Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1791

Search results for: vital signs

1791 Anthropometric Profile and Its Influence on the Vital Signs of Baja California College Students

Authors: J. A. Lopez, J. E. Olguin, C. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martinez


An anthropometric study applied to 1,115 students of the Faculty of Chemical Sciences and Engineering of the Autonomous University of California. Thirteen individual measurements were taken in a sitting position. The results obtained allow forming a reliable anthropometric database for statistical studies and analysis and inferences of specific distributions, so the opinion of experts in occupational medicine recommendations may emit to reduce risks resulting in an alteration of the vital signs during the execution of their school activities. Another use of these analyses is to use them as a reliable reference for future deeper research, to the design of spaces, tools, utensils, workstations, with anthropometric dimensions and ergonomic characteristics suitable to use.

Keywords: anthropometry, vital signs, students, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1790 Smart Wheel Chair: A Design to Accommodate Vital Sign Monitoring

Authors: Stephanie Nihan, Jayson M. Fadrigalan, Pyay P. San, Steven M. Santos, Weihui Li


People of all ages who use wheelchairs are left with the inconvenience of not having an easy way to take their vital signs. Typically, patients are required to visit the hospital in order to take the vital signs. VitalGO is a wheel chair system that equipped with medical devices to take vital signs and then transmit data to a mobile application for convenient, long term health monitoring. The vital signs include oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure, breathing rate and body temperature. Oxygen saturation and heart rate are monitored through pulse oximeter. Blood pressure is taken through a radar sensor. Breathing rate is derived through thoracic impedance while body temperature is measured through an infrared thermometer. The application receives data through bluetooth and stores in a database for review in a simple graphical interface. The application will have the ability to display this data over various time intervals such as a day, week, month, 3 months, 6 months and a year. The final system for the mobile app can also provide an interface for both the user and their physician(s) to record notes or keep record of daily symptoms that a patient might be having. The user’s doctor will be granted access by the user to view the patient information for assistance with a more accurate diagnosis. Also, this wheelchair accessory conveniently includes a foldable table/desk as somewhere to place an electronic device that may be used to access the app. The foldable table will overall contribute to the wheelchair user’s increased comfort and will give them somewhere to place food, a book, or any other form of entertainment that would normally be hard to juggle on their lap.

Keywords: wheel chair, vital sign, mobile application, telemedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1789 Alternative Epinephrine Injector to Combat Allergy Induced Anaphylaxis

Authors: Jeremy Bost, Matthew Brett, Jacob Flynn, Weihui Li


One response during anaphylaxis is reduced blood pressure due to blood vessels relaxing and dilating. Epinephrine causes the blood vessels to constrict, which raises blood pressure to counteract the symptoms. When going through an allergic reaction, an Epinephrine injector is used to administer a shot of epinephrine intramuscularly. Epinephrine injectors have become an integral part of day-to-day life for people with allergies. Current Epinephrine injectors (EpiPen) are completely mechanical and have no sensors to monitor the vital signs of patients or give suggestions the optimal time for the shot. The EpiPens are also large and inconvenient to carry daily. The current price of an EpiPen is roughly 600$ for a pack of two. This makes carrying an EpiPen very expensive, especially when they need to be switched out when the epinephrine expires. This new design is in the form of a bracelet, which has the ability to inject epinephrine. The bracelet will be equipped with vital signs monitors that can aid the patient to sense the allergic reaction. The vital signs that would be of interest are blood pressure, heart rate and Electrodermal activity (EDA). The heart rate of the patient will be tracked by a photoplethysmograph (PPG) that is incorporated into the sensors. The heart rate is expected to increase during anaphylaxis. Blood pressure will be monitored through a radar sensor, which monitors the phase changes in electromagnetic waves as they reflect off of the blood vessel. EDA is under autonomic control. Allergen-induced anaphylaxis is caused by a release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils, thus changes the autonomic activity of the patient. So by measuring EDA, it will give the wearer an alert on how their autonomic nervous system is reacting. After the vital signs are collected, they will be sent to an application on a smartphone to be analyzed, which can then alert an emergency contact if the epinephrine injector on the bracelet is activated. Overall, this design creates a safer system by aiding the user in keeping track of their epinephrine injector, while making it easier to track their vital signs. Also, our design will be more affordable and more convenient to replace. Rather than replacing the entire product, only the needle and drug will be switched out and not the entire design.

Keywords: allergy, anaphylaxis, epinephrine, injector, vital signs monitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1788 Prediction of Sepsis Illness from Patients Vital Signs Using Long Short-Term Memory Network and Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Marcio Freire Cruz, Naoaki Ono, Shigehiko Kanaya, Carlos Arthur Mattos Teixeira Cavalcante


The systems that record patient care information, known as Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and those that monitor vital signs of patients, such as heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure have been extremely valuable for the effectiveness of the patient’s treatment. Several kinds of research have been using data from EMRs and vital signs of patients to predict illnesses. Among them, we highlight those that intend to predict, classify, or, at least identify patterns, of sepsis illness in patients under vital signs monitoring. Sepsis is an organic dysfunction caused by a dysregulated patient's response to an infection that affects millions of people worldwide. Early detection of sepsis is expected to provide a significant improvement in its treatment. Preceding works usually combined medical, statistical, mathematical and computational models to develop detection methods for early prediction, getting higher accuracies, and using the smallest number of variables. Among other techniques, we could find researches using survival analysis, specialist systems, machine learning and deep learning that reached great results. In our research, patients are modeled as points moving each hour in an n-dimensional space where n is the number of vital signs (variables). These points can reach a sepsis target point after some time. For now, the sepsis target point was calculated using the median of all patients’ variables on the sepsis onset. From these points, we calculate for each hour the position vector, the first derivative (velocity vector) and the second derivative (acceleration vector) of the variables to evaluate their behavior. And we construct a prediction model based on a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Network, including these derivatives as explanatory variables. The accuracy of the prediction 6 hours before the time of sepsis, considering only the vital signs reached 83.24% and by including the vectors position, speed, and acceleration, we obtained 94.96%. The data are being collected from Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) Database, a public database that contains vital signs, laboratory test results, observations, notes, and so on, from more than 60.000 patients.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, long short-term memory, prediction, sepsis

