Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: Gokhan Gungor

48 Evaluation of Diagnostic Values of Culture, Rapid Urease Test, and Histopathology in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection and in vitro Effects of Various Antimicrobials against Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study, was to investigate the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection by culture, histology, and RUT (Rapid Urease Test) in gastric antrum biopsy samples taken from patients presented with dyspeptic complaints and to determine resistance rates of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin and metronidazole against the H. pylori strains by E-test. Material and Methods: A total of 278 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-July 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in biopsy samples was investigated by culture (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), and RUT(CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA). Antimicrobial resistance of isolates against amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was determined by E-test method (bioMerieux, France). As a gold standard in the diagnosis of H. pylori; it was accepted that the culture method alone was positive or both histology and RUT were positive together. Sensitivity and specificity for histology and RUT were calculated by taking the culture as a gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for culture were also calculated by taking the co-positivity of both histology and RUT as a gold standard. Results: H. pylori was detected in 140 of 278 of patients with culture and 174 of 278 of patients with histology in the study. H. pylori positivity was also found in 191 patients with RUT. According to the gold standard criteria, a false negative result was found in 39 cases by culture method, 17 cases by histology, and 8 cases by RUT. Sensitivity and specificity of the culture, histology, and RUT methods of the patients were 76.5 % and 88.3 %, 87.8 % and 63 %, 94.2 % and 57.2 %, respectively. Antibiotic resistance was investigated by E-test in 140 H. pylori strains isolated from culture. The resistance rates of H. pylori strains to the amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was detected as 9 (6.4 %), 22 (15.7 %), 17 (12.1 %), 57 (40.7 %), respectively. Conclusion: In our study, RUT was found to be the most sensitive, culture was the most specific test between culture, histology, and RUT methods. Although we detected the specificity of the culture method as high, its sensitivity was found to be quite low compared to other methods. The low sensitivity of H. pylori culture may be caused by the factors affect the chances of direct isolation such as spoild bacterium, difficult-to-breed microorganism, clinical sample retrieval, and transport conditions.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, culture, histology, H. pylori, RUT

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47 A Diagnostic Accuracy Study: Comparison of Two Different Molecular-Based Tests (Genotype HelicoDR and Seeplex Clar-H. pylori ACE Detection), in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infections

Authors: Recep Kesli, Huseyin Bilgin, Yasar Unlu, Gokhan Gungor

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of two different molecular-based tests (GenoType® HelicoDR ve Seeplex® H. pylori-ClaR- ACE Detection) in detection presence of the H. pylori from gastric biopsy specimens. In addition to this also was aimed to determine resistance ratios of H. pylori strains against to clarytromycine and quinolone isolated from gastric biopsy material cultures by using both the genotypic (GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection) and phenotypic (gradient strip, E-test) methods. Material and methods: A total of 266 patients who admitted to Konya Education and Research Hospital Department of Gastroenterology with dyspeptic complaints, between January 2011-June 2013, were included in the study. Microbiological and histopathological examinations of biopsy specimens taken from antrum and corpus regions were performed. The presence of H. pylori in all the biopsy samples was investigated by five differnt dignostic methods together: culture (C) (Portagerm pylori-PORT PYL, Pylori agar-PYL, GENbox microaer, bioMerieux, France), histology (H) (Giemsa, Hematoxylin and Eosin staining), rapid urease test (RUT) (CLOtest, Cimberly-Clark, USA), and two different molecular tests; GenoType® HelicoDR, Hain, Germany, based on DNA strip assay, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, Seegene, South Korea, based on multiplex PCR. Antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates against clarithromycin and levofloxacin was determined by GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, and gradient strip (E-test, bioMerieux, France) methods. Culture positivity alone or positivities of both histology and RUT together was accepted as the gold standard for H. pylori positivity. Sensitivity and specificity rates of two molecular methods used in the study were calculated by taking the two gold standards previously mentioned. Results: A total of 266 patients between 16-83 years old who 144 (54.1 %) were female, 122 (45.9 %) were male were included in the study. 144 patients were found as culture positive, and 157 were H and RUT were positive together. 179 patients were found as positive with GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection together. Sensitivity and specificity rates of studied five different methods were found as follows: C were 80.9 % and 84.4 %, H + RUT were 88.2 % and 75.4 %, GenoType® HelicoDR were 100 % and 71.3 %, and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection were, 100 % and 71.3 %. A strong correlation was found between C and H+RUT, C and GenoType® HelicoDR, and C and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection (r:0.644 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, r:0.757 and p:0.000, respectively). Of all the isolated 144 H. pylori strains 24 (16.6 %) were detected as resistant to claritromycine, and 18 (12.5 %) were levofloxacin. Genotypic claritromycine resistance was detected only in 15 cases with GenoType® HelicoDR, and 6 cases with Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection. Conclusion: In our study, it was concluded that; GenoType® HelicoDR and Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection was found as the most sensitive diagnostic methods when comparing all the investigated other ones (C, H, and RUT).

