Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: thyroid

90 The Differences of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels in Serum to Determine Follicular Adenoma and Follicular Carcinoma of Thyroid

Authors: Tery Nehemia Nugraha Joseph, J. D. P. Wisnubroto

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Thyroid cancer is a healthcare problem with high morbidity and mortality. Follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are thyroid tumors from the thyroid follicular cells differentiation with a microfollicular pattern that consists of follicular cuboidal cells. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent and powerful mitogen for endothelial cells and increases vascular permeability. Therefore, due to an increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), VEGF production is activated in the thyroid that leads to the end of mitogenic TSH stimulation and initiation of angiogenesis. The differences in VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma of thyroid tissue with follicular adenoma thyroid can be used as a basis in differentiating the two types of neoplasms. This study aims to analyze VEGF in the serum so that it can be used to differentiate the types of thyroid carcinoma before surgery. This study uses a cross-sectional research design. Samples were carried out by taking serum samples, and the VEGF levels were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The results found a significant difference between VEGF levels in the follicular carcinoma thyroid group and VEGF levels in the follicular adenoma thyroid group with a value of p = 0.007 (p < 0.05). The results obtained are 560,427 ± 160,506 ng/mL in the type of follicular carcinoma thyroid and 320.943 ± 134.573 ng/mL in the type of follicular adenoma thyroid. VEGF levels between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are different. VEGF levels are higher in follicular carcinoma thyroid than follicular adenoma thyroid.

Keywords: follicular adenoma thyroid, follicular carcinoma thyroid, thyroid, VEGF

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
89 Thyroid Malignancy Concurrent with Hyperthyroidism: Variations with Thyroid Status and Age

Authors: N. J. Nawarathna, N. R. Kmarasinghe, D. Chandrasekara, B. M. R. S. Balasooriya, R. A. A. Shaminda, R. J. K. Senevirathne

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Introduction: Thyroid malignancy associated with hyperthyroidism is considered rare. Retrospective studies have shown the incidence of thyroid malignancy in hyperthyroid patients to be low (0.7-8.5%). To assess the clinical relevance of this association, thyroid status in a cohort of patients with thyroid malignancy were analyzed. Method: Thyroid malignancies diagnosed histologically in 56 patients, over a 18 month period beginning from April 2013, in a single surgical unit at Teaching Hospital Kandy were included. Preoperative patient details and progression of thyroid status were asessed with Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, free Thyroxin and free Triiodothyronine levels. Results: Amongst 56 patients Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 44(78.6%), follicular carcinomas in 7(12.5%) and 5(8.9%) with medullary and anaplastic carcinomas. 12(21.4%) were males and 44(78.6%) were females. 20(35.7%) were less than 40years, 29(51.8%) were between 40 to 59years and 7(12.5%) were above 59years. Cross tabulation of Type of carcinoma with Gender revealed likelihood ratio of 6.908, Significance p = 0.032. Biochemically 12(21.4%) were hyperthyroid. Out of them 5(41.7%) had primary hyperthyroidism and 7(58.3%) had secondary hyperthyroidism. Mean age of euthyroid patients was 43.77years (SD 10.574) and hyperthyroid patients was 53.25years(SD 16.057). Independent Samples Test t is -2.446, two tailed significance p =0.018. When cross tabulate thyroid status with Age group Likelihood Ratio was 9.640, Significance p = 0.008. Conclusion: Papillary carcinoma is seen more among females. Among the patients with thyroid carcinomas, those with biochemically proven hyperthyroidism were more among the older age group than those who were euthyroid. Hence careful evaluation of elderly hyperthyroid patients to select the most suitable therapeutic approach is justified.

Keywords: age, hyperthyroidism, thyroid malignancy, thyroid status

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88 Thyroid Hormones and Thyrotropin Status in Nepalese Postmenopausal Women

Authors: S. A. Khan, B. Mishra, O. Sherchan

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Background and Aims: Thyroid disorder is the most common endocrine disorder after diabetes mellitus. Females are more vulnerable to this disease, and old age is an important risk factor. This study was undertaken to investigate the burden of thyroid disorder in Nepalese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, we included 271 post-menopausal women. Three ml of blood was collected following standard protocol after taking the written consent. Serum was separated and analyzed for free T3, free T4, and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) by Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) method in Snibe Maglumi 1000 analyzer. Data obtained was analyzed in SPSS Version 21. P < 0.05 was set for statistical significant at 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results: Majority of the participants belong to Janjati (46.5%) ethnicity, followed by Brahmin/Chhetri (41.7%), residing either in urban or suburban locality. Most of them were non-vegetarian, non-smoker, and non-alcoholic. Subjects were divided into hyperthyroid (TSH < 0.3 uIU/ml), hypothyroid (TSH > 4.5 uIU/ml), and euthyroid (TSH=0.3-4.5 uIU/ml) based on TSH value. We reported 10.3% hyperthyroid and 29.2% hypothyroid cases. TSH was significantly correlated with T3 (r=-0.244; p < 0.001) T4 (r=-0.398; p < 0.001); age (r=-0.138; p=0.023) and BMI (r=0.123; p=0.043). Multiple linear regression model for TSH reveals only T3 and T4 were significantly associated with TSH (p < 0.001; p=0.001). Conclusion: To conclude, nearly 39.5% of the postmenopausal women had thyroid disorder. Postmenopausal women are vulnerable to thyroid disorder; therefore, requires regular thyroid monitoring.

