Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: H. Saadi

32 Saadi: The Matter of Reality and Imagination

Authors: Mozhde Shafie, Nahid Naderi, Mandana Mangeli

Abstract:

Is it true to say that Saadi was an idealized embodiment of his moral teachings in Gulistan and Boustan? The body of criticism on Saadi’s works suggests that his biography provides no clear and valid information to judge about the extent to which Saadi acted what he preached. His moral teachings depict a sort of individual and social morality which is defined in relation to power and falls in the category of political ethics. Political ethics appear as for the noble and the subordinate in Gulistan and Boustan. Ethics for the noble include all his teachings for governors and rulers in eulogies. On the other hand, ethics for the subordinate include all his suggestions for the public in relation to power position. Here, Saadi puts forward some conservative recommendations that trigger some contemporary critical commentaries. However, there are some cases where he takes up a third person narrative position to narrate the story of a king and a mendicant. In these stories, the mendicant is a witty man with bitter criticism on society, implying that one should relinquish earthly pleasures and advantages if he wants his criticism to be acceptable. First person narratives fall in two categories determinate and indeterminate narratives. Indirect speeches reflecting biographical facts are indeterminate narratives which give no information about the poet’s personality. Other narratives are more of an autobiography that report probable observations. These latter narratives demonstrate Saadi as a man quick at repartee that feels free to disclose his poverty and some cases of impiety. Therefore, they provide no idealized picture of the poet in terms of ethical principles.

Keywords: Ethics, Saadi, Boustan, Gulistan, first-person narrative

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31 Pathology of the Partridge Gambra Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding in the Algiers Sahel

Authors: S. Doumandji, F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, M. Aissi, H. Saadi-Idouhar, A. Saadi

Abstract:

In Algeria, the Partridge gambra is a highly sought-after game species and is appreciated for its meat. Game birds are of interest because they play an important role for hunting federations and for the economy of a country. The breeding of indigenous breeds is necessary because it is of great economic interest. However, gambra breeding in the hunting centre of Zeralda (northern west of Algiers) is not easy, several diseases affecting Perdreaux and reproducing adults have been noted. Most of the diseases observed are parasitic in origin. This study is conducted during the 2010 breeding season. It is based on the autopsy of cadavers collected at the hunting centre and parasitic coprology. Indeed, the flotation enrichment method has identified several parasites such as Eimeria spp., Capillaria spp., and Ascaridia spp. Autopsied corpses show the importance of two major diseases, syngamosis caused to Syngamus trachea and histomonosis caused to Histomonas meleagridis.

Keywords: Livestock, eggs, partridge, affections pathology

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30 Job in Modern Arabic Poetry: A Semantic and Comparative Approach to Two Poems Referring to the Poet Al-Sayyab

Authors: Jeries Khoury

Abstract:

The use of legendary, folkloric and religious symbols is one of the most important phenomena in modern Arabic poetry. Interestingly enough, most of the modern Arabic poetry’s pioneers were so fascinated by the biblical symbols and they managed to use many modern techniques to make these symbols adequate for their personal life from one side and fit to their Islamic beliefs from the other. One of the most famous poets to do so was al-Sayya:b. The way he employed one of these symbols ‘job’, the new features he adds to this character and the link between this character and his personal life will be discussed in this study. Besides, the study will examine the influence of al-Sayya:b on another modern poet Saadi Yusuf, who, following al-Sayya:b, used the character of Job in a special way, by mixing its features with al-Sayya:b’s personal features and in this way creating a new mixed character. A semantic, cultural and comparative analysis of the poems written by al-Sayya:b himself and the other poets who evoked the mixed image of al-Sayya:b-Job, can reveal the changes Arab poets made to the original biblical figure of Job to bring it closer to Islamic culture. The paper will make an intensive use of intertextuality idioms in order to shed light on the network of relations between three kinds of texts (indeed three palimpsests’: 1- biblical- the primary text; 2- poetic- al-Syya:b’s secondary version; 3- re-poetic- Sa’di Yusuf’s tertiary version). The bottom line in this paper is that that al-Sayya:b was directly influenced by the dramatic biblical story of Job more than the brief Quranic version of the story. In fact, the ‘new’ character of Job designed by al-Sayya:b himself differs from the original one in many aspects that we can safely say it is the Sayyabian-Job that cannot be found in the poems of any other poets, unless they are evoking the own tragedy of al-Sayya:b himself, like what Saadi Yusuf did.