Keywords: Helicobacter pylori, GenoType® HelicoDR, Seeplex ® H. pylori -ClaR- ACE Detection, antimicrobial resistance

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46 Sustainable Development as a Part of Development and Foreign Trade in Turkey

Authors: Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

Sustainable development is an economic development scope which covers the economic growth included environmental factors. With the help of economic development, the needs of the future generations are going to be met the needs. As it is aimed the environmental conscious, sustainable development focuses on decreasing the damage of natural sources. From this point of view, while sustainable development is environmentally conscious, it also improving the life standards of individuals. The relationship between development and foreign trade on sustainable development is theoretically searched in this study. In the second part, sustainable development at world and EU is searched and in the last part, the sustainability of trade and development in Turkey is stated.

Keywords: development, sustainable development, foreign trade, Turkey

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45 The Analysis of Expenses for Research and Development Activities in Turkey

Authors: Gökhan Karhan, Yavuz Elitok

Abstract:

Nowadays, inequality between developing and underdeveloped countries has a rapid increment. Developed countries impress the underdeveloped countries to become dependent through them. For that reason, Turkey has to increase its capability of making technological innovations. It has tried to be identified by examining the expenses of R&D in public, mercantile establishments and universities in Turkey that which expense is not enough and which expense should be doubled. As a result, developing new resolution strategies will be easier.

Keywords: competitive strength, research and development, technological innovation, Turkey

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44 Employment Problems of Graduands Graduated Form Vocational High Schools

Authors: Refik Uyanöz, Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to show the employing ability of vocational students. And also, the employment problems of these students are emphasized in this study.The rapid development in technology and information and increased qualified labor is widely affects labor market. On the other hand, labor market will look for educated, qualified, talented and young people. Because of this reason, qualified staff should be educated at vocational high schools. Vocational high schools are one of the best institutions to educate qualified staff. In this research, the conditions of vocational high schools are studied. The difference between the employment policies and current employment problems are researched.

Keywords: vocational high school, employment, employment problems, vocational students

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43 Structural Transformation after 2000 in Turkey Economy Evaluation as Theoretical in the Context of Inflation and Foreign Trade

Authors: Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya, Zeynep Karaçor

Abstract:

Inflation and foreign trade are the most important economic indicator of a country. In this study, Turkey's economy with the policies adopted after 2000, given how performs an economic transformation. This transformation of the economy is discussed with inflation and foreign trade. In this context, attention is drawn to 2001 Strong Economy and Transition Program and 2006 Inflation Targeting Regime. The evaluation was performed of after the year 2000 inflation and foreign trade figures in Turkey economy. When we looked the progress, after 2000 in Turkey economy, we can say a new process was built up.

Keywords: inflation, foreign trade, 2001 strong economy programme, 2006 inflation targeting regime

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42 Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity

Authors: Asim Olgun, Ali Kara, Vural Butun, Pelin Sevinc, Merve Gungor, Orhan Ornek

Abstract:

In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.

