Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: hypoglycemic

39 Effect of Ginger (Zingiber Officinal) Root Extract on Blood Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Normal and Alloxan-Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

Ginger is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used in folk medicine. This study was designed to go further step and evaluate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous ginger root extract in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Results revealed that the aqueous ginger has a significant hypoglycemic effect (P<0.05) in diabetic rabbits but a non-significant hypoglycemic effect (P>0.05) in normal rabbits. There were also significant decreases in the concentrations (P<0.05) in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL – cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Although there was an elevation in serum HDL- cholesterol in both normal and diabetic rabbits, these elevations were non-significant (P>0.05). Our data suggest the aqueous ginger has a hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits and lipid-lowering properties in both normal and diabetic rabbits.

Keywords: aqueous extract of ginger root (AEGR), hypoglycemic, cholesterol, triglyceride

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38 Assessment of the Neuroprotective Effect of Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

Authors: A. Alhusban, M. Alqawasmeh, F. Alfawares

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes is a chronic health problem and a major risk factor of stroke. A number of therapeutic modalities exist for diabetes management. It’s still unknown whether the different oral hypoglycemic agents would ameliorate the detrimental effect of diabetes on stroke severity. The objective of this work is to assess the effect of pretreatment with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin and their combination on stroke severity at presentation. Patients and Methods: Patients admitted to the King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH)-Jordan with ischemic stroke between January 2015 and December 2016 were evaluated and their comorbid diseases, treatment on admission and their neurologic severity was assessed using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were documented. Stroke severity was compared for non-diabetic patients and diabetic patients treated with different antidiabetic agents. Results: Data from 324 patients with acute stroke was documented. The median age of participants was 69 years. Diabetes was documented in about 50% of the patients. Multinomial regression analysis identified diabetes treatment status as an independent predictor of neurological severity of stroke (p=0.032). Patients treated with oral hypoglycemic agents had a significantly lower NIHSS as compared to nondiabetic patients and insulin treated patients (p < 0.02). The positive effect of oral hypoglycemic agents was blunted by insulin co-treatment. Insulin did not alter the severity of stroke as compared to non-diabetics. Conclusion: Oral hypoglycemic agents may reduce the severity of neurologic deficit of ischemic stroke and may have neuroprotective effect.

Keywords: diabetes, stroke, neuroprotection, oral hypoglycemic agents

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37 Hypoglycemic Coma in Elderly Patients with Diabetes mellitus

Authors: D. Furuya, H. Ryujin, S. Takahira, Y. Sekine, Y. Oya, K. Sonoda, H. Ogawa, Y. Nomura, R. Maruyama, H. Kim, T. Kudo, A. Nakano, T. Saruta, S. Sugita, M. Nemoto, N. Tanahashi

Abstract:

Purpose: To study the clinical characteristics of hypoglycemic coma in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Participants in this retrospective study comprised 91 patients (54 men, 37 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 71.5 ± 12.6 years; range, 42-97 years) brought to our emergency department by ambulance with disturbance of consciousness in the 7 years from April 2007 to March 2014. Patients with hypoglycemia caused by alcoholic ketoacidosis, nutrition disorder, malignancies and psychological disorder were excluded. Results: Patients with type 1 (8 of 91) or type 2 DM (83 of 91) were analyzed. Mean blood sugar level was 31.6 ± 10.4 in all patients. A sulfonylurea (SU) was more commonly used in elderly (>75 years old; n=44)(70.5%) than in younger patients (36.2%, p < 0.05). Cases showing prolonged unconsciousness (range, 1 hour to 21 days; n=30) included many (p < 0.05) patients with dementia (13.3%; 0.5% without dementia) and fewer (p < 0.05) patients with type 1 DM (0%; 13.1% in type 2 DM). Specialists for DM (n=33) used SU less often (24.2%) than general physicians (69.0%, p < 0.05). Conclusion: In cases of hypoglycemic coma, SU was frequently used in elderly patients with DM.

Keywords: hypoglycemic coma, Diabetes mellitus, unconsciousness, elderly patients

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36 Hypoglycemic Activity studies on Root Extracts of Sanseviera liberica Root in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omowunmi Amao

Abstract:

Sansevieria liberica belongs to the family Agavaceae (Ruscaceae or Dracaenaceae). They are widely distributed throughout the tropics. Literature review suggests that in Nigeria, the leaves and roots of Sansevieria liberica are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma, abdominal pains, colic, diarrhea, eczema, gonorrhea, hemorrhoids, hypertension, monorrhagia, piles, sexual weakness, snake bites, and wounds of the foot. In this context, the standardized Methanolic extract of roots of Sansevieria liberica is hypothesized for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic activity. Material and Methods: Inbreed adult male sprague-Dawley albino rats were used in the experiment. The suspension of standardized Methanol extract (ME) of Sansevieria liberica was treated for hypoglycemic activity in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method. The suspension of standardized Methanolic extract (ME) of Sansevieria liberica was also treated for hypoglycemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results: The Methanolic extract (ME) of Sanseviera liberica root (100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) showed potential hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rats, and further in OGTT method. Furthermore, Methanolic extract of Sanseviera liberica root showed significant (P<0.05) increase in final body weight, total hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and high-density lipoprotein levels, however, decrease in fluid intake, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein levels. Additionally, it improved oxidative stress in terms of reducing lipid peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and elevating catalase activity. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the Methanolic extract of Sanseviera liberica root was found to be potential hypoglycemic, and would be a promising candidate for the treatment of diabetes.

