Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: A. Smai

12 Influence of Some Parameters on Embryonic Mortality of Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding

Authors: H. Idouhar-Saadi, A. Smaï, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji

Abstract:

During the period of reproduction, the collection of eggs of the Barbary gambra partridge is made only once a week in the morning, considering the sensibility in the stress of this native species. The number of considered samples is 33 eggs. The duration of the incubation is of 18 days. Unhatched eggs and eggs eliminated previously at the time of the mirage are collected and forwarded to the laboratories of microbiology and parasitology. The average weight of the eggs of the Barbary Partridge vary much [20.08 ± 1.81 g. (2006) < Pm < 20.82 ± 2,11g. (2008)]. The percentage of unhatched eggs varies between 9.3% in 2005 and 15.55% in 2007. It appears that the rate of embryonic mortality is slightly higher compared to that of infertile eggs. Microbiological analysis of unhatched eggs showed the presence of pathogenic germs such as lute Chryseomonas luteola. Chryseomonas ola and Escherichia coli. As against the parasites research is negative.

Keywords: barbary partridge, unhatched eggs, embryo mortality, pathogenic germs

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11 Correlation of the Biometric Parameters of Eggs

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Lariouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to estimate the correlation ship between different pheasant external egg quality traits. A total of 938 eggs were collected. Egg weight (g), egg length (mm), egg width (mm), volume (cm3), shape index egg, surface area and water loss were measured. The overall mean values obtained for the different variables are respectively 29.2 ± 2,24, 43.01 ± 1,84, 34.05 ± 1,44, 25.63 ± 2.88 cm3, 79.00 ± 3%, 68% and 13%. Concerning studied regressions, it was considered only the most important regressions. Those that show significant links between the different parameters studied. The ANOVA procedure was applied to estimate correlations for the examined traits. The weights of the eggs being observed before incubation and before hatching are linearly correlated with a positive correlation coefficient of order 0.75. Egg length and the weight before incubation had a good and positive correlation with a coefficient r = 0.6. However, density had high and negative correlations with egg height r = -0.78. Shape index had a good linear and negative r= - 0.71 correlation with water loss.

Keywords: correlation, analysis of variance, egg, morphometry of eggs

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10 Toxic Activity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Haddadj, F. Acheuk, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and taking a conscience prompted researchers and institutions to lean towards the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on part of the cuticle the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria. Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of the bio-control agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment by direct spraying of the cuticle, 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticle which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: effect, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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9 Pathology of the Partridge Gambra Alectoris barbara in a Semi-Captive Breeding in the Algiers Sahel

Authors: H. Saadi-Idouhar, A. Smai, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, A. Saadi, M. Aissi, S. Doumandji

Abstract:

In Algeria, the Partridge gambra is a highly sought-after game species and is appreciated for its meat. Game birds are of interest because they play an important role for hunting federations and for the economy of a country. The breeding of indigenous breeds is necessary because it is of great economic interest. However, gambra breeding in the hunting centre of Zeralda (northern west of Algiers) is not easy, several diseases affecting Perdreaux and reproducing adults have been noted. Most of the diseases observed are parasitic in origin. This study is conducted during the 2010 breeding season. It is based on the autopsy of cadavers collected at the hunting centre and parasitic coprology. Indeed, the flotation enrichment method has identified several parasites such as Eimeria spp., Capillaria spp., and Ascaridia spp. Autopsied corpses show the importance of two major diseases, syngamosis caused to Syngamus trachea and histomonosis caused to Histomonas meleagridis.

Keywords: Livestock, eggs, partridge, affections pathology

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8 Investigation of Diseases and Enemies of Bees of Breeding Apis mellifera intermissa (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)

Authors: S. Zenia, L. Bitta, O. Bouhamam, H. Brines, M. Boudriaa, F. Haddadj, F. Marniche, A. Milla, H. Saadi, A. Smai

Abstract:

The bee Apis mellifera intermissa is a major social insect, in addition to its honey production, it is a pillar of our biodiversity. Several living organisms can come into contact with it: bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, mites, and insects. In Algeria, many beekeepers have reported unusual mortality of local bees, loss of foragers and significant losses of their livestock. Despite the presence of a varied honey-bearing flora and a favourable Mediterranean climate, honey production remains low. This phenomenon can be attributed to the excess winter mortality, but also to the increasing difficulties that beekeepers face in maintaining healthy bee colonies, particularly bee diseases and their transmission facilitated by trade and beekeeping practices. Our survey is based on a questionnaire composed of several parts. The results obtained show that the disease that most affects bees according to beekeepers is varroa mite with 93% followed by fungi with 26%. The most replied enemy of bees is the false ringworm with 73%, followed by the bee-eater with 63%. Our goal is to determine the causes of this low production in two areas: Bejaia and Tizi-Ouzou.

