Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: electrolytes

83 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray


Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

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82 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray


The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 µm and 200-600 nm, respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, CNFs, ionic conductivity, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
81 Plasma Electrolytes and Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) Status in Dementia Subjects in Southern Nigeria

Authors: Salaam Mujeeb, Adeola Segun, Abdullahi Olasunkanmi


Dementia is becoming a major concern as the world population is increasing and elderly populations are being neglected. Liver and kidney Diseases have been implicated as risk factors in the etiology of Dementia. This study, therefore, evaluates the plasma Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) activity and plasma Electrolytes in other to find an association between the biomarkers and Dementia. The subjects (38) were age and sex-matched with their corresponding controls and structured questionnaires were used to obtain medical information. Using spectrophotometric and ion selective Electrode techniques respectively, we found and elevated GGT activity in the Dementia Subjects. Remarkably, no association was found between the plasma Electrolytes level and Dementia subjects. It was also observed that severity of Dementia worsens with age. Moreover, the condition of the dementia subjects worsens with reducing weight. Furthermore, the presence of Comorbidity e.g. Hypertension, Obesity, Diabetes and Habits like Smoking, Drugs and Alcohol consumption interferes with Electrolyte balance. Weight loss monitoring and IBM check are advised in Elderly individuals particularly females as they may be inductive of early or future cognitive impairments. Therefore, it might be useful as an early detection tool. Government and society should invest more on the Geriatric population by establishing Old people's home and providing social care services.

Keywords: clinical characteristics, dementia, electrolytes, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, GGT

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80 Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations on Nickel Electrodeposition from Industrial Sulfate Electrolyte in Presence of Ca(II), Mg(II), Na(I) Ions

Authors: Udit Mohanty, Mari Lundstrom


Electrochemical investigation by cyclic voltammetry was conducted to explore the polarization behavior of reactions occurring in nickel electrowinning in presence of cationic impurities such as Ca2+ (0-100 mg/L), Na+ (1-10 g/L) and Mg2+ (10-100 mg/L). A comparative study was devised between industrial and synthetic electrolytes to observe the shift in the nucleation overpotentials of nickel deposition, dissolution and hydrogen evolution reactions at the cathode and anode respectively. Significant polarization of cathodic reactions were observed with concentrations of Na ≥ 8g /L and Ca ≤ 40 mg /L in the synthetic electrolytes. Nevertheless, a progressive increase in the concentration of Ca, Mg and Na in the industrial electrolyte demonstrated a depolarization behavior in the cathodic reactions related to nickel deposition and/or hydrogen evolution. Synergistic effect of Ca with Mg and Na in both the industrial and synthetic electrolytes induced a notable depolarization effect, also reflected in the peak currents.

Keywords: cationic impurities, cyclic voltammetry, electrowinning, nickel, polarization

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79 Preparation, Characterization and Ionic Conductivity of (1‒x) (CdI2‒Ag2CrO4)‒(x) Al2O3 Composite Solid Electrolytes

Authors: Rafiuddin


Composite solid electrolyte of the salt and oxide type is an effective approach to improve the ionic conductivity in low and intermediate temperature regions. The conductivity enhancement in the composites occurs via interfaces. Because of their high ionic conduction, composite electrolytes have wide applications in different electrochemical devices such as solid-state batteries, solid oxide fuel cells, and electrochemical cells. In this work, a series of novel (1‒x) (CdI2‒Ag2CrO4)‒xAl2O3 composite solid electrolytes has been synthesized. The prepared materials were characterized by X‒ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and AC impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra show single semicircle representing the simultaneous contribution of grain and grain boundary. The conductivity increased with the increase of Al2O3 content and shows the maximum conductivity (σ= 0.0012 S cm‒1) for 30% of Al2O3 content at 30 ℃.

Keywords: composite solid electrolyte, X-ray diffraction, Impedance spectroscopy, ionic conductivity

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78 Single Ion Conductors for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Seyda Tugba Gunday Anil, Ayhan Bozkurt


Next generation lithium batteries are taking more attention and single-ion polymer electrolytes are expected to play a significant role in the development of these kinds of energy storage systems. In the present work we used a different strategy to design of novel solid single-ion conducting inorganic polymer electrolytes based on lithium polyvinyl alcohol oxalate borate (Li(PVAOB), lithium polyacrylic acid oxalate borate (LiPAAOB) and poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA). Free radical polymerization was used to convert PEGMA into PPEGMA and LiPAAOB is prepared from poly (acrylic acid), oxalic acid and boric acid. Blend polymer electrolytes were produced by mixing of LiPAAOB or Li (PVAOB with PPEGMA at different stoichiometric ratios to enhance the single ion conductivity of the systems. To exploit the flexible chemistry and increase the segmental mobility of the blend electrolyte, the composition was changed up to 80% with respect to the guest polymer, PPEGMA. FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter techniques confirmed the interaction between the host and guest polymers. TGA verified that the thermal stability of the blends increased up to approximately 200 C. Scanning electron microscopy images confirm the homogeneity of the blend electrolytes. CV studies showed that electrochemical stability electrochemical stability window is approximately 5 V versus Li/Li⁺. The effect of PPEGMA on to the Lithium-ion conductivity was investigated using dielectric impedance analyzer. The maximum single ion conductivity was measured as 1.3 × 10⁻⁴ S/cm at 100 C for the sample LiPAAOB-80PPEGMA. Clearly, the results confirmed the positive effect to the increment in ionic conductivity of the blend electrolytes with the addition of PPEGMA.