Keywords: diabetes, Sanseviera liberica, hypoglycemic activity, diabetes and metabolism

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35 Hypoglycemic Effect of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Olea europaea L. in Normal and Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Benhabyles, K. Arab, O. Bouchenak, A. Baz

Abstract:

The hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of flavonoids rich extract obtained from leaves of Olea europaea L. was analyzed in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extraction was performed by confrontation with organic solvents method, which yielded four extracts: Di ethyl Ether, Ethyl Acetate, Butanolic, and Aqueous extract. A single oral dose of 100 mg/kg of the different extract was evaluated for hypoglycemic activity in a glucose tolerance test in normal rats and 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg of AE for anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan-induced (125 mg/kg) diabetic rats. Dosage of 100 mg/kg of the extract significantly decreased (p<0.05) blood glucose levels in the glucose tolerance test after 120 min. However, a better activity is obtained with the AE. For the anti-hyperglycemic study, the results showed a substantial decrease in blood glucose during the 2 h of treatment for all groups treated with different doses of flavonoids. From the results it can be concluded that flavonoids of O. europaea can be a potential candidate in treating the hyperglycemic conditions.

Keywords: alloxan, antihyperglycemic effect, diabetes mellitus, flavonoids, hypoglycemic effect, Olea europaea L.

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34 The Possible Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic Effect and Antimicrobial Potential of Mangifera Indicia Leaves Aqueous Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: Sahar B. Ahmed, M. Mostafa Said, Mona I. Mohamed

Abstract:

Streptozotocin (STZ) caused a significant increase in blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum accompanied by a significant decrease in blood reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Also, ALT, AST, albumin and urea were markedly affected by STZ injection. The oral administration of Mango leaves extract (MLE) one hour before STZ injection was significantly improved the blood glucose level, ALT, AST activities, albumin and urea that associated with the regulation of MDA, GSH and SOD levels. The antimicrobial activity of MLE showed a significant inhibitory activity against multidrug resistant gram positive and gram negative bacteria isolated from patients in Egyptian hospitals especially Salmonella typhi and typhimurium. In conclusion, results revealed the antioxidant, hypoglycemic effect and antimicrobial potentials of MLE under investigation. Further studies will be needed to investigate the prolonged period of MLE administration and its possible side effects.

Keywords: aqueous extract of mango leaves, STZ, antioxidant, hypoglycemic effect, antimicrobial potentials.

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33 The Role of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Alpha Amylase and Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Potentials of Extracts from the Leaves of Acalypha godseffiana from Eastern Nigeria: An in-vitro Study

Authors: A. K. Asekunowo, A O. T. Asafa, O. O. Okoh, O. T. Asekun, O. B. Familoni

Abstract:

Background: Acalypha godseffiana is an important plant used both as an ornamental and herbs; its leaves are employed in management of diseases such as diabetics in Eastern Nigeria. Aim: The correlations of the polyphenolic compounds in the hypoglycemic potential of different extracts of leaves of A. godseffiana and their safety profile on cell lines were investigated. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical compositions and antioxidants potentials were determined using adopted methods. An in vitro approach was employed in determining the hypoglycemic potentials of the extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The Line weaver-Burke plot was used to evaluate the mechanisms of Inhibition mechanisms of the enzymes. Results and Conclusions: Antioxidants results revealed that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the acetone extract (IC50: 0.34 mg/mL) showed better activity compared to the standards (silymarine 0.52 mg/mL; gallic acid 0.51 mg/mL). In-vitro hypoglycemic activity of the extracts confirmed that acetone extract demonstrated strong and mild inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. The observed activity was concentration-dependent with IC50 values of 2.33 and 0.13 mg/mL. The observed hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone extract A. godseffiana correlate to its high polyphenolic contents which include phenols (133.20 mg gallic acid g-1), flavonoid (350.60 mg quercetin g-1) and tannins (264.67 mg catechin g-1). The mechanisms of action exhibited by acetone extract of A. godseffiana were mixed non-competitive and uncompetitive; which can be attributed to its inhibitory properties on α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. This effect would cause reduction in the rate at which starch hydrolyse, boost palliated glucose levels; hence, making acetone extract of A. godseffiana a potential anti-hypoglycemic alternative.

Keywords: Acalypha godeseffiana, acetone extract, anti-hypoglycemia, antioxidant, phytochemicals

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32 Consumer Acceptability of Crackers Produced from Blend of Sprouted Pigeon Pea, Unripe Plantain and Brewers’ Spent Grain and Its Hypoglycemic Effect in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Nneka N. Uchegbu

Abstract:

Physical, sensory properties and hypoglycemic effect of crackers produced from sprouted pigeon pea, unripe plantain and brewers’ spent grain fed to diabetic rats were investigated. Different composite flours were used to produce crackers. Physical and sensory properties of the crackers, the blood serum of the rats and changes in the rat body weight were measured. Spread ratio and break strength of the crackers from different flour blends ranges from 7.01 g to 8.51 g and 1.87 g to 3.01 g respectively. The acceptability of the crackers revealed that Sample A (100% wheat crackers) was not significantly (p>0.05) different from Samples C and D. Feeding the rats with formulated crackers caused an increase in the body weight of the rats but a reduced body weight was observed in diabetic rats fed with normal rat feed. The result indicated that cracker produced from the formulated flour blends caused a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats and led to a reduction of measured biochemical indices. Therefore, this work showed that consumption of crackers from the above formulated flour blend was able to decrease hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.

