Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Humaira Mujeeb

28 Gender of the Infant and Interpersonal Relationship Correlates of Postpartum Depression among Women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Mujeeb, Farah Qadir

Abstract:

The present study aimed to explore the association between interpersonal relationship and postpartum depression with a special focus on gender of the infant among women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The research was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation study with a cross-sectional study design. The target population was women between six weeks to six months after the delivery of a baby. The sample size of 158 women has been computed by using G*Power (3.0.10 version). The sample was taken through quota sampling technique which was used to gather data according to the specifically predefined groups (79 women with female infants and 79 women with male infants). The sample was selected non-randomly according to the fixed quota. A protocol which had demographic and interpersonal relationship variables alongside with the Urdu version Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to collect the relevant data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software package. A statistically significant association between the attachment with husband in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression has been found. The association between the husband’s emotional and physical support in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression had also been found significant. In case of women with a male infant, the association between support of in-laws and postpartum depression is statistically significant. An association between the violence/discrimination based on the basis of infant's gender in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression is also found. These findings points out that when studying the correlates of postpartum depression, it is imperative to carry out an analysis in the context of gender by considering gender of the infant especially in societies where strict gender preferences exists.

Keywords: infant, gender, attachment, husband, in-laws, support, violence, discrimination, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Gilgit, Pakistan

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27 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
26 Discovering the Relationship between Teaching Creativity and Creative Writing in Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Irfan Khan

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The paper explores teaching of creative writing in Pakistani classroom. The data collected from the questionnaire and focus group interview with a large public sector university’s Master of Arts in English students, who are also in-service school teachers, discovers that English teachers in Pakistan do not teach to develop the creative writing of pupils. The findings show that English teachers can define creative writing but are confused about strategies needed in rousing learners’ interest in creative writing. The teachers make their students memorise compositions from the textbooks to be reproduced in class. English teachers must be encouraged and trained to engage in activities that are essential for enhancing creative writing in schools.

Keywords: creative writing, teaching creative writing, textbooks, Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
25 Influences of Culture, Multilingualism and Ethnicity on Using English in Pakistani Universities

Authors: Humaira Irfan Khan

Abstract:

The paper discusses that Pakistan is a multilingual, multicultural, and multiethnic society. The findings from quantitative and qualitative data collected in two public universities look at the importance of English language and the role and status of national and regional languages in the country. The evidence implies that postgraduate students having diverse linguistic, cultural, ethnic, socio-economic, and educational backgrounds display negative attitudes towards the use of English language for academic and interactive functions in universities. It is also discovered that language anxiety of postgraduate students is an outcome of their language learning difficulties. It is suggested that considering the academic needs of students, universities should introduce a language proficiency course to enable them to use English with confidence.

Keywords: Multilingualism, Ethnicity, Cultural Diversity, Importance of English, National language, Regional languages, Language Anxiety

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24 Students’ Attitudes towards Self-Directed Learning out of Classroom: Indonesian Context

Authors: Silmy A. Humaira'

Abstract:

There is an issue about Asian students including Indonesian students that tend to behave passively in the classroom and depend on the teachers’ instruction. Regarding this statement, this study attempts to address the Indonesian high school students’ attitudes on whether they have initiative and be responsible for their learning out of the classroom and if so, why. Therefore, 30 high school students were asked to fill out the questionnaires and interviewed in order to figure out their attitudes towards self-directed learning. The descriptive qualitative research analysis adapted Knowles’s theory (1975) about Self-directed learning (SDL) to analyze the data. The findings show that the students have a potential to possess self-directed learning through ICT, but they have difficulties in choosing appropriate learning strategy, doing self-assessment and conducting self-reflection. Therefore, this study supports the teacher to promote self-directed learning instruction for successful learning by assisting students in dealing with those aforementioned problems. Furthermore, it is expected to be a beneficial reference which gives new insights on the self-directed learning practice in specific context.

Keywords: ICT, learning autonomy, students’ attitudes, self-directed learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
23 Corporate Governance Mechanisms, Whistle-Blowing Policy and Earnings Management Practices of Firms in Malaysia

Authors: Mujeeb Saif Mohsen Al-Absy, Ku Nor Izah Ku Ismail, Sitraselvi Chandren

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This study examines whether corporate governance (CG) mechanisms in firms that have a whistle-blowing policy (WHBLP) are more effective in constraining earnings management (EM), than those without. A sample of 288 Malaysian firms for the years 2013 to 2015, amounting to 864 firm-years were grouped into firms with and without WHBLP. Results show that for firms without WHBLP, the board chairman tenure would minimize EM activities. Meanwhile, for firms with WHBLP, board chairman independence, board chairman tenure, audit committee size, audit committee meeting and women in the audit committees are found to be associated with less EM activities. Further, it is found that ownership concentration and Big 4 auditing firms help to reduce EM activities in firms with WHBLP, while not in firms without WHBLP. Hence, functional and effective governance can be achieved by having a WHBLP, which is in line with agency and resource dependent theories. Therefore, this study suggests that firms should have a WHBLP in place, and policymakers should come up with enhanced criteria to strengthen the mechanisms of WHBLP.