Keywords: thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH, T3, T4, thyroid disorder

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87 Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Hemodialysis

Authors: Benghezel Hichem

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Thyroid dysfunction in hemodialysis subjects is represented mainly by hypothyroidism. The objective of our work is to determine the thyroid profile of our hemodialysis patients and to highlight the prevalence of different thyroid disorders. Methods: This is a retrospective study performed on a mono centric 2 months (February and March 2013) on 42 hemodialysis patients (11 male and 31 female). We made the dosage of thyroid hormones Thyrotropin (TSH) ((free thyroxin ) FT4 and free Triodothyronin ) FT3) by chemiluminescence immunoassay method on cobas 6000 Roche Diagnostics. The results: The prevalence of biological hypothyroidism was 18% (7% with a high TSH isolated and a mean +/- SD 9.44 +/- 6.29, 5% with high TSH, and with low FT4 a mean +/- SD is 8.18 +/- 0.53 for TSH and 9.69 +/- 0.22 for FT4, One patient with a high TSH, and low FT4, FT3. 4% of patients with a low T3 syndrome with a mean +/- SD of 3.93 +/- 0,3 for FT3), we notice that 5% of patients with hyperthyroidism TSH collapsed and mean +/- SD of TSH is 0.017 +/- 0,001. Conclusion: The biological Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disorder in chronic hemodialysis.

Keywords: hypothyroidism, hemodialysis, thyréostimulin, free thyroxin, triodothyronin

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86 Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Arghavan Tonkaboni, Shamsolmolouk Najafi, Mohmmad Taghi Kiani, Mehrzad Gholampour, Touraj Goli

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Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a multifactorial recurrent oral lesion; which is an autoimmune disease. TH1 cytokines are the most important etiological factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and generally coexists with other autoimmune diseases. This study assessed the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This case control study assessed 100 known RAS patients who were diagnosed clinically by oral medicine specialists; venous blood samples were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG) levels. Results: Fifty patients with RAS aged between 18-42 years (28.5±5.8) and 50 healthy volunteers aged 19-45 years (27.3±5.4) participated. In RAS patients, fT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (P=0.031, P=0.706); however, fT4 level was lower in the RAS group (P=0.447). Anti TG and anti-TPO levels were significantly higher in the RAS group (P=0.008, P=0.067). Conclusion: Our study showed that ATD prevalence was significantly higher in RAS patients. Based on this study, we recommend assessment of thyroid hormones and antibodies in RAS patients.

Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, thyroid antibodies, thyroid hormone, thyroid autoimmune disease

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85 Weight Gain After Total Thyroidectomy

Authors: Yong Seong Kim, Seongbin Hong, So Hun Kim, Moonsuk Nam

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Background: Patients who undergo thyroidectomy due to thyroid cancer often complain weight gain, although they are on suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. The aim of this study is to know whether thyroid cancer patients gain the weight after thyroidectomy and weight change is dependent on estrogen state or use of rhTSH. Material and Method: We performed a retrospective chart review of subjects receiving medical care at an academic medical center. Two hundred two patients who underwent total thyroidectomy were included. As a control group, patients with thyroid nodule and euthyroidism were matched for age, gender, menopausal status. The weight changes occurring over first one year and thyroid function were assessed. Results: Mean age was 51±12 years and patients was composed with 38% of premenopausal, 15 % perimenopausal women, 37% of postmenopausal women and 20% of men. Patients with thyroid cancer gained 2.2 kg during the first year. It’ was not significantly different with control. However, weigh change in perimenopausal and post menopausal women gained more weight than control (P <0.05). Age, baseline body weight and weight gain were not correlated. Discussion: Patient who had undergone thyroidectomy gained more weight than their control, especially in peri- and postmenopausal women. Patients in this age should be monitored for their weight carefully.

Keywords: weight gain, thyroidectomy, thyroid cancer, weight chance

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84 Evaluation of Prevalence of the Types of Thyroid Disorders Using Ultrasound and Pathology of One-Humped Camel in Iran: Camelus dromedarius

Authors: M. Yadegari

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The thyroid gland is the largest classic endocrine organ that effects many organs of the body and plays a significant role in the process of Metabolism in animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid disorders diagnosed by ultrasound and microscopic Lesions of the thyroid during the slaughter of apparently healthy One Humped Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Iran. Randomly, 520 male camels (With an age range of 4 to 8 years), were studied in 2012 to 2013. The Camels’ thyroid glands were evaluated by sonographic examination. In both longitudinal and transverse view and then tissue sections were provide and stained with H & E and finally examined by light microscopy. The results obtained indicated the following: hyperplastic goiter (21%), degenerative changes (12%), follicular cysts (8%), follicular atrophy (4%), nodular hyperplasia (3%), adenoma (1%), carcinoma (1%) and simple goiter colloid (1%). Ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland in adenoma and carcinoma showed enlargement and irregular of the gland, decreased echogenicity, and the heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma. Also, in follicular cysts were observed in the enlarged gland with no echo structures of different sizes and decreased echogenicity as a local or general. In nodular hyperplasia, increase echogenicity and heterogeneous parenchymal were seen. These findings suggest the use of Ultrasound as a screening test in the diagnosis of complications of thyroid disorders. Pathology also to be used for the diagnosis of thyroid problems and other side effects.

Keywords: thyroid gland, one humped camel, sonography, pathology

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83 The Proportion of and Factors Associated With Thyroid Dysfunction among Individuals Referred To A Tertiary Care Facility in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Naeem Lakanwall

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Background:The thyroid gland, located just below the vocal cord on each side of and anterior to the trachea, is one of the main endocrine glands. Its normal weight is 15 to 20 grams in adults. The thyroid secretes two most important hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, usually called T4 and T3, respectively. These hormones greatly increase the metabolic rate of the body. In addition to T3 and T4, the thyroid gland secrets calcitonin as well which is a significant hormone for calcium metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the proportion of and to identify factors associated with thyroid dysfunction among individuals coming to a tertiary care facility in Kabul, Afghanistan. Material and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study design was conducted from July to Sep 2018. Blood samples were obtained, serum TSH levels were measured, and the patients were divided into three diagnostic categories according to their serum TSH concentrations. 1) Hypothyroidism 2) Hyperthyroidism 3) Normal thyroid Results: A total of 127 individuals were part of the sample for the final analysis. The majority of study participants (77%) were females. A large number of the participants (92%) did not have a family history of thyroid dysfunction and the majority of the female participants, (85%) were not pregnant in the last two years. Furthermore, 98% of participants, were non-smokers. Conclusion: The findings of the current study showed a high prevalence of thyroid dysfunctions in individuals coming to FMIC for thyroid functions tests. The findings also indicated that aging and smoking are the factors associated with thyroid dysfunctions. Further studies are needed to find out the prevalence of and factors associated with thyroid dysfunctions.