Keywords: hypoglyceamia, hyperlipidimia, total lipid, triglyceride, total cholesterol

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31 Comparison of the Effects of Fresh Leaf, Septum and Peel Extracts of Walnut on Blood Glucose and Pancreatic Structure

Authors: Tahmineh Hasanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh

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There is some report about the hypoglycemic effect of Juglans rejia L. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats and hypoglycemic effect of its fruit peel administered intraperitoneally.In Iranian traditional medicine, septum of walnut shell (SWS) was recommended to reduce blood glucose. For this purpose, 41 male bulb/C mice 25-30 gm were divided into five groups. All the animals received IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (220 mg/kg). Two weeks later, the diabetic animals were received daily oral treatment of normal saline and aqueous extract of SWS (200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) respectively for four weeks. Blood samples were taken from retro orbital sinus before the start of the experiment and repeated each two weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the pancreatic tissues were fixed, prepared and stained by Hematoxylin-Eosin for light microscope studies. The results showed that in each group, the SWS extract reduced blood glucose in a long time (p < 0.05). metabolic extract in STZ- induced diabetic rats, which was accompanied by the hypoglycemic effect of leaf extract. However, this effect should be determined with scientific researches. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of SWS on blood glucose and histopathological structure of pancreas.

Keywords: septum of walnut, blood glucose, pancreas, diabetes, walnut leaf, walnut peel, insulin

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30 Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Flower Extract from Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Authors: Brahmanage S. Rangika, Dinithi C. Peiris

Abstract:

Boiled Aqueous Flower Extract (AFE) of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system to treat diabetes. However, this is not scientifically proven and the mechanisms by which the flowers reduce diabetes have not been investigated. The present study was carried out to examine the hypoglycemic potential and toxicity effects of aqueous flower extract of N. arbor-tristis. AFE was prepared and mice were treated orally either with 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg of AFE or distilled water (Control). Fasting and random blood glucose levels were determined. In addition, the toxicity of AFE was determined using chronic oral administration. In normoglycemic mice, mid dose (500mg/kg) of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 49% at 4h post treatment. Further, 500mg/kg of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) lowered random blood glucose level of non-fasted normoglycemic mice. AFE significantly lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels while increasing the HDL levels in the serum. Further, AFE significantly inhibited the glucose absorption from the lumen of the intestine and it increases the diaphragm uptake of glucose. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was also evident. However, AFE did not induce any overt signs of toxicity or hepatotoxicity. There were no adverse effects on food and water intake and body weight of mice during the experimental period. It can be concluded that AFE of N. arbor-tristis posses safe oral anti diabetic potentials mediated via multiple mechanisms. Results of the present study scientifically proved the claims made about the uses of N. arbor-tristis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system. Further, flowers can also be used for as a remedy to improve blood lipid profile.

Keywords: aqueous extract, hypoglycemic hypolipidemic, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flowers, hepatotoxicity

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29 The Antidiabetic Properties of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: T. Wresdiyati, S. Sa’diah, A. Winarto

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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that can be indicated by the high level of blood glucose. The objective of this study was to observe the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed on the profile of pancreatic superoxide dismutase and β-cells in the alloxan- experimental diabetic rats. The Swietenia mahagoni seed was obtained from Leuwiliang-Bogor, Indonesia. Extraction of Swietenia mahagoni was done by using ethanol with maceration methods. A total of 25 male Sprague dawley rats were divided into five groups; (a) negative control group, (b) positive control group (DM), (c) DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, (d) DM group that was treated with acarbose, and (e) non-DM group that was treated with Swietenia mahagoni seed extract. The DM groups were induced by alloxan (110 mg/kgBW). The extract was orally administrated to diabetic rats 500 mg/kg/BW/day for 28 days. The extract showed hypoglycemic effect, increased body weight, increased the content of superoxide dismutase in the pancreatic tissue, and delayed the rate of β-cells damage of experimental diabetic rats. These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Indonesian Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. seed could be proposed as a potential anti-diabetic agent.

