Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2699

Search results for: Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection

2699 A Diagnostic Accuracy Study: Comparison of Two Different Molecular-Based Tests (Genotype HelicoDR and Seeplex Clar-H. pylori ACE Detection), in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of two different molecular-based tests (GenoType® HelicoDR ve Seeplex® H. pylori-ClaR- ACE Detection) in detection presence of the H. pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. In addition to this also was aimed to determine resistance ratios of H. pylori strains against to clarytromycine and quinolone isolated from gastric biopsy material cultures by using both the genotypic (GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection) and phenotypic (gradient strip, E-test) methods. Material and methods: A total of 266 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-June 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in all the biopsy samples was investigated by five differnt dignostic methods together: culture (C) (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (H) (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), rapid urease test (RUT) (CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA), and two different molecular tests; GenoType® HelicoDR, Hain, Germany, based on DNA strip assay, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea, based on multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates against clarithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, and gradient strip (E-test, bioMerieux, France) methods. Culture positivity alone or positivities of both histology and RUT together was accepted as the gold standard for H. pylori positivity. Sensitivity and specificity rates of two molecular methods used in the study were calculated by taking the two gold standards previously mentioned. Results: A total of 266 patients between 16-83 years old who 144 (54.1 %) were female, 122 (45.9 %) were male were included in the study. 144 patients were found as culture positive, and 157 were H and RUT were positive together. 179 patients were found as positive with GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection together. Sensitivity and specificity rates of studied five different methods were found as follows: C were 80.9 % and 84.4 %, H + RUT were 88.2 % and 75.4 %, GenoType® HelicoDR were 100 % and 71.3 %, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection were, 100 % and 71.3 %. A strong correlation was found between C and H+RUT, C and GenoType® HelicoDR, and C and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection (r:0.644 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, respectively). Of all the isolated 144 H. pylori strains 24 (16.6 %) were detected as resistant to claritromycine, and 18 (12.5 %) were levofloxacin. Genotypic claritromycine resistance was detected only in 15 cases with GenoType® HelicoDR, and 6 cases with Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that; GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection was found as the most sensitive diagnostic methods when comparing all the investigated other ones (C, H, and RUT).

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, antimicrobial resistance

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2698 Detection of Helicobacter Pylori by PCR and ELISA Methods in Patients with Hyperlipidemia

Authors: Simin Khodabakhshi, Hossein Rassi

Abstract:

Hyperlipidemia refers to any of several acquired or genetic disorders that result in a high level of lipids circulating in the blood. Helicobacter pylori infection is a contributing factor in the progression of hyperlipidemia with serum lipid changes. The aim of this study was to detect of Helicobacter pylori by PCR and serological methods in patients with hyperlipidemia. In this case-control study, 174 patients with hyperlipidemia and 174 healthy controls were studied. Also, demographics, physical and biochemical parameters were performed in all samples. The DNA extracted from blood specimens was amplified by H pylori cagA specific primers. The results show that H. pylori cagA positivity was detected in 79% of the hyperlipidemia and in 56% of the control group by ELISA test and 49% of the hyperlipidemia and in 24% of the control group by PCR test. Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in hyperlipidemia as compared to controls. In addition, patients with hyperlipidemia had significantly higher values for triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, waist to hip ratio, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure and lower levels of HDL-C than control participants (all p < 0.0001). Our result detected the ELISA was a rapid and cost-effective detection and considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains. In general, it can be concluded that molecular analysis of H. pylori cagA and clinical parameters are important in early detection of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis with H. pylori infection by PCR and ELISA tests.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, hyperlipidemia, PCR, ELISA

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2697 Evaluation of Four Different DNA Targets in Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Genotyping of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

Abstract:

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targeting genomic DNA segments have been established for the detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical specimens. However, the data on comparative evaluations of various targets in detection of H. pylori are limited. Furthermore, the frequencies of vacA (s1 and s2) and cagA genotypes, which are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of H. pylori in other parts of the world, are not well studied in Kuwait. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR assays for the detection and genotyping of H. pylori by targeting the amplification of DNA targets from four genomic segments. The genomic DNA were isolated from 72 clinical isolates of H. pylori and tested in PCR with four pairs of oligonucleotides primers, i.e. ECH-U/ECH-L, ET-5U/ET-5L, CagAF/CagAR and Vac1F/Vac1XR, which were expected to amplify targets of various sizes (471 bp, 230 bp, 183 bp and 176/203 bp, respectively) from the genomic DNA of H. pylori. The PCR-amplified DNA were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR products of expected size were obtained with all primer pairs by using genomic DNA isolated from H. pylori. DNA dilution experiments showed that the most sensitive PCR target was 471 bp DNA amplified by the primers ECH-U/ECH-L, followed by the targets of Vac1F/Vac1XR (176 bp/203 DNA), CagAF/CagAR (183 bp DNA) and ET-5U/ET-5L (230 bp DNA). However, when tested with undiluted genomic DNA isolated from single colonies of all isolates, the Vac1F/Vac1XR target provided the maximum positive results (71/72 (99% positives)), followed by ECH-U/ECH-L (69/72 (93% positives)), ET-5U/ET-5L (51/72 (71% positives)) and CagAF/CagAR (26/72 (46% positives)). The results of genotyping experiments showed that vacA s1 (46% positive) and vacA s2 (54% positive) genotypes were almost equally associated with VaCA+/CagA- isolates (P > 0.05), but with VacA+/CagA+ isolates, S1 genotype (92% positive) was more frequently detected than S2 genotype (8% positive) (P< 0.0001). In conclusion, among the primer pairs tested, Vac1F/Vac1XR provided the best results for detection of H. pylori. The genotyping experiments showed that vacA s1 and vacA s2 genotypes were almost equally associated with vaCA+/cagA- isolates, but vacA s1 genotype had a significantly increased association with vacA+/cagA+ isolates.

