Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: hypolipidemic

13 Evaluation of Hypolipidemic Effect of Leaf Essential Oil of Citrus sinensis in Alloxan- Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Omolola Soji-Omoniwa, Babasoji Omoniwa

Abstract:

The hypolipidemic effect of leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis in alloxan–induced diabetic rats was evaluated. Forty albino rats (150–200 g) were randomly selected into 4 groups of 10 rats each, representing Normal Control, Diabetic Control, Diabetic treated with 14.2 mg/kg body weight Metformin and Diabetic treated with 110 mg/kg body weight leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intraperitoneal administration of single dose alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg body weight). The leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis was administered every other day to the Diabetic rats for a period of 15 days. The effects of leaf essential oil on High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Trigylcerides and Cholesterol were evaluated. A significant reduction (p <0.05) in LDL, Triglycerides and cholesterol levels and a significant increase (p<0 .05) in HDL was observed. Leaf essential oil of Citrus sinensis possesses hypolipidemic properties.

Keywords: Citrus sinensis, Diabetes mellitus, hypolipidemic, leaf essential oil

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12 The Hypolipidemic and Anti-Nephrotoxic Potentials of Vernonia calvoana Extract in Acetaminophen-Treated Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Godwin E. Egbung, Item J. Atangwho, Diana O. Odey, Eyong U. Eyong

Abstract:

Background of the study: The frequent abuse of acetaminophen by field workers in Calabar metropolis necessitated the present study on the hypolipidemic and anti-nephrotoxic potentials of Vernonia calvoana (VC) extract in acetaminophen (paracetamol) treated male albino Wistar rats Methods:. Thirty-five (35) male albino Wistar rats weighing 100-150 g were divided into five (5) groups of seven rats each. Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 received normal saline after treatment with Acetaminophen (PCM), group 3 was treated with VC extracts (200 mg/kg body weight), group 4 received VC extracts ( 400 mg/kg body weight) and group 5 was administered 100 mg/kg body weight of Vitamin E. At the end of the 21 days treatment period, the animals were sacrificed using chloroform vapours, and blood was collected via cardiac puncture and used for analyses of haematological as well as biochemical indices. Results: Results indicated significant decreases (p < 0.001) in LDL-c, TC and TG levels in groups 3,4 and 5 relative to both the control as well as group 2, the atherogenic index showed a significant decrease at p < 0.001) in all treated groups compared with control and PCM- treated group. However, both extracts treated groups and vitamin E treated group showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in HDL-c relative to the control and PCM treated group. Serum potassium concentration was significantly (p < 0.05 and 0.001) reduced across all the treated groups compared with control and PCM- treated groups. Group 4 showed significant (p < 0.001) increase in RBC count, Hb, and PCV compared with PCM- treated group. Conclusions: We therefore conclude that ethanolic leaf extract of VC possesses probable anti-anemic, hypolipidemic potentials, and also ameliorates serum electrolyte imbalance in paracetamol- induced toxicity.

Keywords: acetaminophen, haematological indices, hypolipidemic potentials, serum lipid profile, vernonia calvoana, wistar rats

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11 Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Cassia occidentalis Linn. Stem Bark Extract in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes

Authors: Manjusha Choudhary

Abstract:

Objective: Cassia occidentalis Linn. belongs to Family Caesalpiniaceae is a common weed scattered from the foothills of Himalayas to West Bengal, South India, Burma, and Sri Lanka. It is used widely in folklore medicine in India as laxative, expectorant, analgesic, anti-malarial, hepatoprotective, relaxant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic. The present study was carried out to investigate the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis stem bark. Methods: Stem bark extract of Cassia occidentalis (SBCO) was administered orally at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses to normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced type-2 diabetic mice. Various parameters like fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), total protein, urea, creatinine, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels and physical parameters like change in body weight, food intake, water intake were performed for the evaluation of antidiabetic effects. Results: Both the doses of extract caused a marked decrease in FBG levels in STZ induced type 2 diabetic mice. Administration of SBCO led to the decrease in the blood glucose, food intake, water intake, organ weight, SGOT, SGPT levels with significant value and increased the levels of TG, HDL cholesterol, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein with a significant value (p < 0.05-0.01). The decrease in body weight induced by STZ was restored to normal with a significant value (p < 0.01) at both doses. Conclusion: Present study reveals that SBCO possess potent hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities and supports the folklore use of the stem bark of plant as antidiabetic agent.

