Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15680

Search results for: thermal model

15680 Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

Authors: B. T. Chew, S. N. Kazi, A. Amiri


This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0 oC, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0–34.6oC. The most comfortable temperature for students in the lecture hall was 25.7 oC.

Keywords: hot and humid, lecture halls, neutral temperature, adaptive thermal comfort model

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15679 A Literature Review of the Trend towards Indoor Dynamic Thermal Comfort

Authors: James Katungyi


The Steady State thermal comfort model which dominates thermal comfort practice and which posits the ideal thermal conditions in a narrow range of thermal conditions does not deliver the expected comfort levels among occupants. Furthermore, the buildings where this model is applied consume a lot of energy in conditioning. This paper reviews significant literature about thermal comfort in dynamic indoor conditions including the adaptive thermal comfort model and alliesthesia. A major finding of the paper is that the adaptive thermal comfort model is part of a trend from static to dynamic indoor environments in aspects such as lighting, views, sounds and ventilation. Alliesthesia or thermal delight is consistent with this trend towards dynamic thermal conditions. It is within this trend that the two fold goal of increased thermal comfort and reduced energy consumption lies. At the heart of this trend is a rediscovery of the link between the natural environment and human well-being, a link that was partially severed by over-reliance on mechanically dominated artificial indoor environments. The paper concludes by advocating thermal conditioning solutions that integrate mechanical with natural thermal conditioning in a balanced manner in order to meet occupant thermal needs without endangering the environment.

Keywords: adaptive thermal comfort, alliesthesia, energy, natural environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
15678 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard


This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

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15677 Thermal Analysis of Induction Machine Stator

Authors: Andrej Kačenka, Jana Kertzscher


The thermal analysis is of equal importance as the electromagnetic one during the design process of electrical machines. This paper introduces a thermal modeling method for the prediction of the temperature in an induction machine stator with three-phase winding connected in a series using a lumped-parameter thermal model. The parameters of the model are calculated based on an analytical approach and experiments performed on test bench. The analytical approach study is carried out by means of numerical modeling and verified by the finite element method. For validating the numerical model, experimental results are presented and compared with the simulated ones.

Keywords: lumped thermal model, thermal analysis, numerical analysis, finite element method, induction machine

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15676 SiC Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) Power Diodes Electrothermal Modeling in SPICE

Authors: A. Lakrim, D. Tahri


This paper sets out a behavioral macro-model of a Merged PiN and Schottky (MPS) diode based on silicon carbide (SiC). This model holds good for both static and dynamic electrothermal simulations for industrial applications. Its parameters have been worked out from datasheets curves by drawing on the optimization method: Simulated Annealing (SA) for the SiC MPS diodes made available in the industry. The model also adopts the Analog Behavioral Model (ABM) of PSPICE in which it has been implemented. The thermal behavior of the devices was also taken into consideration by making use of Foster’ canonical network as figured out from electro-thermal measurement provided by the manufacturer of the device.

Keywords: SiC MPS diode, electro-thermal, SPICE model, behavioral macro-model

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15675 Application of Fractional Model Predictive Control to Thermal System

Authors: Aymen Rhouma, Khaled Hcheichi, Sami Hafsi


The article presents an application of Fractional Model Predictive Control (FMPC) to a fractional order thermal system using Controlled Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (CARIMA) model obtained by discretization of a continuous fractional differential equation. Moreover, the output deviation approach is exploited to design the K -step ahead output predictor, and the corresponding control law is obtained by solving a quadratic cost function. Experiment results onto a thermal system are presented to emphasize the performances and the effectiveness of the proposed predictive controller.

Keywords: fractional model predictive control, fractional order systems, thermal system, predictive control

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
15674 Thermal Comfort Evaluation in an Office Space Based on Pmv-Ppd Model

Authors: Kaoutar Jraida


Growing evidence demonstrates that thermal conditions in office buildings broadly influence productivity of workers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and analyze the indoor thermal comfort in an office space based on the calculation of predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PMV-PPD) model and field survey.