Keywords: H. pylori, PCR, detection, genotyping

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2696 An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on Oracet Blue as a Label for Detection of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Saeedeh Hajihosseini, Zahra Aghili, Navid Nasirizadeh

Abstract:

An innovative method of a DNA electrochemical biosensor based on Oracet Blue (OB) as an electroactive label and gold electrode (AuE) for detection of Helicobacter pylori, was offered. A single–stranded DNA probe with a thiol modification was covalently immobilized on the surface of the AuE by forming an Au–S bond. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor DNA hybridization by measuring the electrochemical signals of reduction of the OB binding to double– stranded DNA (ds–DNA). Our results showed that OB–based DNA biosensor has a decent potential for detection of single–base mismatch in target DNA. Selectivity of the proposed DNA biosensor was further confirmed in the presence of non–complementary and complementary DNA strands. Under optimum conditions, the electrochemical signal had a linear relationship with the concentration of the target DNA ranging from 0.3 nmol L-1 to 240.0 nmol L-1, and the detection limit was 0.17 nmol L-1, whit a promising reproducibility and repeatability.

Keywords: DNA biosensor, oracet blue, Helicobacter pylori, electrode (AuE)

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2695 Molecular Detection of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Association with TNFα-308 Polymorphism in Cardiovascular Diseases

Authors: Azar Sharafianpor, Hossein Rassi, Fahimeh Nemati Mansur

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most important cause of death in industrialized and developing countries such as Iran. The most important risk factors for the CVD, genetic factors and chronic infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori, can be mentioned. The TNFα gene is one of the most important anti-inflammatory cytokines that can affect the sensitivity, efficacy, and ability of the immune response to chronic infections. Some TNF-α gene polymorphisms, including the replacement of the G nucleotide G with A at position 308 in the promoter region of TNF-α, increase the transcription of cytokines in the target cells and thus predispose a person to chronic infections. This study examines the TNF-α 308 polymorphism and its association with Helicobacter pylori infection in this disease. This study was a case-control study in which 154 patients were examined as cases or patients with symptoms of myocardial infarction or angina and 160 as controls or healthy subjects. All of the subjects at different ages were given venous blood and age, BMI, cholesterol, LDL, and HDL were determined. DNA was extracted from the specimens, and the cagA gene from H. pylori and the TNF-α-308 polymorphism were determined by PCR in patients and healthy subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Epi Info software. The results showed that the frequency of H. pylori infection in the patients and healthy group were 53.23% (82 out of 154) and 47.5% (76 out of 160). There was no significant difference in H. pylori outbreak between the two groups. The frequencies of TNF-α-308 genotype for GG, GA, and AA in patients were 0.17, 0.49, and 0.34, respectively, whereas for controls 0.47, 0.35, and 0.18 for GG, GA, and AA, respectively. The frequency of genotype analysis of TNF-α-308 polymorphisms in both patients and healthy groups showed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of genotypes and the AA genotype was higher in the affected individuals. Also, there was a significant relationship between the genotype and the contamination with H. pylori and changes in cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels were observed. The results of the study indicate that H. pylori detection in individuals with AA genotype in people under 50 years of age can play an important role in early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, TNFα gene, cardiovascular diseases, TNFα-308 polymorphism

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2694 Detection of Arcobacter and Helicobacter pylori Contamination in Organic Vegetables by Cultural and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Methods

Authors: Miguel García-Ferrús, Ana González, María A. Ferrús

Abstract:

The most demanded organic foods worldwide are those that are consumed fresh, such as fruits and vegetables. However, there is a knowledge gap about some aspects of organic food microbiological quality and safety. Organic fruits and vegetables are more exposed to pathogenic microorganisms due to surface contact with natural fertilizers such as animal manure, wastes and vermicompost used during farming. It has been suggested that some emergent pathogens, such as Helicobacter pylori or Arcobacter spp., could reach humans through the consumption of raw or minimally processed vegetables. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the contamination of organic fresh green leafy vegetables by Arcobacter spp. and Helicobacter pylori. For this purpose, a total of 24 vegetable samples, 13 lettuce and 11 spinach were acquired from 10 different ecological supermarkets and greengroceries and analyzed by culture and PCR. Arcobacter spp. was detected in 5 samples (20%) by PCR, 4 spinach and one lettuce. One spinach sample was found to be also positive by culture. For H. pylori, the H. pylori VacA gene-specific band was detected in 12 vegetable samples (50%), 10 lettuces and 2 spinach. Isolation in the selective medium did not yield any positive result, possibly because of low contamination levels together with the presence of the organism in its viable but non-culturable form. Results showed significant levels of H. pylori and Arcobacter contamination in organic vegetables that are generally consumed raw, which seems to confirm that these foods can act as transmission vehicles to humans.