Keywords: single-ion conductor, inorganic polymer, blends, polymer electrolyte

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77 Development of Solid Electrolytes Based on Networked Cellulose

Authors: Boor Singh Lalia, Yarjan Abdul Samad, Raed Hashaikeh


Three different kinds of solid polymer electrolytes were prepared using polyethylene oxide (PEO) as a base polymer, networked cellulose (NC) as a physical support and LiClO4 as a conductive salt for the electrolytes. Networked cellulose, a modified form of cellulose, is a biodegradable and environmentally friendly additive which provides a strong fibrous networked support for structural stability of the electrolytes. Although the PEO/NC/LiClO4 electrolyte retains its structural integrity and mechanical properties at 100oC as compared to pristine PEO-based polymer electrolytes, it suffers from poor ionic conductivity. To improve the room temperature conductivity of the electrolyte, PEO is replaced by the polyethylene glycol (PEG) which is a liquid phase that provides high mobility for Li+ ions transport in the electrolyte. PEG/NC/LiClO4 shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to PEO/NC/LiClO4 at room temperature, but it is brittle and tends to form cracks during processing. An advanced solid polymer electrolyte with optimum ionic conductivity and mechanical properties is developed by using a ternary system: TEGDME/PEO/NC+LiClO4. At room temperature, this electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity to the order of 10-5 S/cm, which is very high compared to that of the PEO/LiClO4 electrolyte. Pristine PEO electrolytes start melting at 65 °C and completely lose its mechanical strength. Dynamic mechanical analysis of TEGDME: PEO: NC (70:20:10 wt%) showed an improvement of storage modulus as compared to the pristine PEO in the 60–120 °C temperature range. Also, with an addition of NC, the electrolyte retains its mechanical integrity at 100 oC which is beneficial for Li-ion battery operation at high temperatures. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) studies revealed that the ternary polymer electrolyte is thermally stable in the lithium ion battery operational temperature range. As-prepared polymer electrolyte was used to assemble LiFePO4/ TEGDME/PEO/NC+LiClO4/Li half cells and their electrochemical performance was studied via cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling.

Keywords: solid polymer electrolyte, ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, lithium ion batteries, cyclic voltammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
76 Transport Properties of Alkali Nitrites

Authors: Y. Mateyshina, A.Ulihin, N.Uvarov


Electrolytes with different type of charge carrier can find widely application in different using, e.g. sensors, electrochemical equipments, batteries and others. One of important components ensuring stable functioning of the equipment is electrolyte. Electrolyte has to be characterized by high conductivity, thermal stability, and wide electrochemical window. In addition to many advantageous characteristic for liquid electrolytes, the solid state electrolytes have good mechanical stability, wide working range of temperature range. Thus search of new system of solid electrolytes with high conductivity is an actual task of solid state chemistry. Families of alkali perchlorates and nitrates have been investigated by us earlier. In literature data about transport properties of alkali nitrites are absent. Nevertheless, alkali nitrites MeNO2 (Me= Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+ and Cs+), except for the lithium salt, have high-temperature phases with crystal structure of the NaCl-type. High-temperature phases of nitrites are orientationally disordered, i.e. non-spherical anions are reoriented over several equivalents directions in the crystal lattice. Pure lithium nitrite LiNO2 is characterized by ionic conductivity near 10-4 S/cm at 180°C and more stable as compared with lithium nitrate and can be used as a component for synthesis of composite electrolytes. In this work composite solid electrolytes in the binary system LiNO2 - A (A= MgO, -Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2, SnO2, SiO2) were synthesized and their structural, thermodynamic and electrical properties investigated. Alkali nitrite was obtained by exchange reaction from water solutions of barium nitrite and alkali sulfate. The synthesized salt was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction technique using D8 Advance X-Ray Diffractometer with Cu K radiation. Using thermal analysis, the temperatures of dehydration and thermal decomposition of salt were determined.. The conductivity was measured using a two electrode scheme in a forevacuum (6.7 Pa) with an HP 4284A (Precision LCR meter) in a frequency range 20 Hz < ν < 1 MHz. Solid composite electrolytes LiNO2 - A A (A= MgO, -Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2, SnO2, SiO2) have been synthesized by mixing of preliminary dehydrated components followed by sintering at 250°C. In the series of nitrite of alkaline metals Li+-Cs+, the conductivity varies not monotonically with increasing radius of cation. The minimum conductivity is observed for KNO2; however, with further increase in the radius of cation in the series, the conductivity tends to increase. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic research, grant #14-03-31442.

Keywords: conductivity, alkali nitrites, composite electrolytes, transport properties

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75 Effect of Serum Electrolytes on a QTc Interval and Mortality in Patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Niyada Naksuk


Background: Serum electrolyte abnormalities are a common cause of an acquired prolonged QT syndrome, especially, in the coronary care unit (CCU) setting. Optimal electrolyte ranges among the CCU patients have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We identified 8,498 consecutive CCU patients who were admitted to the CCU at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA, from 2004 through 2013. Association between first serum electrolytes and baseline corrected QT intervals (QTc), as well as in-hospital mortality, was tested using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, ionized calcium (iCa) 4.6-4.8 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0- < 2.2 mg/dL were used as the reference levels. Results: There was a modest level-dependent relationship between hypokalemia ( < 4.0 mEq/L), hypocalcemia ( < 4.4 mg/dL), and a prolonged QTc interval; serum magnesium did not affect the QTc interval. Association between the serum electrolytes and in-hospital mortality included a U-shaped relationship for serum potassium (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 and OR 1.91for serum potassium 4.5- < 5.0 and ≥ 5.0 mEq/L, respectively) and an inverted J-shaped relationship for iCa (adjusted OR 2.79 and OR 2.03 for calcium < 4.4 and 4.4- < 4.6 mg/dL, respectively). For serum magnesium, the mortality was greater only among patients with levels ≥ 2.4 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.40), compared to the reference level. Findings were similar in sensitivity analyses examining the association between mean serum electrolytes and mean QTc intervals, as well as in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, iCa ≥ 4.6 mg/dL, and magnesium < 2.4 mg/dL had a neutral effect on QTc intervals and were associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among the CCU patients.