Keywords: Afghanistan, Kabul, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, triiodothyronine, thyroxine

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82 Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Solitary Bony Metastases to the Frontal Bone of the Skull

Authors: Christy M. Moen, Richard B. Townsley

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Introduction: Metastasis to the frontal bone in thyroid cancer is extremely rare. A literature review found only six cases of thyroid cancer that metastasised to the frontal bone, with two of those involving further bone sites. Case Report: The patient was originally referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery team with an isolated mass on her forehead. Biopsies were performed, which showed this was likely a metastatic deposit from thyroid cancer. CT-PET scan showed this was an isolated lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy, and the forehead lesion was managed with radiotherapy. On interval scanning, the patient’s bony lesion had increased in size and had new lung nodules, which likely represented further metastasis. Conclusion: Isolated bony metastases to the frontal bone are rare. An important clinical principle to remember is that a bony metastasis from an unknown primary is more likely than primary bone cancer.

Keywords: cancer, thyroid, head and neck, surgery

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81 Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Authors: Beata Jackowska-Zduniak

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We formulate and analyze a mathematical model describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model, feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).

Keywords: mathematical modeling, ordinary differential equations, endocrine system, delay differential equation

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80 Clinical Implication of Hyper-Intense Signal Thyroid Incidentaloma on Time of Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Authors: Inseon Ryoo, Soo Chin Kim, Hyena Jung, Sangil Suh

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Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of hyper-intense signal thyroid incidentalomas on the time of flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) using correlation study with ultrasound (US). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 3,505 non-contrast TOF-MRA performed at an institution between September 2014 and May 2017. Two radiologists correlated the thyroid incidentalomas detected on TOF-MRA with US features which was obtained within three months interval between MRA and US examinations in consensus method. Results: The prevalence of hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules incidentally detected on TOF-MRA was 1.2% (43/3505). Among them, 35 people (81.4%) underwent US examinations, and total 45 hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules were detected on US exams. Of these 45 nodules, 35 nodules (72.9%) were categorized as benign (K-TIRADS category 2) on US exams. Fine needle aspiration was performed on 9 nodules according to the indications recommended by Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. All except one high-suspicious thyroid nodule were confirmed as benign (Bethesda 2) on cytologic exams. One high-suspicious nodule on US showed a non-diagnostic result (Bethesda 1) on cytologic exam. However, this nodule collapsed after aspiration of thick colloid material. Conclusions: Our study showed that the most hyper-intense signal thyroid nodules detected on TOF-MRA were benign. Therefore, if a hyper-intense signal incidentaloma is found on TOF-MRA, further evaluation, especially invasive biopsy of the nodules could be suspended unless the patient had other symptoms or clinical factors suggesting the need for further evaluation.

Keywords: incidentaloma, thyroid nodule, TOF MR angiography, ultrasound

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79 Frequency and Factors Associated with Thyroid Dysfunction: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study from a Tertiary Care Center in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Naeem Lakanwall, Jamshid Abdul-Ghafar

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Background: Endocrinopathies are a commonly occurring entity, particularly those of the thyroid gland; however, there is a lack of scientific literature from Afghanistan, a country with very limited health care facilities and resources. To our best knowledge, this is the first study aimed to describe the frequency of occurrence and factors associated with thyroid dysfunction in the Afghan population. The aim of this study is to estimate the frequency and to identify factors associated with thyroid dysfunction among individuals coming to a tertiary care facility in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to Sep 2018 at the Department of Clinical Pathology, French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC), Kabul, Afghanistan. Blood samples were obtained, serum TSH levels were analyzed, and the patients were divided into three diagnostic categories according to their serum TSH concentrations: 1) hypothyroidism, 2) hyperthyroidism, 3) normal. Results: A total of 127 individuals were included in the final analysis. The majority of study participants (77%) were females. A large number of the participants (92%) did not have a family history of thyroid dysfunction. 74% of the participants in the study had normal TSH levels classified as normal thyroid function, (14%) had lower TSH levels, and (12%) higher TSH levels, classified as hyper and hypothyroid, respectively. Conclusions: The findings of the current study showed a high frequency of thyroid dysfunctions from a single center. Further large-scale studies are needed to find out the prevalence and document this entity for better health outcomes in the country.

Keywords: Afghanistan, factors, frequency, hypothyroid, hyperthyroid, thyroid, thyroid stimulating hormone

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
78 Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone as a Stress Biomarker in Thyroidectomy Patients : A Cohort Study

Authors: Jeonghun Lee

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In this study, we investigated the relationship between stress and thyroid dysfunction in such patients who underwent thyroidectomy. This study included 101 patients who underwent thyroidectomy from January 2015 to June 2020 and experienced hypothyroidism. The included patients had good drug compliance with the same dosage of levothyroxine (LT4). The male-to-female ratio was 1:4.6, and the mean age was 45.4 years at surgery and 50.2 years at stressful events. Eighteen patients underwent lobectomies and, of these, 12 did not take LT4. The mean follow-up period was 49(8-93) months. Statistical analyses were performed using the paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and McNemer test using PROC MIXED with SAS 9.4. Forty-five patients (44.6%) had hypothyroidism with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >10 μIU/mL. There was distress in 81 patients and eustress in 10 patients. TSH levels increased during a mean 5.8 months (min 1, max 12) in 24 patients who specified the date of their life events. Even though each patient took the same dose of LT4, when the patients were under stress, both the free T4 and T3 decreased and TSH increased, regardless of whether the patient experienced distress or eustress (P <0.001). While adjusting for the effect of the free T4 and T3, TSH increased significantly in the patients after stress (P <0.001). For patients with thyroid cancer who are simultaneously experiencing life events, TSH may be used as a stress biomarker to enable the implementation of appropriate treatment and counseling strategies.