Keywords: Office, Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Percentage People Dissatisfied (PPD), Thermal comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
15673 Thermal Network Model for a Large Scale AC Induction Motor

Authors: Sushil Kumar, M. Dakshina Murty


Thermal network modelling has proven to be important tool for thermal analysis of electrical machine. This article investigates numerical thermal network model and experimental performance of a large-scale AC motor. Experimental temperatures were measured using RTD in the stator which have been compared with the numerical data. Thermal network modelling fairly predicts the temperature of various components inside the large-scale AC motor. Results of stator winding temperature is compared with experimental results which are in close agreement with accuracy of 6-10%. This method of predicting hot spots within AC motors can be readily used by the motor designers for estimating the thermal hot spots of the machine.

Keywords: AC motor, thermal network, heat transfer, modelling

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15672 Experimentally Validated Analytical Model for Thermal Analysis of Multi-Stage Depressed Collector

Authors: Vishant Gahlaut, A Mercy Latha, Sanjay Kumar Ghosh


Multi-stage depressed collectors (MDC) are used as an efficiency enhancement technique in traveling wave tubes the high-energy electron beam, after its interaction with the RF signal, gets velocity sorted and collected at various depressed electrodes of the MDC. The ultimate goal is to identify an optimum thermal management scheme (cooling mechanism) that could extract the heat efficiently from the electrodes. Careful thermal analysis, incorporating the cooling mechanism is required to ensure that the maximum temperature does not exceed the safe limits. A simple analytical model for quick prediction of the thermal has been developed. The model has been developed for the worst-case un-modulated DC condition, where all the thermal power is dissipated in the last electrode (typically, fourth electrode in the case of the four-stage depressed collector). It considers the thermal contact resistances at various braze joints accounting for the practical non-uniformities. Analytical results obtained from the model have been validated with simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: multi-stage depressed collector, TWTs, thermal contact resistance, thermal management

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
15671 Simplified 3R2C Building Thermal Network Model: A Case Study

Authors: S. M. Mahbobur Rahman


Whole building energy simulation models are widely used for predicting future energy consumption, performance diagnosis and optimum control.  Black box building energy modeling approach has been heavily studied in the past decade. The thermal response of a building can also be modeled using a network of interconnected resistors (R) and capacitors (C) at each node called R-C network. In this study, a model building, Case 600, as described in the “Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Program”, ASHRAE standard 140, is studied along with a 3R2C thermal network model and the ASHRAE clear sky solar radiation model. Although building an energy model involves two important parts of building component i.e., the envelope and internal mass, the effect of building internal mass is not considered in this study. All the characteristic parameters of the building envelope are evaluated as on Case 600. Finally, monthly building energy consumption from the thermal network model is compared with a simple-box energy model within reasonable accuracy. From the results, 0.6-9.4% variation of monthly energy consumption is observed because of the south-facing windows.

Keywords: ASHRAE case study, clear sky solar radiation model, energy modeling, thermal network model

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15670 Thermal Expansion Coefficient and Young’s Modulus of Silica-Reinforced Epoxy Composite

Authors: Hyu Sang Jo, Gyo Woo Lee


In this study, the evaluation of thermal stability of the micrometer-sized silica particle reinforced epoxy composite was carried out through the measurement of thermal expansion coefficient and Young’s modulus of the specimens. For all the specimens in this study from the baseline to those containing 50 wt% silica filler, the thermal expansion coefficients and the Young’s moduli were gradually decreased down to 20% and increased up to 41%, respectively. The experimental results were compared with filler-volume-based simple empirical relations. The experimental results of thermal expansion coefficients correspond with those of Thomas’s model which is modified from the rule of mixture. However, the measured result for Young’s modulus tends to be increased slightly. The differences in increments of the moduli between experimental and numerical model data are quite large.

Keywords: thermal stability, silica-reinforced, epoxy composite, coefficient of thermal expansion, empirical model

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15669 Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium

Authors: Hamid Maidat, Khedidja Bouhadef, Djamel Eddine Ameziani, Azzedine Abdedou


This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.

Keywords: local thermal non equilibrium model, mixed convection, porous medium, power generation

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15668 Hybrid Quasi-Steady Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Model for Studying the Behavior of Oil in Water Emulsions Used in Machining Tool Cooling and Lubrication

Authors: W. Hasan, H. Farhat, A. Alhilo, L. Tamimi


Oil in water (O/W) emulsions are utilized extensively for cooling and lubricating cutting tools during parts machining. A robust Lattice Boltzmann (LBM) thermal-surfactants model, which provides a useful platform for exploring complex emulsions’ characteristics under variety of flow conditions, is used here for the study of the fluid behavior during conventional tools cooling. The transient thermal capabilities of the model are employed for simulating the effects of the flow conditions of O/W emulsions on the cooling of cutting tools. The model results show that the temperature outcome is slightly affected by reversing the direction of upper plate (workpiece). On the other hand, an important increase in effective viscosity is seen which supports better lubrication during the work.

