Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: pomegranate

35 Effect of Particle Size and Concentration of Pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) Peel Powder on Suppression of Oxidation of Edible Plant Oils

Authors: D. G. D. C. L. Munasinghe, M. S. Gunawardana, P. H. P. Prasanna, C. S. Ranadheera, T. Madhujith

Abstract:

Lipid oxidation is an important process that affects the shelf life of edible oils. Oxidation produces off flavors, off odors and chemical compounds that lead to adverse health effects. Chemical mechanisms such as autoxidation, photo-oxidation and thermal oxidation are responsible for lipid oxidation. Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (RBD) coconut oil, Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and corn oil are widely used plant oils. Pomegranate fruit is known to possess high antioxidative efficacy. Peel of pomegranate contains high antioxidant activity than aril and pulp membrane. The study attempted to study the effect of particle size and concentration of pomegranate peel powder on suppression of oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. Pomegranate peel powder was incorporated into each oil sample as micro (< 250 µm) and nano particles (280 - 300 nm) at 100 ppm and 200 ppm concentrations. The control sample of each oil was prepared, devoid of pomegranate peel powder. The stability of oils against autoxidation was evaluated by storing oil samples at 60 °C for 28 days. The level of oxidation was assessed by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on 0,1,3,5,7,14 and 28 day, respectively. VCO containing pomegranate particles of 280 - 300 nm at 200 ppm showed the highest oxidative stability followed by RBD coconut oil and corn oil. Results revealed that pomegranate peel powder with 280 - 300 nm particle size at 200 ppm concentration was the best in mitigating oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. There is a huge potential of utilizing pomegranate peel powder as an antioxidant agent in reducing oxidation of edible plant oils.

Keywords: antioxidant, autoxidation, micro particles, nano particles, pomegranate peel powder

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34 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin

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Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chemical activation, microwave, pomegranate peel

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33 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen Koc, A. S. Kipcak, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul

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Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: activated carbon, chemical activation, H₂SO₄, microwave, pomegranate peel

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
32 Effect of Different Level of Pomegranate Molasses on Performance, Egg Quality Trait, Serological and Hematological Parameters in Older Laying Hens

Authors: Ismail Bayram, Aamir Iqbal, E. Eren Gultepe, Cangir Uyarlar, Umit Ozcınar, I. Sadi Cetingul

Abstract:

The current study was planned with the objective to explore the potential of pomegranate molasses (PM) on performance, egg quality and blood parameters in older laying hens. A total of 240 Babcock white laying hens (52 weeks old) were divided into 5 groups (n=48) with 8 subgroups having 6 hens in each. Pomegranate molasses was added in the drinking water to experimental groups with 0 %, 0.1%, 0.25 %, 0.5%, and 1%, respectively during one month. In our results, egg weight values were remained the same in all pomegranate molasses supplemented groups except 1% group over control. However, feed consumption, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg mass, egg yolk cholesterol, body weights, and water consumption remained unaffected (P > 0.05). During mid-study (15 Days) analyses, egg quality parameters such as Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, albumin index, yolk index, and egg yolk color were remained non-significant (P > 0.05) while after final (30 Days) egg analyses, only egg yolk color had positively (P < 0.05) increased in 0.5% group. Moreover, Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and albumin index were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the supplementation of pomegranate molasses. Regarding serological parameters, pomegranate molasses did not show any positive effect on cholesterol, total protein, LDL, HDL, GGT, AST, ALT, and glucose level. Similarly, pomegranate molasses also showed non-significant (P > 0.05) results on different blood parameters such as HCT, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, RDWC, MPV except hemoglobin level. Only hemoglobin level was increased in all experimental groups over control showing that pomegranate molasses can be used as an enhancer in animals with low hemoglobin level.

Keywords: pomegranate molasses, laying hen, egg yield, blood parameters

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31 The Geometry of Natural Formation: an Application of Geometrical Analysis for Complex Natural Order of Pomegranate

Authors: Anahita Aris

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Geometry always plays a key role in natural structures, which can be a source of inspiration for architects and urban designers to create spaces. By understanding formative principles in nature, a variety of options can be provided that lead to freedom of formation. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the geometrical order found in pomegranate to find formative principles explaining its complex structure. The point is how spherical arils of pomegranate pressed together inside the fruit and filled the space as they expand in the growing process, which made a self-organized system leads to the formation of each of the arils are unique in size, topology and shape. The main challenge of this paper would be using advanced architectural modeling techniques to discover these principles.