Keywords: zeta potential, adsorption, Orange 16, isotherms

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41 Banking Crisis and Economic Effects of the Banking Crisis in Turkey

Authors: Sevilay Konya, Sadife Güngör, Zeynep Karaçor

Abstract:

Turkish economy is occurred depending on different factors from time to time and the banking crises of different magnitudes. Foremost among the factors which hinder the development of countries and societies- crises in the country's economy. Countries' economic growth rates affect inflation, unemployment and external trade. In this study, effect of November 2000, February 2001 and 2008 banking crisis on Turkey's economy and banking crisis will be examined and announced as conceptual. In this context, this study is investigates Turkey's GDP, inflation, unemployment and foreign trade figures. Turkey's economy affected have been identified from 2000 November 2001 February and 2008 banking crisis.

Keywords: banking crises, Turkey’s economy, economic effects, Turkey

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40 Effects of Irrigation Intervals on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Black Carrot Leaves (Daucus carota L.)

Authors: Hakan Arslan, Deniz Ekinci, Alper Gungor, Gurkan Bilir, Omer Tas, Mehmet Altun

Abstract:

Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting the agricultural production worldwide. In this study, Leaf samples were taken from the carrot plants grown under drought stress conditions during the harvesting period. The plants were irrigated in three irrigation interval (4, 6 and 8 days) and Irrigation water regime was set up in pots. The changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione s-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in leaves of black carrot were investigated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, SOD) were varied significantly with irrigation intervals. The highest value of GR, GST and SOD were determined in the irrigation interval of 6 days. All antioxidant activity values were decreased in 8 days of irrigation interval. As a result of the study, it has been suggested that optimum irrigation intervals for plants can be used in antioxidant enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, carrot, drought, irrigation interval

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39 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

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38 Technological Developments in Logistics and its Applications in the Army

Authors: Gökhan Balci

Abstract:

“Armies march on their stomachs “mentioned Napoleon, who drew attentıon to the importance of logistics for the armies…In today’s World, in whıch continental trade gained importance, the crucial role of logistics became conspicuous since it was accepted by the business World that an effective logistics system is the key factor for success. Depending of the new developments in technology and techniques of logistics, the modern military institutions increase their effectiveness. The modern national armies or allied forces which operate in overseas, realize the importance of logistics as well. This study will focus on the applications of logistics in civilian business sector and modern armies, which may shed light on logistical problems of the other armies.

Keywords: modern logistics, application in armies, new technology in logistics, new developments in technology

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37 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan

Abstract:

In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid

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36 The Enzyme Inhibitory Potentials of Different Extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek

Abstract:

The key enzyme inhibitory theory is one of the most accepted strategies in the treatment of global health problems including Alzheimer’s Disease and Diabetes mellitus. For this reason, the enzyme inhibitory potentials of different solvent extracts from Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia were investigated against cholinesterase, and tyrosinase. The in vitro enzyme inhibitory potentials were measured with a microplate reader. The acetone and methanol extracts exhibited the strongest enzyme inhibitory effects on cholinesterase. However, the water extract was only active on tyrosinase. The results suggested that Linaria genistifolia subsp. genistifolia could be considered as a source of natural enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of major health problems.

Keywords: enzyme inhibitors, cholinesterase, tyrosinase, linaria, Turkey

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35 Antioxidant Properties of Snack Crackers Incorporated with Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.) Powder

Authors: Elif Yildiz, Gizem Gungor, Hatice Yilmaz, Duygu Gocmen

Abstract:

Nowadays, consumer demand has been increasing for the healthy and functional food. In this context, some natural products rich in phenolic compounds are also added to cereal based food for health benefits. Natural phenolic compounds have many beneficial bioactivities such as anti-allergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic activities. It has been found that various plant species contain natural bioactive phytochemicals with antioxidant function. One of these plant species is mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L). Mahaleb berries with dark blue or red colours have the highest antioxidant capacities among all common fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine the possibilities of improving the antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers by supplementing with mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L) powder. For this purpose mahaleb powder were used to replace wheat flour in the snack cracker formulation at two different levels (5%, and 7.5% w/w). As a result, mahaleb supplementation caused an increase in total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of crackers. It can be say that mahaleb powder can be used as an alternative functional and nutritional ingredient in bakery products.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cracker, mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L), phenolic contents

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34 Wally Feelings Test: Validity and Reliability Study

Authors: Gökhan Kayili, Ramazan Ari

Abstract:

In this research, it is aimed to be adapted Wally Feelings Test to Turkish children and performed the reliability and validity analysis of the test. The sampling of the research was composed of three to five year-old 699 Turkish preschoolers who are attending official and private nursery school. The schools selected with simple random sampling method by considering different socio economic conditions and different central district in Konya. In order to determine reliability of Wally Feelings Test, internal consistency coefficients (KR-20), split-half reliability and test- retest reliability analysis have been performed. During validation process construct validity, content/scope validity and concurrent/criterion validity were used. When validity and reliability of the test examined, it is seen that Wally Feelings Test is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate three to five year old Turkish children’s understanding feeling skills.

Keywords: reliability, validity, wally feelings test, social sciences

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33 Stability or Instabilty? Triplet Deficit Analysis In Turkey

Authors: Zeynep Karaçor, Volkan Alptekin, Gökhan Akar, Tuba Akar

Abstract:

This paper aims to review the phenomenon of triplet deficit which is called interaction of budget balance that make up the overall balance of the economy, investment savings balance and current accounts balance in terms of Turkey. In this paper, triplet deficit state in Turkish economy has been analyzed with vector autoregressive model and Granger causality test using data covering the period of 1980-2010. According to VAR results, increase in current accounts is perceived on public sector borrowing requirement. These two variables influence each other bilaterally. Therefore, current accounts increase public deficit, whereas public deficit increases current accounts. It is not possible to mention the existence of a short-term Granger causality between variables at issue.

Keywords: internal and external deficit, stability, triplet deficit, Turkey economy

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32 The Relations between Seismic Results and Groundwater near the Gokpinar Damp Area, Denizli, Turkey

Authors: Mahmud Gungor, Ali Aydin, Erdal Akyol, Suat Tasdelen

Abstract:

The understanding of geotechnical characteristics of near-surface material and the effects of the groundwater is very important problem in such as site studies. For showing the relations between seismic data and groundwater we selected about 25 km2 as the study area. It has been presented which is a detailed work of seismic data and groundwater depths of Gokpinar Damp area. Seismic waves velocity (Vp and Vs) are very important parameters showing the soil properties. The seismic records were used the method of the multichannel analysis of surface waves near area of Gokpinar Damp area. Sixty sites in this area have been investigated with survey lines about 60 m in length. MASW (Multichannel analysis of surface wave) method has been used to generate one-dimensional shear wave velocity profile at locations. These shear wave velocities are used to estimate equivalent shear wave velocity in the study area at every 2 and 5 m intervals up to a depth of 45 m. Levels of equivalent shear wave velocity of soil are used the classified of the study area. After the results of the study, it must be considered as components of urban planning and building design of Gokpinar Damp area, Denizli and the application and use of these results should be required and enforced by municipal authorities.

Keywords: seismic data, Gokpinar Damp, urban planning, Denizli

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31 The Role of Phytoremediation in Reclamation of Soil Pollution and Suitability of Certain Ornamental Plants to Phytoremediation

Authors: Bahriye Gülgün, Gökhan Balik, Şükrü Dursun, Kübra Yazici

Abstract:

The main reasons such as economic growth of society increase of the world population and rapid changes of industrialization cause the amount and the types of pollutants to increase over time. Soil pollution is the typical side effect of industrial activities. As a result of industrial activities, there are large amounts of heavy metal emission every year. Heavy metals are one of the highest pollution sources according to the soil pollution aspect. The usage of hyperaccumulator plants to clean heavy metal polluted soils and the selection of plants for phytoremediation gain importance recently. There are limited numbers of researches on the ornamental plant types of phytoremediation thus; researches on this subject are important. This research is prepared based on the ornamental plant types with phytoremediation abilities.