Keywords: hybrid lattice Boltzmann method, Gunstensen model, thermal, surfactant-covered droplet, Marangoni stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
15667 Basic Study on a Thermal Model for Evaluating The Environment of Infant Facilities

Authors: Xin Yuan, Yuji Ryu


The indoor environment has a significant impact on occupants and a suitable indoor thermal environment can improve the children’s physical health and study efficiency during school hours. In this study, we explored the thermal environment in infant facilities classrooms for infants and children aged 1-5 and evaluated their thermal comfort. An infant facility in Fukuoka, Japan was selected for a case study to capture the infant and children’s thermal comfort characteristics in summer and winter from August 2019 to February 2020. Previous studies have pointed out using PMV indices to evaluate the thermal comfort for children could create errors that may lead to misleading results. Thus, to grasp the actual thermal environment and thermal comfort characteristics of infants and children, we retrieved the operative temperature of each child through the thermal model, based on the sensible heat transfer from the skin to the environment, and the measured classroom indoor temperature, relative humidity, and pocket temperature of children’s shorts. The statistical and comparative analysis of the results shows that (1) the operative temperature showed a large individual difference among children, with the maximum reached 6.25 °C. (2) The children might feel slightly cold in the classrooms in summer, with the frequencies of operative temperature within the interval of 26-28 ºC were only 5.33% and 16.6% for children respectively. (3) The thermal environment around children is more complicated in winter the operative temperature could exceed or fail to reach the thermal comfort temperature zone (20-23 ºC interval). (4) The environmental conditions surrounding the children may account for the reduction of their thermal comfort. The findings contribute to improving the understanding of the infant and children’s thermal comfort and provide valuable information for designers and governments to develop effective strategies for the indoor thermal environment considering the perspective of children.

Keywords: infant and children, thermal environment, thermal model, operative temperature.

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15666 Conduction Model Compatible for Multi-Physical Domain Dynamic Investigations: Bond Graph Approach

Authors: A. Zanj, F. He


In the current paper, a domain independent conduction model compatible for multi-physical system dynamic investigations is suggested. By means of a port-based approach, a classical nonlinear conduction model containing physical states is first represented. A compatible discrete configuration of the thermal domain in line with the elastic domain is then generated through the enhancement of the configuration of the conventional thermal element. The presented simulation results of a sample structure indicate that the suggested conductive model can cover a wide range of dynamic behavior of the thermal domain.

Keywords: multi-physical domain, conduction model, port based modeling, dynamic interaction, physical modeling

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15665 Degradation of Irradiated UO2 Fuel Thermal Conductivity Calculated by FRAPCON Model Due to Porosity Evolution at High Burn-Up

Authors: B. Roostaii, H. Kazeminejad, S. Khakshournia


The evolution of volume porosity previously obtained by using the existing low temperature high burn-up gaseous swelling model with progressive recrystallization for UO2 fuel is utilized to study the degradation of irradiated UO2 thermal conductivity calculated by the FRAPCON model of thermal conductivity. A porosity correction factor is developed based on the assumption that the fuel morphology is a three-phase type, consisting of the as-fabricated pores and pores due to intergranular bubbles whitin UO2 matrix and solid fission products. The predicted thermal conductivity demonstrates an additional degradation of 27% due to porosity formation at burn-up levels around 120 MWd/kgU which would cause an increase in the fuel temperature accordingly. Results of the calculations are compared with available data.