Keywords: Modernism, Symbolism, Intertextuality, job, Arabic poetry, meter

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29 Forming for Confirmation of Predicted Epoxy Forming Composition Range in Cr-Zn System

Authors: Foad Saadi

Abstract:

Aim of this work was to determine the approximate Epoxy forming composition range of Cr-Zn system for the composites produced by forming compositing. It was predicted by MI edema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Cr-32Zn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous composite. In the next stage, some different compositions of Cr-Zn were foamingly composited, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by SDM analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Cr-32Zn composite had the most amorphization degree.

Keywords: Cr-Zn system, forming compositing, amorphous composite, MI edema model

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28 Using Mechanical Alloying for Verification of Predicted Glass Forming Composition Range

Authors: M. Fatahi, M. Heidari, F. Saadi

Abstract:

Aim of this work was to determine the approximate glass forming composition range of Ni-Sn system for the alloys produced by mechanical alloying. It was predicted by Miedema semi-empirical model that the composition had to be in the range of 30-60 wt. % tin, while Ni-40Sn had the most susceptibility to produce amorphous alloy. In the next stage, some different compositions of Ni-Sn were mechanically alloyed, where one of them had the proper predicted composition. Products were characterized by XRD analysis. There was a good agreement between calculation and experiments, in which Ni-40Sn alloy had the most amorphization degree.

Keywords: Mechanical Alloying, amorphous alloy, Ni-Sn system, Miedema model

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27 Embryotoxicity of Nano-Iron Oxide (Fe2O3) to Bio-Indicator of Pollution of Land Helix Aspersa

Authors: S. Saadi, S. Besnaci, S. Bensoltane, H. Locif

Abstract:

To validate an ecotoxicological approach to assessing toxicological effects caused by the oxide powder of nano-iron Fe2O3, we searched in the ecotoxicology laboratory cell bodies bio accumulators and bio-indicators of soil pollution the snail Helix aspersa. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of nano Fe2O3 during a very sensitive phase of development H.aspersa (embryonic stage). During embryonic development, we observed in treated with various concentrations of nano Fe2O3 (1.25 g/l, 1.5 g/l, and 2 g/l) compared to control, the deformation of the membrane of the egg and accumulation of this molecule at the rear of the egg proven by the photographs, as with the influence on the hatching percentage.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, helix aspersa, eggs, embryotoxicity, Fe2O3

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26 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructural Evolution in Weld Region of X70 Pipeline Steel

Authors: K. Digheche, K. Saadi, Z. Boumerzoug

Abstract:

Welding is one of the most important technological processes used in many branches of industry such as industrial engineering, shipbuilding, pipeline fabrication among others. Generally, welding is the preferred joining method and most common steels are weldable. This investigation is a contribution to scientific work of welding of low carbon steel. This work presents the results of the isothermal heat treatment effect at 200, 400 and 600 °C on microstructural evolution in weld region of X70 pipeline steel. The welding process has been realized in three passes by industrial arc welding. We have found that the heat treatments cause grain growth reaction.