Keywords: Arcobacter sp., Helicobacter pylori, Organic Vegetables, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

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2693 Association of miRNA146a rs2910164 Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Zahra Solgi, Hossein Rassi

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-step disease, and chronic gastric infection with H. pylori could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. Polymorphisms in several miRNAs are considered to increase the risk for the development of CRC by controlling proliferation, apoptosis and H. pylori pathogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate miRNA146a rs2910164 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori infection in CRC. A total of 65 patients with CRC were divided into 2 groups: 28 patients < 50 years of age and 37 patients ≥ 50 years of age. DNA was extracted from all samples by a standard method and H. pylori cagA and miRNA146a rs2910164 genotypes were determined by PCR method. The results show that there was no significant difference in the frequency of H. pylori cagA gene between the two groups but there was a significant difference in the distribution of rs2910164 genotypes in patients < 50 years of age with the p-value of 0.05 and odds ratio equal to 2.69. On other hand, patients < 50 years of age with genotype CC of miRNA146a showed a significant difference in CRC risk. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between rs2910164 CC genotype with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients < 50 years of age. The present study suggests that the CC genotype of miRNA146a in combination with H. pylori infection can be effective as risk factors and molecular markers for early diagnosis and treatment of CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Helicobacter pylori, miRNA146a, rs2910164 polymorphism

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2692 Recovery of Helicobacter Pylori from Stagnant and Moving Water Biofilms

Authors: Maryam Zafar, Sajida Rasheed, Imran Hashmi

Abstract:

Water as an environmental reservoir is reported to act as a habitat and transmission route to microaerophilic bacteria such as Heliobacter pylori. It has been studied that in biofilms are the predominant dwellings for the bacteria to grow in water and protective reservoir for numerous pathogens by protecting them against harsh conditions, such as shear stress, low carbon concentration and less than optimal temperature. In this study, influence of these and many other parameters was studied on H. pylori in stagnant and moving water biofilms both in surface and underground aquatic reservoirs. H. pylori were recovered from pipe of different materials such as Polyvinyl Chloride, Polypropylene and Galvanized iron pipe cross sections from an urban water distribution network. Biofilm swabbed from inner cross section was examined by molecular biology methods coupled with gene sequencing and H. pylori 16S rRNA peptide nucleic acid probe showing positive results for H. pylori presence. Studies showed that pipe material affect growth of biofilm which in turn provide additional survival mechanism for pathogens like H. pylori causing public health concerns.

Keywords: biofilm, gene sequencing, heliobacter pylori, pipe materials

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2691 Bifidobacterium lactis Fermented Milk Was Not Effective to Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

Authors: R. C. Barbuti, M. N. Oliveira, N. P. Perina, C. Haro, P. Bosch, C. S. Bogsan, J. N. Eisig, T. Navarro-Rodriguez

Abstract:

Background: The management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is still a matter of discussion, full effectiveness is rarely achieved and it has many adverse effects. Probiotics are believed to have a role in eradicating and possibly preventing H. pylori infection as an adjunctive treatment. The present clinical study was undertaken to see the efficacy of a specially designed fermented milk product containing Bifidobacterium lactis B420 on the eradication of H. pylori infection in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study in humans. Method: Four test products were specially designed fermented milks, counts of viable cells in all products were 1010 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Bifidobacterium lactis-Bifidobacterium species 420, and 1011 Log CFU. 100 mL-1 for Streptococcus thermophiles were administered to subjects infected with H. pylori with a previous diagnosis of functional dyspepsia according to the Rome III criteria in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans. Results: After FM supplementation, not all subjects showed a reduction in H. pylori colonization. Conclusion: Bifidobacterium lactis B420, administered twice a day for 90 days did not show an increase in H. pylori eradication effectiveness in Brazilian patients with functional dyspepsia.

Keywords: antibacterial therapy, Bifidobacteria fermented milk, Helicobacter pylori, probiotics

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2690 Clinical Validation of C-PDR Methodology for Accurate Non-Invasive Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

Authors: Suman Som, Abhijit Maity, Sunil B. Daschakraborty, Sujit Chaudhuri, Manik Pradhan

Abstract:

Background: Helicobacter pylori is a common and important human pathogen and the primary cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Currently H. pylori infection is detected by both invasive and non-invasive way but the diagnostic accuracy is not up to the mark. Aim: To set up an optimal diagnostic cut-off value of 13C-Urea Breath Test to detect H. pylori infection and evaluate a novel c-PDR methodology to overcome of inconclusive grey zone. Materials and Methods: All 83 subjects first underwent upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy followed by rapid urease test and histopathology and depending on these results; we classified 49 subjects as H. pylori positive and 34 negative. After an overnight, fast patients are taken 4 gm of citric acid in 200 ml water solution and 10 minute after ingestion of the test meal, a baseline exhaled breath sample was collected. Thereafter an oral dose of 75 mg 13C-Urea dissolved in 50 ml water was given and breath samples were collected upto 90 minute for 15 minute intervals and analysed by laser based high precisional cavity enhanced spectroscopy. Results: We studied the excretion kinetics of 13C isotope enrichment (expressed as δDOB13C ‰) of exhaled breath samples and found maximum enrichment around 30 minute of H. pylori positive patients, it is due to the acid mediated stimulated urease enzyme activity and maximum acidification happened within 30 minute but no such significant isotopic enrichment observed for H. pylori negative individuals. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve an optimal diagnostic cut-off value, δDOB13C ‰ = 3.14 was determined at 30 minute exhibiting 89.16% accuracy. Now to overcome grey zone problem we explore percentage dose of 13C recovered per hour, i.e. 13C-PDR (%/hr) and cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered, i.e. c-PDR (%) in exhaled breath samples for the present 13C-UBT. We further explored the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-UBT by constructing ROC curve using c-PDR (%) values and an optimal cut-off value was estimated to be c-PDR = 1.47 (%) at 60 minute, exhibiting 100 % diagnostic sensitivity , 100 % specificity and 100 % accuracy of 13C-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection. We also elucidate the gastric emptying process of present 13C-UBT for H. pylori positive patients. The maximal emptying rate found at 36 minute and half empting time of present 13C-UBT was found at 45 minute. Conclusions: The present study exhibiting the importance of c-PDR methodology to overcome of grey zone problem in 13C-UBT for accurate determination of infection without any risk of diagnostic errors and making it sufficiently robust and novel method for an accurate and fast non-invasive diagnosis of H. pylori infection for large scale screening purposes.