Keywords: calcium, electrocardiography, long-QT syndrome, magnesium, mortality, potassium

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74 Electrical and Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Systems

Authors: Yasin Polat, Yılmaz Dağdemir, Mehmet Arı


Samarium (III) oxide and Ytterbium (III) oxide doped Bismuth trioxide solid solutions, the nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary system were obtained with x=5, 20 mol %, and y=5, 20 mol % dopant concentrations have been synthesized in air atmosphere with solid state reaction. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the samples have been investigated by 4-point probe technique by heating and cooling process. Doped-Bi2O3 materials of solid electrolyte systems are good oxygen anions O2-conductors which have collected much attention as potential solid ceramic electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their relatively high oxygen ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.(Bi2O3)-based electrolytes have also wide other technological applications in devices with high economical interest such as oxygen sensors, ceramic membranes for oxygen separation, oxygen pumps, catalyzing of some heterogeneous reactions, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons, and additive material in paints. In recent years, many experimental researches have mostly focused on improving of the Bi-based electrolytes which have high oxide ionic conductivity at low temperatures and better performance as alternatives to traditional stabilized zirconia has taken place. Generally, these systems are much better solid electrolytes than well-known stabilized zirconia, because some of the bismuth trioxide phases exhibit higher ion conductivity than other oxide ionic conductors. Crystal structure of the Nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y has been determined by X-Ray powder diffractions (XRD) measurements before and after electrical conductivity measurements of the samples. Surface and grain structure properties of the samples were determined by SEM analysis. The samples which synthesized in this study can be used in industrial applications such as electrolytes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

Keywords: 4-point probe technique, bismuth trioxide, solid state reaction, solid oxide fuel cell

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73 Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Doped Li7La3Zr2O12 Li-Ion Conducting Solid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries

Authors: Shari Ann S. Botin, Ruziel Larmae T. Gimpaya, Rembrant Rockwell Gamboa, Rinlee Butch M. Cervera


In recent years, demand for the use of solid electrolytes as alternatives to liquid electrolytes has increased due to recurring battery safety and stability issues, in addition to an increase in energy density requirement which can be made possible by using solid electrolytes. Among the solid electrolyte systems, Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ) is one of the most promising as it exhibits good chemical stability against Li metal and has a relatively high ionic conductivity. In this study, pure and doped LLZ were synthesized via conventional solid state reaction. The precursor chemicals (such as LiOH, La2O3, Ga2O3 and ZrO2) were ground and then calcined at 900 °C, pressed into pellets and finally sintered at 1000 °C to 1200 °C. The microstructure and ionic conductivity of the obtained samples have been investigated. Results show that for pure LLZ, sintering at lower temperature (1000 °C) produced tetragonal LLZ while sintering at higher temperatures (≥ 1150 °C) produced cubic LLZ based from the XRD results. However, doping with Ga produces an easier formation of LLZ with cubic structure at lower sintering duration. On the other hand, the lithium conductivity of the samples was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at room temperature. Among the obtained samples, Ga-doped LLZ sintered at 1150 °C obtained the highest ionic conductivity reaching to about 1x10⁻⁴ S/cm at room temperature. In addition, fabrication and initial investigation of an all-solid state Lithium Battery using the synthesized LLZ sample with the use of commercial cathode materials have been investigated.

Keywords: doped LLZ, lithium-ion battery, pure LLZ, solid electrolytes

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72 Dairy Wastewater Remediation Using Electrochemical Oxidation on Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) Anode

Authors: Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum’h, Abeer Albsoul, Khalideh Alrawashdeh, Dina Al Tarazi


Treated wastewater reuse has been considered recently as one of the successful management strategies to overcome water shortage in countries suffering from water scarcity. The non-readily biodegradable and recalcitrant pollutants in wastewater cannot be destructed by conventional treatment methods. This paper deals with the electrochemical treatment of dairy wastewater using a promising non-conventional Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) anode. During the electrochemical process, different operating parameters were investigated, such as electrolysis time, current density, supporting electrolyte, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity as well as absorbance/color. The experimental work revealed that electrochemical oxidation carried out with no added electrolyte has significantly reduced the COD, turbidity, and color (absorbance) by 72%, 76%, and 78% respectively. Results also showed that raising the current density from 5.1 mA/cm² to 7.7 mA/cm² has boosted COD, and color removal to 82.5%, and 83% respectively. However, the current density did not show any significant effect on the turbidity. Interestingly, it was observed that adding Na₂SO₄ and FeCl₃ as supporting electrolytes brought the COD removal to 91% and 97% respectively. Likewise, turbidity and color removal has been enhanced by the addition of the same supporting electrolytes.