Keywords: irradiation-induced recrystallization, matrix swelling, porosity evolution, UO₂ thermal conductivity

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15664 Field-observed Thermal Fractures during Reinjection and Its Numerical Simulation

Authors: Wen Luo, Phil J. Vardon, Anne-Catherine Dieudonne


One key process that partly controls the success of geothermal projects is fluid reinjection, which benefits in dealing with waste water, maintaining reservoir pressure, and supplying heat-exchange media, etc. Thus, sustaining the injectivity is of great importance for the efficiency and sustainability of geothermal production. However, the injectivity is sensitive to the reinjection process. Field experiences have illustrated that the injectivity can be damaged or improved. In this paper, the focus is on how the injectivity is improved. Since the injection pressure is far below the formation fracture pressure, hydraulic fracturing cannot be the mechanism contributing to the increase in injectivity. Instead, thermal stimulation has been identified as the main contributor to improving the injectivity. For low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs, which are not fracture-controlled, thermal fracturing, instead of thermal shearing, is expected to be the mechanism for increasing injectivity. In this paper, field data from the sedimentary low-enthalpy geothermal reservoirs in the Netherlands were analysed to show the occurrence of thermal fracturing due to the cooling shock during reinjection. Injection data were collected and compared to show the effects of the thermal fractures on injectivity. Then, a thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) model for the near field formation was developed and solved by finite element method to simulate the observed thermal fractures. It was then compared with the HM model, decomposed from the THM model, to illustrate the thermal effects on thermal fracturing. Finally, the effects of operational parameters, i.e. injection temperature and pressure, on the changes in injectivity were studied on the basis of the THM model. The field data analysis and simulation results illustrate that the thermal fracturing occurred during reinjection and contributed to the increase in injectivity. The injection temperature was identified as a key parameter that contributes to thermal fracturing.

Keywords: injectivity, reinjection, thermal fracturing, thermo-hydro-mechanical model

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15663 Thermal Contact Resistance of Nanoscale Rough Surfaces

Authors: Ravi Prasher


In nanostructured material thermal transport is dominated by contact resistance. Theoretical models describing thermal transport at interfaces assume perfectly flat surface whereas in reality surfaces can be rough with roughness ranging from sub-nanoscale dimension to micron scale. Here we introduce a model which includes both nanoscale contact mechanics and nanoscale heat transfer for rough nanoscale surfaces. This comprehensive model accounts for the effect of phonon acoustic mismatch, mechanical properties, chemical properties and randomness of the rough surface.

Keywords: adhesion and contact resistance, Kaptiza resistance of rough surfaces, nanoscale thermal transport

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15662 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: M. Guemmadi, A. Ouibrahim


This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: journal bearing, lubrication, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, computational modelling, load capacity

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15661 Combining ASTER Thermal Data and Spatial-Based Insolation Model for Identification of Geothermal Active Areas

Authors: Khalid Hussein, Waleed Abdalati, Pakorn Petchprayoon, Khaula Alkaabi


In this study, we integrated ASTER thermal data with an area-based spatial insolation model to identify and delineate geothermally active areas in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Two pairs of L1B ASTER day- and nighttime scenes were used to calculate land surface temperature. We employed the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm which separates temperature from emissivity to calculate surface temperature. We calculated the incoming solar radiation for the area covered by each of the four ASTER scenes using an insolation model and used this information to compute temperature due to solar radiation. We then identified the statistical thermal anomalies using land surface temperature and the residuals calculated from modeled temperatures and ASTER-derived surface temperatures. Areas that had temperatures or temperature residuals greater than 2σ and between 1σ and 2σ were considered ASTER-modeled thermal anomalies. The areas identified as thermal anomalies were in strong agreement with the thermal areas obtained from the YNP GIS database. Also the YNP hot springs and geysers were located within areas identified as anomalous thermal areas. The consistency between our results and known geothermally active areas indicate that thermal remote sensing data, integrated with a spatial-based insolation model, provides an effective means for identifying and locating areas of geothermal activities over large areas and rough terrain.