Keywords: 13C-Urea breath test, c-PDR methodology, grey zone, Helicobacter pylori

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2689 Percentage of Helicobacter Pylori Infection with Dyspeptic Patients in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Alshunaibir

Abstract:

Infection with Helicobacter pylori is common worldwide but few studies focus on the prevalence and spread of the infection in Saudi Arabia. This study was undertaken to observe the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients suffering from gastrointestinal sign and symptoms in one of the largest hospitals in the capital of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was undertaken for this study with nearly 6000 samples collected and examined for patients suffering from (dyspeptic) symptoms ranging in their age from 5 to 75 years. Results: The prevalence of helicobacter infection was 67% increasing with age. Female shows higher percentage of H. pylori infection than male. Conclusions: The percentage rate was higher in female than male. This study shows a high percentage of helicobacter infection in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, percentage, dyspeptic, Saudi Arabia

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2688 Knowledge and Attitude towards Helicobacter pylori: Awareness about Health Impacts of H. pylori Gastric Ulcer and Its Carcinogenic Potential among Adults in Sharjah

Authors: Abdullah Malek, Muzn Al Khaldi, Lian Odeh, Atheer Tariq, Mohammad Al Fardan, Hiba Barqawi

Abstract:

H. pylori bacterium is a known underlying agent for gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer and is believed to infect half of the world’s population. Even with the ubiquity of H. pylori bacterium, there is lack of knowledge regarding its modes of transmission, associated diseases, carcinogenic effect and means of prevention; especially in the UAE. A cross sectional study of 500 participants, of which 58% (n= 289) of the respondents were female, and 42% (n=210) were male, was conducted in Sharjah to assess the knowledge, and explore the attitudes and practices among UAE residents towards Helicobacter Pylori and its associated PUD as well as its carcinogenic nature. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target population to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. General knowledge about H. Pylori was poor, only 24.6% stated they have heard of H. pylori. Attitudes towards prevention and practices were relatively poor as well. Subjects who suffered from severe symptoms (ALARM symptoms) had significantly lower habit scores than those with mild and moderate symptoms (p=0.0078**). To the authours’ knowledge, no previous studies were conducted in the United Arab Emirates regarding the epidemiology of the infection to detect the extent of H. Pylori’s impact on the public health. The results of this study can be used to draw conclusions about the average knowledge of the UAE population regarding H. pylori. It can also be a starting point to devise new education programs and campaigns that raise awareness of this health issue which could be easily avoided with early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment.

Keywords: chronic gastritis, community health, gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, peptic ulcers

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2687 In Vivo Antiulcer and Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Geraniol on Acetic Acid plus Helicobacter pylori Induced Ulcer in Rats

Authors: Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Vivian Lee Yean Yan, Chin Koh Lee, Chew Hui Kuean, Yun Khoon Liew, Mayuren Candasamy

Abstract:

Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpenoid is the main active constituent in the essential oils of rose and palmorosa. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer and antiulcer activity of geraniol was reported by many researchers. The present investigation was designed to study in vivo antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of geraniol. Antiulcer and anti-H. pylori activity of geraniol was evaluated on acetic acid plus H. pylori induced ulcer in rats. Acetic acid (0.03 mL) was injected to the sub-serosal layer of the stomach through laparotomy under anaesthesia. Orogastric inoculation of H. pylori (ATCC 43504) was done twice daily for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and standard drugs (Amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg & omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) was administered twice daily for 14 days. Antiulcer activity of geraniol was examined by the determination of gastric ulcer index, measuring the volume of gastric juice, pH and total acidity, myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological examination. Histopathological investigation for the presence of inflammation, white blood cell infiltration, edema, the mucosal damage was studied. The presence of H. pylori was detected by placing a biopsy sample from antral part of the stomach into rapid urease test. Ulcer index in H. pylori inoculated control group was 4.13 ± 0.85 and was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treated group. Geraniol increase the pH of the gastric juice (2.18 ± 0.13 in control vs. 4.14 ± 0.57 in geraniol 30mg/kg) and lower total acidity significantly (P < 0.01) in geraniol (15 & 30 mg/kg). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured in stomach homogenate of all the groups. H. pylori control group has significant (P < 0.05) increase in MPO activity compared to normal control group. Geraniol (30 mg/kg) was showed significant (P < 0.05) and most effective among all the groups. Histopathological examination of rat stomach was scored and the total score for H. pylori control group was 8. After geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treatment, the histopathological score was significantly decreased and it was observed to be 3.5 and 2.0 respectively. Percentage inhibition of H. pylori infection in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug were found to be 40% and 50% respectively whereas, 100% infection in H. pylori control group was observed. Geraniol exhibited significant antiulcer and anti- H. pylori activity in the rats. Thus, geraniol has the potential for the further development as an effective medication in treating H. pylori associated ulcer.