Keywords: beta cells, diabetes, hypoglycemic, rat, Swietenia mahagoni

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28 Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive Effects Affected by Various Molecular Weights of Cold Water Extract from Pleurotus Citrinopileatus

Authors: Pao-Huei Chen, Shu-Mei Lin, Yih-Ming Weng, Zer-Ran Yu, Be-Jen Wang

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Pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase are the critical enzymes for the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into di- or mono-saccharide, which play an important role in modulating postprandial blood sugars. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts inactive angiotensin-I into active angiotensin-II, which subsequently increase blood pressure through triggering vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion. Thus, inhibition of carbohydrate-digestion enzymes and ACE will help the management of blood glucose and blood pressure, respectively. Studies showed Pleurotus citrinopileatus (PC), an edible mushroom and commonly cultured in oriental countries, exerted anticancer, immune improving, antioxidative, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Previous studies also showed various molecular weights (MW) fractioned from extracts may affect biological activities due to varying contents of bioactive components. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypotenstive effects and distribution of active compounds of various MWs of cold water extract from P. citrinopileatus (CWEPC). CWEPC was fractioned into four various MW fractions, PC-I (<1 kDa), PC-II (1-3.5 kDa), PC-III (3.5-10 kDa), and PC-IV (>10 kDa), using an ultrafiltration system. The physiological activities, including antioxidant activities, the inhibition capabilities of pancreatic α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase, and hypertension-linked ACE, and the active components, including polysaccharides, protein, and phenolic contents, of CWEPC and four fractions were determined. The results showed that fractions with lower MW exerted a higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05), which was positively correlated to the levels of total phenols. In contrast, the inhibition effects on the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE of PC-IV fraction were significantly higher than CWEPC and the other three low MW fractions (< 10 kDa), which was more related to protein contents. The inhibition capability of CWEPC and PC-IV on α-amylase activity was 1/13.4 to 1/2.7 relative to that of acarbose (positive control), respectively. However, the inhibitory ability of PC-IV on α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.5 mg/mL) was significantly higher than acarbose (IC50 = 1.7 mg/mL). Kinetic data revealed that PC-IV fraction followed a non-competitive inhibition on α-glucosidase activity. In conclusion, the distribution of various bioactive components contribute to the functions of different MW fractions on oxidative stress prevention, and blood pressure and glucose modulation.

Keywords: α-Amylase, angiotensin converting enzyme, α-Glucosidase, Pleurotus citrinopileatus

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27 Oral Lichen Planus a Manifestation of Grinspan's Syndrome or a Lichenoid Reaction to Medication

Authors: Sahar Iqrar, Malik Adeel Anwar, Zain Akram, Maria Noor

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Introduction: Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. Oral lichen planus may be related with several other diseases. Grinspan's Syndrome is characterized by a triad of oral lichen planus, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Other associations reported in the literature are with chronic liver disease and, with dyslipidemia. The nature of these associations is still not fully understood. Material and methods: Study was conducted in Department of Oral Medicine, Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Medicine and Dentistry, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of n=89 clinically diagnosed patients of oral lichen planus of both gender and all age groups were recruited and detailed history were recorded in the designed performs. Results: A total of n=89 patients were taken with male to female ratio of 3:8 in which 24 were male and 65 females. Mean age was 48.8 ± 13.8 years. Age range of 10-74 years was seen. Among these patients suffering from oral lichen planus, 41.6% (n=37) had a positive history for hypertension with 59.5% (n=22) of these patients were taking different medication for their condition. Whereas Diabetes Mellitus was found in 24.7% (n=22) patients with 72.7% (n=16) of these patients using the hypoglycemic drug (oral or injectable) to control their blood glucose levels. Out of these n=89 lichen planus patients 21.3% had both hypertension and diabetes mellitus (fulfilling the criteria for Grinspan's Syndrome). Out of this Grinspan's Syndrome pool 94.7% (n=19) were taking drug atleast for one of the two conditions. Conclusion: As noticed form the medical history of the patients, most of them were using hypoglycemic drugs for diabetes mellitus and beta blockers, diuretics and calcium channel blockers for hypertension. These drugs are known for lichenoid reaction. Therefore, it should be ruled out at histopathological/ immunological and molecular level whether these patients are suffering from lichen planus or lichenoid drug reaction to truly declare them as patients with Grinspan’s Syndrome.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, grinspan's syndrome, lichenoid drug reaction, oral lichen planus

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26 A New Technology for Metformin Hydrochloride Mucoadhesive Microparticles Preparation Utilizing BÜCHI Nano-Spray Dryer B-90

Authors: Tamer M. Shehata

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Objective: Currently, mucoadhesive microparticles acquired a high interest in both research and pharmaceutical technology fields. Recently, BÜCHI lunched its latest fourth generation nano spray dryer B-90 used for nanoparticle production. B-90 offers an elegant technology combined particle engineering and drying in one step. In our laboratory, we successfully developed a new formulation for metformin hydrochloride, mucoadhesive microparticles utilizing B-90 technology for treatment of type 2-diabetis. Method: Gelatin or sodium alginate, natural occurring polymers with mucoadhesive properties, solely or in combination was used in our formulation trials. Preformulation studies (atomization head mesh size, flow rate, head temperature, polymer solution viscosity and surface tension) and postformulation characters (particle size, flowability, surface scan and dissolution profile) were evaluated. Finally, hypoglycemic effect of the selected formula was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Spray head with 7 µm hole, flow rate of 3.5 mL/min and head temperature 120 ºC were selected. Polymer viscosity was less than 11.5 cP with surface tension less than 70.1 dyne/cm. Result: Discrete, non aggregated particles and free flowing powders with particle size was less than 2000 nm were obtained. Gelatin and sodium alginate combination in ratio 1:3 were successfully sustained the in vitro release profile of the drug. Hypoglycemic evaluation of the previous formula, showed a significant reduction of blood glucose level over 24 h. Conclusion: B-90 technology can open a new era of , mucoadhesive microparticles preparation offering convenient dosage form that can enhance compliance of type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: mucoadhesive, microparticles, technology, diabetis