Keywords: boron doped-diamond anode, dairy wastewater, electrochemical oxidation, supporting electrolytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
71 Qusai-Solid-State Electrochromic Device Based on PolyMethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)/Succinonitrile Gel Polymer Electrolyte

Authors: Jen-Yuan Wang, Min-Chuan Wang, Der-Jun Jan


Polymer electrolytes can be classified into four major categories, solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs), polyelectrolytes and composite polymer electrolytes. SPEs suffer from low ionic conductivity at room temperature. The main problems for GPEs are the poor thermal stability and mechanical properties. In this study, a GPE containing PMMA and succinonitrile is prepared to solve the problems mentioned above, and applied to the assembly of a quasi-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD). In the polymer electrolyte, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is the polymer matrix and propylene carbonate (PC) is used as the plasticizer. To enhance the mechanical properties of this GPE, succinonitrile (SN) is introduced as the additive. For the electrochromic materials, tungsten oxide (WO3) is used as the cathodic coloring film, which is fabricated by pulsed dc magnetron reactive sputtering. For the anodic coloring material, Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) are synthesized and coated on the transparent Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) glass. The thickness of ITO, WO3 and PB film is 110, 170 and 200 nm, respectively. The size of the ECD is 5×5 cm2. The effect of the introduction of SN into the GPEs is discussed by observing the electrochromic behaviors of the WO3-PB ECD. Besides, the composition ratio of PC to SN is also investigated by measuring the ionic conductivity. The optimized ratio of PC to SN is 4:1, and the ionic conductivity under this condition is 6.34x10-5 S∙cm-1, which is higher than that of PMMA/PC (1.35x10-6 S∙cm-1) and PMMA/EC/PC (4.52x10-6 S∙cm-1). This quasi-solid-state ECD fabricated with the PMMA/SN based GPE shows an optical contrast of ca. 53% at 690 nm. The optical transmittance of the ECD can be reversibly modulated from 72% (bleached) to 19% (darkened), by applying potentials of 1.5 and -2.2 V, respectively. During the durability test, the optical contrast of this ECD remains 44.5% after 2400 cycles, which is 83% of the original one.

Keywords: electrochromism, tungsten oxide, prussian blue, poly(methyl methacrylate), succinonitrile

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70 Clathrate Hydrate Measurements and Thermodynamic Modelling for Refrigerants with Electrolytes Solution in the Presence of Cyclopentane

Authors: Peterson Thokozani Ngema, Paramespri Naidoo, Amir H. Mohammadi, Deresh Ramjugernath


Phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) for clathrate hydrate (gas hydrate) were undertaken for systems involving fluorinated refrigerants with a single and mixed electrolytes (NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂, and Na₂SO₄) aqueous solution at various salt concentrations in the absence and presence of cyclopentane (CP). The ternary systems for (R410a or R507) with the water system in the presence of CP were performed in the temperature and pressures ranges of (279.8 to 294.4) K and (0.158 to 1.385) MPa, respectively. Measurements for R410a with single electrolyte {NaCl or CaCl₂} solution in the presence of CP were undertaken at salt concentrations of (0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (278.4 to 293.7) K and (0.214 to1.179) MPa, respectively. The temperature and pressure conditions for R410a with Na₂SO₄ aqueous solution system were investigated at a salt concentration of 0.10 mass fraction in the range of (283.3 to 291.6) K and (0.483 to 1.373) MPa respectively. Measurements for {R410a or R507} with mixed electrolytes {NaCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂} aqueous solution was undertaken at various salt concentrations of (0.002 to 0.15) mass fractions in the temperature and pressure ranges of (274.5 to 292.9) K and (0.149 to1.119) MPa in the absence and presence of CP, in which there is no published data related to mixed salt and a promoter. The phase equilibrium measurements were performed using a non-visual isochoric equilibrium cell that co-operates the pressure-search technique. This study is focused on obtaining equilibrium data that can be utilized to design and optimize industrial wastewater, desalination process and the development of Hydrate Electrolyte–Cubic Plus Association (HE–CPA) Equation of State. The results show an impressive improvement in the presence of promoter (CP) on hydrate formation because it increases the dissociation temperatures near ambient conditions. The results obtained were modeled using a developed HE–CPA equation of state. The model results strongly agree with the measured hydrate dissociation data.

Keywords: association, desalination, electrolytes, promoter

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69 Effect of Sintering Temperature on Transport Properties of Garnet-Type Solid-State Electrolytes for Energy Storage Systems

Authors: U. Farooq, A. Samson, V. Thangadurai, R. Edwards


In recent years, an impressive research has been conducted to introduce the solid-state electrolytes for the future energy storage devices like Li-ion batteries more specifically. In this work we tried to prepare a ceramic electrolyte (Li6.5 La2.5 Ba0.5 Nb Zr O12(LLBNZO)) and sintered the pallets of as-prepared material at elevated temperature like 1050, 1100, 1150 and 1200 °C. The objective to carry out this research was to observe the effect of temperature on porosity, density and transport properties of materials. Preliminary results suggest that the material sintered at higher temperature could show enhanced performance in terms of fast ionic transport. This enhancement in performance can be attributed to low porosity of materials which is result of high temperature sintering.

Keywords: solid state battery, electrolyte, garnet structures, Li-ion battery

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68 Fluid Prescribing Post Laparotomies