Keywords: corporate governance, earnings management, whistle-blowing policy, audit committee, board of directors

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22 Urbanization and Built Environment: Impacts of Squatter Slums on Degeneration of Urban Built Environment, a Case Study of Karachi

Authors: Mansoor Imam, Amber Afshan, Sumbul Mujeeb, Kamran Gill

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An investigative approach has been made to study the quality of living prevailing in the squatter slums of Karachi city that is influencing the urbanization trends and environmental degeneration of built environment. The paper identifies the issues and aspects that have directly and indirectly impacted the degeneration owing to inadequate basic infrastructural amenities, substandard housing, overcrowding, poor ventilation in homes and workplaces, and noncompliance with building bye-laws and regulations, etc. Primarily, secondary data has been critically examined and analyzed which was however not limited to census data, demographic / socioeconomic data, official documents and other relevant secondary data were obtained from existing literature and GIS. It is observed that the poor and sub-standard housing / living quality have serious adverse impacts on the environment and the health of city residents. Hence strategies for improving the quality of built environment for sustainable living are mandated. It is, therefore, imperative to check and prevent further degradation and promote harmonious living and sustainable urbanization.

Keywords: squatter slums, urbanization, degenerations, living quality, built environment

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21 Simultaneous Production of Forskolin and Rosmarinic Acid in vitro Cultures of Coleus Forskohlii Briq

Authors: Ennus Tajuddin Tamboli, Madhukar Garg, Mohd. Mujeeb, Sayeed Ahmad

Abstract:

An efficient protocol for simultaneous production of forskolin and rosmarinic acid in in vitro callus derived from the leaves of Coleus forskohlii Briq. has been developed. MS media was used for the establishment of cultures and NAA + 6-BA (1.0 ppm) was found best for callus growth. The callus was further subjected to treatment with various elicitor/precursors viz. chitosan, thidiazuron and methyl jasmonate to observe their effect on production of biomass and accumulation of secondary metabolites. The content of forskolin and rosmarinic acid were estimated by HPTLC, in comparison to natural explant which showed 2 fold and 10 fold rise in forskolin and rosmarinic acid content, respectively. Methy1 jasmonate 50 µM was found best for production of forskolin, whereas thidiazuron showed best results in the yield of rosmarinic acid, separately in static culture. However, combined treatment in suspension culture showed moderated effect for increase in secondary metabolites but the biomass increased significantly as compared to static culture.

Keywords: plant tissue culture, secondary metabolites, coleus, forskolin, rosmarinic acid, HPTLC

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20 Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Copper Doped Zinc Oxide

Authors: Humaira Khan, Mohsin Javed, Sammia Shahid

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The reinforced photocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO) along with composites of ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles were studied by synthesizing ZnO and copper- doped ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. Zinc acetate and copper acetate were used as precursors, whereas graphene oxide was prepared from pre-oxidized graphite in the presence of H2O2.The supernatant was collected carefully and showed high-quality single-layer characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction Analysis), EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry). The degradation of methylene blue as standard pollutant under UV-Visible irradiation gave results for photocatalytic activity of dopants. It could be concluded that shrinking of optical band caused by composites of Cu-dopped nanoparticles with GO enhances the photocatalytic activity.

Keywords: degradation, graphene oxide, photocatalysis, ZnO nanoparticles and copper-doped ZnO nanoparticles

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19 Plasma Electrolytes and Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) Status in Dementia Subjects in Southern Nigeria

Authors: Salaam Mujeeb, Adeola Segun, Abdullahi Olasunkanmi

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Dementia is becoming a major concern as the world population is increasing and elderly populations are being neglected. Liver and kidney Diseases have been implicated as risk factors in the etiology of Dementia. This study, therefore, evaluates the plasma Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) activity and plasma Electrolytes in other to find an association between the biomarkers and Dementia. The subjects (38) were age and sex-matched with their corresponding controls and structured questionnaires were used to obtain medical information. Using spectrophotometric and ion selective Electrode techniques respectively, we found and elevated GGT activity in the Dementia Subjects. Remarkably, no association was found between the plasma Electrolytes level and Dementia subjects. It was also observed that severity of Dementia worsens with age. Moreover, the condition of the dementia subjects worsens with reducing weight. Furthermore, the presence of Comorbidity e.g. Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes and Habits like Smoking, Drugs and Alcohol consumption interferes with Electrolyte balance. Weight loss monitoring and IBM check are advised in Elderly individuals particularly females as they may be inductive of early or future cognitive impairments. Therefore, it might be useful as an early detection tool. Government and society should invest more on the Geriatric population by establishing Old people's home and providing social care services.