Keywords: geraniol, helicobacter pylori atcc 43504, myeloperoxidase, ulcer

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2686 Activation of NLRP3 Inflammasomes by Helicobacter pylori Infection in Innate Cellular Model and Its Correlation to IL-1β Production

Authors: Islam Nowisser, Noha Farag, Mohamed El Azizi

Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori is a highly important human pathogen which inhabits about 50% of the population worldwide. Infection with this bacteria is very hard to treat, with high probability of recurrence. H. pylori causes severe gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer, gastritis, and gastric cancer, which has been linked to chronic inflammation. The infection has been reported to be associated with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β and TNF-α. The aim of the current study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which H. pylori activates NLRP3 inflammasome and its contribution to Il-1 β production in an innate cellular model. H. pylori PMSS1 and G27 standard strains, as well as the PMSS1 isogenic mutant strain PMSS1ΔVacA and G27ΔVacA, G27ΔCagA in addition to clinical isolates obtained from biopsy samples from the antrum and corpus mucosa of chronic gastritis patients, were used to establish infection in RAW-264.7 macrophages. The production levels of TNF-α and IL-1β was assessed using ELISA. Since expression of these cytokines is often regulated by the transcription factor complex, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), the activation of NF-κB in H. pylori infected cells was also evaluated by luciferase assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from bacterial cultures of H. pylori clinical isolates as well as the standard strains and their corresponding mutants, where they were evaluated for the cagA pathogenicity island and vacA expression. The correlation between these findings and expression of the cagA Pathogenicity Island and vacA in the bacteria was also investigated. The results showed IL-1β, and TNF-α production significantly increased in raw macrophages following H. pylori infection. The cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains induced significant production of IL-1β compared to cagA- and vacA- strains. The activation pattern of NF-κB was correlated in the isolates to their cagA and vacA expression profiles. A similar finding could not be confirmed for TNF-α production. Our study shows the ability of H. pylori to activate NF-kB and induce significant IL-1β production as a possible mechanism for the augmented inflammatory response seen in subjects infected with cagA+ and vacA+ H. pylori strains that would lead to the progression to more severe form of the disease.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, IL-1β, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor KB, TNF-α

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2685 Evaluation of Diagnostic Values of Culture, Rapid Urease Test, and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and in vitro Effects of Various Antimicrobials against Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study, was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by culture, histology, and RUT (Rapid Urease Test) in gastric antrum biopsy samples taken from patients presented with dyspeptic complaints and to determine resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole against the H. pylori strains by E-test. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-July 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in biopsy samples was investigated by culture (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), and RUT(CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA). Antimicrobial resistance of isolates against amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was determined by E-test method (bioMerieux, France). As a gold standard in the diagnosis of H. pylori; it was accepted that the culture method alone was positive or both histology and RUT were positive together. Sensitivity and specificity for histology and RUT were calculated by taking the culture as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for culture were also calculated by taking the co-positivity of both histology and RUT as a gold standard. Results: H. pylori was detected in 140 of 278 of patients with culture and 174 of 278 of patients with histology in the study. H. pylori positivity was also found in 191 patients with RUT. According to the gold standard criteria, a false negative result was found in 39 cases by culture method, 17 cases by histology, and 8 cases by RUT. Sensitivity and specificity of the culture, histology, and RUT methods of the patients were 76.5 % and 88.3 %, 87.8 % and 63 %, 94.2 % and 57.2 %, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was investigated by E-test in 140 H. pylori strains isolated from culture. The resistance rates of H. pylori strains to the amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was detected as 9 (6.4 %), 22 (15.7 %), 17 (12.1 %), 57 (40.7 %), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, RUT was found to be the most sensitive, culture was the most specific test between culture, histology, and RUT methods. Although we detected the specificity of the culture method as high, its sensitivity was found to be quite low compared to other methods. The low sensitivity of H. pylori culture may be caused by the factors affect the chances of direct isolation such as spoild bacterium, difficult-to-breed microorganism, clinical sample retrieval, and transport conditions.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, culture, histology, H. pylori, RUT

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2684 Role of Giardia lamblia Infection in the Pathogenesis of Gastritis in Patients with Dyspepsia

Authors: Aly Kassem, Eman A. Sabet, Hanaa A. El-Hady, Doha S. Mohamed, Abeer Sheneef, Mona Fattouh, Mamdouh M. Esmat

Abstract:

Objective: Giardia lamblia parasite is the most common protozoal infection in human. Concomitant Helecobacter Pylori (H. pylori) and Giardia lamblia infection is common for their similar mode of transmission and strong correlation to socioeconomic levels. Only few reports had described gastric giardiasis. Our aim was to detect H. pylori and Giardia in gastric antral mucosal biopsies from patients with dyspepsia. The impact of both pathogens on clinical, endoscopic and histopathogical changes was studied. Methods: 48 patients with dyspepsia (group1) and 28 control patients (patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy EGD for reasons other than dyspepsia), (group 2) were studied. Endoscopic data were reported and gastric biopsy specimens were obtained for subsequent PCR assay for both organisms and for histopathological and electron microscopic examination. Results: Endoscopic antral gastritis and duodenal lesions were found in both groups, however, they were significantly more frequently in group 1 (p= 0.002 and P= 0.0005 respectively). Esophageal lesions, nodular antral gastritis, gastric ulcers and superficial corpal gastritis were found only in group 1. PCR detected H. pylori infection in 58% Vs 64 % for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P: NS). Giardia infection was present in 67 % Vs 42 % for group 1 and group 2 respectively (P=0.0003, Odd ratio=2.6). Co-infection with H. pylori and Giardia was present in 33% of group 1 Vs 36% for group 2 (P:NS). Abnormal histologic findings were found in both groups, however, intestinal metaplasia was found in group 1 only. Cellular abnormalities in the form of cytoplasmic vacuoles, mitochondrial destruction or nuclear abnormalities were found by Electron microscopic study in infected subjects of both groups. Conclusion: H. pylori is not the only gastric pathogen in our community, gastric giardiasis is another pathogen. Its contribution might be a factor in persistent dyspepsia after H. pylori eradication.