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1787 Evaluation of the Analytic for Hemodynamic Instability as a Prediction Tool for Early Identification of Patient Deterioration

Authors: Bryce Benson, Sooin Lee, Ashwin Belle


Unrecognized or delayed identification of patient deterioration is a key cause of in-hospitals adverse events. Clinicians rely on vital signs monitoring to recognize patient deterioration. However, due to ever increasing nursing workloads and the manual effort required, vital signs tend to be measured and recorded intermittently, and inconsistently causing large gaps during patient monitoring. Additionally, during deterioration, the body’s autonomic nervous system activates compensatory mechanisms causing the vital signs to be lagging indicators of underlying hemodynamic decline. This study analyzes the predictive efficacy of the Analytic for Hemodynamic Instability (AHI) system, an automated tool that was designed to help clinicians in early identification of deteriorating patients. The lead time analysis in this retrospective observational study assesses how far in advance AHI predicted deterioration prior to the start of an episode of hemodynamic instability (HI) becoming evident through vital signs? Results indicate that of the 362 episodes of HI in this study, 308 episodes (85%) were correctly predicted by the AHI system with a median lead time of 57 minutes and an average of 4 hours (240.5 minutes). Of the 54 episodes not predicted, AHI detected 45 of them while the episode of HI was ongoing. Of the 9 undetected, 5 were not detected by AHI due to either missing or noisy input ECG data during the episode of HI. In total, AHI was able to either predict or detect 98.9% of all episodes of HI in this study. These results suggest that AHI could provide an additional ‘pair of eyes’ on patients, continuously filling the monitoring gaps and consequently giving the patient care team the ability to be far more proactive in patient monitoring and adverse event management.

Keywords: clinical deterioration prediction, decision support system, early warning system, hemodynamic status, physiologic monitoring

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1786 Contribution of Automated Early Warning Score Usage to Patient Safety

Authors: Phang Moon Leng


Automated Early Warning Scores is a newly developed clinical decision tool that is used to streamline and improve the process of obtaining a patient’s vital signs so a clinical decision can be made at an earlier stage to prevent the patient from further deterioration. This technology provides immediate update on the score and clinical decision to be taken based on the outcome. This paper aims to study the use of an automated early warning score system on whether the technology has assisted the hospital in early detection and escalation of clinical condition and improve patient outcome. The hospital adopted the Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) Scoring System and MEWS Clinical Response into Philips IntelliVue Guardian Automated Early Warning Score equipment and studied whether the process has been leaned, whether the use of technology improved the usage & experience of the nurses, and whether the technology has improved patient care and outcome. It was found the steps required to obtain vital signs has been significantly reduced and is used more frequently to obtain patient vital signs. The number of deaths, and length of stay has significantly decreased as clinical decisions can be made and escalated more quickly with the Automated EWS. The automated early warning score equipment has helped improve work efficiency by removing the need for documenting into patient’s EMR. The technology streamlines clinical decision-making and allows faster care and intervention to be carried out and improves overall patient outcome which translates to better care for patient.

Keywords: automated early warning score, clinical quality and safety, patient safety, medical technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
1785 A Study on Establishing Criteria for Installation of Small Road Signs

Authors: Sang-KeunBaik, Kyu-Soo Chong, Joon-Yeop Na


This study attempts to reduce the wind load of road signs, improve roadside landscaping, and enhance the safety of road users by establishing criteria for the installation of small road signs. First, we derive the minimum font size that can be used on road signs according to the road’s design speed by considering the visibility and legibility of such road signs. We classify road junctions into eight types based on junction type (intersection, interchange, and expressway) and on the number of road lanes. Furthermore, we propose small sign alternatives, to which the minimum font size is applied, to be placed by each road junction. To verify the effects of the small signs, we implemented a 3D simulation road environment, to which the small road signs were applied, and performed experiments using the driving simulator targeting 50 drivers. The experiments compared and analyzed the effects, whether the driver proceeds to the desired exit and the average driving time, between the existing large road signs and the improved small road signs under the same road conditions and intersection type. We conducted a survey with the participants of the simulation experiment on the preference between graphical signs (large road signs) and exit-centric signs (small road signs). The results show that the participants prefer the exit-centric signs (60%) to the graphical signs (40%). We propose installation criteria for small road signs for intersections, interchanges, and expressways based on the results of the experiment and the survey.