Keywords: clinical characteristics, dementia, electrolytes, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, GGT

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18 Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure of the College Readiness Questionnaire

Authors: Muna Al-Kalbani, Thuwayba Al Barwani, Otherine Neisler, Hussain Alkharusi, David Clayton, Humaira Al-Sulaimani, Mohammad Khan, Hamad Al-Yahmadi

Abstract:

This study describes the psychometric properties and factor structure of the University Readiness Survey (URS). Survey data were collected from sample of 2652 students from Sultan Qaboos University. Exploratory factor analysis identified ten significant factors underlining the structure. The results of Confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit to the data where the indices for the revised model were χ2(df = 1669) = 6093.4; CFI = 0.900; GFI =0.926; PCLOSE = 1.00 and RMSAE = 0.030 where each of these indices were above threshold. The overall value of Cronbach’s alpha was 0.899 indicating that the instrument score was reliable. Results imply that the URS is a valid measure describing the college readiness pattern among Sultan Qaboos University students and the Arabic version could be used by university counselors to identify students’ readiness factors. Nevertheless, further validation of the of the USR is recommended.

Keywords: college readiness, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability, validity

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17 Exhaustive Study of Essential Constraint Satisfaction Problem Techniques Based on N-Queens Problem

Authors: Md. Ahsan Ayub, Kazi A. Kalpoma, Humaira Tasnim Proma, Syed Mehrab Kabir, Rakib Ibna Hamid Chowdhury

Abstract:

Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) is observed in various applications, i.e., scheduling problems, timetabling problems, assignment problems, etc. Researchers adopt a CSP technique to tackle a certain problem; however, each technique follows different approaches and ways to solve a problem network. In our exhaustive study, it has been possible to visualize the processes of essential CSP algorithms from a very concrete constraint satisfaction example, NQueens Problem, in order to possess a deep understanding about how a particular constraint satisfaction problem will be dealt with by our studied and implemented techniques. Besides, benchmark results - time vs. value of N in N-Queens - have been generated from our implemented approaches, which help understand at what factor each algorithm produces solutions; especially, in N-Queens puzzle. Thus, extended decisions can be made to instantiate a real life problem within CSP’s framework.

Keywords: arc consistency (AC), backjumping algorithm (BJ), backtracking algorithm (BT), constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), forward checking (FC), least constrained values (LCV), maintaining arc consistency (MAC), minimum remaining values (MRV), N-Queens problem

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16 Aflatoxins Characterization in Remedial Plant-Delphinium denudatum by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Nadeem A. Siddique, Mohd Mujeeb, Kahkashan

Abstract:

Introduction: The objective of the projected work is to study the occurrence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1and G2 in remedial plants, exclusively in Delphinium denudatum. The aflatoxins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC–MS/MS) and immunoaffinity column chromatography were used for extraction and purification of aflatoxins. PDA media was selected for fungal count. Results: A good quality linear relationship was originated for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at 1–10 ppb (r > 0.9995). The analyte precision at three different spiking levels was 88.7–109.1 %, by means of low per cent relative standard deviations in each case. Within 5 to7 min aflatoxins can be separated using an Agilent XDB C18-column. We found that AFB1 and AFB2 were not found in D. denudatum. This was reliable through exceptionally low figures of fungal colonies observed after 6 hr of incubation. The developed analytical method is straightforward, be successfully used to determine the aflatoxins. Conclusion: The developed analytical method is straightforward, simple, accurate, economical and can be successfully used to find out the aflatoxins in remedial plants and consequently to have power over the quality of products. The presence of aflatoxin in the plant extracts was interrelated to the least fungal load in the remedial plants examined.

Keywords: aflatoxins, delphinium denudatum, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry

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15 Pakis and Whites: A Critical View of Nadeem Aslam’s Treatment of Racism in “Maps for Lost Lovers”

Authors: Humaira Tariq

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An issue faced by a majority of immigrants, especially coming from the third world countries, is that of racism. The natives find it very hard to accept people of another race, origin and background amongst them. History is replete with incidents where immigrants have paid a heavy price for being the odd ones out. Being an integral part of the immigrant experience, this issue of racism, is an important theme in most of diaspora related fiction. The present paper will endeavor to expose and explore Nadeem Aslam’s handling of this theme in his novel, 'Maps for Lost Lovers'. The researcher has found Aslam to take an objective stance on this issue, as he shows that where the West is unwilling to accept the immigrants in their midst, there, majority of the immigrants, are also responsible for alienating themselves in the new environment. He shows a kind of persecution mania haunting the immigrants from the third world countries where they feel the condition for being much worse than it actually is. The paper presents a critical view of the handling of racism in Aslam’s novel where he is found to criticize not only the English for their mistreatment of Pakistani immigrants, but is also disapproving of the judgmental attitude of the immigrants.