Keywords: phytoremediation, ornamental plants, landscape reclamation, soil reclamation, environmental pollution

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30 The Qualification and Quality of Space Sciences and Space Engineering Education in Turkey

Authors: Hatice Canan Gungor, Ahmet Akdemir

Abstract:

The fields of engineering and technological sciences are increasing in quality and quantity day by day all over the world. Countries have to follow, implement and adapt these developments in order to economical empowerments. In our era, it's possible to follow the rapidly developing technology and to produce new technologies by inquisitive, curious, numerical thinking individuals who can show several approaches to problem solving. In this case, countries should develop te result oriented and need-focused curriculums in university education. As in the whole world, there are more space studies in our country as well. Universities should undertake the task of supply the need for staff of this technological race. In this context, questions about the purpose, content and learning outcomes of the space sciences and space engineering departments in our country will be researched answers to reveal the characteristic of this section. In this study, it was determined in which universities the space engineering and the departments of basic sciences educate with formal education and the contents of this education, and the universities were compared with each other as of 2017. In our country three universities provide Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Space Sciences and Technologies, two universities provide Aerospace Engineering, two universities provide Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering education. In all universities, specialized courses are taught after basic engineering education. But the question that needs to be answered is, do the lessons benefit in practice? The answer of this question will reveal the quality of the education. This paper suggests that surveys be conducted to search for the answer to this question. It's thought to be the base for the next works.

Keywords: education, space engineering, space science, quality of systems

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29 Contribution of the SidePlate Beam-Column Connections to the Seismic Responses of Special Moment Frames

Authors: Gökhan Yüksel, Serdar Akça, İlker Kalkan

Abstract:

The present study is an attempt to demonstrate the significant levels of contribution of the moment-resisting beam-column connections with side plates to the earthquake behavior of special steel moment frames. To this end, the moment-curvature relationships of a regular beam-column connection and its SidePlate counterpart were determined with the help of finite element analyses. The connection stiffness and deformability values from these finite element analyses were used in the linear time-history analyses of an example structural steel frame under three different seismic excitations. The top-story lateral drift, base shear, and overturning moment values in two orthogonal directions were obtained from these time-history analyses and compared to each other. The results revealed the improvements in the system response with the use of SidePlate connections. The paper ends with crucial recommendations for the plan and design of further studies on this very topic.

Keywords: seismic detailing, special moment frame, steel structures, beam-column connection, earthquake-resistant design

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28 Determining Moment-Curvature Relationship of Reinforced Concrete Rectangular Shear Walls

Authors: Gokhan Dok, Hakan Ozturk, Aydin Demir

Abstract:

The behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) members is quite important in RC structures. When evaluating the performance of structures, the nonlinear properties are defined according to the cross sectional behavior of RC members. To be able to determine the behavior of RC members, its cross sectional behavior should be known well. The moment-curvature (MC) relationship is used to represent cross sectional behavior. The MC relationship of RC cross section can be best determined both experimentally and numerically. But, experimental study on RC members is very difficult. The aim of the study is to obtain the MC relationship of RC shear walls. Additionally, it is aimed to determine the parameters which affect MC relationship. While obtaining MC relationship of RC members, XTRACT which can represent robustly the MC relationship is used. Concrete quality, longitudinal and transverse reinforcing ratios, are selected as parameters which affect MC relationship. As a result of the study, curvature ductility and effective flexural stiffness are determined using this parameter. Effective flexural stiffness is compared with the values defined in design codes.