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25 Formulation and Evaluation of Metformin Hydrochloride Microparticles via BÜCHI Nano-Spray Dryer B-90

Authors: Tamer Shehata

Abstract:

Recently, nanotechnology acquired a great interest in the field of pharmaceutical production. Several pharmaceutical equipment were introduced into the research field for production of nanoparticles, among them, BÜCHI’ fourth generation nano-spray dryer B-90. B-90 is specialized with single step of production and drying of nano and microparticles. Currently, our research group is investigating several pharmaceutical formulations utilizing BÜCHI Nano-Spray Dryer B-90 technology. One of our projects is the formulation and evaluation of metformin hydrochloride mucoadhesive microparticles for treatment of type 2-diabetis. Several polymers were investigated, among them, gelatin and sodium alginate. The previous polymers are natural polymers with mucoadhesive properties. Preformulation studies such as atomization head mesh size, flow rate, head temperature, polymer solution viscosity and surface tension were performed. Postformulation characters such as particle size, flowability, surface scan and dissolution profile were evaluated. Finally, the pharmacological activity of certain selected formula was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. B-90’spray head was 7 µm hole heated to 120 with air flow rate 3.5 mL/min. The viscosity of the solution was less than 11.5 cP with surface tension less than 70.1 dyne/cm. Successfully, discrete, non-aggregated particles and free flowing powders with particle size was less than 2000 nm were obtained. Gelatin and Sodium alginate combination in ratio 1:3 were successfully sustained the in vitro release profile of the drug. Hypoglycemic evaluation of the previous formula showed a significant reduction of blood glucose level over 24 h. In conclusion, mucoadhesive metformin hydrochloride microparticles obtained from B-90 could offer a convenient dosage form with enhanced hypoglycemic activity.

Keywords: mucoadhesive, microparticles, metformin hydrochloride, nano-spray dryer

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24 Cedrela Toona Roxb.: An Exploratory Study Describing Its Antidiabetic Property

Authors: Kinjal H. Shah, Piyush M. Patel

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Diabetes mellitus is considered to be a serious endocrine syndrome. Synthetic hypoglycemic agents can produce serious side effects including hematological effects, coma, and disturbances of the liver and kidney. In addition, they are not suitable for use during pregnancy. In recent years, there have been relatively few reports of short-term side effects or toxicity due to sulphonylureas. Published figures and frequency of side effects in large series of patient range from about 1 to 5%, with symptoms severe enough to lead to the withdrawal of the drug in less than 1 to 2%. Adverse effects, in general, have been of the following type: allergic skin reactions, gastrointestinal disturbances, blood dyscrasias, hepatic dysfunction, and hypoglycemia. The associated disadvantages with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents have led to stimulation in the research for locating natural resources showing antidiabetic activity and to explore the possibilities of using traditional medicines with proper chemical and pharmacological profiles. Literature survey reveals that the inhabitants of Abbottabad district of Pakistan use the dried leaf powder along with table salt and water orally for treating diabetes, skin allergy, wounds and as a blood purifier, where they pronounced the plant locally as ‘Nem.' The detailed phytochemical investigation of the Cedrela toona Roxb. leaves for antidiabetic activity has not been documented. Hence, there is a need for phytochemical investigation of the leaves for antidiabetic activity. The collection of fresh leaves and authentification followed by successive extraction, phytochemical screening, and testing of antidiabetic activity. The blood glucose level was reduced maximum in ethanol extract at 5th and 7th h after treatment. Blood glucose was depressed by 8.2% and 10.06% in alloxan – induced diabetic rats after treatment which was comparable to the standard drug, Glibenclamide. This may be due to the activation of the existing pancreatic cells in diabetic rats by the ethanolic extract.

Keywords: antidiabetic, Cedrela toona Roxb., phytochemical screening, blood glucose

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23 Potency of Strophanthus hispidus Stem Bark in the Management of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: M. Osibemhe, I. O. Onoagbe

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Diabetes mellitus is a common disease that has no known cure. The available orthodox drugs used for its management have one or more disadvantages. This study investigated the potency of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Strophanthus hispidus (SH) stem bark in the management of diabetes mellitus. Glucose concentration and lipid profile parameters of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were monitored for 12weeks. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Male rats (wistar strain) numbering 30 were randomly selected into six groups of five rats each. Groups 1 and 6 served as normal and diabetic control respectively and received distilled water for 12weeks. Groups 2 and 3 were normal rats treated orally with the aid of a gavage, 250 mg/kg of aqueous and ethanol extracts respectively for 12weeks. Groups 4 and 5 were diabetic rats and were treated with the respective dose of aqueous and ethanol extracts for the same period. A significant (P˂0.05) progressive decrease in blood glucose concentrations of both normal and diabetic rats treated with the extracts were observed from the 2nd to 12th weeks when compared with the respective controls. No significant (P˃0.05) effects were observed in the basal values of both normal and diabetic rats. Administration of both extracts of SH to diabetic rats significantly (P˂0.05) lowered the concentrations of Total cholesterol, TG, and LDL, whereas it increases the concentration of HDL when compared with diabetic control. The concentrations of total cholesterol and LDL in normal rats treated with SH were also reduced when compared with normal control whereas SH had no significant (P˃0.05) effect on HDL. However, TG level of normal control was significantly (P˂0.05) lower than normal rats treated with both extracts. A progressive increase in weight of normal and diabetic rats treated with the extracts was observed on the 2nd – 12th weeks of administration, whereas diabetic control showed a progressive decrease in weight. The findings from this study indicated that SH has hypoglycemic and anti-lipidemic properties as well as anti-diabetic potentials. It also showed that ethanol extract had greater glucose lowering effect. Hence, SH may be considered as a potent anti-diabetic plant and could be used as alternative drug for the management of diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: concentration, ethanol extract, hypoglycemic, total cholesterol