Keywords: welding, Microstructures, low carbon steel, heat treatments

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25 Renewable Energy Interfaced Shunt Active Filter Using a Virtual Flux Direct Power Control

Authors: M. Rahli, S. Saadi, L. Hassaine, M. R. Bengourina

Abstract:

In this study, we present a control method entitled virtual flux direct power control of a grid connected photovoltaic system associated with an active power filter. The virtual flux direct control of power (VF-DPC) is employed for the calculation of reference current generation. In this technique, the switches states of inverter are selected from a table of switching based on the immediate errors between the active and reactive powers and their reference values. The objectives of this paper are the reduction of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of source current, compensating reactive power and injecting the maximum active power available from the PV array into the load and/or grid. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Photovoltaic, MPPT, shunt active power filter, VF-DPC

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24 Influence of Some Parameters on Embryonic Mortality of Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding

Authors: S. Doumandji, F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Idouhar-Saadi, M. Aissi

Abstract:

During the period of reproduction, the collection of eggs of the Barbary gambra partridge is made only once a week in the morning, considering the sensibility in the stress of this native species. The number of considered samples is 33 eggs. The duration of the incubation is of 18 days. Unhatched eggs and eggs eliminated previously at the time of the mirage are collected and forwarded to the laboratories of microbiology and parasitology. The average weight of the eggs of the Barbary Partridge vary much [20.08 ± 1.81 g. (2006) < Pm < 20.82 ± 2,11g. (2008)]. The percentage of unhatched eggs varies between 9.3% in 2005 and 15.55% in 2007. It appears that the rate of embryonic mortality is slightly higher compared to that of infertile eggs. Microbiological analysis of unhatched eggs showed the presence of pathogenic germs such as lute Chryseomonas luteola. Chryseomonas ola and Escherichia coli. As against the parasites research is negative.

Keywords: barbary partridge, unhatched eggs, embryo mortality, pathogenic germs

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23 Correlation of the Biometric Parameters of Eggs

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, A. Milla, F. Marniche, F. Lariouna

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation ship between different pheasant external egg quality traits. A total of 938 eggs were collected. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), volume (cm3), shape index egg, surface area and water loss were measured. The overall mean values obtained for the different variables are respectively 29.2 ± 2,24, 43.01 ± 1,84, 34.05 ± 1,44, 25.63 ± 2.88 cm3, 79.00 ± 3%, 68% and 13%. Concerning studied regressions, it was considered only the most important regressions. Those that show significant links between the different parameters studied. The ANOVA procedure was applied to estimate correlations for the examined traits. The weights of the eggs being observed before incubation and before hatching are linearly correlated with a positive correlation coefficient of order 0.75. Egg length and the weight before incubation had a good and positive correlation with a coefficient r = 0.6. However, density had high and negative correlations with egg height r = -0.78. Shape index had a good linear and negative r= - 0.71 correlation with water loss.

Keywords: correlation, analysis of variance, egg, morphometry of eggs

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22 Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of P-Type AgBiS2 Energy Harvesting Materials by Copper Doping

Authors: Yasaman Tabari-Saadi, Kaiwen Sun, Jialiang Huang, Martin Green, Xiaojing Hao

Abstract:

Optical and electrical properties of p-type AgBiS2 absorber materials have been improved by doping copper on silver sites. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis suggest that complete solid solutions of Ag1-xCuxBiS2 thin films have been formed. The carrier concentration of pure AgBiS2 thin films deposited by a single precursor method is 4.5*E+14 cm-3, and copper doping leads to the improved carrier concentration despite the semiconductor AgBiS2 remains p-type. Copper doping directly changed the absorption coefficient and increased the optical band gap (~1.5eV), which makes it a promising absorber for thin-film solar cell applications.