Keywords: advanced modeling techniques, architectural modeling, computational design, the geometry of natural formation, geometrical analysis, the natural order of pomegranate, voronoi diagrams

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30 Effects of Six Weeks of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Training with a Pomegranate Juice on Plasma Leptin in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: M. Golzade Gangraj, A. Abdi, H.faraji

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Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with pomegranate juice (PJ) on plasma leptin in adult women selection of type-2 diabetes. Methods: Survey postmenopausal diabetic women aged 45 to 60 years in the city of Babylon, who coordinated Diabetes Association presented the city, among them 34 were selected as subjects were randomly divided into four groups: control, PJ, practice and PJ. Experimental groups consisted of 6 weeks of aerobic exercise training program three times a week for at least 45 minutes per meeting. Two days before and after the training period in the fasting state (12 h) blood samples from the brachial vein was performed in a sitting position. Results: Results showed that aerobic exercise with consumption of pomegranate juice alone and interaction with each significantly decrease levels of leptin plasma in older women with type 2 diabetes compared to control group. Conclusion: According to the research findings can be stated the exercise with pomegranate juice beneficially effects fat tissue and decreases plasma leptin in adult women with type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, pomegranate, leptin, diabetes

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29 Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Instant Fruit Green Tea Powders

Authors: Akanit Pisalwadcharin, Komate Satayawut, Virachnee Lohachoompol

Abstract:

Green tea, mangosteen and pomegranate contain high levels of bioactive compounds which have antioxidant effects and great potential in food applications. The aim of this study was to produce and determine catechin contents, total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of two instant fruit green tea powders which were green tea fortified with mangosteen juice and green tea fortified with pomegranate juice. Seventy percent of hot water extract of green tea was mixed with 30% of mangosteen juice or pomegranate juice, and then spray-dried using a spray dryer. The results showed that the drying conditions optimized for the highest total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of both powders were the inlet air temperature of 170°C, outlet air temperatures of 90°C and maltodextrin concentration of 30%. The instant green tea with mangosteen powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 19.18 (mg gallic acid/kg), 85.44 (mg/kg) and 4,334 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The instant green tea with pomegranate powder had total phenolic contents, catechin contents and antioxidant activity of 32.72 (mg gallic acid/kg), 156.36 (mg/kg) and 6,283 (µmoles TE/100 g), respectively. The phenolic compounds in instant green tea with mangosteen powder comprised of tannic acid (2,156.87 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (898.23 mg/kg) and rutin (13.74 mg/kg). Also, the phenolic compounds in instant green tea with pomegranate powder comprised of tannic acid (2,275.82 mg/kg), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (981.23 mg/kg), rutin (14.97 mg/kg) and i-quercetin (5.86 mg/kg).

Keywords: green tea, mangosteen, pomegranate, antioxidant activity

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28 Comparative Study between Two Methods for Extracting Pomegranate Juice and Their Effect on Product Quality

Authors: Amani Aljahani

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The purpose of the study was to identify the physical and chemical properties of pomegranate juices and to evaluate their sensory quality. The samples were collected from the local markets and included four types of pomegranate produced in the western and southern region of the kingdom. The juices were extracted by manual squeezing and by centrifugal force. The juices were analyzed periodically for their content of organic acids, total acidity, glucose and fructose, total sugars, and the anthosianine. A panel of 30 judges evaluated the juices for their color, smell, taste, consistency and general acceptance using a prepared scale for that purpose. Result showed that pomegranate juices were acidic in nature (PH between 3.56–4.27). The major organic acids were citric, tartaric, malic, and oxalic aids total organic acidity was between 596.32–763.49 ng/100 ml and increased over storage time, however; total acidity almost stable over time except for the southern produced. The major monosaccharide's in pomegranate juices were glucose and fructose. Their concentration in the juice varied by storage. On the average glucose concentration was between 6.68–7.71 g/100 ml while fructose concentration was between 6.72–7.98 g/100 ml. total sugars content was 16% on the average and dropped by storage. Anthosianine concertration increased after five hours of storage then dropped and stabilized over time regardless of method of treatment. In addition, sensory evaluation of the juices showed general acceptance of them as of color, flavor, and constercy but the preferred one was with that of the western kind extracted by squeezing.

Keywords: extracting, pomegranate, juice, quality

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27 Antioxidant Potential of Pomegranate Rind Extract Attenuates Pain, Inflammation and Bone Damage in Experimental Rats

Authors: Ritu Karwasra, Surender Singh

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Inflammation is an important physiological response of the body’s self-defense system that helps in eliminating and protecting organism from harmful stimuli and in tissue repair. It is a highly regulated protective response which helps in eliminating the initial cause of cell injury, and initiates the process of repair. The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of pomegranate rind extract on pain and inflammation. Hydroalcoholic standardized rind extract of pomegranate at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was tested against eddy’s hot plate induced thermal algesia, carrageenan (acute inflammation) and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (chronic inflammation) induced models in Wistar rats. Parameters analyzed were inhibition of paw edema, measurement of joint diameter, levels of GSH, TBARS, SOD, TNF-α, radiographic imaging, tissue histology and synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptor (TNF-R1). Radiological and light microscopical analysis were carried out to find out the bone damage in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory model. Findings of the present study revealed that pomegranate rind extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in paw swelling in both the inflammatory models. Nociceptive threshold was also significantly (p<0.05) improved. Immunohistochemical analysis of TNF-R1 in CFA-induced group showed elevated level, whereas reduction in level of TNF-R1 was observed in pomegranate (200 mg/kg). Henceforth, we might say that pomegranate produced a dose-dependent reduction in inflammation and pain along with the reduction in levels of oxidative stress markers and tissue histology, and the effect was found to be comparable to that of indomethacin. Thus, it can be concluded that pomegranate is a potential therapeutic target in the pathogenesis of inflammation and pain, and punicalagin is the major constituents found in rind extract might be responsible for the activity.