Keywords: english, immigrants, natives, pakistani, racism

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
14 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Dioscorea Deltoidea Callus Extract and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity

Authors: Mujeeb Mohd, Aqil Mohd, A. K. Najmi, Akhtar MMohd, Vasim Mohd

Abstract:

Dioscorea deltoidea belongs to the Dioscoreaceae family, is usually found in the north-western Himalayas and some other parts of the world up to an altitude of 1000–3000 m. D. deltoidea commonly known as yam and is an extensively used medicinal plant in the indigenous system of medicine. It has been reported to contain dioscine a steroidal glycoside in higher concentration. In the present investigation, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by a simple, efficient, environmentally benevolent and economic microwave-assisted method. Callus culture of D. deltoidea was developed and maintained on Murashige and skooge basal medium supplemented with different combination and concentration of plant growth regulators. Aqueous extract of callus culture was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The presence of a characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band at 430 nm in UV–Vis reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Whereas FTIR analysis was performed to probe the possible functional group involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. Further extract and AgNPs were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against different pathogenic microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Dioscorea deltoidea, microwave, silver, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
13 Analysis and Detection of Facial Expressions in Autism Spectrum Disorder People Using Machine Learning

Authors: Muhammad Maisam Abbas, Salman Tariq, Usama Riaz, Muhammad Tanveer, Humaira Abdul Ghafoor

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a developmental disorder that impairs an individual's communication and interaction ability. Individuals feel difficult to read facial expressions while communicating or interacting. Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is a unique method of classifying basic human expressions, i.e., happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, neutral, and anger through static and dynamic sources. This paper conducts a comprehensive comparison and proposed optimal method for a continued research project—a system that can assist people who have Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in recognizing facial expressions. Comparison has been conducted on three supervised learning algorithms EigenFace, FisherFace, and LBPH. The JAFFE, CK+, and TFEID (I&II) datasets have been used to train and test the algorithms. The results were then evaluated based on variance, standard deviation, and accuracy. The experiments showed that FisherFace has the highest accuracy for all datasets and is considered the best algorithm to be implemented in our system.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, ASD, EigenFace, facial expression recognition, FisherFace, local binary pattern histogram, LBPH

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12 Thrombocytopenia and Prolonged Prothrombin Time in Neonatal Septicemia

Authors: Shittu Bashirat, Shittu Mujeeb, Oluremi Adeolu, Orisadare Olayiwola, Jikeme Osameke, Bello Lateef

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Septicemia in neonates refers to generalized bacterial infection documented by positive blood culture in the first 28 days of life and is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in sub-Sahara Africa. Thrombocytopenia in newborns is a result of increased platelet consumption; sepsis was found to be the most common risk factor. The objective of the study was to determine if there are organism-specific platelet responses among the 2 groups of bacterial agents: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and also to examine the association of platelet count and prothrombin time with neonatal septicemia. 232 blood samples were collected for this study. The blood culture was performed using Bactec 9050, an instrumented blood culture system. The platelet count and prothrombin time were performed using Abacus Junior 5 hematology analyzer and i-STAT 1 analyzer respectively. Of the 231 neonates hospitalized with clinical sepsis, blood culture reports were positive in 51 cases (21.4%). Klebsiella spp. (35.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%) were the most common Gram-negative and Gram-positive isolates respectively. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 30 (58.8%) of the neonates with septicemia. Of the 9 (17.6%) patients with severe thrombocytopenia, seven (77.8%) had Klebsiella spp. septicemia. Out of the 21(63.6%) of thrombocytopenia produced by Gram-negative isolate, 17 (80.9) had increased prothrombin time. In conclusion, Gram-negative organisms showed the highest cases of severe thrombocytopenia and prolonged PT. This study has helped to establish a disturbance in hemostatic systems in neonates with septicemia. Further studies, however, may be required to assess other hemostasis parameters in order to understand their interaction with the infectious organisms in neonates.

Keywords: neonates, septicemia, thrombocytopenia, prolonged prothrombin time, platelet count

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11 Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Diamines and Their Thermally Stable Polyimides