Keywords: moment-curvature, reinforced concrete, shear wall, numerical

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27 Extraction of Saponins and Cyclopeptides from Cow Cockle (Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert) Seeds Grown in Turkey

Authors: Ihsan Burak Cam, Ferhan Balci-Torun, Ayhan Topuz, Esin Ari, Ismail Gokhan Deniz, Ilker Genc

Abstract:

The seeds of Vaccaria hispanica have been used in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is an important product due to its superior starch granules, triterpenic saponins, and cyclopeptides suitable for drug delivery. V. hispanica naturally grows in different climatic regions and has genotypes that differ in terms of seed content and composition. Sixty-six V. hispanica seed specimens were collected based on the representation of the distribution in all regions of Turkey and the determination of possible genotypic differences between regions. The seeds, collected from each of the 66 locations, were grown in greenhouse conditions in Akdeniz University, Antalya. Saponin and cyclopeptide contents of the V. hispanica seeds were determined after harvest. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied for the extraction of saponins and cyclopeptides. Cyclopeptide (segetalin A) and saponin content of V. hispanica seeds were found in the range of 0.165-0.654 g/100 g and 0.15-1.14 g/100 g, respectively. The results were found to be promising for the seeds from Turkey in terms of saponin content and quality. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (project no 112 O 136).

Keywords: Vaccaria hispanica, saponin, cyclopeptid, cow cockle seeds

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26 Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar Data Classification Using Support Vector Machine and Mahalanobis Distance

Authors: Najoua El Hajjaji El Idrissi, Necip Gokhan Kasapoglu

Abstract:

Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar-based imaging is a powerful technique used for earth observation and classification of surfaces. Forest evolution has been one of the vital areas of attention for the remote sensing experts. The information about forest areas can be achieved by remote sensing, whether by using active radars or optical instruments. However, due to several weather constraints, such as cloud cover, limited information can be recovered using optical data and for that reason, Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) is used as a powerful tool for forestry inventory. In this [14paper, we applied support vector machine (SVM) and Mahalanobis distance to the fully polarimetric AIRSAR P, L, C-bands data from the Nezer forest areas, the classification is based in the separation of different tree ages. The classification results were evaluated and the results show that the SVM performs better than the Mahalanobis distance and SVM achieves approximately 75% accuracy. This result proves that SVM classification can be used as a useful method to evaluate fully polarimetric SAR data with sufficient value of accuracy.

Keywords: classification, synthetic aperture radar, SAR polarimetry, support vector machine, mahalanobis distance

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25 Mediation of the Middle Eastern Crises and Economic Growth: An Application of Times Series Analysis

Authors: Gokhan Erkal, Gulsen Aydin, Muge Yuce, Lokman Sahin

Abstract:

This study aims to analyze the impacts of involving in mediation of conflicts in the Middle East from the perspective of the economic growth of the mediators. The Middle East is a highly volatile region of the world with rampant crises whose affects spill beyond its borders. Therefore, management and resolution of the conflicts in the region are of great significance. Mediation is an instrument used for abating violence and settling dispute. The recourse to mediation has grown to an important degree in recent years. However, for mediators, it is a daunting task to involve in the mediation of the deadlocks in the Middle East. This study tries to shed light on the positive correlation between economic growth of the mediator and the successful outcome of the mediation process to provide motivation for mediators. To this end, first, it briefly introduces the conflicts ongoing in the region and their negative impacts. Second, the methodology, time series analysis, and the data to be used, International Crisis Behavior Project Data, are presented. Third, the empirical test is carried out and the findings are evaluated. The conclusion highlights the benefits of successful mediation for the economic growth of the mediators of Middle Eastern crises.