Keywords: carrageenan, inflammation, nociceptive-threshold, pomegranate, histopathology

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26 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan

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In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, pomegranate peel, solvent extraction‎

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25 Pomegranate Attenuated Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia and Dopaminergic Degeneration in MPTP Mice Models of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Mahsa Hadipour Jahromy, Sara Rezaii

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Parkinson’s disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Soon after the discovery of levodopa and its beneficial effects in chronic administration, debilitating involuntary movements observed, termed levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) with poorly understood pathogenesis. Polyphenol-rich compounds, like pomegranate, provided neuroprotection in several animal models of brain diseases. In the present work, we investigated whether pomegranate has preventive effects following 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic degenerations and the potential to diminish LID in mice. Mice model of PD was induced by MPTP (30 mg/kg daily for five consecutive days). To induce a mice model of LID, valid PD mice were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg, i.p) for 15 days. Then the effects of chronic co-administration of pomegranate juice (20 ml/kg) with levodopa and continuing for 10 days, evaluated. Behavioural tests were performed in all groups, every other day including: Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMS), forelimb adjusting steps, cylinder, and catatonia tests. Finally, brain tissue sections were prepared to study substantia nigra changes and dopamine neuron density after treatments. With this MPTP regimen, significant movement disorders revealed in AIMS tests and there was a reduction in dopamine striatal density. Levodopa attenuates their loss caused by MPTP, however, in chronic administration, dyskinesia observed in forelimb adjusting step and cylinder tests. Besides, catatonia observed in some cases. Chronic pomegranate co-administration significantly improved LID in both tests and reduced dopaminergic loss in substantia nigra. These data indicate that pomegranate might be a good adjunct for preserving dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reducing LID in mice.

Keywords: levodopa-induced dyskinesia, MPTP, Parkinson’s disease, pomegranate

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24 Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

Authors: Y. Laidani, G. Henini, S. Hanini, A. Labbaci, F. Souahi

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In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.

Keywords: biosorption, Pb (+II), pomegranate skin, wastewater

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23 Comparative Efficacy of Pomegranate Juice, Peel and Seed Extract in the Stabilization of Corn Oil under Accelerated Conditions

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

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Antioxidant-rich extracts were prepared from pomegranate peels, seeds and juice using methanol and ethanol and their antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method. Both analytical methods indicated a higher antioxidant activity in extracts prepared from peels, which was comparable to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was correlated to the phenolic and flavonoid content of the various extracts. The antioxidant effectiveness of the extracts was also assessed using corn oil as the oxidation substrate. More specifically, preheated corn oil samples stabilized with extracts at a concentration of 250 ppm, 500 ppm or 1,000 ppm were subjected to accelerated aging (100 oC, 10 days) and the extent of oxidative alteration was followed by the measurement of the peroxide, conjugated dienes and trienes, as well as p-aniside value. BHT at its legal limit (200 ppm) served as standard besides the control sample. Results from the different parameters were in agreement with each other suggesting that pomegranate extracts can stabilize corn oil effectively under accelerated conditions, at all concentrations tested. However, the magnitude of oil stabilization depended strongly on the amount of extract added and this was positively correlated with their phenolic content. Pomegranate peel extracts, which exhibited the highest not only phenolic and flavonoid content but also antioxidant activity, were more potent in inhibiting oxidative deterioration. Both methanolic and ethanolic peel extracts at a concentration of 500 ppm exerted a stabilizing effect comparable to that of BHT, while at a concentration of 1000 ppm they exhibited higher stabilization efficiency in comparison to BHT. Finally, heating oil samples resulted in a time dependent decrease in their antioxidant capacity. Samples containing peel extracts appeared to retain their antioxidant capacity for a longer period, indicating that these extracts contained active compounds that offered superior antioxidant protection to corn oil.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, corn oil, oxidative deterioration, pomegranate

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22 Formulation of Value Added Beff Meatballs with the Addition of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Extract as a Source of Natural Antioxident

Authors: M. A. Hashem, I. Jahan

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The experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different levels of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract and synthetic antioxidant BHA (Beta Hydroxyl Anisole) on fresh and preserved beef meatballs in order to make functional food. For this purpose, ground beef samples were divided into five treatment groups. They were treated as control group, 0.1% synthetic antioxidant group, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% pomegranate extract group as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Proximate analysis, sensory tests (color, flavor, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability), cooking loss, pH value, free fatty acids (FFA), thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS), peroxide value (POV) and microbiological examination were determined in order to evaluate the effect of pomegranate extract as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared to BHA (Beta Hydroxyl Anisole) at first day before freezing and for maintaining meatballs qualities on the shelf life of beef meat balls stored for 60 days under frozen condition. Freezing temperature was -20˚C. Days of intervals of experiment were on 0, 15th, 30th and 60th days. Dry matter content of all the treatment groups differ significantly (p<0.05). On the contrary, DM content increased significantly (p<0.05) with the advancement of different days of intervals. CP content of all the treatments were increased significantly (p<0.05) among the different treatment groups. EE and Ash content were decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different treatment levels. FFA values, TBARS, POV were decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different treatment levels. Color, odor, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different days of intervals. Raw PH, cooked pH were increased at different treatment levels significantly (p<0.05). The cooking loss (%) at different treatment levels were differ significantly (p<0.05). TVC (logCFU/g), TCC (logCFU/g) and TYMC (logCFU/g) was decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different treatment levels and at different days of intervals comparison to control. Considering CP, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability, cooking loss, FFA, POV, TBARS value and microbial analysis it can be concluded that pomegranate extract at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant BHA in beef meatballs. On the basis of sensory evaluation, nutrient quality, physicochemical properties, biochemical analysis and microbial analysis 0.3% Pomegranate extract can be recommended for formulation of value added beef meatball enriched with natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant, pomegranate, BHA, value added meat products