Keywords: dyspepsia, gastritis, Giardia lamblia, H. pylori

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2683 Development and Characterization of Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for H. Pylori Targeting

Authors: Ashish Kumar Jain, Deepak Mishra

Abstract:

The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate a vesicular dual drug delivery system for effective management of mucosal ulcer. Inner encapsulating and Double liposomes were prepared by glass bead and reverse phase evaporation method respectively. The formulation consisted of inner liposomes bearing Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate (RBC) and outer liposomes encapsulating Amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX). The optimized inner liposomes and double liposomes were extensively characterized for vesicle size, morphology, zeta potential, vesicles count, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vitro, the double liposomes demonstrated a sustained release of AMOX and RBC viz 91.4±1.8% and 77.2±2.1% respectively at the end of 72 hr. Furthermore binding specificity and targeting propensity toward H. pylori (SKP-56) was confirmed by agglutination and in situ adherence assay. Reduction of the absolute alcohol induced ulcerogenic index from 3.01 ± 0.25 to 0.31 ± 0.09 and 100% H. pylori clearance rate was observed. These results suggested that double liposomes are potential vector for the development of dual drug delivery for effective treatment of H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer.

Keywords: double liposomes, H. pylori targeting, PE liposomes, glass-beads method, peptic ulcers

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
2682 Exploring the Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and the Incidence of Bronchogenic Carcinoma

Authors: Jose R. Garcia, Lexi Frankel, Amalia Ardeljan, Sergio Medina, Ali Yasback, Omar Rashid

Abstract:

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that affects nearly half of the population worldwide and humans serve as the principal reservoir. Infection rates usually follow an inverse relationship with hygiene practices and are higher in developing countries than developed countries. Incidence varies significantly by geographic area, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status. H. pylori is primarily associated with conditions of the gastrointestinal tract such as atrophic gastritis and duodenal peptic ulcers. Infection is also associated with an increased risk of carcinogenesis as there is evidence to show that H. pylori infection may lead to gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. It is suggested that H. pylori infection may be considered as a systemic condition, leading to various novel associations with several different neoplasms such as colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung cancer, although further research is needed. Emerging evidence suggests that H. pylori infection may offer protective effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a result of non-specific induction of interferon- γ (IFN- γ). Similar methods of enhanced immunity may affect the development of bronchogenic carcinoma due to the antiproliferative, pro-apoptotic and cytostatic functions of IFN- γ. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma. Methods: The data was provided by a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant national database to evaluate the patients infected versus patients not infected with H. pylori using ICD-10 and ICD-9 codes. Access to the database was granted by the Holy Cross Health, Fort Lauderdale for the purpose of academic research. Standard statistical methods were used. Results:-Between January 2010 and December 2019, the query was analyzed and resulted in 163,224 in both the infected and control group, respectively. The two groups were matched by age range and CCI score. The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was 1.853% with 3,024 patients in the H. pylori group compared to 4.785% with 7,810 patients in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 2.22x10-16) with an odds ratio of 0.367 (0.353 - 0.383) with a confidence interval of 95%. The two groups were matched by treatment and incidence of cancer, which resulted in a total of 101,739 patients analyzed after this match. The incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma was 1.929% with 1,962 patients in the H. pylori and treatment group compared to 4.618% with 4,698 patients in the control group with treatment. The difference was statistically significant (p < 2.22x10-16) with an odds ratio of 0.403 (0.383 - 0.425) with a confidence interval of 95%.

Keywords: bronchogenic carcinoma, helicobacter pylori, lung cancer, pathogen-associated molecular patterns

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2681 In vivo Activity of Pathogenic Bacteria on Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Padam Kant, Ch. V. Rao

Abstract:

Gastric ulcer is a major global health threat, and it is the leading cause of stomach cancer death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori bacteriumis the most important etiologic factor for gastric ulcer. This infection is highly pervasive in South Asian developing countries, especially in India, Nepal, Srilanka etc. due to diversification in geographic area. Pathophysiology of gastric mucosal damage associated with non-invasive bacterium has not justified in detail, but it leads to change in histopathology, immunochemistry of the gastric and duodenal reason of host. The mechanism responsible for bacteria tissue tropism and mucosal damage in stomach variance during the disease is not clearly described and understood scientifically in treatment and control of pathogenic organisms. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against aggression by pathogens. 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one and 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde are polyphenolic compound obtained from popular Indian medicinal plants ghavpatta (ArgeriaspeciosaLinn.f) andBael (Aeglemarmelos) have long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. They have promising effects on ulcer, as detailed investigation has made in our laboratory. Therefore, the aim of present study is to explore membrane –dependent morphogenesis of H. pylori and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death. Based on this we analyzed immune gene expression in stomach of experimental animals with H. pylori, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(q RT-PCR). This revealed rapid induction of prostaglandin, interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated genes in the infected animal. Ultrastructural changes associated with H. pylori will be taken for advanced studies. This investigation shows that the biomarkers eradicate H. pylori bacterium caused gastric ulcer which is a major risk factor for gastric cancer.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, immunochemistry, polyphenols