Keywords: endocrine, thyroid, thyroid function, biomarker, stress

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77 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

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Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

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76 Functional Analysis of Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Gene Mutations Detected in Patients with Thyroid Dyshormonogenesis

Authors: Biswabandhu Bankura, Srikanta Guria, Madhusudan Das

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Purpose: Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. We aimed to identify the spectrum of mutations in the TPO gene leading to hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal to establish the genetic etiology of the disease. Methods: 200 hypothyroid patients (case) and their corresponding sex and age matched 200 normal individuals (control) were screened depending on their clinical manifestations. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples and TPO gene (Exon 7 to Exon 14) was amplified by PCR. The PCR products were subjected to sequencing to identify mutations. Results: Single nucleotide changes such as Glu 641 Lys, Asp 668 Asn, Thr 725 Pro, Asp 620 Asn, Ser 398 Thr, and Ala 373 Ser were found. Changes in the TPO were assayed in vitro to compare mutant and wild-type activities. Five mutants were enzymatically inactive in the guaiacol and iodide assays. This is a strong indication that the mutations are present at crucial positions of the TPO gene, resulting in inactivated TPO. Key Findings: The results of this study may help to develop a genetic screening protocol for goiter and hypothyroidism in the population of West Bengal.

Keywords: thyroid peroxidase, hypothyroidism, mutation, in vitro assay, transfection

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75 Recurrence of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with an Interval of 40 Years. Report of an Autopsy Case

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi

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A 75-year-old woman took thyroidectomy forty years previously. Enlarged masses were seen at autopsy just above and below the left clavicle. We proved the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and lung metastasis by histological examinations. The prognosis of PTC is excellent; the 10-year survival rate ranges between 85 and 99%. Lung metastases may be found in 10% of the patients with PTC. We report an unusual case of recurrence of PTC with metastasis to the lung.

Keywords: papillary thyroid cancer, lung metastasis, autopsy, histopathological findings

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74 Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules

Authors: Ilirian Laçi, Alketa Spahiu

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Big strums of thyroid glandule observed by a simple viewing can be witnessed in everyday life. Medical cabinets evidence patients withpalpablenodes of thyroid glandule, mainly nodes of the size of 10 millimeters. Further, more cases which have resulted in negative under palpation have resulted in positive at ultrasound examination. Therefore, the use of ultrasound for diagnosing has increased the number of patients with nodes of thyroid glandule in the last couple of decades in all countries, Albania included. Thus, there has been evidence of an increased number of patients affected by this pathology, where female patients dominate. Demographically, the capital shows high numbers due to the high population, but of interest is the high incidence of those areas distanced from the sea. While regarding related pathologies, no significant link was evidenced, an element of ancestry was evident in the nodes of the thyroid glandule. When we talk of nodes of the thyroid glandule, we should consider hyperplasia, neoplasia, and inflammatory diseases that cause nodes of the thyroid glandule. This increase parallels the world’s increase of the incidence of thyroid glandule, with malign cases, which are at about 5% and are not depended on size. Given the numbers, with most thyroid glandule nodes being benign, the main objective of the examination of the nodes was the determination of benign and malign cases to avoid undue surgery. Subject of this study were 212 patients that underwent fine-needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound guidance at the Medical University Center of Tirana. All the patients came to the Mother Teresa University Hospital from public and private hospitals and other polyclinics. These patients had an ultrasound examination before visiting the Center of Nuclear Medicine for a scintigraph of thyroid glandule in the period September 2016 and September 2017. To correlate, all patients had been examined via ultrasound of the thyroid glandule prior to the scintigraph. The ultrasound included evaluation of the number of nodes, their size, their solid, cystic, or solid-cystic structure, echogenicity according to the gray scale, the presence of calcification, the presence of lymph nodes, the presence of adenopathy, and the correlation of the cytology results from the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy of Medical University Center of Tirana.

Keywords: thyroid nodes, fine needle aspiration, ultrasound, scintigraphy

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73 A Four-Year Study of Thyroid Carcinoma in Hail Region: Increased Incidence

Authors: Laila Seada, Hanan Oreiby, Fawaz Al Rashid, Ashraf Negm

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Background and Objective: In most areas of the world, the incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing over the last decade, mostly due to a combination of early detection of the neoplasm resulting from sensitive procedures and increased population exposure to radiation and unrecognized carcinogens. Methods: Cases of thyroid cancer have been retrieved from the cancer registry at King Khalid Hospital during the period from August 2012 to April 2016. Age, gender and histopathologic types have been recorded. Results: Thyroid carcinoma ranked as the second most common malignancy in females (25%) after breast cancer (31%). It constituted 20.8% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases. As for males, it ranked the 4th type of malignancy after gastrointestinal cancer, lymphomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Mean age for females and males was 38.7 +/- 13.2 and 60.25 +/- 11.5 years, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p value = 0.0001). Fifty-five (82%) were papillary carcinomas including 10 follicular variant of papillary (FVPC), and eight papillary micro carcinomas (PMC) and two tall cell/oncocytic variants. Follicular carcinomas constituted two (3.1%), while two (3.1%) were anaplastic, and two (3.1%) were medullary. Conclusion: Thyroid cancer incidence in Hail is ranking as the 2nd most common female malignancy similar to other regions in the Kingdom. However, this high incidence contrasts with much lower rates worldwide.