Authors: Gusa Hall, Barrie Keeler, Achal Khanna


Introduction: NICE guidelines have highlighted the consequences of IV fluid mismanagement. The main aim of this study was to audit fluid prescribing post laparotomies to identify if fluids were prescribed in accordance to NICE guidelines. Methodology: Retrospective database search of eight specific laparotomy procedures (colectomy right and left, Hartmann’s procedure, small bowel resection, perforated ulcer, abdominal perineal resection, anterior resection, pan proctocolectomy, subtotal colectomy) highlighted 29 laparotomies between April 2019 and May 2019. Two of 29 patients had secondary procedures during the same admission, n=27 (patients). Database case notes were reviewed for date of procedure, length of admission, fluid prescribed and amount, nasal gastric tube output, daily bloods results for electrolytes sodium and potassium and operational losses. Results: n=27 based on 27 identified patients between April 2019 – May 2019, 93% (25/27) received IV fluids, only 19% (5/27) received the correct IV fluids in accordance to NICE guidelines, 93% (25/27) who received IV fluids had the correct electrolytes levels (sodium & potassium), 100% (27/27) patients received blood tests (U&E’s) for correct electrolytes levels. 0% (0/27) no documentation on operational losses. IV fluids matched nasogastric tube output in 100% (3/3) of the number of patients that had a nasogastric tube in situ. Conclusion: A PubMed database literature review on barriers to safer IV prescribing highlighted educational interventions focused on prescriber knowledge rather than how to execute the prescribing task. This audit suggests IV fluids post laparotomies are not being prescribed consistently in accordance to NICE guidelines. Surgical management plans should be clearer on IV fluids and electrolytes requirements for the following 24 hours after the plan has been initiated. In addition, further teaching and training around IV prescribing is needed together with frequent surgical audits on IV fluid prescribing post-surgery to evaluate improvements.

Keywords: audit, IV Fluid prescribing, laparotomy, NICE guidelines

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67 Extracts of Cola acuminata, Lupinus arboreus and Bougainvillea spectabilis as Natural Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: M. L. Akinyemi, T. J. Abodurin, A. O. Boyo, J. A. O. Olugbuyiro


Organic dyes from Cola acuminata (C. acuminata), Lupinus arboreus (L. arboreus) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (B. spectabilis) leaves and their mixtures were used as sensitizers to manufacture dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Photoelectric measurements of C. acuminata showed a short circuit current (Jsc) of 0.027 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.018 mA/ cm2 with a mixture of mercury chloride and iodine (Hgcl2 + I); potassium bromide and iodine (KBr + I); and potassium chloride and iodine (KCl + I) respectively. The open circuit voltage (Voc) was 24 mV, 25 mV and 20 mV for the three dyes respectively. L. arboreus had Jsc of 0.034 mA/ cm2, 0.021 mA/ cm2 and 0.013 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc of 28 mV, 14.2 mV and 15 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. B. spectabilis recorded Jsc 0.023 mA/ cm2, 0.026 mA/ cm2 and 0.015 mA/ cm2; and corresponding Voc values of 6.2 mV, 14.3 mV and 4.0 mV for the three electrolytes respectively. It was observed that the fill factor (FF) was 0.140 for C. acuminata, 0.3198 for L. arboreus and 0.1138 for B. spectabilis. Internal conversions of 0.096%, 0.056% and 0.063% were recorded for three dyes when combined with (KBr + I) electrolyte. The internal efficiency of C. acuminata DSSC was highest in value.

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, organic dye, C. acuminate, L. arboreus, B. spectabilis, dye mixture

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66 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan


Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

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65 Ab Initio Studies of Organic Electrodes for Li and Na Ion Batteries Based on Tetracyanoethylene

Authors: Yingqian Chen, Sergei Manzhos


Organic electrodes are a way to achieve high rate (high power) and environment-friendly batteries. We present a computational density functional theory study of Li and Na storage in tetracyanoethylene based molecular and crystalline materials. Up to five Li and Na atoms can be stored on TCNE chemisorbed on doped graphene (corresponding to ~1000 mAh/gTCNE), with binding energies stronger than cohesive energies of the Li and Na metals by 1-2 eV. TCNE has been experimentally shown to form a crystalline material with Li with stoichiometry Li-TCNE. We confirm this computationally and also predict that a similar crystal based of Na-TCNE is also stable. These crystalline materials have well defined channels for facile Li or Na ion insertion and diffusion. Specifically, Li and Na binding energies in Li-TCNE and Na-TCNE crystals are about 1.5 eV and stronger than the cohesive energy of Li and Na, respectively. TCNE immobilized on conducting graphene-based substrates and Li/Na-TCNE crystals could therefore become efficient anode materials for organic Li and Na ion batteries, with which it should also be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes.

Keywords: organic ion batteries, tetracyanoethylene, cohesive energies, electrolytes

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64 Flexible Current Collectors for Printed Primary Batteries

Authors: Vikas Kumar


Portable batteries are reliable source of mobile energy to power smart wearable electronics, medical devices, communications, and others internet of thing (IoT) devices. There is a continuous increase in demand for thinner, more flexible battery with high energy density and reliability to meet the requirement. For a flexible battery, factors that affect these properties are the stability of current collectors, electrode materials and their interfaces with the corrosive electrolytes. State-of-the-art conventional and flexible batteries utilise carbon as an electrode and current collectors which cause high internal resistance (~100 ohms) and limit the peak current to ~1mA. This makes them unsuitable for a wide range of applications. Replacing the carbon parts with metallic components would reduce the internal resistance (and hence reduce parasitic loss), but significantly increases the risk of corrosion due to galvanic interactions within the battery. To overcome these challenges, low cost electroplated nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) was studied as a potential anode current collector for a zinc-manganese oxide primary battery with different concentration of NH4Cl/ZnCl2 electrolyte. Using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we monitored the open circuit potential (OCP) of electroplated nickel (different thicknesses) in different concentration of electrolytes to optimise the thickness of Ni coating. Our results show that electroless Ni coating suffer excessive corrosion in these electrolytes. Corrosion rates of Ni coatings for different concentrations of electrolytes have been calculated with Tafel analysis. These results suggest that for electroplated Ni, channelling and/or open porosity is a major issue, which was confirmed by morphological analysis. These channels are an easy pathway for electrolyte to penetrate thorough Ni to corrode the Ni/Cu interface completely. We further investigated the incorporation of a special printed graphene layer on Ni to provide corrosion protection in this corrosive electrolyte medium. We find that the incorporation of printed graphene layer provides the corrosion protection to the Ni and enhances the chemical bonding between the active materials and current collector and also decreases the overall internal resistance of the battery system.