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2680 Effect of Psychological Stress to the Mucosal IL-6 and Helicobacter pylori Activity in Functional Dyspepsia and Myocytes

Authors: Eryati Darwin, Arina Widya Murni, Adnil Edwin Nurdin

Abstract:

Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent and heterogeneous disorder. Most patients with FD complain of symptoms related to the intake of meals. Psychological stress may promote peptic ulcer and had an effect on ulcers associated Hp, and may also trigger worsen symptoms in inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal. Cells in mucosal gastric stimulate the production of several cytokines, which might associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The cascade of biological events leading to stress-induced FD remains poorly understood. Aim of Study: To determine the prion-flammatory cytokine IL-6, and Helicobacter pylori activity on mucosal gastric of FD and their association with psychological stress. Methods: The subjects of this study were dyspeptic patients who visited M. Djamil General Hospital and in two Community Health Centers in Padang. On the basis of the stress index scale to identify psychological stress by using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 42), subjects were divided into two groups of 20 each, stress groups and non-stress groups. All diagnoses were confirmed by review of cortisol and esophagogastroduodenoscopy reports. Gastric biopsy samples and peripheral blood were taken during diagnostic procedures. Immunohistochemistry methods were used to determine the expression of IL-6 and Hp in gastric mucosal. The data were statistically analyzed by univariate and bivariate analysis. All procedures of this study were approved by Research Ethics Committee of Medical Faculty Andalas University. Results: In this study, we enrolled 40 FD patients (26 woman and 14 men) in range between 35-56 years old. Cortisol level of blood FD patients as parameter of stress hormone which taken in the morning was significantly higher in stress group than non-stress group. The expression of IL-6 in gastric mucosa was significantly higher in stress group in compared to non-stress group (p<0,05). Helicobacter pylori activity in gastric mucosal in stress group were significantly higher than non-stress group. Conclusion: The present study showed that psychological stress can induce gastric mucosal inflammation and increase of Helicobacter pylori activity.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, interleukin-6, psychological stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2679 Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for Effective Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari, Ashok Kumar Jain, Kamta Prasad Namdeo

Abstract:

The potential use of liposomes as drug carriers by i.v. injection is limited by their low stability in blood stream. Firstly, phospholipid exchange and transfer to lipoproteins, mainly HDL destabilizes and disintegrates liposomes with subsequent loss of content. To avoid the pain associated with injection and to obtain better patient compliance studies concerning various dosage forms, have been developed. Conventional liposomes (unilamellar and multilamellar) have certain drawbacks like low entrapment efficiency, stability and release of drug after single breach in external membrane, have led to the new type of liposomal systems. The challenge has been successfully met in the form of Double Liposomes (DL). DL is a recently developed type of liposome, consisting of smaller liposomes enveloped in lipid bilayers. The outer lipid layer of DL can protect inner liposomes against various enzymes, therefore DL was thought to be more effective than ordinary liposomes. This concept was also supported by in vitro release characteristics i.e. DL formation inhibited the release of drugs encapsulated in inner liposomes. DL consists of several small liposomes encapsulated in large liposomes, i.e., multivesicular vesicles (MVV), therefore, DL should be discriminated from ordinary classification of multilamellar vesicles (MLV), large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). However, for these liposomes, the volume of inner phase is small and loading volume of water-soluble drugs is low. In the present study, the potential of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid anchored double liposomes (DL) to incorporate two drugs in a single system is exploited as a tool to augment the H. pylori eradication rate. Preparation of DL involves two steps, first formation of primary (inner) liposomes by thin film hydration method containing one drug, then addition of suspension of inner liposomes on thin film of lipid containing the other drug. The success of formation of DL was characterized by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Quantitation of DL-bacterial interaction was evaluated in terms of percent growth inhibition (%GI) on reference strain of H. pylori ATCC 26695. To confirm specific binding efficacy of DL to H. pylori PE surface receptor we performed an agglutination assay. Agglutination in DL treated H. pylori suspension suggested selectivity of DL towards the PE surface receptor of H. pylori. Monotherapy is generally not recommended for treatment of a H. pylori infection due to the danger of development of resistance and unacceptably low eradication rates. Therefore, combination therapy with amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX) as anti-H. pylori agent and ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) as antisecretory agent were selected for the study with an expectation that this dual-drug delivery approach will exert acceptable anti-H. pylori activity.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylorI, amoxicillin trihydrate, Ranitidine Bismuth citrate, phosphatidylethanolamine, multi vesicular systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
2678 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
2677 Reduced Complexity of ML Detection Combined with DFE

Authors: Jae-Hyun Ro, Yong-Jun Kim, Chang-Bin Ha, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems, many detection schemes have been developed to improve the error performance and to reduce the complexity. Maximum likelihood (ML) detection has optimal error performance but it has very high complexity. Thus, this paper proposes reduced complexity of ML detection combined with decision feedback equalizer (DFE). The error performance of the proposed detection scheme is higher than the conventional DFE. But the complexity of the proposed scheme is lower than the conventional ML detection.