Keywords: 3D simulation, driving simulator, legibility distance, minimum font size, small road signs

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
1784 Remote Vital Signs Monitoring in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Using a Digital Camera

Authors: Fatema-Tuz-Zohra Khanam, Ali Al-Naji, Asanka G. Perera, Kim Gibson, Javaan Chahl


Conventional contact-based vital signs monitoring sensors such as pulse oximeters or electrocardiogram (ECG) may cause discomfort, skin damage, and infections, particularly in neonates with fragile, sensitive skin. Therefore, remote monitoring of the vital sign is desired in both clinical and non-clinical settings to overcome these issues. Camera-based vital signs monitoring is a recent technology for these applications with many positive attributes. However, there are still limited camera-based studies on neonates in a clinical setting. In this study, the heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) of eight infants at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Flinders Medical Centre were remotely monitored using a digital camera applying color and motion-based computational methods. The region-of-interest (ROI) was efficiently selected by incorporating an image decomposition method. Furthermore, spatial averaging, spectral analysis, band-pass filtering, and peak detection were also used to extract both HR and RR. The experimental results were validated with the ground truth data obtained from an ECG monitor and showed a strong correlation using the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) 0.9794 and 0.9412 for HR and RR, respectively. The RMSE between camera-based data and ECG data for HR and RR were 2.84 beats/min and 2.91 breaths/min, respectively. A Bland Altman analysis of the data also showed a close correlation between both data sets with a mean bias of 0.60 beats/min and 1 breath/min, and the lower and upper limit of agreement -4.9 to + 6.1 beats/min and -4.4 to +6.4 breaths/min for both HR and RR, respectively. Therefore, video camera imaging may replace conventional contact-based monitoring in NICU and has potential applications in other contexts such as home health monitoring.

Keywords: neonates, NICU, digital camera, heart rate, respiratory rate, image decomposition

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1783 Nonverbal Signs in Television Advertisements: A Semiotics Perspective

Authors: Yemi Mahmud


Semiotics is the study of signs and symbols as significations in a communication process. Television advertisement combines verbal and nonverbal signs to apprise consumers of products’ deliverables. This makes the language of television advertisement an important area of semiotic research. This paper focuses on nonverbal signs in television advertisement in purposively selected advertisements of two Nivea beauty products television advertisements: New Nivea Natural Fairness and Nivea Natural Fairness Lotion in Nigeria to investigate signs in meaning construction. It studies the interpretative realities of the signification of the nonverbal signs in television advertisements in Nigeria; examining signs in relation to the embedded and contextual meanings they are capable of exhuming vis-a-vis, viewers’ social and cultural senses extrapolated to draw inferences. The paper anchors its research on visual rhetorics and concludes that signs, as nonverbal elements in television advertisements, form part of the entire linguistic system of meaning transmission, noting that interpretations do not rely, solely, on the intrinsic properties of signs as signifiers, but on the imbued sociocultural elements that suggest meaning to viewers.

Keywords: Nivea, nonverbal signs, semiotics, signification, signifiers, television advertisement

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1782 A Fuzzy Logic Based Health Assesment Platform

Authors: J. Al-Dmour, A. Sagahyroon, A. Al-Ali, S. Abusnana


Radio Frequency Based Identification Systems have emerged as one of the possible valuable solutions that can be utilized in healthcare systems. Nowadays, RFID tags are available with built-in human vital signs sensors such as Body Temperature, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Blood Sugar level and Oxygen Saturation in Blood. This work proposes the design, implementation, and testing of an integrated mobile RFID-based health care system. The system consists of a wireless mobile vital signs data acquisition unit (RFID-DAQ) integrated with a fuzzy-logic–based software algorithm to monitor and assess patients conditions. The system is implemented and tested in ‘Rashid Center for Diabetes and Research’, Ajman, UAE. System testing results are compared with the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) that is currently used in practice. We demonstrate that the proposed and implemented system exhibits an accuracy level that is comparable and sometimes better than the widely adopted MEWS system.

Keywords: healthcare, fuzzy logic, MEWS, RFID

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1781 Effect of Lullabies on Babies Growth and Development, Vital Signs and Hospitalization Times in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units

Authors: Işın Alkan, Meltem Kürtüncü


Objective: This study was carried out with an experimental design in order to determine whether the lullaby, which was listened from mother’s voice and a stranger’s voice to the babies born at term and hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit, had an effect on saturation values (SpO2), peak heart rate (PHR), respiration, fever, growth and development and hospitalization times of the infants. Method: Data from the study were obtained from 90 newborn babies who were hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Zonguldak Maternity And Children Hospital between September 2015-January 2016 and who met the eligibility criteria. Lullaby concert was performed by choosing one of the suitable care hours. SpO2, PHR, respiration, fever, growth and development and hospitalization times of the infants were recorded by the researcher on “Newborn response follow-up form” at pre-care and post-care. Vital signs of babies every day, weight, height and head circumference measurements at admission, weakly rated at an output. Results: In the experimental and control groups, like weight, height and head circumference anthropometric measurements were not found statistically significant difference intensive care units admission and output times. Hospitalization times on babies who listen to lullaby mother’s voice revealed statistically significant difference according to babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice. Before care and after care were examined, SpO2 rates of babies who listen to lullaby mother’s voice revealed statistically significant higher difference according to babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice and control group babies. Before care on PHR of babies in three groups were not found the statistical difference, but aftercare, it was found that statistically lower (normal range) on babies who listen to lullaby mother’s voice according to babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice. Before care in three groups were not found the statistical difference on respiration values of babies, but aftercare, it was found that statistically lower (normal range) on babies who listen to lullaby stranger’s voice according to babies who listen to mother’s voice and control groups. Before care and after care were examined, fever signs did not reveal statistically significant difference in three groups. Conclusion: Lullaby concerts as being normal ranges of vital signs of infants and also helping to shorten hospitalization times should be preferred in the neonatal intensive care units.