Keywords: thyroid, hail, papillary, microcarcinoma

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72 Evaluation of Existence of Antithyroid Antibodies, Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Anti-Thyroglobulin in Patients with Hepatitis C Viral Infections

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Sana Anwar, Sarah Sughra Asghar

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Chronic hepatitis or Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has been identified as one of the factors that could elicit autoimmune disease resulting in the development of auto-antibodies. Furthermore, HCV is implicated in contravening of forbearance to antigens, therefore, inciting auto-reactivity. In this regard, several near and past studies noted the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and production of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAb) such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (AntiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (AntiTG) in patients with HCV. Likewise, one of the etiologies of augmentation of thyroid disease is basically interferon therapy for HCV infections, for which a number of autoimmune diseases have been noted including Grave’s disease, Hishimoto thyroiditis. A prospectively case-control study was therefore carried out at department of clinical biochemistry lab services and chemical pathology in collaboration with department of clinical microbiology, at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi Pakistan for the period January 2015 to December 2017. Two control groups were inducted for comparison purpose, control group 1 = without HCV infection and with thyroid disorders (n = 20), control group 2 = with HCV infection and without thyroid disorders (n = 20), whereas HCV infected were n = 40 where more than half were noted to be positive for either of HCV IgG and Ag. In HCV group, patients with existing sub-clinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were less than 5%. Analysis showed the presence of AntiTG in 12 HCV patients (30%), AntiTPO in 15 (37.5%) and both AntiTG and antiTPO in 10 patients (25%). Only 3 patients were found with the history of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies (7.5%) and one with parents and relatives with auto-immune disorders (2.5%). Patients that remained untreated were 12 (30%), under treatment 18 (45%) and with complete-course of treatment 10 (25%). As per review of the literature, meta-analysis of evident data and cross-sectional studies of selective cohorts (as studied in presented research), thyroid connection is designated as one of the most recurrent endocrine ailment associated with chronic HCV infection. Moreover, it also represents an extrahepatic disease in the continuum of HCV syndrome. In conclusion, HCV patients were more likely to encompass thyroid disorders especially related to development of either of ATAb or both antiTG and AntiTPO.

Keywords: Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, anti-thyroid antibodies, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

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71 Thyroid Stimulating Hormone is a Biomarker for Stress: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

Authors: Jeonghun Lee

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Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is regulated by the negative feedback of T3 and T4 but is affected by cortisol and cytokines during allostasis. Hence, TSH levels can be influenced by stress through cortisol. In the present study, changes in TSH levels under stress and the potential of TSH as a stress marker were examined in patients lacking T3 or T4 feedback after thyroid surgery. The three stress questionnaires (Korean version of the Daily Stress Inventory, Social Readjustment Rating Scale, and Stress Overload Scale-Short [SOSS]), open-ended question (OQ), and thyroid function tests were performed twice in 106 patients enrolled from January 2019 to October 2020. Statistical analysis was performed using the generalized linear mixed effect model (GLMM) in R software version 4.1.0. In a multiple LMM involving 106 patients, T3, T4, SOSS (category), open-ended questions, extent of thyroidectomy, and preoperative TSH were significantly correlated with lnTSH. T3 and T4 increased by 1 and lnTSH decreased by 0.03, 3.52, respectively. In case of a stressful event on OQ, lnTSH increased by 1.55. In the high risk group, ln TSH increased by 0.79, compared with the low group (p<0.05). TSH had a significant relationship with stress, together with T3, T4, and the extent of thyroidectomy. As such, it has the potential to be used as a stress marker, though it showed a low correlation with other stress questionnaires. To address this limitation, questionnaires on various social environments and research on copy strategies are necessary for future studies.

Keywords: stress, surgery, thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroidectomy

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70 Early Hypothyroidism after Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Authors: Nejla Fourati, Zied Fessi, Fatma Dhouib, Wicem Siala, Leila Farhat, Afef Khanfir, Wafa Mnejja, Jamel Daoud

Abstract:

Purpose: Radiation induced hypothyroidism in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) ranged from 15% to 55%. In reported data, it is considered as a common late complication of definitive radiation and is mainly observed 2 years after the end of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of early hypothyroidism within 6 months after radiotherapy. Patients and methods: From June 2017 to February 2020, 35 patients treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCR) for NPC were included in this prospective study. Median age was 49 years [23-68] with a sex ratio of 2.88. All patients received intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at a dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 daily fractions with weekly cisplatin (40mg/m²) chemotherapy. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine 4 (FT4) dosage was performed before the start of radiotherapy and 6 months after. Different dosimetric parameters for the thyroid gland were reported: the volume (cc); the mean dose (Dmean) and the %age of volume receiving more than 45 Gy (V45Gy). Wilcoxon Test was used to compare these different parameters between patients with or without hypothyroidism. Results: At baseline, 5 patients (14.3%) had hypothyroidism and were excluded from the analysis. For the remaining 30 patients, 9 patients (30%) developed a hypothyroidism 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. The median thyroid volume was 10.3 cc [4.6-23]. The median Dmean and V45Gy were 48.3 Gy [43.15-55.4] and 74.8 [38.2-97.9] respectively. No significant difference was noted for all studied parameters. Conclusion: Early hypothyroidism occurring within 6 months after CCR for NPC seems to be a common complication (30%) that should be screened. Good patient monitoring with regular dosage of TSH and FT4 makes it possible to treat hypothyroidism in asymptomatic phase. This would be correlated with an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. The results of our study do not show a correlation between the thyroid doses and the occurrence of hypothyroidism. This is probably related to the high doses received by the thyroid in our series. These findings encourage more optimization to limit thyroid doses and then the risk of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma, hypothyroidism, early complication, thyroid dose

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69 Development of a Bi-National Thyroid Cancer Clinical Quality Registry

Authors: Liane J. Ioannou, Jonathan Serpell, Joanne Dean, Cino Bendinelli, Jenny Gough, Dean Lisewski, Julie Miller, Win Meyer-Rochow, Stan Sidhu, Duncan Topliss, David Walters, John Zalcberg, Susannah Ahern

Abstract:

Background: The occurrence of thyroid cancer is increasing throughout the developed world, including Australia and New Zealand, and since the 1990s has become the fastest increasing malignancy. Following the success of a number of institutional databases that monitor outcomes after thyroid surgery, the Australian and New Zealand Endocrine Surgeons (ANZES) agreed to auspice the development of a bi-national thyroid cancer registry. Objectives: To establish a bi-national population-based clinical quality registry with the aim of monitoring and improving the quality of care provided to patients diagnosed with thyroid cancer in Australia and New Zealand. Patients and Methods: The Australian and New Zealand Thyroid Cancer Registry (ANZTCR) captures clinical data for all patients, over the age of 18 years, diagnosed with thyroid cancer, confirmed by histopathology report, that have been diagnosed, assessed or treated at a contributing hospital. Data is collected by endocrine surgeons using a web-based interface, REDCap, primarily via direct data entry. Results: A multi-disciplinary Steering Committee was formed, and with operational support from Monash University the ANZTCR was established in early 2017. The pilot phase of the registry is currently operating in Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia, with over 30 sites expected to come on board across Australia and New Zealand in 2018. A modified-Delphi process was undertaken to determine the key quality indicators to be reported by the registry, and a minimum dataset was developed comprising information regarding thyroid cancer diagnosis, pathology, surgery, and 30-day follow up. Conclusion: There are very few established thyroid cancer registries internationally, yet clinical quality registries have shown valuable outcomes and patient benefits in other cancers. The establishment of the ANZTCR provides the opportunity for Australia and New Zealand to further understand the current practice in the treatment of thyroid cancer and reasons for variation in outcomes. The engagement of endocrine surgeons in supporting this initiative is crucial. While the pilot registry has a focus on early clinical outcomes, it is anticipated that future collection of longer-term outcome data particularly for patients with the poor prognostic disease will add significant further value to the registry.

Keywords: thyroid cancer, clinical registry, population health, quality improvement

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68 Effects of the Food Colour Erythrosine on Thyroid Gland Function in Experimental Rats

Authors: Maha M.Saber, Eitedal Daoud, Moetazza M. Alshafei, Lobna M. Abd El-Latif

Abstract:

Children in the third world consumes many food products colored red like sweets and soft drink without knowing its effect on health or the type of color used in these products Erythrosine (ER,FD & C Red No.3) is one of the most common coloring agent used in these products and in coloring cherry in compotes. The possible adverse effect of erythrosine ER on the thyroid gland function is investigated in albino rats. Forty-five adult male albino rats were divided to three groups two groups will receive ER orally in doses 68 and I36mg/kg respectively. Third group will receive distilled water for three months Sections of thyroid glands were examined for histopathological, morphometric analysis and MIB-I Ki67 (proliferative marker). Serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxin (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) were determined, results showed histological changes in the two treatment groups versus control group in the group with 68mg/kg dose show vaculation of the cytoplasm of follicular cells and pleomorphism of their nuclei. While the other treated group {136mg /kg} showed congestion of blood vessels, hyperplasia of the interstitial cells and increased multilayer of the follicular cells. Highly significant increase in the mean area of the thyroid follicles in both treated groups compared to control group.Erythrosine treated groups showed a very highly significant decrease (P < 0.001) in serum concentration of T3 and T 4 while TSH showed a very highly significant increase versus control.

Keywords: erythrosine, thyroid, morphometrics, proliferative marker

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67 Vitamin D Levels in Relation to Thyroid Disorders

Authors: Binaya Tamang, Buddhhi Raj Pokhrel, Narayan Gautam

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Background: There may be a connection between thyroid function and vitamin D status since both bind to similar nuclear hormone receptors and have similar response regions on gene promoters. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between thyroid hormones and vitamin D levels in females who were attending a tertiary care center in western Nepal and were either hypothyroid or euthyroid. Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out between March 2020 and March 2021 by the Biochemistry department of the Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairahawa, Province No. 5, Nepal, in cooperation with Internal medicine. Prior to the study, institutional review committee approval (UCMS/IRC/008/20) was acquired from UCMS. Women who visited the Internal Medicine OPD of UCMS and were advised to get a thyroid function test (TFT) were included in the study population. Only those who were willing to participate in the study were enrolled after the goals and advantages of the study had been explained to them. Participants who had recently used vitamin D supplements and medications that affected thyroid hormones were excluded. The participants gave their consent verbally and in writing. After getting the consent, a convenient sample technique was applied. Serum was isolated after drawing 3 ml of blood in a plain vial. Chemiluminescence assay was used to analyze vitamin D and thyroid hormones (MAGLUMI 2000). SPSS version 16.0 for Windows was used to conduct the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value < 0.05. Results: Majority of the study population (n=214, 71%) had insufficient serum vitamin D levels. Among the thyroid groups, the median Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid (16.88 ng/ml) as compared to the euthyroid groups (25.01 ng/ml) (P<0.001). Similarly, serum Vitamin D levels were considerably lower in the obese population (16.86 ng/ml) as compared to the normal BMI group (24.90 ng/ml) (P<0.001) as well as in the vegetarian (15.43 ng.ml) than mixed diet consumer (24.89 ng/ml) (P<0.01). Even after the adjustment for these variables, the Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in the hypothyroid population than in the euthyroid group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Comparing the hypothyroid population to the euthyroid, the median serum vitamin D levels were considerably lower. We were alarmed to see that the majority of euthyroid participants also had low levels of vitamin D. Therefore if left untreated, low vitamin D levels in hypothyroid patients could worsen their health further.

Keywords: vitamin D, thyroid hormones, euthyroid, hypothyroid, Nepal

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66 The Physiological Effects of Thyriod Disorders During the Gestatory Period on Fetal Neurological Development: A Descriptive Review