Keywords: detection, DFE, MIMO-OFDM, ML

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
2676 Epidemiological-Anatomopathological-Immunohistochemical Profile of Gastric Cancer throughout Eastern Algeria

Authors: S. Tebibel, R. L. Bouchouka, C. Mechati, S. Messaoudi

Abstract:

The stomach cancer or gastric cancer is an aggressive cancer with a significant geographic disparity. The decrease in frequency is attributed to refrigeration, which has several beneficial consequences, increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, reduced consumption of salt, which was widely used as a food preservative, and less contamination of food by carcinogenic compounds. The infection with Helicobacter pylori is responsible for progressive inflammatory changes in the gastric mucosa usually evolving into stomach cancer in 80% of cases. Methodology: This epidemiological and analytical study concerns 65 patients (46 men and 19 women) with gastric adenocarcinomas with an average age of 56.5 years and a male predominance with a sex ratio of 2.4. Results and Discussion: In this series, the clinical symptoms are dominated by epigastralgia (72.31%), vomiting (27,69%), and slimming (24,62%). The FOGD (Oeso-Gastro Duodenal Fibroscopy) performed in the 65 patients revealed a predominance of the antro-pyloric localization in 19 cases (i.e., 29.23%) and anulcerative budding appearance in 33 subjects (50,77%). Histologically, the moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma is found in 30.77% of patients, followed by well differentiated adenocarcinoma with 26.15% of patients. The immunohistochemical study revealed a positive labeling of half of the T cells by anti-CD3 AC, and a positive labeling of anti-CD20 AC in a diffuse and intense manner, with the presence of CD20-positive lymphoepithelial lesions compatible with CD20 a low grade MALT non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Conclusion: This framework of analysis revealed some risk factors for gastric cancer, such as food, hygiene, Helicobacter pylori infection, smoking and family history.

Keywords: cancer, Helicobacter pylori, immunohistochemistry, stomach

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2675 An Architecture for New Generation of Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Preventive Detection

Authors: H. Benmoussa, A. A. El Kalam, A. Ait Ouahman

Abstract:

The design and implementation of intrusion detection systems (IDS) remain an important area of research in the security of information systems. Despite the importance and reputation of the current intrusion detection systems, their efficiency and effectiveness remain limited as they should include active defense approach to allow anticipating and predicting intrusions before their occurrence. Consequently, they must be readapted. For this purpose we suggest a new generation of distributed intrusion detection system based on preventive detection approach and using intelligent and mobile agents. Our architecture benefits from mobile agent features and addresses some of the issues with centralized and hierarchical models. Also, it presents advantages in terms of increasing scalability and flexibility.

Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), preventive detection, mobile agents, distributed architecture

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
2674 Video Based Ambient Smoke Detection By Detecting Directional Contrast Decrease

Authors: Omair Ghori, Anton Stadler, Stefan Wilk, Wolfgang Effelsberg

Abstract:

Fire-related incidents account for extensive loss of life and material damage. Quick and reliable detection of occurring fires has high real world implications. Whereas a major research focus lies on the detection of outdoor fires, indoor camera-based fire detection is still an open issue. Cameras in combination with computer vision helps to detect flames and smoke more quickly than conventional fire detectors. In this work, we present a computer vision-based smoke detection algorithm based on contrast changes and a multi-step classification. This work accelerates computer vision-based fire detection considerably in comparison with classical indoor-fire detection.

Keywords: contrast analysis, early fire detection, video smoke detection, video surveillance

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2673 Intrusion Detection Techniques in NaaS in the Cloud: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood

Abstract:

The network as a service (NaaS) usage has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the NaaS, prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in NaaS. The authentication and encryption are considered the first solution of the NaaS problem whereas now these are not sufficient as NaaS use is increasing. In this paper, we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in NaaS and aim to compare in some important fields.

Keywords: IDS, cloud, naas, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2672 Securing Web Servers by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

Authors: Yousef Farhaoui

Abstract:

An IDS is a tool which is used to improve the level of security. We present in this paper different architectures of IDS. We will also discuss measures that define the effectiveness of IDS and the very recent works of standardization and homogenization of IDS. At the end, we propose a new model of IDS called BiIDS (IDS Based on the two principles of detection) for securing web servers and applications by the Intrusion Detection System (IDS).

Keywords: intrusion detection, architectures, characteristic, tools, security, web server

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
2671 Suggestion for Malware Detection Agent Considering Network Environment

Authors: Ji-Hoon Hong, Dong-Hee Kim, Nam-Uk Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Smartphone users are increasing rapidly. Accordingly, many companies are running BYOD (Bring Your Own Device: Policies to bring private-smartphones to the company) policy to increase work efficiency. However, smartphones are always under the threat of malware, thus the company network that is connected smartphone is exposed to serious risks. Most smartphone malware detection techniques are to perform an independent detection (perform the detection of a single target application). In this paper, we analyzed a variety of intrusion detection techniques. Based on the results of analysis propose an agent using the network IDS.

Keywords: android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment, android malware detection, software-defined network, interaction environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
2670 Improved Skin Detection Using Colour Space and Texture

Authors: Medjram Sofiane, Babahenini Mohamed Chaouki, Mohamed Benali Yamina

Abstract:

Skin detection is an important task for computer vision systems. A good method for skin detection means a good and successful result of the system. The colour is a good descriptor that allows us to detect skin colour in the images, but because of lightings effects and objects that have a similar colour skin, skin detection becomes difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method using the YCbCr colour space for skin detection and lighting effects elimination, then we use the information of texture to eliminate the false regions detected by the YCbCr colour skin model.

Keywords: skin detection, YCbCr, GLCM, texture, human skin

Procedia PDF Downloads 328