Keywords: growth and development, lullaby, mother voice, vital signs

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
1780 A Copula-Based Approach for the Assessment of Severity of Illness and Probability of Mortality: An Exploratory Study Applied to Intensive Care Patients

Authors: Ainura Tursunalieva, Irene Hudson


Continuous improvement of both the quality and safety of health care is an important goal in Australia and internationally. The intensive care unit (ICU) receives patients with a wide variety of and severity of illnesses. Accurately identifying patients at risk of developing complications or dying is crucial to increasing healthcare efficiency. Thus, it is essential for clinicians and researchers to have a robust framework capable of evaluating the risk profile of a patient. ICU scoring systems provide such a framework. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II are ICU scoring systems frequently used for assessing the severity of acute illness. These scoring systems collect multiple risk factors for each patient including physiological measurements then render the assessment outcomes of individual risk factors into a single numerical value. A higher score is related to a more severe patient condition. Furthermore, the Mortality Probability Model II uses logistic regression based on independent risk factors to predict a patient’s probability of mortality. An important overlooked limitation of SAPS II and MPM II is that they do not, to date, include interaction terms between a patient’s vital signs. This is a prominent oversight as it is likely there is an interplay among vital signs. The co-existence of certain conditions may pose a greater health risk than when these conditions exist independently. One barrier to including such interaction terms in predictive models is the dimensionality issue as it becomes difficult to use variable selection. We propose an innovative scoring system which takes into account a dependence structure among patient’s vital signs, such as systolic and diastolic blood pressures, heart rate, pulse interval, and peripheral oxygen saturation. Copulas will capture the dependence among normally distributed and skewed variables as some of the vital sign distributions are skewed. The estimated dependence parameter will then be incorporated into the traditional scoring systems to adjust the points allocated for the individual vital sign measurements. The same dependence parameter will also be used to create an alternative copula-based model for predicting a patient’s probability of mortality. The new copula-based approach will accommodate not only a patient’s trajectories of vital signs but also the joint dependence probabilities among the vital signs. We hypothesise that this approach will produce more stable assessments and lead to more time efficient and accurate predictions. We will use two data sets: (1) 250 ICU patients admitted once to the Chui Regional Hospital (Kyrgyzstan) and (2) 37 ICU patients’ agitation-sedation profiles collected by the Hunter Medical Research Institute (Australia). Both the traditional scoring approach and our copula-based approach will be evaluated using the Brier score to indicate overall model performance, the concordance (or c) statistic to indicate the discriminative ability (or area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve), and goodness-of-fit statistics for calibration. We will also report discrimination and calibration values and establish visualization of the copulas and high dimensional regions of risk interrelating two or three vital signs in so-called higher dimensional ROCs.

Keywords: copula, intensive unit scoring system, ROC curves, vital sign dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
1779 Proposition of an Ontology of Diseases and Their Signs from Medical Ontologies Integration

Authors: Adama Sow, Abdoulaye Guiss´e, Oumar Niang


To assist medical diagnosis, we propose a federation of several existing and open medical ontologies and terminologies. The goal is to merge the strengths of all these resources to provide clinicians the access to a variety of shared knowledges that can facilitate identification and association of human diseases and all of their available characteristic signs such as symptoms and clinical signs. This work results to an integration model loaded from target known ontologies of the bioportal platform such as DOID, MESH, and SNOMED for diseases selection, SYMP, and CSSO for all existing signs.

Keywords: medical decision, medical ontologies, ontologies integration, linked data, knowledge engineering, e-health system

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
1778 An Effective Noise Resistant Frequency Modulation Continuous-Wave Radar Vital Sign Signal Detection Method

Authors: Lu Yang, Meiyang Song, Xiang Yu, Wenhao Zhou, Chuntao Feng


To address the problem that the FM continuous-wave radar (FMCW) extracts human vital sign signals which are susceptible to noise interference and low reconstruction accuracy, a new detection scheme for the sign signals is proposed. Firstly, an improved complete ensemble empirical modal decomposition with adaptive noise (ICEEMDAN) algorithm is applied to decompose the radar-extracted thoracic signals to obtain several intrinsic modal functions (IMF) with different spatial scales, and then the IMF components are optimized by a BP neural network improved by immune genetic algorithm (IGA). The simulation results show that this scheme can effectively separate the noise and accurately extract the respiratory and heartbeat signals and improve the reconstruction accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio of the sign signals.

Keywords: frequency modulated continuous wave radar, ICEEMDAN, BP neural network, vital signs signal

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1777 Exploring the Visual Representations of Neon Signs and Its Vernacular Tacit Knowledge of Neon Making

Authors: Brian Kwok


Hong Kong is well-known for its name as "the Pearl of the Orient", due to its spectacular night-view with vast amount of decorative neon lights on the streets. Neon signs are first used as the pervasive media of communication for all kinds of commercial advertising, ranging from movie theatres to nightclubs and department stores, and later appropriated by artists as medium of artwork. As a well-established visual language, it displays texts in bilingual format due to British's colonial influence, which are sometimes arranged in an opposite reading order. Research on neon signs as a visual representation is rare but significant because they are part of people’s collective memories of the unique cityscapes which associate the shifting values of people's daily lives and culture identity. Nevertheless, with the current policy to remove abandoned neon signs, their total number dramatically declines recently. The Buildings Department found an estimation of 120,000 unauthorized signboards (including neon signs) in Hong Kong in 2013, and the removal of such is at a rate of estimated 1,600 per year since 2006. In other words, the vernacular cultural values and historical continuity of neon signs will gradually be vanished if no immediate action is taken in documenting them for the purpose of research and cultural preservation. Therefore, the Hong Kong Neon Signs Archive project was established in June of 2015, and over 100 neon signs are photo-documented so far. By content analysis, this project will explore the two components of neon signs – the use of visual languages and vernacular tacit knowledge of neon makers. It attempts to answer these questions about Hong Kong's neon signs: 'What are the ways in which visual representations are used to produce our cityscapes and streetscapes?'; 'What are the visual languages and conventions of usage in different business types?'; 'What the intact knowledge are applied when producing these visual forms of neon signs?'