Keywords: corrosion, electrical impedance spectroscopy, flexible battery, graphene, metal current collector

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63 Synthesis, Characterization and Electrical Studies of Solid Polymer Electrolyte (1-x) PANI-KAg₄I₅.xAl₂O₃

Authors: Rafiuddin


Solid polymer electrolytes have emerged as an area of interest in the field of solid state chemistry owing to their facile and cost-effective synthesis and number of applications in different areas of chemistry, extending over a wide range of temperatures. In the present work, polymer composite solid electrolyte comprising of Polyaniline (PANI) as polymer and potassium silver iodide (KAg4I5) using alumina (Al2O3) of different compositions having the formula (1-x) PANI- KAg4I5. x Al2O3 with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 was prepared by solid state reaction method. The structural elucidation and characterization was done by X- Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric- Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA) and Impedance Spectroscopy. The thermal analysis shows a phase transition at 147°C attributed to β-α phase transition of AgI due to the disproportionation of KAg4I5 to AgI and KAg2I3 at temperatures higher than 36°C. The X Ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of both AgI and KAg2I3 in the samples. The conductivities recorded over a temperature range of 40-250° C lie in the range of 10-1 to 10-3 S cm-1. Maximum conductivity was seen in the compositon x = 0.4 i.e. 1.84 × 10-2 Scm-1 at 313 K and 1.38 × 10-1 Scm-1 at 513 K, with a minimum activation energy of 0.14 eV.

Keywords: polymer solid electrolytes, XRD, DTA, electrical conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

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62 Electrokinetic Application for the Improvement of Soft Clays

Authors: Abiola Ayopo Abiodun, Zalihe Nalbantoglu


The electrokinetic application (EKA), a relatively modern chemical treatment has a potential for in-situ ground improvement in an open field or under existing structures. It utilizes a low electrical gradient to transport electrolytic chemical ions between bespoke electrodes inserted in the fine-grained, low permeable soft soils. The paper investigates the efficacy of the EKA as a mitigation technique for the soft clay beds. The laboratory model of the EKA comprises of rectangular plexiglass test tank, electrolytes compartments, geosynthetic electrodes and direct electric current supply. Within this setup, the EK effects resulted from the exchange of ions between anolyte (anodic) and catholyte (cathodic) ends through the tested soil were examined by basic experimental laboratory testing methods. As such, the treated soft soil properties were investigated as a function of the anode-to-cathode distances and curing periods. The test results showed that there have been some changes in the physical and engineering properties of the treated soft soils. The significant changes in the physicochemical and electrical properties suggested that their corresponding changes can be utilized as a monitoring technique to evaluate the improvement in the engineering properties EK treated soft clay soils.

Keywords: electrokinetic, electrolytes, exchange ions, geosynthetic electrodes, soft soils

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61 Effect of Methanolic Extract of Punica granatum L. Fruit Rind on Kidney, Liver Marker Enzymes, Electrolytes, and Their Histology in Normal Healthy Rats

Authors: Y. A. Shettima, M. A. Tijjani, S. Modu, F. I. Abdulrahman, B. M. Abubakar


The toxicity profile of the methanolic extract of Punica granatum L. fruit rind was studied in normal rats. The rats were administered orally by intubating graded doses of 150, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 28 days and the effects on biochemical parameters and histology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the levels of liver enzymes of the rats that received the highest dose of 750 mg/kg body weight. The AST and ALT levels were 41.59±0.18 ALP and 9.25±0.29 IU/L, respectively, while the ALP level was 15.68±10 IU/L.There was a significant difference in the albumin and globulin levels; 3.72±0.05 and 4.05±0.13 g/dl, respectively. Serum urea and creatinine levels remained normal, as well as the electrolyte levels. The increase in sodium concentration observed was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group (131.50±3.11) was compared with the experimental groups (132.25±3.86, 132.75±3.86, 133.50±3.11 and 134.00±1.83). The increase in potassium concentration was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group with a value of 95.50±3.51 mmol/L was compared with the experimental groups 98.00±3.16, 99.25±2.22, 99.79±0.36 and 99.99±0.02 mmol/L. The increase observed in bicarbonate concentration was not statistically significant (P≥0.05) when the control group with a value of 20.75±1.71 mmol/L was compared with the experimental groups 21.68±0.62, 24.25±2.99, 24.50±3.42, 25.50±2.65 mmol/L.

Keywords: punical granatum, methanolic, ALT, AST, electrolytes, histology

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60 Determination of Bromides, Chlorides and Fluorides in Case of Their Joint Presence in Ion-Conducting Electrolyte

Authors: V. Golubeva, O. Vakhnina, I. Konopkina, N. Gerasimova, N. Taturina, K. Zhogova