Keywords: international crises, mediation, Middle East, times series analysis

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24 Antioxidant Potential and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Linked to Alzheimer's Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus by Monoterpene-Rich Essential Oil from Sideritis Galatica Bornm. Endemic to Turkey

Authors: Gokhan Zengin, Cengiz Sarikurkcu, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Ramazan Ceylan

Abstract:

The present study was designated to characterize the essential oil from S. galatica (SGEOs) and evaluate its antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. Antioxidant capacity were tested different methods including free radical scavenging (DPPH, ABTS and NO), reducing power (FRAP and CUPRAC), metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum. Inhibitory activities were analyzed on acetylcholiesterase, butrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. SGEOs were chemically analyzed and identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS). 23 components, representing 98.1% of SGEOs were identified. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (74.1%), especially α- (23.0%) and β-pinene (32.2%), were the main constituents in SGEOs. The main sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were β-caryophyllene (16.9%), Germacrene-D (1.2%) and Caryophyllene oxide (1.2%), respectively. Generally, SGEOs has shown moderate free radical, reducing power, metal chelating and enzyme inhibitory activities. These activities related to chemical profile in SGEOs. Our findings supported that the possible utility of SGEOs is a source of natural agents for food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: sideritis galatica, antioxidant, monoterpenes, cholinesterase, anti-diabetic

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23 A Stochastic Analytic Hierarchy Process Based Weighting Model for Sustainability Measurement in an Organization

Authors: Faramarz Khosravi, Gokhan Izbirak

Abstract:

A weighted statistical stochastic based Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) model for modeling the potential barriers and enablers of sustainability for measuring and assessing the sustainability level is proposed. For context-dependent potential barriers and enablers, the proposed model takes the basis of the properties of the variables describing the sustainability functions and was developed into a realistic analytical model for the sustainable behavior of an organization. This thus serves as a means for measuring the sustainability of the organization. The main focus of this paper was the application of the AHP tool in a statistically-based model for measuring sustainability. Hence a strong weighted stochastic AHP based procedure was achieved. A case study scenario of a widely reported major Canadian electric utility was adopted to demonstrate the applicability of the developed model and comparatively examined its results with those of an equal-weighted model method. Variations in the sustainability of a company, as fluctuations, were figured out during the time. In the results obtained, sustainability index for successive years changed form 73.12%, 79.02%, 74.31%, 76.65%, 80.49%, 79.81%, 79.83% to more exact values 73.32%, 77.72%, 76.76%, 79.41%, 81.93%, 79.72%, and 80,45% according to priorities of factors that have found by expert views, respectively. By obtaining relatively necessary informative measurement indicators, the model can practically and effectively evaluate the sustainability extent of any organization and also to determine fluctuations in the organization over time.

Keywords: AHP, sustainability fluctuation, environmental indicators, performance measurement

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22 Comparing Different Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas for Tunnel Health Assessment

Authors: Can Mungan, Gokhan Kilic

Abstract:

Structural engineers and tunnel owners have good reason to attach importance to the assessment and inspection of tunnels. Regular inspection is necessary to maintain and monitor the health of the structure not only at the present time but throughout its life cycle. Detection of flaws within the structure, such as corrosion and the formation of cracks within the internal elements of the structure, can go a long way to ensuring that the structure maintains its integrity over the course of its life. Other issues that may be detected earlier through regular assessment include tunnel surface delamination and the corrosion of the rebar. One advantage of new technology such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR) is the early detection of imperfections. This study will aim to discuss and present the effectiveness of GPR as a tool for assessing the structural integrity of the heavily used tunnel. GPR is used with various antennae in frequency and application method (2 GHz and 500 MHz GPR antennae). The paper will attempt to produce a greater understanding of structural defects and identify the correct tool for such purposes. Conquest View with 3D scanning capabilities was involved throughout the analysis, reporting, and interpretation of the results. This study will illustrate GPR mapping and its effectiveness in providing information of value when it comes to rebar position (lower and upper reinforcement). It will also show how such techniques can detect structural features that would otherwise remain unseen, as well as moisture ingress.