Keywords: thermal remote sensing, insolation model, land surface temperature, geothermal anomalies

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15660 Prediction of Phonon Thermal Conductivity of F.C.C. Al by Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Leila Momenzadeh, Alexander V. Evteev, Elena V. Levchenko, Tanvir Ahmed, Irina Belova, Graeme Murch


In this work, the phonon thermal conductivity of f.c.c. Al is investigated in detail in the temperature range 100 – 900 K within the framework of equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations making use of the Green-Kubo formalism and one of the most reliable embedded-atom method potentials. It is found that the heat current auto-correlation function of the f.c.c. Al model demonstrates a two-stage temporal decay similar to the previously observed for f.c.c Cu model. After the first stage of decay, the heat current auto-correlation function of the f.c.c. Al model demonstrates a peak in the temperature range 100-800 K. The intensity of the peak decreases as the temperature increases. At 900 K, it transforms to a shoulder. To describe the observed two-stage decay of the heat current auto-correlation function of the f.c.c. Al model, we employ decomposition model recently developed for phonon-mediated thermal transport in a monoatomic lattice. We found that the electronic contribution to the total thermal conductivity of f.c.c. Al dominates over the whole studied temperature range. However, the phonon contribution to the total thermal conductivity of f.c.c. Al increases as temperature decreases. It is about 1.05% at 900 K and about 12.5% at 100 K.

Keywords: aluminum, gGreen-Kubo formalism, molecular dynamics, phonon thermal conductivity

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15659 Thermal and Mechanical Finite Element Analysis of a Mineral Casting Machine Frame

Authors: H. Zou, B. Wang


Thermal distortion of the machine tool plays a critical role in its machining accuracy. This study investigates the thermal performance of a high-precision machine frame with future-oriented mineral casting components. A thermo-mechanical finite element model (FEM) was established to evaluate the thermal behavior of the frame under environmental thermal fluctuations. The validity of the presented FEM model was confirmed experimentally by a series of laser interferometer tests. Good agreement between numerical and experimental results demonstrates that the proposed model can accurately predict the thermal deformation of the frame with thermo-mechanical coupling effect. The results also show that keeping the workshop in thermally stable conditions is crucial for improving the machine accuracy of the system with large scale components. The goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of innovative mineral casting material applied in high-precision drilling machine and to provide a strategy for machine tool industry seeking a perfect substitute for classic frame materials such as cast iron and granite.

Keywords: thermo-mechanical model, finite element method, laser interferometer, mineral casting frame

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15658 Estimation of the Temperatures in an Asynchronous Machine Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Yi Huang, Clemens Guehmann


In order to monitor the thermal behavior of an asynchronous machine with squirrel cage rotor, a 9th-order extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is implemented to estimate the temperatures of the stator windings, the rotor cage and the stator core. The state-space equations of EKF are established based on the electrical, mechanical and the simplified thermal models of an asynchronous machine. The asynchronous machine with simplified thermal model in Dymola is compiled as DymolaBlock, a physical model in MATLAB/Simulink. The coolant air temperature, three-phase voltages and currents are exported from the physical model and are processed by EKF estimator as inputs. Compared to the temperatures exported from the physical model of the machine, three parts of temperatures can be estimated quite accurately by the EKF estimator. The online EKF estimator is independent from the machine control algorithm and can work under any speed and load condition if the stator current is nonzero current system.

Keywords: asynchronous machine, extended Kalman filter, resistance, simulation, temperature estimation, thermal model

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15657 The DC Behavioural Electrothermal Model of Silicon Carbide Power MOSFETs under SPICE

Authors: Lakrim Abderrazak, Tahri Driss


This paper presents a new behavioural electrothermal model of power Silicon Carbide (SiC) MOSFET under SPICE. This model is based on the MOS model level 1 of SPICE, in which phenomena such as Drain Leakage Current IDSS, On-State Resistance RDSon, gate Threshold voltage VGSth, the transconductance (gfs), I-V Characteristics Body diode, temperature-dependent and self-heating are included and represented using behavioural blocks ABM (Analog Behavioural Models) of Spice library. This ultimately makes this model flexible and easily can be integrated into the various Spice -based simulation softwares. The internal junction temperature of the component is calculated on the basis of the thermal model through the electric power dissipated inside and its thermal impedance in the form of the localized Foster canonical network. The model parameters are extracted from manufacturers' data (curves data sheets) using polynomial interpolation with the method of simulated annealing (S A) and weighted least squares (WLS). This model takes into account the various important phenomena within transistor. The effectiveness of the presented model has been verified by Spice simulation results and as well as by data measurement for SiC MOS transistor C2M0025120D CREE (1200V, 90A).

Keywords: SiC power MOSFET, DC electro-thermal model, ABM Spice library, SPICE modelling, behavioural model, C2M0025120D CREE.