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22 Effect of Diet and Life Style Modification to Control the Plasma Glucose Level in the 60 Patients of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Vivek Saxena, Shreshtha Saxena

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Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Uncontrolled or untreated GDM is associated with various adverse outcomes to the maternal and fetal health. Overt diabetes mellitus may also develop in such patients. It is universally accepted fact that first and foremost management to treat GDM is dietary control and lifestyle modification even before starting any oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) or insulin. So, proper dietary management and little changes in the patient’s lifestyle are very effective for reducing her plasma glucose level. Objectives: Proper counselling of the patients and flexibility in their lifestyle and diet can effectively control the plasma glucose level in GDM patients. Methods: Total 60 GDM patients of age > 18 years were taken. We had three counselling sessions with the patient and other members of the family like husband, parents, and in-laws at different intervals, discussed their lifestyle and diet pattern, helped them to eliminate the factors those had an adverse effect on plasma glucose level and promoted them to acquire a healthy lifestyle. We have counselled the patient and her family member separately and then together also. They have explained how increased plasma glucose level can be effectively controlled with the little modification in their diet and routine activities. They were also taught to remain stress-free during their rest of antenatal period. We have excluded the patients from our study who were diabetic before pregnancy and patients with other comorbid illnesses like hypothyroidism and valvular heart disease. Results and conclusions: Results were very rewarding as patients could acquire a lifestyle of their choice. They were happy because extra pill burden was not there. All the 60 patients were normoglycemic in remaining antenatal period, 48 patients were delivered normally and 12 patients underwent cesarean section due to various reasons.Regular counselling of the patients regarding their disease and little alterations in diet and lifestyle controlled the plasma glucose level much effectively. The things were more easier and effective when we included other family members during our counselling session because they play a major role in patient’s day to day activity and influence her life.

Keywords: dietary management, gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, oral hypoglycemic agent, pregnancy

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21 Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems and the Improvement in Hypoglycemic Awareness Post-Islet Transplantation: A Single-Centre Cohort Study

Authors: Clare Flood, Shareen Forbes

Abstract:

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder affecting >400,000 people in the UK alone, with the global prevalence expected to double in the next decade. Islet transplant offers a minimally-invasive procedure with very low morbidity and almost no mortality, and is now as effective as whole pancreas transplant. The procedure was introduced to the UK in 2011 for patients with the most severe type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) – those with unstable blood glucose, frequently occurring episodes of severe hypoglycemia and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH). Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of islet transplantation in improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and improving awareness of hypoglycemia through a single-centre cohort study at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh. Glycemic control and degree of hypoglycemic awareness will be determined and monitored pre- and post-transplantation to determine effectiveness of the procedure. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data collected over three years from the 16 patients who have undergone islet transplantation in Scotland. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) were utilised to assess glycemic control, while Gold and Clarke score questionnaires tested IAH. Results: All patients had improved glycemic control following transplant, with optimal control seen visually at 3 months post-transplant. Glycemic control significantly improved, as illustrated by percentage time in hypoglycemia in the months following transplant (p=0.0211) and HbA1c (p=0.0426). Improved Clarke (p=0.0034) and Gold (p=0.0001) scores indicate improved glycemic awareness following transplant. Conclusion: While the small sample of islet transplant recipients at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh prevents definitive conclusions being drawn, it is indicated that through our retrospective, single-centre cohort study of 16 patients, islet transplant is capable of improving glycemic control, reducing the burden of hypoglycemia and IAH post-transplant. Data can be combined with similar trials at other centres to increase statistical power but from research in Edinburgh, it can be suggested that the minimally invasive procedure of islet transplantation offers selected patients with extremely unstable T1DM the incredible opportunity to regain control of their condition and improve their quality of life.

Keywords: diabetes, islet, transplant, CGMS

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20 Bioactivity Evaluation of Cucurbitin Derived Enzymatic Hydrolysates

Authors: Ž. Vaštag, Lj. Popović, S. Popović

Abstract:

After cold pressing of pumpkin oil, the defatted oil cake (PUOC) was utilized as raw material for processing of bio-functional hydrolysates. In this study, the in vitro bioactivity of an alcalase (AH) and a pepsin hydrolysate (PH) prepared from the major pumpkin 12S globulin (cucurbitin) are compared. The hydrolysates were produced at optimum reaction conditions (temperature, pH) for the enzymes, during 60min. The bioactivity testing included antioxidant and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity assays. The hydrolysates showed high potential as natural antioxidants and possibly antihypertensive agents in functional food or nutraceuticals. Additionally, preliminary studies have shown that both hydrolysates could exhibit modest α-amylase inhibitory activity, which indicates on their hypoglycemic potential.