Authors: Vanessa Bennemann, Gabriela Laste, Márcia Inês Goettert

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The gestational period is a phase in which the pregnant woman undergoes constant physiological and hormonal changes, which are part of the woman’s biological cycle, the development of the fetus, childbirth, and lactation. These are factors of response to the immunological adaptation of the human reproductive process that is directly related to the pregnancy’s well-being and development. Although most pregnancies occur without complications, about 15% of pregnant women will develop potentially fatal complications, implying maternal and fetal risk. Therefore, requiring specialized care for high-risk pregnant women (HRPW) with obstetric interventions for the survival of the mother and/or fetus. Among the risk factors that characterize HRPW are the women's age, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases such as syphilis and HIV, hypertension (SAH), preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, uterine contraction abnormalities, and premature placental detachment (PPD), thyroid disorders, among others. Thus, pregnancy has an impact on the thyroid gland causing changes in the functioning of the mother's thyroid gland, altering the thyroid hormone (TH) profiles and production as pregnancy progresses. Considering, throughout the gestational period, the interpretation of the results of the tests to evaluate the thyroid functioning depends on the stage in which the pregnancy is. Thyroid disorders are directly related to adverse obstetric outcomes and in child development. Therefore, the adequate release of TH is important for a pregnancy without complications and optimal fetal growth and development. Objective: Investigate the physiological effects caused by thyroid disorders in the gestational period. Methods: A search for articles indexed in PubMed, Scielo, and MDPI databases, was performed using the term “AND”, with the descriptors: Pregnancy, Thyroid. With several combinations that included: Melatonin, Thyroidopathy, Inflammatory processes, Cytokines, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, High-risk pregnancy. Subsequently, the screening was performed through the analysis of titles and/or abstracts. The criteria were: including clinical studies in general, randomized or not, in the period of 10 years prior to the research, in the English literature; excluded: experimental studies, case reports, research in the development phase. Results: In the preliminary results, a total of studies (n=183) were found, (n=57) excluded, such as studies of cancer, diabetes, obesity, and skin diseases. Conclusion: To date, it has been identified that thyroid diseases can impair the fetus’s brain development. Further research is suggested on this matter to identify new substances that may have a potential therapeutic effect to aid the gestational period with thyroid diseases.

Keywords: pregnancy, thyroid, melatonin, high-risk pregnancy

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65 The Effect of Acute Toxicity and Thyroid Hormone Treatments on Hormonal Changes during Embryogenesis of Acipenser persicus

Authors: Samaneh Nazeri, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Hamid Farahmand

Abstract:

Production of high quality fish eggs with reasonable hatching rate makes a success in aquaculture industries. It is influenced by the environmental stimulators and inhibitors. Diazinon is a widely-used pesticide in Golestan province (Southern Caspian Sea, North of Iran) which is washed to the aquatic environment (3 mg/L in the river). It is little known about the effect of this pesticide on the embryogenesis of sturgeon fish, the valuable species of the Caspian Sea. Hormonal content of the egg is an important factor to guaranty the successful passes of embryonic stages. In this study, the fate of Persian sturgeon embryo to 24, 48, 72, and 96-hours exposure of diazinon (LC50 dose) was tested. Also, the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on these embryos was tested concurrently or separately with diazinon LC 50 dose. Fertilized eggs are exposed to T3 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml), T4 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml). Six eggs were randomly selected from each treatment (with three replicates) in five developmental stages (two cell- division, neural, heart present, heart beaten, and hatched larvae). The possibility of changing T3, T4, and cortisol contents of the embryos were determined in all treated groups and in every mentioned embryonic stage. The hatching rate in treated groups was assayed at the end of the embryogenesis to clarify the effect of thyroid hormones and diazinon. The results indicated significant differences in thyroid hormone contents, but no significant differences were recognized in cortisol levels at various early life stages of embryos. There was also significant difference in thyroid hormones in (T3, T4) + diazinon treated embryos (P˂0.05), while no significant difference between control and treatments in cortisol levels was observed. The highest hatching rate was recorded in HT3 treatment, while the lowest hatching rate was recorded for diazinon LC50 treatment. The result confirmed that Persian sturgeon embryo is less sensitive to diazinon compared to teleost embryos, and thyroid hormones may increase hatching rate even in the presence of diazinon.

Keywords: Persian sturgeon, diazinon, thyroid hormones, cortisol, embryo

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64 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hypothyroidism Activity of Lepidium sativum Ethanolic Extract

Authors: Reham Hajomer, Ikram Elsiddig, Amna Hamad

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Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) belonging to Brassicaceae family is an annual herb locally known as El-rshad. In Ayurveda it is an important medicinal plant, traditionally used for the treatment of jaundice, liver problems, spleen diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, menstrual problems, fracture, arthritis, inflammatory conditions and for treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones (Triiodithyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4) which are commonly caused by iodine deficiency. It’s divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism, the primary caused by failure of thyroid function and secondary due to the failure of adequate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion from the pituitary gland or thyroid -releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus. The disease is most common in women over age 60. The objective regarding this study is to know whether Lepidium sativum would affect the level of thyroid hormones. The extract was prepared with 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The anti-hypothyroidism activity was tested by using thirty male Wistar rats weighing (100-140 g) were used in the experiment. They were grouping into five groups, Group 1: Normal group= Administered only distilled water. Then 10 mg/kg Propylthiouracil was added to the drinking water of all other groups to induce hypothyroidism. Group 2: Negative control without any treatment; Group 3: Test group= treated with oral administration of 500mg/kg extract; Group 4: treated with oral administration of 250mg/kg of the extract; Group 5: Standard group (positive control) = treated with intraperitoneal Levothyroxine. All rats were incubated for 20 days at animal house with room temperature of proper ventilation provided with standard diet. The result show that the Lepidium sativum extract was found to increases the T3 and T4 in the propylthiouracil induced rats with values (0.29 ng/dl T3 and 0.57 U T4) for the 500mg/kg and (0.27 ng/dl T3 and 0.517 U T4) for the 250mg/kg in comparison with standard with values (0.241 ng/dl T3 and 0.516 U T4) so that Lepidium sativum can be stimulatory to thyroid function and possess significant anti-hypothyroidism effect with p-values ranges from (0.000006*-0.893472). In conclusion, from results obtained, Lepidium sativum plant extract was found to posses anti-hypothyroidism effects so its act as an agent that stimulates thyroid hormone secretion.