Keywords: Diseases, Apis mellifera L, varroa, European foulbrood

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7 Morphometric Study of the Eggs of Pheasant Eggs Phasianus colchicus (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: S. Zenia, A. Menasseria, A. E. Kheidous, F. Larinouna, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Haddadj, A. Milla, F. Marniche

Abstract:

Pheasant, is a bird of great ornamental value through the beauty of its form and colors, it is among the most popular birds. The present study was conducted in an experimental breeding. The objective of this work is to know the quality of the eggs of this bird. A total of 938 eggs were collected. To deepen the knowledge about the characteristics of external shell quality, biometric parameters were studied, among them we find the weight with a mean value of 29.2± 2, 24 g. Egg length (mm) and egg width (mm) mean value are respectively 43.01 ± 1,84 cm and 34.05 ± 1,44cm. The volume and shape index of eggs obtained are respectively 25,63±2,88cm3 and 79.00 ± 3%, shell index which recorded an average of 68%. Water loss recorded is 13%. Note that all these parameters and others may influence hatching. The analysis of variance applied for the comparison of egg weight shows that there is no significant difference in the same form factor (P> 0.05). Otherwise, the comparison test used shows a significant difference with P <0.05 for length, width, volume, density, indices of shell and water loss of eggs between the different. Indeed, several factors may explain the difference as the absence of sorting eggs during incubation and other factors that will be exposing later.

Keywords: analysis of variance, egg, hatching, morphometry of eggs Phaisan (Phasianus colchicus.L.)

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6 Impact of Coccidia on Mortality and Weight Growth in Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae) in Algeria

Authors: Amina Smai, Fairouz Haddadj, Habiba Saadi-Idouhar, Meriem Aissi, Safia Zenia, Salaheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

Coccidiosis is a very common intestinal parasitic disease caused by a worldwide distributed protozoan of the genus Eimeria. This disease is very common in young birds beyond the second week of life, especially in land-based breeding. The study was carried out in a hunting center of Zeralda located in the north-east of Algiers. The objective of our work is to study the evolution of coccidiosis in quails from 1 to 35 days old by collecting their droppings daily. These are analyzed in the laboratory using the flotation method and the Mac Master one to count coccidia. Weight changes are taken into account as well as mortality in parallel with certain zootechnical parameters such as density. The species of coccidia recovered is Eimeria coturnicis. The results showed that there is an average evolution of mortality of individuals with a rate of 13.33% due to the presence of coccidia with a significant regression (p=0.031). The weight of the quails increases with the age of the animal with a rapid growth rate from the 3rd week onwards. Indeed, the statistical analysis reveals that the evolution of the number did not affect the evolution of the weight (p=0.70) and the GMQ (R=0.52).

Keywords: Coturnix japonica, weight, coccidiosis, daily average gain

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5 Study of the Toxic Activity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana on the Wistar Rat Rattus norvegicus

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, A. Milla, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, F. Marniche, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

The use of a biopesticide based on a microorganism scale requires particular care including safety against the useful auxiliary fauna and mammals among other human beings. Due to its persistence in soil and its apparent human and animal safety, Beauveria bassiana is a cryptogram used for controlling pests organizations, particularly in the locust where its effectiveness has been proven. This fungus is also called for greater respect for biotic communities and the environment. Indeed, biopesticides have several environmental benefits: biodegradability, their activity and selectivity decrease unintended non-target species effects, decreased resistance to some of them. It is in this sense that we contribute by presenting our work on the safety of B. bassiana against mammals. For this we conducted a toxicological study of this fungus strain on Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, first its effect on weight gain. In a second time were performed histological target organ is the liver. After 20 days of treatment, the results of the toxicological studies have shown that B. bassiana caused no change in the physiological state of rats or weight gain, behavior and diet. On cuts in liver histology revealed no disturbance on the organ.