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21 Impact on the Yield of Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Content from Pomegranate Fruit by Different Extraction Methods

Authors: Udeshika Yapa Bandara, Chamindri Witharana, Preethi Soysa

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Pomegranate fruits are used in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, Sri Lanka. Due to prevailing therapeutic effects of phytochemicals, this study was focus on anti-cancer properties of the constituents in the parts of Pomegranate fruit. Furthermore, the method of extraction, plays a crucial step of the phytochemical analysis. Therefore, this study was focus on different extraction methods. Five techniques were involved for the peel and the pericarp to evaluate the most effective extraction method; Boiling with electric burner (BL), Sonication (SN), Microwaving (MC), Heating in a 50°C water bath (WB) and Sonication followed by Microwaving (SN-MC). The presence of polyphenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated to recognize the best extraction method for polyphenols. The total phenolic content was measured spectrophotometrically by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as Gallic Acid Equivalents (w/w% GAE). Total flavonoid content was also determined spectrophotometrically with Aluminium chloride colourimetric assay and expressed as Quercetin Equivalents (w/w % QE). Pomegranate juice was taken as fermented juice (with Saccharomyces bayanus) and fresh juice. Powdered seeds were refluxed, filtered and freeze-dried. 2g of freeze-dried powder of each component was dissolved in 100ml of De-ionized water for extraction. For the comparison of antioxidant activity and total phenol content, the polyphenols were removed by the Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVVP) column and fermented and fresh juice were tested for the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, before and after the removal of polyphenols. For the peel samples of Pomegranate fruit, total phenol and flavonoid contents were high in Sonication (SN). In pericarp, total phenol and flavonoid contents were highly exhibited in method of Sonication (SN). A significant difference was observed (P< 0.05) in total phenol and flavonoid contents, between five extraction methods for both peel and pericarp samples. Fermented juice had a greatest polyphenolic and flavonoid contents comparative to fresh juice. After removing polyphenols of fermented juice and fresh juice using Polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVVP) column, low antioxidant activity was resulted for DPPH antioxidant activity assay. Seeds had a very low total phenol and flavonoid contents according to the results. Although, Pomegranate peel is the main waste component of the fruit, it has an excellent polyphenolic and flavonoid contents compared to other parts of the fruit, devoid of the method of extraction. Polyphenols play a major role for antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, flavonoids, polyphenols, pomegranate

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20 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

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Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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19 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara

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Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: by-product, DPPH, polyphenols, value addition

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18 Pomegranate Peel Based Edible Coating Treatment for Safety and Quality of Chicken Nuggets

Authors: Muhammad Sajid Arshad, Sadaf Bashir

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In this study, the effects of pomegranate peel based edible coating were determined on safety and quality of chicken nuggets. Four treatment groups were prepared as control (without coating), coating with sodium alginate (SA) (1.5%), pomegranate peel powder (PPP) (1.5%), and combination of SA and PPP. There was a significant variation observed with respect to coating treatments and storage intervals. The chicken nuggets were subjected to refrigerated storage (40C) and were analyzed at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14 1 and 21 days. The microbiological quality was determined by total aerobic and coliform counts. Total aerobic (5.09±0.05 log CFU/g) and coliforms (3.91±0.06 log CFU/g) counts were higher in uncoated chicken nuggets whereas lower was observed in coated chicken nuggets having combination of SA and PPP. Likewise, antioxidants potential of chicken nuggets was observed by assessing total phenolic contents (TPC) and DPPH activity. Higher TPC (135.66 GAE/100g) and DPPH (64.65%) were found in combination with SA and PPP, whereas minimum TPC (91.38) and DPPH (41.48) was observed in uncoated chicken nuggets. Regarding the stability analysis of chicken nuggets, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (POV) were determined. Higher TBARS (1.62±0.03 MDA/Kg) and POV (0.92±0.03 meq peroxide/kg) were found in uncoated chicken nuggets. Hunter color values were also observed in both uncoated and coated chicken nuggets. Sensorial attributes were also observed by the trained panelists. The higher sensory score for appearance, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability were observed in control (uncoated) while in coated treatments, it was found within acceptable limits. In nutshell, the combination of SA and PPP enhanced the overall quality, antioxidant potential, and stability of chicken nuggets.