Keywords:

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21 Toxic Activity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and taking a conscience prompted researchers and institutions to lean towards the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on part of the cuticle the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria. Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of the bio-control agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment by direct spraying of the cuticle, 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticle which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: effect, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
20 Effective Cooling of Photovoltaic Solar Cells by Inserting Triangular Ribs: A Numerical Study

Authors: S. Poncet, S. Saadi, S. Benissaad, Y. Kabar

Abstract:

In photovoltaic (PV) cells, most of the absorbed solar radiation cannot be converted into electricity. A large amount of solar radiation is converted to heat, which should be dissipated by any cooling techniques. In the present study, the cooling is achieved by inserting triangular ribs in the duct. A comprehensive two-dimensional thermo-fluid model for the effective cooling of PV cells has been developed. It has been first carefully validated against experimental and numerical results available in the literature. A parametric analysis was then carried out about the influence of the number and size of the ribs, wind speed, solar irradiance and inlet fluid velocity on the average solar cell and outlet air temperatures as well as the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the module. Results indicated that the use of triangular ribbed channels is a very effective cooling technique, which significantly reduces the average temperature of the PV cell, especially when increasing the number of ribs.

Keywords: numerical modeling, photovoltaic cell, effective cooling, triangular ribs

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19 A Sufficient Fuzzy Controller for Improving the Transient Response in Electric Motors

Authors: Aliasghar Baziar, Hassan Masoumi, Alireza Ale Saadi

Abstract:

The control of the response of electric motors plays a significant role in the damping of transient responses. In this regard, this paper presents a static VAR compensator (SVC) based on a fuzzy logic which is applied to an industrial power network consisting of three phase synchronous, asynchronous and DC motor loads. The speed and acceleration variations of a specific machine are the inputs of the proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). In order to verify the effectiveness and proficiency of the proposed Fuzzy Logic based SVC (FLSVC), several non-linear time-domain digital simulation tests are performed. The proposed fuzzy model can properly control the response of electric motors. The results show that the FLSVC is successful to improve the voltage profile significantly over a wide range of operating conditions and disturbances thus improving the overall dynamic performance of the network.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Controller, DC motor, VAR compensator, single cage asynchronous motor

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18 Improvement of the Aerodynamic Behaviour of a Land Rover Discovery 4 in Turbulent Flow Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Authors: Ali Hassanpour, Ahmed Al-Saadi, Tariq Mahmud

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to investigate ways to reduce the aerodynamic drag coefficient and to increase the stability of the full-size Sport Utility Vehicle using three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The baseline model in the simulation was the Land Rover Discovery 4. Many aerodynamic devices and external design modifications were used in this study. These reduction aerodynamic techniques were tested individually or in combination to get the best design. All new models have the same capacity and comfort of the baseline model. Uniform freestream velocity of the air at inlet ranging from 28 m/s to 40 m/s was used. ANSYS Fluent software (version 16.0) was used to simulate all models. The drag coefficient obtained from the ANSYS Fluent for the baseline model was validated with experimental data. It is found that the use of modern aerodynamic add-on devices and modifications has a significant effect in reducing the aerodynamic drag coefficient.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Turbulent Flow, RANS, sport utility vehicle

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17 Study of Machinability for Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V through Chip Formation in Milling Process

Authors: Moaz H. Ali, Ahmed H. Al-Saadi

Abstract:

Most of the materials used in the industry of aero-engine components generally consist of titanium alloys. Advanced materials, because of their excellent combination of high specific strength, lightweight, and general corrosion resistance. In fact, chemical wear resistance of aero-engine alloy provide a serious challenge for cutting tool material during the machining process. The reduction in cutting temperature distributions leads to an increase in tool life and a decrease in wear rate. Hence, the chip morphology and segmentation play a predominant role in determining machinability and tool wear during the machining process. The result of low thermal conductivity and diffusivity of this alloy in the concentration of high temperatures at the tool-work-piece and tool-chip interface. Consequently, the chip morphology is very important in the study of machinability of metals as well as the study of cutting tool wear. Otherwise, the result will be accelerating tool wear, increasing manufacturing cost and time consuming.

Keywords: machinability, milling process, titanium alloy (ti-6al-4v), chip formation

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16 Ab Initio Studies of Structural and Thermal Properties of Aluminum Alloys

Authors: S. E. H. Abaidia, M. Saadi, M. Y. Mokeddem.