Keywords: anti-hypothyroidism, extract, lepidium, sativum

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63 Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in a Developing Country: A Retrospective Study of 10 Years

Authors: Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Qamar Masood, Saadia Sattar, Saira Fatima, Najmul Islam

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Introduction: The most common endocrine tumor is thyroid cancer. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma (FTC) accounts for 5%–10% of all thyroid cancers. Patients with FTC frequently present with more advanced stage diseases and a higher occurrence of distant metastases because of the propensity of vascular invasion. FTC is mainly treated with surgery, while radioactive iodine therapy is the main adjuvant therapy as per ATA guidelines. In many developing countries, surgical facilities and radioactive iodine are in short supply; therefore, understanding follicular thyroid cancer trends may help developing countries plan and use resources more effectively. Methodology: It was a retrospective observational study of FTC patients of age 18 years and above conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2019. Results: There were 404 patients with thyroid carcinoma, out of which forty (10.1%) were FTC. 50% of the patients were in the 41-60 years age group, and the female to male ratio was 1.5: 1. Twenty-four patients (60%) presented with complain of neck swelling followed by metastasis (20%) and compressive symptoms (20%). The most common site of metastasis was bone (87.5%), followed by lung (12.5%). The pre-operative thyroglobulin level was done in six out of eight metastatic patients (75%) in which it was elevated. This emphasizes the importance of checking thyroglobulin level in unusual presentation (bone pain, fractures) of a patient having neck swelling also to help in establishing the primary source of tumor. There was no complete documentation of ultrasound features of the thyroid gland in all the patients, which is an important investigation done in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodule. On FNAC, 50% (20 patients) had Bethesda category III-IV nodules, while 10% ( 4 patients ) had Bethesda category II. In sixteen patients, FNAC was not done as they presented with compressive symptoms or metastasis. Fifty percent had a total thyroidectomy and 50% had subtotal followed by completion thyroidectomy, plus ten patients had lymph node dissection, out of which seven had histopathological lymph node involvement. On histopathology, twenty-three patients (57.5%) had minimally invasive, while seventeen (42.5%) had widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma. The capsular invasion was present in thirty-three patients (82.5%); one patient had no capsular invasion, but there was a vascular invasion. Six patients' histopathology had no record of capsular invasion. In contrast, the lymphovascular invasion was present in twenty-six patients (65%). In this study, 65 % of the patients had clinical stage 1 disease, while 25% had stage 2 and 10% had clinical stage 4. Seventeen patients (42.5%) had received RAI 30-100 mCi, while ten patients (25%) received more than 100 mCi. Conclusion: FTC demographic and clinicopathological presentation are the same in Pakistan as compared to other countries. Surgery followed by RAI is the mainstay of treatment. Thus understanding the trend of FTC and proper planning and utilization of the resources will help the developing countries in effectively treating the FTC.

Keywords: thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, clinicopathological features, developing countries

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62 Dynamical Analysis of the Fractional-Order Mathematical Model of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Authors: Neelam Singha

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The present work intends to analyze the system dynamics of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with the assistance of fractional calculus. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, which gradually results in interrupting the normal thyroid operation. Consequently, the feedback control of the system gets disrupted due to thyroid follicle cell lysis. And, the patient perceives life-threatening clinical conditions like goiter, hyperactivity, euthyroidism, hyperthyroidism, etc. In this work, we aim to obtain the approximate solution to the posed fractional-order problem describing Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. We employ the Adomian decomposition method to solve the system of fractional-order differential equations, and the solutions obtained shall be useful to provide information about the effect of medical care. The numerical technique is executed in an organized manner to furnish the associated details of the progression of the disease and to visualize it graphically with suitable plots.

Keywords: adomian decomposition method, fractional derivatives, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, mathematical modeling

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61 Computer Aide Discrimination of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules by Ultrasound Imaging

Authors: Akbar Gharbali, Ali Abbasian Ardekani, Afshin Mohammadi

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Introduction: Thyroid nodules have an incidence of 33-68% in the general population. More than 5-15% of these nodules are malignant. Early detection and treatment of thyroid nodules increase the cure rate and provide optimal treatment. Between the medical imaging methods, Ultrasound is the chosen imaging technique for assessment of thyroid nodules. The confirming of the diagnosis usually demands repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). So, current management has morbidity and non-zero mortality. Objective: To explore diagnostic potential of automatic texture analysis (TA) methods in differentiation benign and malignant thyroid nodules by ultrasound imaging in order to help for reliable diagnosis and monitoring of the thyroid nodules in their early stages with no need biopsy. Material and Methods: The thyroid US image database consists of 70 patients (26 benign and 44 malignant) which were reported by Radiologist and proven by the biopsy. Two slices per patient were loaded in Mazda Software version 4.6 for automatic texture analysis. Regions of interests (ROIs) were defined within the abnormal part of the thyroid nodules ultrasound images. Gray levels within an ROI normalized according to three normalization schemes: N1: default or original gray levels, N2: +/- 3 Sigma or dynamic intensity limited to µ+/- 3σ, and N3: present intensity limited to 1% - 99%. Up to 270 multiscale texture features parameters per ROIs per each normalization schemes were computed from well-known statistical methods employed in Mazda software. From the statistical point of view, all calculated texture features parameters are not useful for texture analysis. So, the features based on maximum Fisher coefficient and the minimum probability of classification error and average correlation coefficients (POE+ACC) eliminated to 10 best and most effective features per normalization schemes. We analyze this feature under two standardization states (standard (S) and non-standard (NS)) with Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Non-Linear Discriminant Analysis (NDA). The 1NN classifier was performed to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. The confusion matrix and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were used for the formulation of more reliable criteria of the performance of employed texture analysis methods. Results: The results demonstrated the influence of the normalization schemes and reduction methods on the effectiveness of the obtained features as a descriptor on discrimination power and classification results. The selected subset features under 1%-99% normalization, POE+ACC reduction and NDA texture analysis yielded a high discrimination performance with the area under the ROC curve (Az) of 0.9722, in distinguishing Benign from Malignant Thyroid Nodules which correspond to sensitivity of 94.45%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 97.14%. Conclusions: Our results indicate computer-aided diagnosis is a reliable method, and can provide useful information to help radiologists in the detection and classification of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

Keywords: ultrasound imaging, thyroid nodules, computer aided diagnosis, texture analysis, PCA, LDA, NDA

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