Keywords: cityscapes, neon signs, tacit knowledge, visual representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1776 Clinical Signs of River Blindness and the Efficacy of Ivermectin Therapy in Idogun, Ondo State-Nigeria

Authors: Afolabi O.J, Simon-Oke I.A., Oniya M.O., Okaka C.E.


River blindness is a skin, and an eye disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus and vectored by a female hematophagous blackfly. The study aims to evaluate the distribution of the clinical signs of river blindness and the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of river blindness in Idogun. Observational studies in epidemiology that involve the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain useful epidemiological information from the respondents, physical assessment via palpation from head to ankle was used to assess clinical signs from the respondents and skin snip test was used to evaluate the prevalence of the disease. The efficacy of the drug was evaluated and expressed in percentages. One hundred and ninety-two (192) out of the 384 respondents examined, showed various signs of river blindness. However, it was only 108 (28.1%) respondents with the clinical signs that demonstrated Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae in their skin snips. The clinical signs observed among the respondents include skin depigmentation such as dermatitis, leopard skin, papules, pruritus and self-inflicted injury, while ocular symptoms include cataract, ocular lesion and partial blindness. Among these clinical signs, papules, and pruritus were the most dominant in the community. The prevalence of the clinical signs was observed to vary significantly among the age groups and gender (P<0.05). The efficacy of the drug after 6 and 12 months of treatments shows that the drug is more effective at age groups 10-50 years than the age groups 51-90 years. Ivermectin is observed to be efficacious in the treatment of the disease. However, to achieve eradication of the disease, the drug may be administered at 0.15mg/kg twice a year.

Keywords: riverblindness, clinical signs, ivermectin, Idogun

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1775 Physiological Assessment for Straightforward Symptom Identification (PASSify): An Oral Diagnostic Device for Infants

Authors: Kathryn Rooney, Kaitlyn Eddy, Evan Landers, Weihui Li


The international mortality rate for neonates and infants has been declining at a disproportionally low rate when compared to the overall decline in child mortality in recent decades. A significant portion of infant deaths could be prevented with the implementation of low-cost and easy to use physiological monitoring devices, by enabling early identification of symptoms before they progress into life-threatening illnesses. The oral diagnostic device discussed in this paper serves to continuously monitor the key vital signs of body temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. The device mimics an infant pacifier, designed to be easily tolerated by infants as well as orthodontically inert. The fundamental measurements are gathered via thermistors and a pulse oximeter, each encapsulated in medical-grade silicone and wired internally to a microcontroller chip. The chip then translates the raw measurements into physiological values via an internal algorithm, before outputting the data to a liquid crystal display screen and an Android application. Additionally, a biological sample collection chamber is incorporated into the internal portion of the device. The movement within the oral chamber created by sucking on the pacifier-like device pushes saliva through a small check valve in the distal end, where it is accumulated and stored. The collection chamber can be easily removed, making the sample readily available to be tested for various diseases and analytes. With the vital sign monitoring and sample collection offered by this device, abnormal fluctuations in physiological parameters can be identified and appropriate medical care can be sought. This device enables preventative diagnosis for infants who may otherwise have gone undiagnosed, due to the inaccessibility of healthcare that plagues vast numbers of underprivileged populations.

Keywords: neonate mortality, infant mortality, low-cost diagnostics, vital signs, saliva testing, preventative care

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1774 Conflicts and Complexities: a Study of Hong Kong's Bilingual Street Signs from Functional Perspective on Translation

Authors: Ge Song


Hong Kong’s bilingual street signs declare a kind of correspondence, equivalence and thus translation between the English and Chinese languages. This study finds four translation phenomena among the street signs: domestication with positive connotation, foreignization with negative connotation, bilingual incompatibilities, and cross-street complexities. The interplay of, and the tension between, the four features open up a space where the local and the foreign, the vulgar and the elegant, alternate and experiment with each other, creating a kaleidoscope of methods for expressing and domesticating foreign otherness by virtue of translation. An analysis of the phenomena from the functional perspective reveals how translation has been emancipated to inform a variety of dimensions. This study also renews our understanding of translation as both a concept and a practice.

Keywords: street signs, linguistic landscape, cultural hybridity, Hong Kong

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1773 Computerized Analysis of Phonological Structure of 10,400 Brazilian Sign Language Signs

Authors: Wanessa G. Oliveira, Fernando C. Capovilla


Capovilla and Raphael’s Libras Dictionary documents a corpus of 4,200 Brazilian Sign Language (Libras) signs. Duduchi and Capovilla’s software SignTracking permits users to retrieve signs even when ignoring the gloss corresponding to it and to discover the meaning of all 4,200 signs sign simply by clicking on graphic menus of the sign characteristics (phonemes). Duduchi and Capovilla have discovered that the ease with which any given sign can be retrieved is an inverse function of the average popularity of its component phonemes. Thus, signs composed of rare (distinct) phonemes are easier to retrieve than are those composed of common phonemes. SignTracking offers a means of computing the average popularity of the phonemes that make up each one of 4,200 signs. It provides a precise measure of the degree of ease with which signs can be retrieved, and sign meanings can be discovered. Duduchi and Capovilla’s logarithmic model proved valid: The degree with which any given sign can be retrieved is an inverse function of the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the popularity of each component phoneme. Capovilla, Raphael and Mauricio’s New Libras Dictionary documents a corpus of 10,400 Libras signs. The present analysis revealed Libras DNA structure by mapping the incidence of 501 sign phonemes resulting from the layered distribution of five parameters: 163 handshape phonemes (CherEmes-ManusIculi); 34 finger shape phonemes (DactilEmes-DigitumIculi); 55 hand placement phonemes (ArtrotoToposEmes-ArticulatiLocusIculi); 173 movement dimension phonemes (CinesEmes-MotusIculi) pertaining to direction, frequency, and type; and 76 Facial Expression phonemes (MascarEmes-PersonalIculi).