Abstract:

We present the results of a systematic and comparative study of the bulk, the structural properties, and phonon calculations of aluminum alloys using several exchange–correlations functional theory (DFT) with different plane-wave basis pseudo potential techniques. Density functional theory implemented by the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package (VASP) technique is applied to calculate the bulk and the structural properties of several structures. The calculations were performed for within several exchange–correlation functional and pseudo pententials available in this code (local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), projector augmented wave (PAW)). The lattice dynamic code “PHON” developed by Dario Alfè was used to calculate some thermodynamics properties and phonon dispersion relation frequency distribution of Aluminium alloys using the VASP LDA PAW and GGA PAW results. The bulk and structural properties of the calculated structures were compared to different experimental and calculated works.

Keywords: dft, LDA, exchange-correlation functional, GGA, pseudopotential, PAW, VASP, PHON, phonon dispersion

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15 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, A. Milla, F. Marniche, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa

Abstract:

The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: Diseases, Apis mellifera L, varroa, European foulbrood

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14 Design for Safety: Safety Consideration in Planning and Design of Airport Airsides

Authors: Min An, Maithem Al-Saadi

Abstract:

During airport planning and design stages, the major issues of capacity and safety in construction and operation of an airport need to be taken into consideration. The airside of an airport is a major and critical infrastructure that usually consists of runway(s), taxiway system, and apron(s) etc., which have to be designed according to the international standards and recommendations, and local limitations to accommodate the forecasted demands. However, in many cases, airport airsides are suffering from unexpected risks that occurred during airport operations. Therefore, safety risk assessment should be applied in the planning and design of airsides to cope with the probability of risks and their consequences, and to make decisions to reduce the risks to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) based on safety risk assessment. This paper presents a combination approach of Failure Modes, Effect, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) to develop a risk analysis model for safety risk assessment. An illustrated example is used to the demonstrate risk assessment process on how the design of an airside in an airport can be analysed by using the proposed safety design risk assessment model.

Keywords: Risk Assessment, airport airside planning and design, design for safety, fuzzy reasoning approach, fuzzy AHP

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13 Morphometric Study of the Eggs of Pheasant Eggs Phasianus colchicus (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Larinouna, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

Pheasant, is a bird of great ornamental value through the beauty of its form and colors, it is among the most popular birds. The present study was conducted in an experimental breeding. The objective of this work is to know the quality of the eggs of this bird. A total of 938 eggs were collected. To deepen the knowledge about the characteristics of external shell quality, biometric parameters were studied, among them we find the weight with a mean value of 29.2± 2, 24 g. Egg length (mm) and egg width (mm) mean value are respectively 43.01 ± 1,84 cm and 34.05 ± 1,44cm. The volume and shape index of eggs obtained are respectively 25,63±2,88cm3 and 79.00 ± 3%, shell index which recorded an average of 68%. Water loss recorded is 13%. Note that all these parameters and others may influence hatching. The analysis of variance applied for the comparison of egg weight shows that there is no significant difference in the same form factor (P> 0.05). Otherwise, the comparison test used shows a significant difference with P <0.05 for length, width, volume, density, indices of shell and water loss of eggs between the different. Indeed, several factors may explain the difference as the absence of sorting eggs during incubation and other factors that will be exposing later.

Keywords: analysis of variance, egg, hatching, morphometry of eggs Phaisan (Phasianus colchicus.L.)

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12 Impact of Coccidia on Mortality and Weight Growth in Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae) in Algeria

Authors: Salaheddine Doumandji, Amina Smaï, Safia Zenia, Fairouz Haddadj, Habiba Saadi-Idouhar, Meriem Aissi

Abstract:

Coccidiosis is a very common intestinal parasitic disease caused by a worldwide distributed protozoan of the genus Eimeria. This disease is very common in young birds beyond the second week of life, especially in land-based breeding. The study was carried out in a hunting center of Zeralda located in the north-east of Algiers. The objective of our work is to study the evolution of coccidiosis in quails from 1 to 35 days old by collecting their droppings daily. These are analyzed in the laboratory using the flotation method and the Mac Master one to count coccidia. Weight changes are taken into account as well as mortality in parallel with certain zootechnical parameters such as density. The species of coccidia recovered is Eimeria coturnicis. The results showed that there is an average evolution of mortality of individuals with a rate of 13.33% due to the presence of coccidia with a significant regression (p=0.031). The weight of the quails increases with the age of the animal with a rapid growth rate from the 3rd week onwards. Indeed, the statistical analysis reveals that the evolution of the number did not affect the evolution of the weight (p=0.70) and the GMQ (R=0.52).

Keywords: Coturnix japonica, weight, coccidiosis, daily average gain

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11 Study of the Toxic Activity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana on the Wistar Rat Rattus norvegicus

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

The use of a biopesticide based on a microorganism scale requires particular care including safety against the useful auxiliary fauna and mammals among other human beings. Due to its persistence in soil and its apparent human and animal safety, Beauveria bassiana is a cryptogram used for controlling pests organizations, particularly in the locust where its effectiveness has been proven. This fungus is also called for greater respect for biotic communities and the environment. Indeed, biopesticides have several environmental benefits: biodegradability, their activity and selectivity decrease unintended non-target species effects, decreased resistance to some of them. It is in this sense that we contribute by presenting our work on the safety of B. bassiana against mammals. For this we conducted a toxicological study of this fungus strain on Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, first its effect on weight gain. In a second time were performed histological target organ is the liver. After 20 days of treatment, the results of the toxicological studies have shown that B. bassiana caused no change in the physiological state of rats or weight gain, behavior and diet. On cuts in liver histology revealed no disturbance on the organ.

Keywords: Histology, entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana, Rattus norvegicus

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10 Toxic Activity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana on the Wistar Rat Rattus norvegicus

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche, M. Khames, A. Kadi

Abstract:

The use of a biopesticide based on a microorganism scale requires particular care including safety against the useful auxiliary fauna and mammals among other human beings. Due to its persistence in soil and its apparent human and animal safety, Beauveria bassiana is a cryptogram used for controlling pests organizations, particularly in the locust where its effectiveness has been proven by several highly studies. This fungus is also called for greater respect for biotic communities and the environment. Indeed, biopesticides have several environmental benefits: biodegradability, their activity and selectivity decrease unintended non-target species effects, decreased resistance to some of them. It is in this sense that we contribute by presenting our work on the safety of B. bassiana against mammals. For this we conducted a toxicological study of this fungus strain on Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, first its effect on weight gain. In a second time were performed histological target organ is the liver. After 20 days of treatment, the results of the toxicological studies have shown that B. bassiana caused no change in the physiological state of rats or weight gain, behavior and diet. On cuts in liver histology revealed no disturbance on the organ.

Keywords: Environment, entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana, Rattus norvegicus, toxicological study

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
9 Toxicity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and. For this, a new control method appeared it comes to the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on part of the cuticule the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775). Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae var acridium biocontrol agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment in the digestive tract and it administrant 20μl of entomopathogenic solution orally at a dose DL50 = 3.25 x107 sp./ ml (median lethal dose estimated at earlier), 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. After dissection cuticles are recovered and then subjected to histological sections. The histological technique followed is that of Martoja Martoja-Pierson (1967). Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticule which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: Toxicity, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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8 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi

Abstract:

Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, hydroxyapatite, cactus ficus-indica, coagulation - flocculation

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7 Modelling Interactions between Saturated and Unsaturated Zones by Hydrus 1D, Plain of Kairouan, Central Tunisia

Authors: Mariem Saadi, Sabri Kanzari, Adel Zghibi

Abstract:

In semi-arid areas like the Kairouan region, the constant irrigation with saline water and the overuse of groundwater resources, soils and aquifers salinization has become an increasing concern. In this study, a methodology has been developed to evaluate the groundwater contamination risk based on the unsaturated zone hydraulic properties. Two soil profiles with different ranges of salinity, one located in the north of the plain and another one in the south of plain (each 30 m deep) and both characterized by direct recharge of the aquifer were chosen. Simulations were conducted with Hydrus-1D code using measured precipitation data for the period 1998-2003 and calculated evapotranspiration for both chosen profiles. Four combinations of initial conditions of water content and salt concentration were used for the simulation process in order to find the best match between simulated and measured values. The success of the calibration of Hydrus-1D allowed the investigation of some scenarios in order to assess the contamination risk under different natural conditions. The aquifer risk contamination is related to the natural conditions where it increased while facing climate change and temperature increase and decreased in the presence of a clay layer in the unsaturated zone. Hydrus-1D was a useful tool to predict the groundwater level and quality in the case of a direct recharge and in the absence of any information related to the soil layers except for the texture.

Keywords: solute transport, Hydrus-1D, Kairouan, salinization, semi-arid region, unsaturated zone

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6 Japanese Quail Breeding: The Second in Poultry Industry

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Idouhar-Saadi, A. Aboun, S.Doumandji

Abstract:

The quail is the smallest member of the order fowl. His captive breeding has been practiced for centuries by the Japanese. Knowing that in the literature, it is mentioned that the end of lay is noted for the age of 6 months, our work has revealed a good egg production by females aged up to 35 weeks of age. In the same vein, our study focused on various parameters such as weight, diet and the number of eggs laid and this in order to better know the potential production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg production has started from the 8th week of age of breeding, crop them and their counts are conducted daily basis until the age of 35 weeks. Indeed, biometric parameters are studied such as weight, length, and the largest diameter, the shape index, the index of shell, in order to analyze the physical condition of eggs by females of age. Until the age of 22 weeks, the eggs have maintained good biometric features. Japanese quail are best producing eggs. Hatchability is also considered. They are excellent poultry yields, since they begin laying eggs in two months and can provide abundant nesting with females over 8 months in our study. Other farms results reveal conclusions. Indeed, one aspect remains to be developed; it is the analysis of nutritional and therapeutic values of eggs over the age of females. The latter, given their wealth is a dietary supplement of animal origin with dietary value (it contains 0 cholesterol) that characterizes the quail eggs. Raising quail among other reproduction requires minimal when compared to other domestic birds space, this is the second breeding, in terms of importance after the chicken. Therefore, in the case of a farm that works exclusively in the production of eggs, requires minimal work and free space, as well as reduced costs.

Keywords: Biometrics, Reproduction, Japanese quail, eggs, reproductive age

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5 Study of Some Biometric Parameters of the Incubated Eggs and Unhatched Eggs Depending on the Age of Breeding in Domestic Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: Salaheddine Doumandji, Amina Smaï, Habiba Idouhar-Saadi, Safia Zenia, Fairouz Haddadj

Abstract:

The poultry industry (chicken and egg consumption) has become important in Algeria, but that does not prevent other farms from beginning to position themselves on the ground like the turkey, guinea fowl, partridge and quail Japanese. The breeding importance of this last, reside, also in game meat, egg quality and their therapeutic role without forgetting its growth performance. To the same effect, a study was held at the center of Zeralda hunting on various parameters such as the weight and number of eggs laid and this in order to know better the potential of production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg laying has started from the 8th week of reproductive age, their harvest and their counts are performed daily up to 32 weeks of age and more. We have given the biometrics of incubated eggs and unhatched eggs. The parameters studied were the weight, large and small diameter, density, volume, shell index and the shape index. The work revealed that the maximum weight in males is reached in the 11th week, against the female, he reached the 13th week of age. Indeed, there is a good correlation (R = 0.79) between the weight of females and egg production. The rate of unhatched eggs varies between 11 and 43%, these values are recorded respectively in breeding under the age of 25 and 43 weeks. Furthermore, the biometric parameters of hatched and unhatched eggs have differences that are marked, especially during the beginning and end of lay. Further results will be subsequently exploited. Indeed, rearing Japanese quail is easy in technical terms and does not require big investment but its practical application vigilance and daily presence of the breeder within the farm who oversees the hygiene and well-being of its poultry.