Keywords: chicken nuggets, edible coatings, pomegranate peel powder, sodium alginate

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17 Punica granatum (Pomegranate) of a Libyan Variety Exhibits in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential

Authors: Lamees A. Ben Saad, Kah Hwi Kim, Chin Chew Quah, Mustafa Shahimi

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Background: Punica granatum (pomegranate) was used as a traditional medicine in different parts of the world. It has been used in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions such as peptic ulcer. The numerous risks associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of pain and inflammation give rise to using medicinal herbs as alternative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate pomegranate fraction (EtOAc) by determination of its inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxxgenase-2 (COX2) release from RAW264.7cells. Methods: The inhibitory effect of EtOAc was evaluated on (LPS) induced NO production, PGE2, and IL-6 quantified by immunoassay kit and prostaglandin E2 competitive ELISA kit. COX2 production is an in vitro indication of possible anti-inflammatory activity and was estimated by Western blotting. Results: EtOAc potentially inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and IL-6 production. With these findings, it was evident that the EtOAc could reduce the LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Western blotting. Conclusion: The results emphasize potential therapeutic applications of Punica granatum in the treatment of inflammation.

Keywords: inflammation, Punica granatum, cytotoxicity, cytokines

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16 In vitro Antifungal Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Eight Various Cultivar of Persian Punica granatum L. against Candida Species

Authors: Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Farzad Katiraee, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Ehsan Mostafavi, Malihe Talebi

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Objective: Resistance of Candida species to antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. Candida species are now fourth common organisms isolated from hospitalized patients. It is important to increase effective therapy. In the past decade, numerous reports of treatment failures were reported. Prevention and control of these infections will require new antimicrobial agents. Plant-derived antifungal have always been a source of novel therapeutics. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and pulp against Candida species. Material and Methods: Eight cultivars of Punica granatum L. were collected from Saveh Agricultural Investigation Center in Iran. Both pomegranate pulp and peel were dried and powdered separately. The dried powders were extracted by using a soxhlet extractor. The antifungal effect of methanolic extract of pomegranate peel and pulp were determined in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against five standard species of (ATCC 10231), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. tropicalis (ATCC 750), C. glabrata (PTCC 5297), and C. kroseii (PTCC 5295). Results: Maximum inhibitions of antifungal effect were attributed to peel extract pomegranate cultivar and Candida species. The most potential antifungal inhibition among 8 different cultivars observed by sour malas, sour white peel, and sour summer extracts respectively, against five Candida strains. The antifungal activity of pulp extracts against Candida species was approximately negative. Conclusion: The use of Punica granatum peel extract has been shown to possess antifungal activities. The phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Punica granatum peel components suggest a wide range of clinical applications for the treatment and prevention of candidiasis.

Keywords: antifungal activity, Candida species, Punica granatum L., pharmacognosy

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15 Shelf Life and Overall Quality of Pretreated and Modified Atmosphere Packaged ‘Ready-To-Eat’ Pomegranate arils cv. Bhagwa Stored at 1⁰C

Authors: Sangram Dhumal, Anil Karale

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The effect of different pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of minimally processed pomegranate arils of Bhagwa cultivar was evaluated during storage at 1⁰C for 16 days. Hand extracted pomegranate arils were pretreated with different antioxidants and surfactants viz., 100ppm sodium hypochlorite plus 0.5 percent ascorbic acid plus 0.5 percent citric acid, 10 and 20 percent honey solution, 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide alone and in combination with 10 percent honey solution and control. The disinfected, rinsed and air-dried pomegranate arils were packed in polypropylene punnets (135g each) with different modified atmospheres and stored up to 16 days at 1⁰C. Changes in colour, pH, total soluble solids, sugars, anthocyanins, phenols, acidity, antioxidant activity, microbial and yeast and mold count over initial values were recorded in all the treatments under study but highest on those without antioxidant and surfactant treatments. Pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C recorded decrease in L*, b* value, pH, levels of non-reducing and total sugars, polyphenols, antioxidant activity and acceptability of arils and increase in total soluble solids, a* value, anthocyanins and microbial count. Increase in anthocyanin content was observed in modified atmosphere packaged pretreated arils stored at 1⁰C. Modified atmosphere packaging with 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical and sensorial parameters with minimum microbial growth. Untreated arils in perforated punnets and with air (control) gave shelf life up to 6 days only. The pretreatment of arils with 10 percent honey plus 0.1 percent nanosilver stipulated food grade hydrogen peroxide and packaging in 100 percent nitrogen recorded minimum changes in physicochemical parameters. The treatment also restricted microbial growth and maintained colour, anthocyanin pigmentation, antioxidant activity and overall fresh like quality of arils. The same dipping treatment along with modified atmosphere packaging extended the shelf life of fresh ready to eat arils up to 14 to 16 days with enhanced acceptability when stored at 1⁰C.