Keywords: Brazilian sign language, lexical retrieval, libras sign, sign phonology

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1772 Clinical Signs of Neonatal Calves in Experimental Colisepticemia

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh


Escherichia coli (E.coli) is the most isolated bacteria from blood circulation of septicemic calves. Given the prevalence of septicemia in animals and its economic importance in veterinary practice, better understanding of changes in clinical signs following disease, may contribute to early detection of the disorder. The present study has been carried out to detect changes of clinical signs in induced sepsis in calves with E.coli. Colisepticemia has been induced in 10 twenty-day old healthy Holstein- Frisian calves with intravenous injection of 1.5 X 109 colony forming units (cfu) of O111: H8 strain of E.coli. Clinical signs including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, shock, appetite, sucking reflex, feces consistency, general behavior, dehydration and standing ability were recorded in experimental calves during 24 hours after induction of colisepticemia. Blood culture was also carried out from calves four times during the experiment. ANOVA with repeated measure is used to see changes of calves’ clinical signs to experimental colisepticemia, and values of P≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mean values of rectal temperature and heart rate as well as median values of respiratory rate, appetite, suckling reflex, standing ability and feces consistency of experimental calves increased significantly during the study (P<0.05). In the present study, median value of shock score was not significantly increased in experimental calves (P> 0.05). The results of present study showed that total score of clinical signs in calves with experimental colisepticemia increased significantly, although the score of some clinical signs such as shock did not change significantly.

Keywords: calves, clinical signs scoring, E. coli O111:H8, experimental colisepticemia

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1771 A Study on the Planning of Urban Road Traffic Signs Based on the Leisure Involvement of Self-Driving Tourists

Authors: Chun-Lin Zhang, Min Wan


With the upgrade development of the tourism industry from the simple sightseeing tour to the leisure and vacation, people's travel idea has undergone a fundamental change. More and more people begin to pursue liberal and personal tourism, so self-driving tourism has become the main form of current tourism activities. With the self-driving tourism representing the general trend, the importance of convenient tourism transportation and perfect road traffic signs have become more and more prominent. A clear urban road traffic signs can help visitors quickly identify the direction and distance to the tourism destination. The purpose of this article is analyzing the planning of urban road traffic signs which can bring positive impact on the participation in the recreation involved of self-driving tourists. The content of this article is divided into three parts. Based on the literature review and theoretical analysis, the first part constructs a structural variance model. The model is from three dimensions: the attention of the self-driving tourists to the urban traffic signs along the road, the perception of the self-driving tourists to the road traffic signs itself, the perceptions of the self-driving tourists to the tourism destination information on the traffic signs. Through this model, the paper aims to explore the influence of the urban road traffic signs to the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. The second part aims to verify through the hypothesis model the questionnaire survey and come to preliminary conclusions. The preliminary conclusions are as follows: firstly, the color, shape, size, setting mode and occurrence frequency of urban road traffic sign have significant influence on the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. Secondly, the influence on the leisure behavior involvement is obviously higher than the influence on the leisure psychological involvement. Thirdly, the information about the tourism destination marked on the urban road traffic signs has not obviously influence on the leisure psychological involvement, but it has distinct influence on the leisure behavior involvement of self-driving tourists. The third part puts forward that the planning of urban road traffic signs should focus on the angle of the impact of road traffic signs on people's psychology and behavior. On the basis of the above conclusions, the paper researches the color, shape, size, setting mode and information labeling of urban road traffic signs so that they can preferably satisfy the demand of the leisure involvement of self-driving tourists.

Keywords: leisure involvement, self-driving tourism, structural equation, urban road traffic signs

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1770 Physical Inactivity and Junk Food Consumption Consequent Obesity among University Girls: A Cross Sectional Study Unveils the Mayhem

Authors: Shahid Mahmood, Ghulam Mueen-Ud-Din, Farah Naz Akbar, Yousaf Quddoos, Syeda Mahvish Zahra, Wajiha Saeed, Tayyaba Sami Ullah


Obesity is an epidemic across the globe that affects all the segments of the population. Physical inactivity, passionate consumption of junk food, inadequate water intake and an unhealthy lifestyle are evident among university girls that are ruining their health gravely especially fat accumulation. The study was carried out to investigate the potential etiological factors of obesity development in university girls. The cross sectional study was carried out after approval of the Departmental Review Committee for Ethics (DRCE) as the par Declaration of Helsinki at Institute of Food Science and Nutrition (IFSN), University of Sargodha, Sargodha-Pakistan and Department of Food Science and Home Economics, G. C. Women University, Faisalabad-Pakistan. 400 girls were selected randomly from different departments of both universities. Nutritional status of the volunteers was assessed through approved protocols for demographics, anthropometrics, body composition, energetics, vital signs, clinical signs and symptoms, medical/family history, and dietary intake assessment (FFQ), water intake and physical activity level. The obesity was determined on body fat (%). Alarming and unheeded etiological factors for the development of obesity in girls were explored by the study. About 93 % girls had a sedentary level of physical activity, zealous consumption of junk food (5.31±1.23 servings), drank little water (1.09±0.26 L/day) that consequent high heaps of fat (35.06±3.02 %), measly body water (52.38±3.4 %), poor bone mass (05.14±0.31 Kg), and high BMI (26.68±1.14 Kg/m²) in 34% girls. The malnutrition also depicted by poor vital signs i.e. low body temperature (97.11±0.93 °F), slightly higher blood pressure (124.19±4.08 / 85.25±2.97 mmHg), rapid pulse rate (99.2 ± 6.85 beats/min), reduced blood O₂ saturation (96.53±0.96 %), scanty peak expiratory flow rate (297 ± 15.7 L /min). The outcomes of the research articulated that physical inactivity; extreme intakes of junk food, insufficient water consumption are etiological factors for obesity development among girls which are usually overlooked in Pakistan.