To improve chemical current sources, the ion-conducting electrolytes based on Li halides (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-LiBr-KBr, LiCl-LiBr-LiF) are developed. It is necessary to have chemical analytical methods for determination of halides to control the electrolytes technology. The methods of classical analytical chemistry are of interest, as they are characterized by high accuracy. Using these methods is a difficult task because halides have similar chemical properties. The objective of this work is to develop a titrimetric method for determining the content of bromides, chlorides, and fluorides in their joint presence in an ion-conducting electrolyte. In accordance with the developed method of analysis to determine fluorides, electrolyte sample is dissolved in diluted HCl acid; fluorides are titrated by La(NO₃)₃ solution with potentiometric indication of equivalence point, fluoride ion-selective electrode is used as sensor. Chlorides and bromides do not form a hardly soluble compound with La and do not interfere in result of analysis. To determine the bromides, the sample is dissolved in a diluted H₂SO₄ acid. The bromides are oxidized with a solution of KIO₃ to Br₂, which is removed from the reaction zone by boiling. Excess of KIO₃ is titrated by iodometric method. The content of bromides is calculated from the amount of KIO₃ spent on Br₂ oxidation. Chlorides and fluorides are not oxidized by KIO₃ and do not interfere in result of analysis. To determine the chlorides, the sample is dissolved in diluted HNO₃ acid and the total content of chlorides and bromides is determined by method of visual mercurometric titration with diphenylcarbazone indicator. Fluorides do not form a hardly soluble compound with mercury and do not interfere with determination. The content of chlorides is calculated taking into account the content of bromides in the sample of electrolyte. The validation of the developed analytical method was evaluated by analyzing internal reference material with known chlorides, bromides and fluorides content. The analytical method allows to determine chlorides, bromides and fluorides in case of their joint presence in ion-conducting electrolyte within the range and with relative total error (δ): for bromides from 60.0 to 65.0 %, δ = ± 2.1 %; for chlorides from 8.0 to 15.0 %, δ = ± 3.6 %; for fluorides from 5.0 to 8.0%, ± 1.5% . The analytical method allows to analyze electrolytes and mixtures that contain chlorides, bromides, fluorides of alkali metals and their mixtures (K, Na, Li).

Keywords: bromides, chlorides, fluorides, ion-conducting electrolyte

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59 Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Siloxane Matrix

Authors: Natia Jalagonia, Tinatin Kuchukhidze


Polymer electrolytes (PE) play an important part in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells. To achieve optimal performance, the PE must maintain a high ionic conductivity and mechanical stability at both high and low relative humidity. The polymer electrolyte also needs to have excellent chemical stability for long and robustness. According to the prevailing theory, ionic conduction in polymer electrolytes is facilitated by the large-scale segmental motion of the polymer backbone, and primarily occurs in the amorphous regions of the polymer electrolyte. Crystallinity restricts polymer backbone segmental motion and significantly reduces conductivity. Consequently, polymer electrolytes with high conductivity at room temperature have been sought through polymers which have highly flexible backbones and have largely amorphous morphology. The interest in polymer electrolytes was increased also by potential applications of solid polymer electrolytes in high energy density solid state batteries, gas sensors and electrochromic windows. Conductivity of 10-3 S/cm is commonly regarded as a necessary minimum value for practical applications in batteries. At present, polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based systems are most thoroughly investigated, reaching room temperature conductivities of 10-7 S/cm in some cross-linked salt in polymer systems based on amorphous PEO-polypropylene oxide copolymers.. It is widely accepted that amorphous polymers with low glass transition temperatures Tg and a high segmental mobility are important prerequisites for high ionic conductivities. Another necessary condition for high ionic conductivity is a high salt solubility in the polymer, which is most often achieved by donors such as ether oxygen or imide groups on the main chain or on the side groups of the PE. It is well established also that lithium ion coordination takes place predominantly in the amorphous domain, and that the segmental mobility of the polymer is an important factor in determining the ionic mobility. Great attention was pointed to PEO-based amorphous electrolyte obtained by synthesis of comb-like polymers, by attaching short ethylene oxide unit sequences to an existing amorphous polymer backbone. The aim of presented work is to obtain of solid polymer electrolyte membranes using PMHS as a matrix. For this purpose the hydrosilylation reactions of α,ω-bis(trimethylsiloxy)methyl¬hydrosiloxane with allyl triethylene-glycol mo¬nomethyl ether and vinyltriethoxysilane at 1:28:7 ratio of initial com¬pounds in the presence of Karstedt’s catalyst, platinum hydrochloric acid (0.1 M solution in THF) and platinum on the carbon catalyst in 50% solution of anhydrous toluene have been studied. The synthesized olygomers are vitreous liquid products, which are well soluble in organic solvents with specific viscosity ηsp ≈ 0.05 - 0.06. The synthesized olygomers were analysed with FTIR, 1H, 13C, 29Si NMR spectroscopy. Synthesized polysiloxanes were investigated with wide-angle X-ray, gel-permeation chromatography, and DSC analyses. Via sol-gel processes of doped with lithium trifluoromethylsulfonate (triflate) or lithium bis¬(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)¬imide polymer systems solid polymer electrolyte membranes have been obtained. The dependence of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature and salt concentration was investigated and the activation energies of conductivity for all obtained compounds are calculated

Keywords: synthesis, PMHS, membrane, electrolyte

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58 Thermophysical Properties of Glycine/L-Alanine in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide and in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Tarnveer Kaur


Amino acids, as fundamental structural units of peptides and proteins, have an important role in biological systems by affecting solubility, denaturation, and activity of biomolecules. A study of these effects on thermophysical properties of model compounds in the presence of electrolytes solutions provides information about solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions on biomolecules. Ionic liquids (ILs) as organic electrolytes and green solvents are composed of an organic cation and an inorganic anion, which are liquid at ambient conditions. In the past decade, extensive investigations showed that the use of ILs as reaction media for processes involving biologically relevant compounds is promising in view of their successful application in kinetic resolution, biocatalysis, biosynthesis, separation, and purification processes. The scope of this information is valuable to explore the interactions of amino acids in ILs. To reach this purpose, apparent molar volumes of glycine/L-alanine in aqueous solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide/chloride were determined from precise density measurements at temperatures T = (288.15-318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. Positive values for all the studied amino acids indicate the dominance of hydrophilic-ionic interactions between amino acids and Ionic liquids. The effect of temperature on volumetric properties of glycine/L-alanine in solutions has been determined from the partial molar expansibility and second-order partial molar expansibility. Further, volumetric interaction parameters and hydration number have been calculated, which have been interpreted in terms of possible solute-solvent interactions.