Keywords: cucurbitin, alcalase, pepsin, protein hydrolysates, in vitro bioactivity

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19 Optimisation of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida, Algeria, NW

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud Dif, Fouzia Benali-Toumi, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza, Abbes Dellal, Slimane Baha

Abstract:

L. multifida is applied to treat rheumatism and cold and has hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida. The influences of parameters including temperature (decoction and maceration) and extraction time (15min to 45 min) on the flavonoids concentration are studied. The optimal conditions are determined and the quadratic response surfaces draw from the mathematical models. Total phenols were evaluated using Folin sicaltieu methods, total flavonoids were estimated using the Tri chloral aluminum method. The maximum concentration extracted, for total flavonoids, equal to 0.043 mg/g was achieved with decoction and extraction time of 41.55 min. However, for total phenol compounds highest concentration of 0.218 mg/g, is obtained with 45 min at 49.99°C.

Keywords: L multifidi, phenolic content, optimization, time, temperature

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18 Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipaemic Effects of Aqueous Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Extract on Alloxan Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

Extracts of various plants material capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models and their effects confirmed. Neem or Margose (Azadirachta Indica) is an indigenous plant believed to have antiviral, antifungal, antidiabetic and many other properties. This paper deals with a comparative study of the effect of aqueous Neem leaves extract alone or in combination with glibenclamide on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Administration of crude aqueous Neem extract (CANE) alone (1.5 ml/kg/day), as well as the combination of CANE (1.5 ml/kg/day) with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg/day) significantly, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum lipids, blood glucose and lipoprotein VLDL(very low-density lipoproteins) and LDL(low-density lipoproteins) but significantly increased (P<0.05) the concentration of HDL(high-density lipoprotein). The change was observed significantly greater when the treatment was given in combination of CANE and glibenclamid than with CANE alone.

Keywords: neem, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cholesterol

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17 Study and Melanocyte Adrenocorticotropic Effects on Sugar Metabolism and Immune Response in Rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus

Authors: A. Bouaouiche, M. S. Boulakoud

Abstract:

The functioning of the pineal gland, the transducer body of environmental information to the neuroendocrine system is subject to a circadian rhythm. Melatonin is the main neuro-hormone expressing this operation. It is synthesized in the pinealocytes after conversion serotonin via N-acetyl-transferase enzyme, itself subject to a photoperiodic modulation (activation dark inhibition by light). Some authors have suggested that melatonin is involved in diabetic disease and found that it could have a diabetogenic effect. To this study the effect of this hormone on glucose metabolism has long been subject to controversy. Agreeing in effect and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic effect. In order to illustrate the level of interaction of melatonin with neuro-immune- corticotropin axis and its impact on carbohydrate metabolism, we studied the impact homeostatic (glucose) through the solicitation of two control systems (gland pineal and corticotropin axis). We then found that melatonin could have an indirect influence on insulin control (glucose metabolism) to the levels of the growth hormone axis (somatostatin) and adrenocorticotropic (corticotropin). In addition, we have suggested that melatonin might limit the hyperglycemic action of corticosteroids by direct action at peripheral level.

Keywords: pinéal gland, melatonin, neuro-immuno-corticotrop, metabolism

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16 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

Abstract:

One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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15 Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: Asma Temagoult, Bariza Zitouni, Yassin Noui

Abstract:

Cactus fruit contains different nutritional and functional components, which are used because of their benefits to human health, such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins C. It has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action, and antioxidant properties related to anticarcinogenic, antiulcerogenic and immunomodulatory effects. The antioxidant and nutritional properties have been characterized in cactus prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.), cultivar yellow, grown in Arris area; Eastern of Algeria. The antioxidant properties of this cactus cultivar were higher than the others cactus cultivar in the world. The amount of fruit phenolic compounds revealed contents between 20.65 and 45.70 mg / 100 g of FW for total polyphenols and 0.519 - 0.591 mg / 100 g of FW for the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The average recorded to the potassium content is about 1070 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight; sodium is 60.7 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight and 80 mg / 100g for the calcium. According to the high value of this cactus, it was considered as a good nutrient and important pharmaceutical resource. It could be used as a natural additive or substituted food supplement in many foodstuffs production, to benefit from these benefits.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, DPPH, FRAP, nutritional properties, Opuntia ficus indica

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14 Effect of Different Parameters in the Preparation of Antidiabetic Microparticules by Coacervation

Authors: Nawel Ouennoughi, Kamel Daoud

Abstract:

During recent years, new pharmaceutical dosage forms were developed in the research laboratories and which consists of encapsulating one or more active molecules in a polymeric envelope. Several techniques of encapsulation allow obtaining the microparticles or the nanoparticles containing one or several polymers. In the industry, microencapsulation is implemented to fill the following objectives: to ensure protection, the compatibility and the stabilization of an active matter in a formulation, to carry out an adapted working, to improve the presentation of a product, to mask a taste or an odor, to modify and control the profile of release of an active matter to obtain, for example, prolonged or started effect. To this end, we focus ourselves on the encapsulation of the antidiabetic. It is an oral hypoglycemic agent belonging to the second generation of sulfonylurea’s commonly employed in the treatment of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes in order to improve profile them dissolution. Our choice was made on the technique of encapsulation by complex coacervation with two types of polymers (gelatin and the gum Arabic) which is a physicochemical process. Several parameters were studied at the time of the formulation of the microparticles and the nanoparticles: temperature, pH, ratio of polymers etc. The microparticles and the nanoparticles obtained were characterized by microscopy, laser granulometry, FTIR and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The profile of dissolution obtained for the microparticles showed an improvement of the kinetics of dissolution compared to that obtained for the active ingredient.