Keywords: informed consent, junk food, obesity, physical inactivity

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1769 Criteria for Assessing Prostate Structure after Proton Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

Authors: Kuplevatsky V., Kuplevatskay, Cherkashin M., Berezina N.


After 6 months, a violation of the differentiation of the structure of the gland due to edema in 100%. 20% retained signs of a tumor according to DWI/ADC data. By 12 months, the reduction in the size of the gland is 100%. In all cases, no diffusion restriction was observed. The study after 18 months showed no significant changes in all (100%) patients. In the study, 24 months after treatment, the size of the gland was stable in all cases (+/- up to 5%). Diffuse decrease in T2VI signals from peripheral zones, without signs of diffusion restriction in 100%. After 30 months, signs of recovery of adenomatous changes in the transient zone were revealed in 85%. After 36 and 42 months, the restoration of organ differentiation was observed in 93% of patients. In 4 patients, by the 48th month, signs of biochemical relapse were clinically noted. According to the MRI data, signs of a local relapse were revealed. After 48 months, there were signs of restoration of organ differentiation, which allowed the use of PI-RADS criteria. The study after 54 months showed no changes compared to the control. 60 months after treatment, 97% of patients showed a restoration of differentiation of the gland structure, which allows evaluating the organ according to PI-RADS criteria Conclusions: The beginning of restoration of the structure of the prostate gland began 24 months after proton radiation therapy, the PI-RADS criteria can be fully applied after 48 months of treatment. Control studies every 6 months without clinical signs of relapse are not advisable. Local control of the prostate tumor after proton radiation therapy was achieved in 95% of patients during the entire follow-up period ( 60 months).

Keywords: proton therapy, prostate cancer, MRI imaging, PI-RADS

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1768 Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Mystroxylon aethiopicum Root Bark Aqueous Extract in Albino Mice

Authors: Mhuji Kilonzo


Acute oral toxicity of Mystroxylon aethiopicum root bark aqueous was evaluated in albino mice of either sex. In this study, five groups of mice were orally treated with doses of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 mg/kg body weight of the crude extract. The mortality, signs of toxicity and body weights were observed individually for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks study, all animals were sacrificed, and the hematological and biochemical parameters, as well as organ weights relative to body weight of each animal, were determined. No mortality, signs of toxicity and abnormalities in vital organs were observed in the entire period of study for both treated and control groups of mice. Additionally, there were no significant changes (p > 0.05) in the blood hematology and biochemical analysis. However, the body weights of all mice increased significantly. The Mystroxylon aethiopicum root bark aqueous extract were found to have a high safe margin when administered orally. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

Keywords: acute oral toxicity, albino mice, Mystroxylon aethiopicum, safety

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1767 Intelligent Driver Safety System Using Fatigue Detection

Authors: Samra Naz, Aneeqa Ahmed, Qurat-ul-ain Mubarak, Irum Nausheen


Driver safety systems protect driver from accidents by sensing signs of drowsiness. The paper proposes a technique which can detect the signs of drowsiness and make corresponding decisions to make the driver alert. This paper presents a technique in which the driver will be continuously monitored by a camera and his eyes, head and mouth movements will be observed. If the drowsiness signs are detected on the basis of these three movements under the predefined criteria, driver will be declared as sleepy and he will get alert with the help of alarms. Three robust techniques of drowsiness detection are combined together to make a robust system that can prevent form accident.

Keywords: drowsiness, eye closure, fatigue detection, yawn detection

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1766 Predicting Factors for Occurrence of Cardiac Arrest in Critical, Emergency and Urgency Patients in an Emergency Department

Authors: Angkrit Phitchayangkoon, Ar-Aishah Dadeh


Background: A key aim of triage is to identify the patients with high risk of cardiac arrest because they require intensive monitoring, resuscitation facilities, and early intervention. We aimed to identify the predicting factors such as initial vital signs, serum pH, serum lactate level, initial capillary blood glucose, and Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) which affect the occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED). Methods: We conducted a retrospective data review of ED patients in an emergency department (ED) from 1 August 2014 to 31 July 2016. Significant variables in univariate analysis were used to create a multivariate analysis. Differentiation of predicting factors between cardiac arrest patient and non-cardiac arrest patients for occurrence of cardiac arrest in an emergency department (ED) was the primary outcome. Results: The data of 527 non-trauma patients with Emergency Severity Index (ESI) 1-3 were collected. The factors found to have a significant association (P < 0.05) in the non-cardiac arrest group versus the cardiac arrest group at the ED were systolic BP (mean [IQR] 135 [114,158] vs 120 [90,140] mmHg), oxygen saturation (mean [IQR] 97 [89,98] vs 82.5 [78,95]%), GCS (mean [IQR] 15 [15,15] vs 11.5 [8.815]), normal sinus rhythm (mean 59.8 vs 30%), sinus tachycardia (mean 46.7 vs 21.7%), pH (mean [IQR] 7.4 [7.3,7.4] vs 7.2 [7,7.3]), serum lactate (mean [IQR] 2 [1.1,4.2] vs 7 [5,10.8]), and MEWS score (mean [IQR] 3 [2,5] vs 5 [3,6]). A multivariate analysis was then performed. After adjusting for multiple factors, ESI level 2 patients were more likely to have cardiac arrest in the ER compared with ESI 1 (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; P < 0.001). Furthermore, ESI 2 patients were more likely than ESI 1 patients to have cardiovascular disease (OR, 1.89; P = 0.01), heart rate < 55 (OR, 6.83; P = 0.18), SBP < 90 (OR, 3.41; P = 0.006), SpO2 < 94 (OR, 4.76; P = 0.012), sinus tachycardia (OR, 4.32; P = 0.002), lactate > 4 (OR, 10.66; P = < 0.001), and MEWS > 4 (OR, 4.86; P = 0.028). These factors remained predictive of cardiac arrest at the ED. Conclusion: The factors related to cardiac arrest in the ED are ESI 1 patients, ESI 2 patients, patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease, SpO2 < 94, lactate > 4, and a MEWS > 4. These factors can be used as markers in the event of simultaneous arrival of many patients and can help as a pre-state for patients who have a tendency to develop cardiac arrest. The hemodynamic status and vital signs of these patients should be closely monitored. Early detection of potentially critical conditions to prevent critical medical intervention is mandatory.