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15656 Kinetic Study of Thermal Degradation of a Lignin Nanoparticle-Reinforced Phenolic Foam

Authors: Juan C. Domínguez, Belén Del Saz-Orozco, María V. Alonso, Mercedes Oliet, Francisco Rodríguez


In the present study, the kinetics of thermal degradation of a phenolic and lignin reinforced phenolic foams, and the lignin used as reinforcement were studied and the activation energies of their degradation processes were obtained by a DAEM model. The average values for five heating rates of the mean activation energies obtained were: 99.1, 128.2, and 144.0 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, 109.5, 113.3, and 153.0 kJ.mol-1 for the lignin reinforcement, and 82.1, 106.9, and 124.4 kJ. mol-1 for the lignin reinforced phenolic foam. The standard deviation ranges calculated for each sample were 1.27-8.85, 2.22-12.82, and 3.17-8.11 kJ.mol-1 for the phenolic foam, lignin and the reinforced foam, respectively. The DAEM model showed low mean square errors (< 1x10-5), proving that is a suitable model to study the kinetics of thermal degradation of the foams and the reinforcement.

Keywords: kinetics, lignin, phenolic foam, thermal degradation

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15655 Total Thermal Resistance of Graphene-Oxide-Substrate Stack: Role of Interfacial Thermal Resistance in Heat Flow of 2D Material Based Devices

Authors: Roisul H. Galib, Prabhakar R. Bandaru


In 2D material based device, an interface between 2D materials and substrates often limits the heat flow through the device. In this paper, we quantify the total thermal resistance of a graphene-based device by series resistance model and show that the thermal resistance at the interface of graphene and substrate contributes to more than 50% of the total resistance. Weak Van der Waals interactions at the interface and dissimilar phonon vibrational modes create this thermal resistance, allowing less heat to flow across the interface. We compare our results with commonly used materials and interfaces, demonstrating the role of the interface as a potential application for heat guide or block in a 2D material-based device.

Keywords: 2D material, graphene, thermal conductivity, thermal conductance, thermal resistance

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15654 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song


Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panel

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15653 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang


To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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15652 Application Methodology for the Generation of 3D Thermal Models Using UAV Photogrammety and Dual Sensors for Mining/Industrial Facilities Inspection

Authors: Javier Sedano-Cibrián, Julio Manuel de Luis-Ruiz, Rubén Pérez-Álvarez, Raúl Pereda-García, Beatriz Malagón-Picón


Structural inspection activities are necessary to ensure the correct functioning of infrastructures. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) techniques have become more popular than traditional techniques. Specifically, UAV Photogrammetry allows time and cost savings. The development of this technology has permitted the use of low-cost thermal sensors in UAVs. The representation of 3D thermal models with this type of equipment is in continuous evolution. The direct processing of thermal images usually leads to errors and inaccurate results. A methodology is proposed for the generation of 3D thermal models using dual sensors, which involves the application of visible Red-Blue-Green (RGB) and thermal images in parallel. Hence, the RGB images are used as the basis for the generation of the model geometry, and the thermal images are the source of the surface temperature information that is projected onto the model. Mining/industrial facilities representations that are obtained can be used for inspection activities.

Keywords: aerial thermography, data processing, drone, low-cost, point cloud

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15651 Experimental and Computational Investigation of Flow Field and Thermal Behavior of a Mechanical Seal

Authors: Hossein Shokouhmand, Masoomeh Shadab, Rohallah Torabi


Turbulent flow inside the seal chamber of a pump operating at nearly high Reynolds number is investigated. A comparison of a 3-D computational model for flow and thermal analysis of a mechanical seal with experimental thermal results is presented. The computational model adequately predicts the flow field in the seal chamber and thermal characteristics with the rotating and stationary rings and the twister flow around the seal parts by solving N-S and energy equations in ANSYS-CFX software. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) is applied as a turbulence model for this purpose. Experimental work is discussed which quantifies the temperature of five different points of the working fluid in chamber, mass flow at inlet and the fluid pressure at inlet and outlet. Experimental measurements are combined with computational modeling to obtain local and average heat transfer characteristics. Numerical results of three cases including different flush rates are reported.

Keywords: mechanical seal, CFD_CFX, reynolds stress model, flow field, heat transfer analysis, stream line, heat transfer coefficient, heat flux, nusselt

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