Keywords: anthocyanin content, pomegranate, MAP, minimally processed, microbial quality, Bhagwa, shelf-life, overall quality

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14 Carbohydrates Quantification from Agro-Industrial Waste and Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Bhavika Patel, Ramar Krishnamurthy

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Present study was conducted to isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Oreochromis niloticus and Nemipterus japonicus fish gut. The LAB isolated were confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing. It was observed that isolated Lactococcus spp. were able to tolerate NaCl and bile acid up to certain range. The isolated Lactococcus spp. were also able to survive in acidic and alkaline conditions. Further agro-industrial waste like peels of pineapple, orange, lemon, sugarcane, pomegranate; sweet lemon was analyzed for their polysaccharide contents and prebiotic properties. In the present study, orange peels, sweet lemon peels, and pineapple peels give maximum indigestible polysaccharide. To evaluate synbiotic effect combination of probiotic and prebiotic were analyzed under in vitro conditions. Isolates Lactococcus garvieae R3 and Lactococcus sp. R4 reported to have better fermentation efficiency with orange, sweet lemon and pineapple compare to lemon, sugarcane and pomegranate. The different agro-industrial waste evaluated in this research resulted in being a cheap and fermentable carbon source by LAB.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, lactic acid bacteria, prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic

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13 Ligandless Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of Lead in Pomegranate, Zucchini and Lettuce Samples after Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction with Ultrasonic Bath and Optimization of Extraction Condition with RSM Design

Authors: Fariba Tadayon, Elmira Hassanlou, Hasan Bagheri, Mostafa Jafarian

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Heavy metals are released into water, plants, soil, and food by natural and human activities. Lead has toxic roles in the human body and may cause serious problems even in low concentrations, since it may have several adverse effects on human. Therefore, determination of lead in different samples is an important procedure in the studies of environmental pollution. In this work, an ultrasonic assisted-ionic liquid based-liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-IL-DLLME) procedure for the determination of lead in zucchini, pomegranate, and lettuce has been established and developed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). For UA-IL-DLLME procedure, 10 mL of the sample solution containing Pb2+ was adjusted to pH=5 in a glass test tube with a conical bottom; then, 120 μL of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluoro phosphate (CMIM)(PF6) was rapidly injected into the sample solution with a microsyringe. After that, the resulting cloudy mixture was treated by ultrasonic for 5 min, then the separation of two phases was obtained by centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 rpm and IL-phase diluted with 1 cc ethanol, and the analytes were determined by FAAS. The effect of different experimental parameters in the extraction step including: ionic liquid volume, sonication time and pH was studied and optimized simultaneously by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) employing a central composite design (CCD). The optimal conditions were determined to be an ionic liquid volume of 120 μL, sonication time of 5 min, and pH=5. The linear ranges of the calibration curve for the determination by FAAS of lead were 0.1-4 ppm with R2=0.992. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for lead was 0.062 μg.mL-1, the enrichment factor (EF) was 93, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for lead was calculated as 2.29%. The levels of lead for pomegranate, zucchini, and lettuce were calculated as 2.88 μg.g-1, 1.54 μg.g-1, 2.18 μg.g-1, respectively. Therefore, this method has been successfully applied for the analysis of the content of lead in different food samples by FAAS.

Keywords: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, Central composite design, Food samples, Flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

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12 A Preliminary in vitro Investigation of the Acetylcholinesterase and α-Amylase Inhibition Potential of Pomegranate Peel Extracts

Authors: Zoi Konsoula

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The increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitutes them major global health problems. Recently, the inhibition of key enzyme activity is considered a potential treatment of both diseases. Specifically, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the key enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, is a promising approach for the treatment of AD, while inhibition of α-amylase retards the hydrolysis of carbohydrates and, thus, reduces hyperglycemia. Unfortunately, commercially available AChE and α-amylase inhibitors are reported to possess side effects. Consequently, there is a need to develop safe and effective treatments for both diseases. In the present study, pomegranate peel (PP) was extracted using various solvents of increasing polarity, while two extraction methods were employed, the conventional maceration and the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). The concentration of bioactive phytoconstituents, such as total phenolics (TPC) and total flavonoids (TFC) in the prepared extracts was evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and the aluminum-flavonoid complex method, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-neurodegenerative and anti-hyperglycemic activity of all extracts was determined using AChE and α-amylase inhibitory activity assays, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the extracts against AChE and α-amylase was characterized by estimating their IC₅₀ value using a dose-response curve, while galanthamine and acarbose were used as positive controls, respectively. Finally, the kinetics of AChE and α-amylase in the presence of the most inhibitory potent extracts was determined by the Lineweaver-Burk plot. The methanolic extract prepared using the UAE contained the highest amount of phytoconstituents, followed by the respective ethanolic extract. All extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner, while the increased anticholinesterase activity of the methanolic (IC₅₀ = 32 μg/mL) and ethanolic (IC₅₀ = 42 μg/mL) extract was positively correlated with their TPC content. Furthermore, the activity of the aforementioned extracts was comparable to galanthamine. Similar results were obtained in the case of α-amylase, however, all extracts showed lower inhibitory effect on the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme than on AChE, since the IC₅₀ value ranged from 84 to 100 μg/mL. Also, the α-amylase inhibitory effect of the extracts was lower than acarbose. Finally, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts prepared by UAE inhibited both enzymes in a mixed (competitive/noncompetitive) manner since the Kₘ value of both enzymes increased in the presence of extracts, while the Vmax value decreased. The results of the present study indicate that PP may be a useful source of active compounds for the management of AD and DM. Moreover, taking into consideration that PP is an agro-industrial waste product, its valorization could not only result in economic efficiency but also reduce the environmental pollution.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Alzheimer’s disease, α-amylase, diabetes mellitus, pomegranate

