sustainability performance. Moreover, our findings provide that a higher number of independent directors is negatively associated with sustainability performance. This study contributes to the literature on corporate governance and the firm’s performance by demonstrating that the composition of the board of directors contributes to a better sustainability performance: by the implementation of a particular corporate governance mechanism, it is possible to integrate SDGs in the corporate strategy.

Keywords: sustainable development goals, corporate governance, board of directors, sustainability performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 83