Keywords: coacervation, gum Arabic, microencapsulation, gelatin

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13 Prevalence, Awareness, and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Ahvaz: South West of Iran

Authors: Leila Yazdanpanah, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Saeed Ghanbari

Abstract:

Introduction: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people aged over 20 years in Ahvaz, Iran. Material and Methods: The study population selected by cluster sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessed after minimum 8 hours night fasting. A questionnaire included: age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference and previous history of diabetes were completed for each patient. FBS≥126mg/dl and/or oral hypoglycemic treatment and/or insulin was defined as diabetes, FBS=100-125 mg/dl as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and FBS<100mg/dl as normal. Results: Study population was 936 persons (47.2 % male and 52.8% female). The mean age of a population was 42.2±14 years. Diabetes was detected in 15.1 % of population. Only 57cases(6.1%) were aware of their disease and 9% had unknown diabetes. Diabetes was detected in 14.5% of male (11.3% unknown and 3.2 % known diabetes) and in 11.7% of female (7% unknown and 4.7% known diabetes). Prevalence of diabetes had no significant difference (P=0.21) in male and female but unknown diabetes was significantly higher in male (P=0.025). Prevalence of diabetes was increased with rising of age between 20-60 years old but decreasing after 60 years old. Diabetes was related to age, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG level and BMI in both sex (P=0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of female and three-fourth of male diabetic patients are unaware of their disease in South of Iran. Diabetes screening should be intensified in this population.

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, risk factor, awareness

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12 Effect of Cistanche tinctoria Methanolic Extract on the Maternal-Fetal Outcome and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Amina Bouzitouna, Kheireddine Ouali, Sandra Amri, Houria Rahmoun, Mourad Bensouilah

Abstract:

Aim of this study: To evaluate the effect of Cisthanche tinctoria treatment on maternal-fetal outcome and antioxidant systems of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and methods: Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 50 mg/kg streptozotocin before mating. Oral administration of an methanolic extract of Cistanche tinctoria was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats at doses of 200 mg/kg from 0 to 19th day of pregnancy. At day 20 of pregnancy the rats were killed and a maternal blood sample was collected for the determination Vitamin C (Vit C) and malonaldehyde (MDA). The gravid uterus was weighed with its contents and fetuses were analyzed. Results and conclusion: The data showed that the diabetic dams presented an increased glycemic level, resorption, placental weight, placental index, and fetal anomalies, and reduced VIT C and MDA determinations, live fetuses, maternal weight gain, gravid uterine weight, and fetal weight. It was also verified that Cisthanche tictoria treatment had no hypoglycemic effect, did not improve maternal outcomes in diabetic rats, but it contributed to maintain GSH concentration similarly to non-diabetic groups, suggesting relation with the decreased incidence of visceral anomalies.

Keywords: cistanche tinctoria, diabetes, pregnancy, reproductive outcome, anomaly, orobanchacées

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11 Hepatoprotective Effects of Parsley, Basil, and Chicory Aqueous Extracts against Dexamethasone-Induced in Experimental Rats

Authors: Hanan A. Soliman, Mohamed A. El-Desouky, Walaa G. Hozayen, Rasha R. Ahmed, Amal K . Khaliefa

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats.

Keywords: antioxidants, dexamethasone, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia

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10 Paradigm Shift in Classical Drug Research: Challenges to Mordern Pharmaceutical Sciences

Authors: Riddhi Shukla, Rajeshri Patel, Prakruti Buch, Tejas Sharma, Mihir Raval, Navin Sheth

Abstract:

Many classical drugs are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them valuable for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Vijaysar (Pterocarpus marsupium) and Gaumutra (Indian cow urine) both have been shown antidiabetic property since primordial time and both shows synergistic effect in combination for hypoglycaemic activity. The study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of the combination of Vijaysar and Gaumutra which is a classical preparation mentioned in Ayurveda named as Pramehari ark. Rats with Type 2 diabetes which is induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg) given a high-fat diet for one month and compared with normal rats. Diabetic rats showed raised level of body weight, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration and other serum, cardiac and hypertrophic parameters in comparison of normal rats. After treatment of different doses of drug the level of parameters like TG, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and D-glucose concentration found to be decreased in standard as well as in treatment groups. In addition treatment groups also found to be decreased in the level of serum markers, cardiac markers, and hypertrophic parameters. The findings demonstrated that Pramehari ark prevented the pathological progression of type 2 diabetes in rats.

Keywords: cow urine, hypoglycemic effect, synergic effect, type 2 diabetes, vijaysar

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