Keywords: tunnel, GPR, health monitoring, moisture ingress, rebar position

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21 Determination of the Seed Vigor of Soybean Cultivated as Main and Second Crop in Turkey

Authors: Mehmet Demir Kaya, Engin Gökhan Kulan, Onur İleri, Süleyman Avcı

Abstract:

This research was conducted to determine the difference in seed vigor between the seed lots cultivated in main and second crop of soybean in Turkey. Seeds from soybean cv. Cinsoy and Umut-2002 were evaluated in the laboratory for germination, emergence, cool test at 18°C for 10 days, and cold test at 10°C for 4 days and 25°C for 6 days. Result showed that the initial oil contents of Cinsoy and Umut-2002 and seeds were determined to be 19.8 and 20.1% in main crop, and 18.7 and 22.1% in second crop, respectively. It was determined that a clear difference between main and second crop soybean seed lots for seed vigor was found. Germination and emergence percentage were higher in the seed from second crop cultivation of the cultivars. There was no significant difference in germination percentage in cool and cold test while seedling growth was better in the seeds of second crop soybean. The highest seed vigor index (477.6) was found in the seeds of the cultivars grown at second crop. Standard germination percentage did not give a sensitive separation for determining seed vigor of soybean lots. It was concluded that second crop soybean seeds were found the most suitable for seed production while main crop soybean gave higher protein lower oil content.

Keywords: Glycine max L., germination, emergence, protein content, vigor test

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20 Seismic Performance of Slopes Subjected to Earthquake Mainshock Aftershock Sequences

Authors: Alisha Khanal, Gokhan Saygili

Abstract:

It is commonly observed that aftershocks follow the mainshock. Aftershocks continue over a period of time with a decreasing frequency and typically there is not sufficient time for repair and retrofit between a mainshock–aftershock sequence. Usually, aftershocks are smaller in magnitude; however, aftershock ground motion characteristics such as the intensity and duration can be greater than the mainshock due to the changes in the earthquake mechanism and location with respect to the site. The seismic performance of slopes is typically evaluated based on the sliding displacement predicted to occur along a critical sliding surface. Various empirical models are available that predict sliding displacement as a function of seismic loading parameters, ground motion parameters, and site parameters but these models do not include the aftershocks. The seismic risks associated with the post-mainshock slopes ('damaged slopes') subjected to aftershocks is significant. This paper extends the empirical sliding displacement models for flexible slopes subjected to earthquake mainshock-aftershock sequences (a multi hazard approach). A dataset was developed using 144 pairs of as-recorded mainshock-aftershock sequences using the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) database. The results reveal that the combination of mainshock and aftershock increases the seismic demand on slopes relative to the mainshock alone; thus, seismic risks are underestimated if aftershocks are neglected.

Keywords: seismic slope stability, mainshock, aftershock, landslide, earthquake, flexible slopes

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19 Wild Rice (Zizania sp.): A Potential Source for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Authors: Farooq Anwar, Gokhan Zengin, Khalid M. Alkharfy

Abstract:

Wild rice (Zizania sp.) is an annual cross-pollinated, emergent, aquatic grass that mainly grows naturally in the Great Lakes region of the North America. The nutritional quality attributes of wild rice are superior to the conventional brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) in terms of higher contents of important minerals (especially phosphorous, potassium, magnesium and calcium), B-complex vitamins, vitamin E and amino acids. In some parts of the world, wild rice is valued as a primary food source. The lipids content of wild rice is reported to be low in the range of 0.7 and 1.1%, however, the lipids are recognized as a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (including linoleic and α-linolenic acid) and phytosterols in addition to containing reasonably good amount of tocols. Besides, wild rice is reported to contain an appreciable amount of high-value compounds such as phenolics with antioxidant properties. Presence of such nutritional bioactives contributes towards medicinal benefits and multiple biological activities of this specialty rice. The present lecture is mainly designed to focus on the detailed nutritional attributes, profile of high-value bioactive components and pharmaceutical/biological activities of wild rice leading to exploring functional food and nutraceutical potential of this food commodity.

Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, phenolics, phytosterols, tocols, wild rice lipids

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