Keywords: cardiac arrest, predicting factor, emergency department, emergency patient

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1765 A-Score, Distress Prediction Model with Earning Response during the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Emerging Market

Authors: Sumaira Ashraf, Elisabete G.S. Félix, Zélia Serrasqueiro


Traditional financial distress prediction models performed well to predict bankrupt and insolvent firms of the developed markets. Previous studies particularly focused on the predictability of financial distress, financial failure, and bankruptcy of firms. This paper contributes to the literature by extending the definition of financial distress with the inclusion of early warning signs related to quotation of face value, dividend/bonus declaration, annual general meeting, and listing fee. The study used five well-known distress prediction models to see if they have the ability to predict early warning signs of financial distress. Results showed that the predictive ability of the models varies over time and decreases specifically for the sample with early warning signs of financial distress. Furthermore, the study checked the differences in the predictive ability of the models with respect to the financial crisis. The results conclude that the predictive ability of the traditional financial distress prediction models decreases for the firms with early warning signs of financial distress and during the time of financial crisis. The study developed a new model comprising significant variables from the five models and one new variable earning response. This new model outperforms the old distress prediction models before, during and after the financial crisis. Thus, it can be used by researchers, organizations and all other concerned parties to indicate early warning signs for the emerging markets.

Keywords: financial distress, emerging market, prediction models, Z-Score, logit analysis, probit model

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1764 Segmentation of Korean Words on Korean Road Signs

Authors: Lae-Jeong Park, Kyusoo Chung, Jungho Moon


This paper introduces an effective method of segmenting Korean text (place names in Korean) from a Korean road sign image. A Korean advanced directional road sign is composed of several types of visual information such as arrows, place names in Korean and English, and route numbers. Automatic classification of the visual information and extraction of Korean place names from the road sign images make it possible to avoid a lot of manual inputs to a database system for management of road signs nationwide. We propose a series of problem-specific heuristics that correctly segments Korean place names, which is the most crucial information, from the other information by leaving out non-text information effectively. The experimental results with a dataset of 368 road sign images show 96% of the detection rate per Korean place name and 84% per road sign image.

Keywords: segmentation, road signs, characters, classification

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1763 RGB Color Based Real Time Traffic Sign Detection and Feature Extraction System

Authors: Kay Thinzar Phu, Lwin Lwin Oo


In an intelligent transport system and advanced driver assistance system, the developing of real-time traffic sign detection and recognition (TSDR) system plays an important part in recent research field. There are many challenges for developing real-time TSDR system due to motion artifacts, variable lighting and weather conditions and situations of traffic signs. Researchers have already proposed various methods to minimize the challenges problem. The aim of the proposed research is to develop an efficient and effective TSDR in real time. This system proposes an adaptive thresholding method based on RGB color for traffic signs detection and new features for traffic signs recognition. In this system, the RGB color thresholding is used to detect the blue and yellow color traffic signs regions. The system performs the shape identify to decide whether the output candidate region is traffic sign or not. Lastly, new features such as termination points, bifurcation points, and 90’ angles are extracted from validated image. This system uses Myanmar Traffic Sign dataset.

Keywords: adaptive thresholding based on RGB color, blue color detection, feature extraction, yellow color detection

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1762 Oral Examination: An Important Adjunct to the Diagnosis of Dermatological Disorders

Authors: Sanjay Saraf


The oral cavity can be the site for early manifestations of mucocutaneous disorders (MD) or the only site for occurrence of these disorders. It can also exhibit oral lesions with simultaneous associated skin lesions. The MD involving the oral mucosa commonly presents with signs such as ulcers, vesicles and bullae. The unique environment of the oral cavity may modify these signs of the disease, thereby making the clinical diagnosis an arduous task. In addition to the unique environment of oral cavity, the overlapping of the signs of various mucocutaneous disorders, also makes the clinical diagnosis more intricate. The aim of this review is to present the oral signs of dermatological disorders having common oral involvement and emphasize their importance in early detection of the systemic disorders. The aim is also to highlight the necessity of oral examination by a dermatologist while examining the skin lesions. Prior to the oral examination, it must be imperative for the dermatologists and the dental clinicians to have the knowledge of oral anatomy. It is also important to know the impact of various diseases on oral mucosa, and the characteristic features of various oral mucocutaneous lesions. An initial clinical oral examination is may help in the early diagnosis of the MD. Failure to identify the oral manifestations may reduce the likelihood of early treatment and lead to more serious problems. This paper reviews the oral manifestations of immune mediated dermatological disorders with common oral manifestations.

Keywords: dermatological investigations, genodermatosis, histological features, oral examination

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