Keywords: ILs, amino acids, volumetric properties, hydration numbers

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57 Synthesis, Structure and Functional Characteristics of Solid Electrolytes Based on Lanthanum Niobates

Authors: Maria V. Morozova, Yulia V. Emelyanova, Anastasia A. Levina, Elena S. Buyanova, Zoya A. Mikhaylovskaya, Sofia A. Petrova


The solid solutions of lanthanum niobates substituted by yttrium, bismuth and tungsten were synthesized. The structure of the solid solutions is either LaNbO4-based monoclinic or BiNbO4-based triclinic. The series where niobium is substituted by tungsten on B site reveals phase-modulated structure. The values of cell parameters decrease with increasing the dopant concentration for all samples except the tungsten series although the latter show higher total conductivity.

Keywords: impedance spectroscopy, LaNbO4, lanthanum ortho-niobates, solid electrolyte

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56 Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Columnar-Structured Mn-Doped Bi26Mo10O69-d Electrolytes

Authors: Maria V. Morozova, Zoya A. Mikhaylovskaya, Elena S. Buyanova, Sofia A. Petrova, Ksenia V. Arishina, Robert G. Zaharov


The present work is devoted to the investigation of two series of doped bismuth molybdates: Bi₂₆-₂ₓMn₂ₓMo₁₀O₆₉-d and Bi₂₆Mo₁₀-₂yMn₂yO₆₉-d. Complex oxides were synthesized by conventional solid state technology and by co-precipitation method. The products were identified by powder diffraction. The powders and ceramic samples were examined by means of densitometry, laser diffraction, and electron microscopic methods. Porosity of the ceramic materials was estimated using the hydrostatic method. The electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using impedance spectroscopy method.

Keywords: bismuth molybdate, columnar structures, impedance spectroscopy, oxygen ionic conductors

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55 Influence of Acceptor Dopant on the Physicochemical and Transport Properties of Textured BaCe0.5Zr0.3ln0.2O3−Δ Materials (Ln = Yb, Y, Cd, Sm, Nd)

Authors: J. Lyagaeva, D. Medvedev, A. Brouzgou, A. Demin, P. Tsiakaras


The investigation of highly conductive and chemically stable electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a necessity. The aim of the present work is to study the influence of acceptor dopant on the functional properties of textured BaCe0.5Zr0.3Ln0.2O3−δ (Ln = Yb, Y, Gd, Sm, Nd) ceramics. The X-Ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, dilatometry and 4-probe dc method of conductivity measurements were used. It was found that the mean grain size of ceramics increases (from 1.4 to 3.2 μm), thermal expansion coefficient grows (from 7.6•10–6 to 10.7•10–6 К–1), but ionic conductivity decreases (from 14 to 3 mS cm–1 at 900°С), when ionic radii of impurity acceptor increases from 0.868 Å (Yb3+) to 0.983 Å (Nd3+).

Keywords: acceptor dopant, crystal structure, proton-conducting, SOFC

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54 An Interesting Case of Management of Life Threatening Calcium Disequilibrium in a Patient with Parathyroid Tumor

Authors: Rajish Shil, Mohammad Ali Houri, Mohammad Milad Ismail, Fatimah Al Kaabi


The clinical presentation of Primary hyperparathyroidism can vary from simple asymptomatic hypercalcemia to severe life-threatening hypercalcemic crisis with multi-organ dysfunction, which can be due to parathyroid adenoma or sometimes with malignant cancer. This cascade of clinical presentation can lead to a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for treating the disease. We are presenting a case of severe hypercalcemic crisis due to parathyroid adenoma with an emphasis on early management, diagnosis, and interventions to prevent any lifelong complications and any permanent organ dysfunction. A 30 years old female with a history of primary Infertility, admitted to Al Ain Hospital critical care unit with Acute Severe Necrotizing Pancreatitis. She initially had a 1-month history of abdominal pain on and off, for which she was treated conservatively with no much improvement, and later on, she developed life-threatening severe pancreatitis, which required her to be admitted to the critical care unit. She was transferred from a private healthcare facility, where she was found to have a very high level of calcium up to 15mmol/L. She received systemic Zoledronic Acid, which lowered her calcium level transiently and later was increased again. She went on to develop multiple end-organ damages along with multiple electrolytes disturbances. She was found to have high levels of Parathyroid hormone, which was correlated with a parathyroid mass on the neck via radiological imaging. After a long course of medical treatment to lower the calcium to a near-normal level, parathyroidectomy was done, which showed parathyroid adenoma on histology. She developed hungry bone syndrome after the surgery and pancreatic pseudocyst after resolving of pancreatitis. She required aggressive treatment with Intravenous calcium for her hypocalcemia as she received zoledronic acid at the beginning of the disease. Later on, she was discharged on long term calcium and other electrolytes supplements. In patients presenting with hypercalcemia, it is prudent to investigate and start treatment early to prevent complications and end-organ damage from hypercalcemia and also to treat the primary cause of the hypercalcemia, with conscious follow up to prevent hypocalcemic complications after treatment. It is important to follow up patients with parathyroid adenomas for a long period in order to detect any recurrence of the tumor or to make sure if the primary tumor is either benign or malignant.

Keywords: hypercalcemia, pancreatitis, hypocalcemia, hyperparathyroidism

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