Keywords: Histology, entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana, Rattus norvegicus

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4 Toxic Activity of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana on the Wistar Rat Rattus norvegicus

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, M. Khames, A. Kadi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

The use of a biopesticide based on a microorganism scale requires particular care including safety against the useful auxiliary fauna and mammals among other human beings. Due to its persistence in soil and its apparent human and animal safety, Beauveria bassiana is a cryptogram used for controlling pests organizations, particularly in the locust where its effectiveness has been proven by several highly studies. This fungus is also called for greater respect for biotic communities and the environment. Indeed, biopesticides have several environmental benefits: biodegradability, their activity and selectivity decrease unintended non-target species effects, decreased resistance to some of them. It is in this sense that we contribute by presenting our work on the safety of B. bassiana against mammals. For this we conducted a toxicological study of this fungus strain on Wistar rats Rattus norvegicus, first its effect on weight gain. In a second time were performed histological target organ is the liver. After 20 days of treatment, the results of the toxicological studies have shown that B. bassiana caused no change in the physiological state of rats or weight gain, behavior and diet. On cuts in liver histology revealed no disturbance on the organ.

Keywords: Environment, entomopathogenic fungus, B. bassiana, Rattus norvegicus, toxicological study

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3 Toxicity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Haddadj, F. Acheuk, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and. For this, a new control method appeared it comes to the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on part of the cuticule the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775). Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae var acridium biocontrol agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment in the digestive tract and it administrant 20μl of entomopathogenic solution orally at a dose DL50 = 3.25 x107 sp./ ml (median lethal dose estimated at earlier), 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. After dissection cuticles are recovered and then subjected to histological sections. The histological technique followed is that of Martoja Martoja-Pierson (1967). Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticule which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: Toxicity, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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2 Japanese Quail Breeding: The Second in Poultry Industry

Authors: A. Smaï, H. Idouhar-Saadi, S. Zenia, F. Haddadj, A. Aboun, S.Doumandji

Abstract:

The quail is the smallest member of the order fowl. His captive breeding has been practiced for centuries by the Japanese. Knowing that in the literature, it is mentioned that the end of lay is noted for the age of 6 months, our work has revealed a good egg production by females aged up to 35 weeks of age. In the same vein, our study focused on various parameters such as weight, diet and the number of eggs laid and this in order to better know the potential production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg production has started from the 8th week of age of breeding, crop them and their counts are conducted daily basis until the age of 35 weeks. Indeed, biometric parameters are studied such as weight, length, and the largest diameter, the shape index, the index of shell, in order to analyze the physical condition of eggs by females of age. Until the age of 22 weeks, the eggs have maintained good biometric features. Japanese quail are best producing eggs. Hatchability is also considered. They are excellent poultry yields, since they begin laying eggs in two months and can provide abundant nesting with females over 8 months in our study. Other farms results reveal conclusions. Indeed, one aspect remains to be developed; it is the analysis of nutritional and therapeutic values of eggs over the age of females. The latter, given their wealth is a dietary supplement of animal origin with dietary value (it contains 0 cholesterol) that characterizes the quail eggs. Raising quail among other reproduction requires minimal when compared to other domestic birds space, this is the second breeding, in terms of importance after the chicken. Therefore, in the case of a farm that works exclusively in the production of eggs, requires minimal work and free space, as well as reduced costs.

Keywords: Biometrics, Reproduction, Japanese quail, eggs, reproductive age

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1 Study of Some Biometric Parameters of the Incubated Eggs and Unhatched Eggs Depending on the Age of Breeding in Domestic Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: Amina Smaï, Habiba Idouhar-Saadi, Safia Zenia, Fairouz Haddadj, Salaheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

The poultry industry (chicken and egg consumption) has become important in Algeria, but that does not prevent other farms from beginning to position themselves on the ground like the turkey, guinea fowl, partridge and quail Japanese. The breeding importance of this last, reside, also in game meat, egg quality and their therapeutic role without forgetting its growth performance. To the same effect, a study was held at the center of Zeralda hunting on various parameters such as the weight and number of eggs laid and this in order to know better the potential of production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg laying has started from the 8th week of reproductive age, their harvest and their counts are performed daily up to 32 weeks of age and more. We have given the biometrics of incubated eggs and unhatched eggs. The parameters studied were the weight, large and small diameter, density, volume, shell index and the shape index. The work revealed that the maximum weight in males is reached in the 11th week, against the female, he reached the 13th week of age. Indeed, there is a good correlation (R = 0.79) between the weight of females and egg production. The rate of unhatched eggs varies between 11 and 43%, these values are recorded respectively in breeding under the age of 25 and 43 weeks. Furthermore, the biometric parameters of hatched and unhatched eggs have differences that are marked, especially during the beginning and end of lay. Further results will be subsequently exploited. Indeed, rearing Japanese quail is easy in technical terms and does not require big investment but its practical application vigilance and daily presence of the breeder within the farm who oversees the hygiene and well-being of its poultry.

Keywords: Biometrics, Reproduction, Japanese quail, eggs, unhatching eggs

Procedia PDF Downloads 74