Authors: Zill-E-Huma, Humaira Siddiqi

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This paper comprises of synthesis of thermally stable, mechanically strong polyimides. The polyimides were considered as most diverse class of polymers having unlimited applications. They were widely used as optical wave guides, in aerospace, for gas separation, as biomaterials and in electronics. Here the focus was to increase thermal stability and mechanical strength of polyimides. For this purpose two monomers were synthesized and were further polymerized via anhydrides to polyimides. The monomer diamines were synthesized by nucleophilic attack of aniline/2-fluoro aniline on hydroxy benzaldehydes. The two diamines synthesized were 3-(bis(4-aminophenyl) methyl) phenol (3OHDA) and 4-(bis(4-amino-3-fluorophenyl) methyl) phenol (2F4OHDA). These diamines were then reacted with dianhydrides to get polyimides. Two neat polyimides of both diamines with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and one neat polyimide of 4'-(Hexafluoroisopropylidene) diphthalic dianhydride (6FDA) with 3OHDA were synthesized. To compare the properties of synthesized polyimides like thermal stability, rigidity, flexibility, toughness etc. a commercial diamine oxydianiline (ODA) was used. Polyimides from oxydianiline were basically rigid. Nine different polyimide blends were synthesized from 3OHDA and commercial diamines ODA to have a better comparison of properties. TGA and mechanical testing results showed that with the increase in the percentage of 3OHDA in comparison to ODA the flexibility, toughness, strength of polyimide, thermal stability goes on increasing. So, synthesized diamines were responsible for improvement of properties of polyimides.

Keywords: diamines, dianhydrides, oxydianiline, polyimides

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10 A Retrospective Review of HIV-Infected Pregnant Females with Respect to Gestational Age and Mode of Delivery: Trends over a Decade

Authors: Qurat-ul-Ain, Humaira Mehmood

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Background: HIV infection (a global pandemic) in pregnant women has turn out to be an emerging aspect of public health because of its role in the spread of HIV infection, predominantly among children. Aim: The aim was to analyze the trends of diagnosis with respect to gestational age and an overview of the mode of delivery over ten years. Methods: A retrospective data collection from clinical records of diagnosed HIV infected pregnant females attended at HIV antenatal clinic (special clinic), at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for various complaints during the period of 10 years from February 2007 to December 2016 was done. Results: A total of 113 pregnancies were reported with HIV infection in 10 years. Cases diagnosed at the 1st trimester (1-12 weeks) of pregnancy were (50.4%, 57/113), at the 2nd trimester (13-26 weeks) were (24.8%, 28/113), at the 3rd trimester (27-40+ weeks) were (24.7%, 28/113). Most deliveries were by caesarean section (53.1%, 60/113), elective caesarean sections were (58.3%, 35/60) and emergency caesarean sections were (41.6%,25/60). Vaginal deliveries were (26.5%, 30/113). Reported miscarriages were (17.7%, 20/113). Conclusion: At 1st trimester, 50% of the females were diagnosed with HIV infection, and 50% remained undiagnosed at their 1st trimester. Routine antenatal HIV testing throughout the country is vastly needed for timely diagnoses and prompt treatment(antiretroviral therapy), to suppress the virus, to reduce the risk of spread of HIV infection, to plan elective caesarean section delivery and to prevent mother-to-child transmission.

Keywords: gestational age, HIV infection, mode of delivery, pregnancy

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9 Ideation, Plans, and Attempts for Suicide among Adolescents with Disability

Authors: Nyla Anjum, Humaira Bano

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Disability, regardless of its type and nature limits one or two significant life activities. These limitations constitute risk factors for suicide. Rate and intensity of problem upsurges in critical age of adolescence. Researches in the field of mental health over look problem of suicide among persons with disability. Aim of the study was to investigate prevalence and risk factors for suicide among adolescents with disability. The study constitutes purposive sample of 106 elements of both gender with four major categories of disability: hearing impairment, physical impairment, visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. Face to face interview technique was opted for data collection. Other variable are: socio-economic status, social and family support, provision of services for persons with disability, education and employment opportunities. For data analysis independent sample t-test was applied to find out significant differences in gender and One Way Analysis of variance was run to find out differences among four types of disability. Major predictors of suicide were identified with multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that ideation, plans and attempts of suicide among adolescents with disability is a multifaceted and imperative concern in the area of mental health. Urgent research recommendations contains valid measurement of suicide rate and identification of more risk factors for suicide among persons with disability. Study will also guide towards prevention of this pressing problem and will bring message of happy and healthy life not only for persons with disability but also for their families. It will also help to reduce suicide rate in society.

Keywords: suicide, risk factors, adolescent, disability, mental health

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8 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana

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Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

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7 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Adult Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects

Authors: Mehwish Azam, Muhammad Imran, Humaira Jabeen, Sumreen Begum, Rashida Qasim

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Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors including obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Metabolic syndrome in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Globally, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome ranges from 10%-50% and in Pakistan ranges from 18%-46%. The objective of the present study is to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definitions. Methods: Obese type 2 diabetic subjects and normal healthy subjects of both genders were selected from diabetic clinics and hospitals of various localities of Karachi, Pakistan. The frequency of metabolic syndrome was estimated by the proposed definitions of IDF and NCEP-ATP III. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 85.7%. It is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (47.1%) as compared to males (38.6%). While, using National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) definition the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese type 2 diabetic subjects was 75.7%, the prevalence is significantly higher (p<0.05) in females (45.7%) than males (30.0%). Conclusion: It is concluded that, the overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing significantly in obese type 2 diabetic subjects by using IDF and NCEP–ATP III definitions. Therefore, it is need to initiate the preventive measures by arranging public awareness programmes to highlight the significance of a healthy lifestyle and emphasis should be given to reduce weight, increase physical activity, and increase intake of healthy low-glycemic-index foods.