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11 Pomegranates Attenuates Cognitive and Behavioural Deficts and reduces inflammation in a Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: M. M. Essa, S. Subash, M. Akbar, S. Al-Adawi, A. Al-Asmi, G. J. Guillemein

Abstract:

Objective: Transgenic (tg) mice which contain an amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene mutation, develop extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition in the brain, and severe memory and behavioural deficits with age. These mice serve as an important animal model for testing the efficacy of novel drug candidates for the treatment and management of symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several reports have suggested that oxidative stress is the underlying cause of Aβ neurotoxicity in AD. Pomegranates contain very high levels of antioxidants and several medicinal properties that may be useful for improving the quality of life in AD patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of Omani pomegranate extract on the memory, anxiety and learning skills along with inflammation in an AD mouse model containing the double Swedish APP mutation (APPsw/Tg2576). Methods: The experimental groups of APP-transgenic mice from the age of 4 months were fed custom-mix diets (pellets) containing 4% pomegranate. We assessed spatial memory and learning ability, psychomotor coordination, and anxiety-related behavior in Tg and wild-type mice at the age of 4-5 months and 18-19 months using the Morris water maze test, rota rod test, elevated plus maze test, and open field test. Further, inflammatory parameters also analysed. Results: APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a standard chow diet without pomegranates showed significant memory deficits, increased anxiety-related behavior, and severe impairment in spatial learning ability, position discrimination learning ability and motor coordination along with increased inflammation compared to the wild type mice on the same diet, at the age of 18-19 months In contrast, APPsw/Tg2576 mice that were fed a diet containing 4% pomegranates showed a significant improvements in memory, learning, locomotor function, and anxiety with reduced inflammatory markers compared to APPsw/Tg2576 mice fed the standard chow diet. Conclusion: Our results suggest that dietary supplementation with pomegranates may slow the progression of cognitive and behavioural impairments in AD. The exact mechanism is still unclear and further extensive research needed.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, pomegranates, oman, cognitive decline, memory loss, anxiety, inflammation

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10 The Impact of Plants on Relaxation of Patients in Hospitals, Case Study: District 6th, Tehran

Authors: Hashem Hashemnejad, Abbas Yazdanfar, Mahzad Mohandes Tarighi, Denial Sadighi

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One of the factors that can have a positive influence on the mental health is the presence of trees and flowers. Research shows that even a glance at nature can evoke positive feelings in the person and reduce his tension and stress. According to the historical, cultural, religious, and individual background in each geographical district, the relaxing or spiritual impact of certain kinds of flowers can be evaluated. In this paper, using a questionnaire, the amount of relaxing impact of prevalent trees and flowers of the district on the patients was examined. The results showed that cedar and pomegranate trees and jasmine and rose in flowers, respectively, relax the patients.

Keywords: plants, patients, mental health, relaxing

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9 Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Biological Activities of an Ethyl Acetate Extract from the Peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo

Authors: Silvia Di Giacomo, Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori, Francesco Cacciagrano, Chiara Toniolo, Gabriela Mazzanti, Luisa Mannina, Stefania Cesa, Antonella Di Sotto

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Hyperglycemia represents the main pathogenic factor in the development of diabetes complications and has been found associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which in turn increase cell dysfunction. Therefore, counteract oxidative species appears to be a suitable strategy for preventing the hyperglycemia-induce cell damage and support the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Antidiabetic potential of many food sources has been linked to the presence of polyphenolic metabolites, particularly flavonoids such as quercetin and its glycosylated form rutin. In line with this evidence, in the present study, we assayed the potential anti-hyperglycemic activity of an ethyl acetate extract from the peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo (PGE), a fruit well known to traditional medicine for the beneficial properties of its edible juice. The effect of the extract on the glucidic metabolism has been evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two digestive enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates: their inhibition can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce glucose absorption, thus representing an important strategy for the management of hyperglycemia. Also, the PGE ability to block the release of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), whose accumulation is known to be responsible for diabetic vascular complications, was studied. The iron-reducing and chelating activities, which are the primary mechanisms by which AGE inhibitors stop their metal-catalyzed formation, were evaluated as possible antioxidant mechanisms. At last, the phenolic content of PGE was characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Our results displayed the ability of PGE to inhibit α-amylase enzyme with a similar potency to the positive control: the IC₅₀ values were 52.2 (CL 27.7 - 101.2) µg/ml and 35.6 (CL 22.8 - 55.5) µg/ml for acarbose and PGE, respectively. PGE also inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with about a 25 higher potency than the positive controls of acarbose and quercetin. Furthermore, the extract exhibited ferrous and ferric ion chelating ability, with a maximum effect of 82.1% and 80.6% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml respectively, and reducing properties, reaching the maximum effect of 80.5% at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. At last, PGE was found able to inhibit the AGE production (maximum inhibition of 82.2% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml), although with lower potency with respect to the positive control rutin. The phytochemical analysis of PGE displayed the presence of high levels of total polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids, among which ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechin were identified. Altogether these data highlight the ability of PGE to control the carbohydrate metabolism at different levels, both by inhibiting the metabolic enzymes and by affecting the AGE formation likely by chelating mechanisms. It is also noteworthy that peel from pomegranate, although being a waste of juice production, can be reviewed as a nutraceutical source. In conclusion, present results suggest the possible role of PGE as a remedy for preventing hyperglycemia complications and encourage further in vivo studies.