Keywords: Biometrics, Reproduction, Japanese quail, eggs, unhatching eggs

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4 Sudden Death in Young Patients: A Study of 312 Autopsy Cases

Authors: M. Belhadj, S. Saadi, N. Haj Salem, S. Ben Jomâa, R. Dhouieb, A. Chadly

Abstract:

Introduction: Sudden death in young is seen as a dramatic phenomenon requiring knowledge of its impact and determining their causes. Aim: We aim to study the epidemiological characteristics of sudden death in young, and to discuss the mechanism and the importance of autopsy in these situations. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using autopsy data from the department of forensic medicine at the University Hospital of Fattouma Bourguiba, Monastir-Tunisia. A review of all autopsies performed during 23 years was done. In each case, clinical information and circumstances of death were obtained. We have included all sudden death in persons aged between 1 year and 35 years for the male and from one year to 45 years for female. We collected 312 cases of sudden death during the studied period. The collected data were processed using SPSS 20. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Thirty-two cases of cardiac ischemic sudden death have been collected. Myocardial infarction was the second cause of sudden death in young patients. There was a male predominance. The most affected subjects were aged between 25-45 years. The death occurred more frequently at rest. Coronary artery disease has been discovered in twenty-four cases (75%). A severe coronary artery disease was observed in two children with medical history of familial hypercholesterolemia. The myocardial infarction occurred in healthy coronary arteries in eight cases. An anomalous course of coronary arteries, in particular, myocardial bridging, was found in eight cases (25%). Toxicological screening was negative in all cases. Second cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Neurological and respiratory causes of death were implicated respectively in 10% and 15%. Conclusion: Identifying epidemiological characteristics of sudden death in this population is important for guiding approaches to prevention that must be based on dietary hygienic measures and the control of cardiovascular risk factors.

Keywords: Autopsy, sudden death, cardiac death, young

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3 Method to Assessing Aspect of Sustainable Development-Walkability

Authors: Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma, Amna Ali Nasser Al-Saadi

Abstract:

Need to generate objective communication between researchers, Practitioners and policy makers are top concern of sustainability. Despite the fact that many places have successes in achieving some aspects of sustainable urban development, there are no scientific facts to convince policy makers in the rest of the world to apply their guides and manuals. This is because each of them was developed to fulfill the need of specific city. The question is, how to learn the lesson from each case study? And how distinguish between the potential criteria and negative one? And how quantify their effects in the future development? Walkability has been found as a solution to achieve healthy life style as well as social, environmental and economic sustainability. Moreover, it is complicated as every aspect of sustainable development. This research is stand on quantitative- comparative methodology in order to assess pedestrian oriented development. Three Analyzed Areas (AAs) were selected. One site is located in Oman in which hypotheses as motorized oriented development, while two sites are in Japan where the development is pedestrian friendly. The study used Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method (MCEM). Initially, MCEM stands on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The later was structured into main goal (walkability), objectives (functions and layout) and attributes (the urban form criteria). Secondly, the GIS were used to evaluate the attributes in multi-criteria maps. Since each criterion has different scale of measurement, all results were standardized by z-score and used to measure the co-relations among cr iteria. Different scenario was generated from each AA. After that, MCEM (AHP- OWA) based on GIS measured the walkability score and determined the priority of criteria development in the non-walker friendly environment. As results, the comparison criteria for z-score presented a measurable distinguished orientation of development. This result has been used to prove that Oman is motorized environment while Japan is walkable. Also, it defined the powerful criteria and week criteria regardless to the AA. This result has been used to generalize the priority for walkable development.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, GIS, Walkability, multi- criteria evaluation method

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