Keywords: metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, obesity, IDF, NCEP-ATP III

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6 Potential Effects of Climate Change on Streamflow, Based on the Occurrence of Severe Floods in Kelantan, East Coasts of Peninsular Malaysia River Basin

Authors: Muhd. Barzani Gasim, Mohd. Ekhwan Toriman, Mohd. Khairul Amri Kamarudin, Azman Azid, Siti Humaira Haron, Muhammad Hafiz Md. Saad

Abstract:

Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia that constantly exposed to flooding and landslide. The disaster has caused some troubles such loss of property, loss of life and discomfort of people involved. This problem occurs as a result of climate change leading to increased stream flow rate as a result of disruption to regional hydrological cycles. The aim of the study is to determine hydrologic processes in the east coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, especially in Kelantan Basin. Parameterized to account for the spatial and temporal variability of basin characteristics and their responses to climate variability. For hydrological modeling of the basin, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model such as relief, soil type, and its use, and historical daily time series of climate and river flow rates are studied. The interpretation of Landsat map/land uses will be applied in this study. The combined of SWAT and climate models, the system will be predicted an increase in future scenario climate precipitation, increase in surface runoff, increase in recharge and increase in the total water yield. As a result, this model has successfully developed the basin analysis by demonstrating analyzing hydrographs visually, good estimates of minimum and maximum flows and severe floods observed during calibration and validation periods.

Keywords: east coasts of Peninsular Malaysia, Kelantan river basin, minimum and maximum flows, severe floods, SWAT model

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5 The Molecular Analysis of Effect of Phytohormones and Spermidine on Tomato Growth under Biotic Stress

Authors: Rumana Keyani, Haleema Sadia, Asia Nosheen, Rabia Naz, Humaira Yasmin, Sidra Zahoor

Abstract:

Tomato is a significant crop of the world and is one of the staple foods of Pakistan. A vast number of plant pathogens from simple viruses to complex parasites cause diseases in tomatoes but fungal infection in our country is quite high. Sometimes the symptoms are too harsh destroying the crop altogether. Countries like our own with continuously increasing massive population and limited resources cannot afford such an economic loss. There is an array of morphological, genetic, biochemical and molecular processes involved in plant resistance mechanisms to biotic stress. The study of different metabolic pathways like Jasmonic acid (JA) pathways and most importantly signaling molecules like ROS/RNS and their redoxin enzymes i.e. TRX and NRX is crucial to disease management, contributing to healthy plant growth. So, improving tolerance in crop plants against biotic stresses is a dire need of our country and world as whole. In the current study, fungal pathogenic strains Alternaria solani and Rhizoctonia solani were used to inoculate tomatoes to check the defense responses of tomato plant against these pathogens at molecular as well as phenotypic level with jasmonic acid and spermidine pretreatment. All the growth parameters (root and shoot length, dry and weight root, shoot weight measured 7 days post-inoculation, exhibited that infection drastically declined the growth of the plant whereas jasmonic acid and spermidine assisted the plants to cope up with the infection. Thus, JA and Spermidine treatments maintained comparatively better growth factors. Antioxidant assays and expression analysis through real time quantitative PCR following time course experiment at 24, 48 and 72 hours intervals also exhibited that activation of JA defense genes and a polyamine Spermidine helps in mediating tomato responses against fungal infection when used alone but the two treatments combined mask the effect of each other.

Keywords: fungal infection, jasmonic acid defence, tomato, spermidine

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4 Evaluation of Neuroprotective Potential of Olea europaea and Malus domestica in Experimentally Induced Stroke Rat Model

Authors: Humaira M. Khan, Kanwal Asif

Abstract:

Ischemic stroke is a neurological disorder with a complex pathophysiology associated with motor, sensory and cognitive deficits. Major approaches developed to treat acute ischemic stroke fall into two categories, thrombolysis and neuroprotection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the neuroprotective and anti-thrombolytic effects of Olea europaea (olive oil) and Malus domestica (apple cider vinegar) and their combination in rat stroke model. Furthermore, histopathological analysis was also performed to assess the severity of ischemia among treated and reference groups. Male albino rats (12 months age) weighing 300- 350gm were acclimatized and subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion method for stroke induction. Olea europaea and Malus domestica was administered orally in dose of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg and combination was administered at dose of 0.375ml/kg and 1.5ml/kg prophylactically for consecutive 21 days. Negative control group was dosed with normal saline whereas piracetam (250mg/kg) was administered as reference. Neuroprotective activity of standard piracetam, Olea europaea, Malus domestica and their combination was evaluated by performing functional outcome tests i.e. Cylinder, pasta, ladder run, pole and water maize tests. Rats were subjected to surgery after 21 days of treatment for analysis from stroke recovery. Olea europaea and Malus domestica in individual doses of 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively showed neuroprotection by significant improvement in ladder run test (121.6± 0.92;128.2 ± 0.73) as compare to reference (125.4 ± 0.74). Both test doses showed significant neuroprotection as compare to reference (9.60 ± 0.50) in pasta test (8.40 ± 0.24;9.80 ± 0.37) whereas with cylinder test, experimental groups showed significant increase in movements (6.60 ± 0.24; 8.40 ± 0.24) in contrast to reference (7.80 ± 0.37).There was a decrease in percentage time taken f to reach the hidden maize in water maize test (56.80 ± 0.58;61.80 ± 0.66) at doses 0.75ml/kg and 3ml/kg respectively as compare to piracetam (59.40 ± 1.07). Olea europaea and Malus domestica individually showed significant reduction in duration of mobility (127.0 ± 0.44; 123.0 ± 0.44) in pole test as compare to piracetam (124.0 ± 0.70). Histopathological analysis revealed the significant extent of protection from ischemia after prophylactic treatments. Hence it is concluded that Olea europaea and Malus domestica are effective neuroprotective agents alone as compare to their combination.

Keywords: ischemia, Malus domestica, neuroprotection, Olea europaea

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3 Socioeconomic Burden of Life Long Disease: A Case of Diabetes Care in Bangladesh

Authors: Samira Humaira Habib

Abstract:

Diabetes has profound effects on individuals and their families. If diabetes is not well monitored and managed, then it leads to long-term complications and a large and growing cost to the health care system. Prevalence and socioeconomic burden of diabetes and relative return of investment for the elimination or the reduction of the burden are much more important regarding its cost burden. Various studies regarding the socioeconomic cost burden of diabetes are well explored in developed countries but almost absent in developing countries like Bangladesh. The main objective of the study is to estimate the total socioeconomic burden of diabetes. It is a prospective longitudinal follow up study which is analytical in nature. Primary and secondary data are collected from patients who are undergoing treatment for diabetes at the out-patient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research & Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM). Of the 2115 diabetic subjects, females constitute around 50.35% of the study subject, and the rest are male (49.65%). Among the subjects, 1323 are controlled, and 792 are uncontrolled diabetes. Cost analysis of 2115 diabetic patients shows that the total cost of diabetes management and treatment is US$ 903018 with an average of US$ 426.95 per patient. In direct cost, the investigation and medical treatment at hospital along with investigation constitute most of the cost in diabetes. The average cost of a hospital is US$ 311.79, which indicates an alarming warn for diabetic patients. The indirect cost shows that cost of productivity loss (US$ 51110.1) is higher among the all indirect item. All constitute total indirect cost as US$ 69215.7. The incremental cost of intensive management of uncontrolled diabetes is US$ 101.54 per patient and event-free time gained in this group is 0.55 years and the life years gain is 1.19 years. The incremental cost per event-free year gained is US$ 198.12. The incremental cost of intensive management of the controlled group is US$ 89.54 per patient and event-free time gained is 0.68 years, and the life year gain is 1.12 years. The incremental cost per event-free year gained is US$ 223.34. The EuroQoL difference between the groups is found to be 64.04. The cost-effective ratio is found to be US$ 1.64 cost per effect in case of controlled diabetes and US$ 1.69 cost per effect in case of uncontrolled diabetes. So management of diabetes is much more cost-effective. Cost of young type 1 diabetic patient showed upper socioeconomic class, and with the increase of the duration of diabetes, the cost increased also. The dietary pattern showed macronutrients intake and cost are significantly higher in the uncontrolled group than their counterparts. Proper management and control of diabetes can decrease the cost of care for the long term.

Keywords: cost, cost-effective, chronic diseases, diabetes care, burden, Bangladesh

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2 Enhancing Efficiency of Building through Translucent Concrete

Authors: Humaira Athar, Brajeshwar Singh

Abstract:

Generally, the brightness of the indoor environment of buildings is entirely maintained by the artificial lighting which has consumed a large amount of resources. It is reported that lighting consumes about 19% of the total generated electricity which accounts for about 30-40% of total energy consumption. One possible way is to reduce the lighting energy by exploiting sunlight either through the use of suitable devices or energy efficient materials like translucent concrete. Translucent concrete is one such architectural concrete which allows the passage of natural light as well as artificial light through it. Several attempts have been made on different aspects of translucent concrete such as light guiding materials (glass fibers, plastic fibers, cylinder etc.), concrete mix design and manufacturing methods for use as building elements. Concerns are, however, raised on various related issues such as poor compatibility between the optical fibers and cement paste, unaesthetic appearance due to disturbance occurred in the arrangement of fibers during vibration and high shrinkage in flowable concrete due to its high water/cement ratio. Need is felt to develop translucent concrete to meet the requirement of structural safety as OPC concrete with the maximized saving in energy towards the power of illumination and thermal load in buildings. Translucent concrete was produced using pre-treated plastic optical fibers (POF, 2mm dia.) and high slump white concrete. The concrete mix was proportioned in the ratio of 1:1.9:2.1 with a w/c ratio of 0.40. The POF was varied from 0.8-9 vol.%. The mechanical properties and light transmission of this concrete were determined. Thermal conductivity of samples was measured by a transient plate source technique. Daylight illumination was measured by a lux grid method as per BIS:SP-41. It was found that the compressive strength of translucent concrete increased with decreasing optical fiber content. An increase of ~28% in the compressive strength of concrete was noticed when fiber was pre-treated. FE-SEM images showed little-debonded zone between the fibers and cement paste which was well supported with pull-out bond strength test results (~187% improvement over untreated). The light transmission of concrete was in the range of 3-7% depending on fiber spacing (5-20 mm). The average daylight illuminance (~75 lux) was nearly equivalent to the criteria specified for illumination for circulation (80 lux). The thermal conductivity of translucent concrete was reduced by 28-40% with respect to plain concrete. The thermal load calculated by heat conduction equation was ~16% more than the plain concrete. Based on Design-Builder software, the total annual illumination energy load of a room using one side translucent concrete was 162.36 kW compared with the energy load of 249.75 kW for a room without concrete. The calculated energy saving on an account of the power of illumination was ~25%. A marginal improvement towards thermal comfort was also noticed. It is concluded that the translucent concrete has the advantages of the existing concrete (load bearing) with translucency and insulation characteristics. It saves a significant amount of energy by providing natural daylight instead of artificial power consumption of illumination.

Keywords: energy saving, light transmission, microstructure, plastic optical fibers, translucent concrete

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1 Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behaviour in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Cambodia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Farwa Rizvi, Joanne Williams, Humaira Maheen, Elizabeth Hoban

Abstract:

There is an increase in risky sexual behavior and unsafe sex in adolescent girls and young women aged 15 to 24 years in Cambodia, which negatively affects their reproductive health by increasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Risky sexual behavior includes ‘having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sexual behaviors’. A systematic review of quantitative research conducted in Cambodia was undertaken, using the theoretical framework of the Social Ecological Model to identify the personal, social and cultural factors associated with risky sexual behavior and unsafe sex in young Cambodian women. PRISMA guidelines were used to search databases including Medline Complete, PsycINFO, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, and Social Work Abstracts. Additional searches were conducted in Science Direct, Google Scholar and in the grey literature sources. A risk-of-bias tool developed explicitly for the systematic review of cross-sectional studies was used. Summary item on the overall risk of study bias after the inter-rater response showed that the risk-of-bias was high in two studies, moderate in one study and low in one study. The search strategy included a combination of subject terms and free text terms. The medical subject headings (MeSH) terms included were; contracept* or ‘birth control’ or ‘family planning’ or pregnan* or ‘safe sex’ or ‘protected intercourse’ or ‘unprotected intercourse’ or ‘protected sex’ or ‘unprotected sex’ or ‘risky sexual behaviour*’ or ‘abort*’ or ‘planned parenthood’ or ‘unplanned pregnancy’ AND ( barrier* or obstacle* or challenge* or knowledge or attitude* or factor* or determinant* or choic* or uptake or discontinu* or acceptance or satisfaction or ‘needs assessment’ or ‘non-use’ or ‘unmet need’ or ‘decision making’ ) AND Cambodia*. Initially, 300 studies were identified by using key words and finally, four quantitative studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The four studies were published between 2010 and 2016. The study participants ranged in age from 10-24 years, single or married, with 3 to 10 completed years of education. The mean age at sexual debut was reported to be 18 years. Using the perspective of the Social Ecological Model, risky sexual behavior was associated with individual-level factors including young age at sexual debut, low education, unsafe sex under the influence of alcohol and substance abuse, multiple sexual partners or transactional sex. Family level factors included living away from parents, orphan status and low levels of family support. Peer and partner level factors included peer delinquency and lack of condom use. Low socioeconomic status at the society level was also associated with risky sexual behaviour. There is scant research on sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in Cambodia. Individual, family and social factors were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. More research is required to inform potential preventive strategies and policies that address young women’s sexual and reproductive health.

Keywords: adolescents, high-risk sex, sexual activity, unplanned pregnancies

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