Keywords: anti-hyperglycemic activity, antioxidant properties, nutraceuticals, polyphenols, pomegranate

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8 Challenges Facing Farmers in the Governorate of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Alghamdi, Ghanem Al-Ghamdi

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The Governorate of Al-Baha is known for a history of farming that focused on plant products such as Date Palm, olives, figs, pomegranate and cereals as well as raising cattle, sheep, goats and to some extent camels for many decades. However, farmers have been facing with very significant natural and artificial challenges lately. The goal of this study was to determine the most significant challenges facing farmers in the Governorate of Al-Baha. Sixty farms were surveyed during the year of 2013. Farm survey focused on the farm management, farm financial status and governmental support. Our results showed that most farms were dedicated to farming with limited number of farms used parts of its premises for recreation. About 90% of farms were engaged in exclusively farming business. The financial status was good in most of the farms (80%), stable in 16% and hardly standing in less than 5%. Nearly 60% of the farms marketed 1-3 products and 23% marketed up to 6 products, 14% of the farms marketed up to 9 products and 4% marketed more than 9 products. Less than 14% had a chance to market their products over seven times per year while about 11% market their products and 32% of farms market 3-4 per year and 43% of farms market 1-2 per year. Our data showed that most farmers are in good financial status producing healthy food.

Keywords: farming system, Al-Baha, healthy food, Saudi Arabia

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7 Physiological Regulation of Lignin-Modifying Enzymes Synthesis by Selected Basidiomycetes

Authors: Ana Tsokilauri

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The uppermost factor in the regulation of lignin-cellulose activity of decaying white rot or free rot are the substances serving as carbon and nitrogen nutrition of microorganisms and are considered as the most important factor of generative activity of white rot. The research object was Basidiomycete Fungi, peculiar and common in Georgia, and the separation of 10 of them as pure crops. The unidentified pure crops have tasted in order to be determined the potential of synthesis of lignin-degrading enzymes and the substrate of optimal lignocellulose growth. One of the most important aspects of the research conducted on Basidiomycetes was the use of specific lignocellulosic residues for selecting Fungi as a substrate of their growth. In order to increase lignocellulose with the help of substrate, crops were selected from the screening stage that showed good laccase activity. (Dusheti 1; Dusheti 10; Fshavi 5; Fshavi1; Fshavi 8; Fshavi 32; Manglisi 26; Sabaduri20; Dusheti 7; Sabaduri 1 ), Among the selected cultures, the crops with good laccase activity against the following substances, in particular: Dusheti 1- in this case, the rate of enzymatic activity on bran substrate was -105,6 u/ml, mandarin-96,4 u/ml. In case of corn - 102,9 u/ml. In case of Dusheti 7- the indicators were as follows: bananas-121,7 u/ml, mandarin-125,4 u/ml, corn - 117,1 u/ml. In the case of Sanaduri 32, the laccase activity was as follows: pomegranate- 101,2 u/ml. As a result of conducted experiments, the synthesis and activity rates of enzymes depending on plant substrates varied within a fairly wide range, which is still being under research.

Keywords: Lignocellulosic substrate, Basidiomycetes, white-rot basidiomycetes, Laccase

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6 Fatty Acid Composition, Total Sugar Content and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Methanol and Water Extracts of Nine Different Fruit Tree Leaves Collected from Mediterranean Region of Turkey

Authors: Sengul Uysal, Gokhan Zengin, Abdurrahman Aktumsek, Sukru Karatas

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In this research, we determined the total sugar content, fatty acid compositions and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of methanolic and water extracts of nine different fruit tree leaves. α-amylase and α-glycosidase inhibitory activity were determined by using Caraway-Somogyi–iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) as substrate, respectively. Total sugar content of the nine different fruit tree leaves varies from 281.02 mg GE/g (glucose equivalents) to 643.96 mg GE/g. Methanolic extract from avocado leaves had the strongest in α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, 69.21% and 96.26 %, respectively. Fatty acid composition of nine fruit tree leaves was characterized by GC (gas chromatography) and twenty-four components were identified. Among the tested fruit tree leaves, the main component was linolenic acid (49.09%). The level of essential fatty acids are over 50% in mulberry, grape and loquat leaves. PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) were major group of fatty acids present in oils of mulberry, fig, pomegranate, grape, and loquat leaves. Therefore, these oils can be considered as a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, avocado can be regarded as a new source for diabetic therapies.

Keywords: fatty acid compositions, total sugar contents, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, fruit tree leaves, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 362