Keywords: Cassia occidentalis, diabetes, folklore, herbs, hypoglycemia, streptozotocin

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10 Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aqueous Flower Extract from Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

Authors: Brahmanage S. Rangika, Dinithi C. Peiris

Abstract:

Boiled Aqueous Flower Extract (AFE) of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (Family: Oleaceae) is used in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system to treat diabetes. However, this is not scientifically proven and the mechanisms by which the flowers reduce diabetes have not been investigated. The present study was carried out to examine the hypoglycemic potential and toxicity effects of aqueous flower extract of N. arbor-tristis. AFE was prepared and mice were treated orally either with 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg of AFE or distilled water (Control). Fasting and random blood glucose levels were determined. In addition, the toxicity of AFE was determined using chronic oral administration. In normoglycemic mice, mid dose (500mg/kg) of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 49% at 4h post treatment. Further, 500mg/kg of AFE significantly (p < 0.01) lowered random blood glucose level of non-fasted normoglycemic mice. AFE significantly lowered total cholesterol and triglyceride levels while increasing the HDL levels in the serum. Further, AFE significantly inhibited the glucose absorption from the lumen of the intestine and it increases the diaphragm uptake of glucose. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity was also evident. However, AFE did not induce any overt signs of toxicity or hepatotoxicity. There were no adverse effects on food and water intake and body weight of mice during the experimental period. It can be concluded that AFE of N. arbor-tristis posses safe oral anti diabetic potentials mediated via multiple mechanisms. Results of the present study scientifically proved the claims made about the uses of N. arbor-tristis in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional Sri Lankan medicinal system. Further, flowers can also be used for as a remedy to improve blood lipid profile.

Keywords: aqueous extract, hypoglycemic hypolipidemic, Nyctanthes arbor-tristis flowers, hepatotoxicity

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9 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of Olea europea Var. Oleaster Oil and Determination of Its Effects on Blood Parameters

Authors: Asma Gherib, Imen Merzougui, Cherifa Henchiri

Abstract:

This present study has allowed to evaluate the physico chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and the hypolipidemic effect of Oleaster oil Olea europea var. Oleaster, from the area of El Kala, "Eastern Algeria" on rats "Wistar albinos". The physico chemical characteristics: acidity (0,73%), peroxide value (14, 16 meqO2/kg oil) and iodine value (74,08 g iodine/100 g of oil) are consistent with international standards. The dosage of FA revealed a wealth of oil with UFA (76,7%), mainly composed of 65.43% of MUFA whose major fatty acid is oleic acid (63,57%). The experiment on rats receiving a diet rich in saturated fats and hydrogenated oils revealed that the consumption of Oleaster oil at the dose of 10 g and 20 g for 15 and 30 days improves plasma lipid profile by decreasing the rates of TC, TG, TL, and LDL-C with an increase in the rate of HDL-C serum. The importance of these effects depends on the dose and period of treatment.

Keywords: oleaster oil, fatty acid, Olea europea, oleic acid, lipid profile

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8 Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipaemic Effects of Aqueous Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Extract on Alloxan Diabetic Rabbits

Authors: Khalil Abdullah Ahmed Khalil, Elsadig Mohamed Ahmed

Abstract:

Extracts of various plants material capable of decreasing blood sugar have been tested in experimental animal models and their effects confirmed. Neem or Margose (Azadirachta Indica) is an indigenous plant believed to have antiviral, antifungal, antidiabetic and many other properties. This paper deals with a comparative study of the effect of aqueous Neem leaves extract alone or in combination with glibenclamide on alloxan diabetic rabbits. Administration of crude aqueous Neem extract (CANE) alone (1.5 ml/kg/day), as well as the combination of CANE (1.5 ml/kg/day) with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg/day) significantly, decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of serum lipids, blood glucose and lipoprotein VLDL(very low-density lipoproteins) and LDL(low-density lipoproteins) but significantly increased (P<0.05) the concentration of HDL(high-density lipoprotein). The change was observed significantly greater when the treatment was given in combination of CANE and glibenclamid than with CANE alone.

Keywords: neem, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, cholesterol

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7 Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) Grown in Algeria

Authors: Asma Temagoult, Bariza Zitouni, Yassin Noui

Abstract:

Cactus fruit contains different nutritional and functional components, which are used because of their benefits to human health, such as flavonoids, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamins C. It has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action, and antioxidant properties related to anticarcinogenic, antiulcerogenic and immunomodulatory effects. The antioxidant and nutritional properties have been characterized in cactus prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.), cultivar yellow, grown in Arris area; Eastern of Algeria. The antioxidant properties of this cactus cultivar were higher than the others cactus cultivar in the world. The amount of fruit phenolic compounds revealed contents between 20.65 and 45.70 mg / 100 g of FW for total polyphenols and 0.519 - 0.591 mg / 100 g of FW for the flavonoids. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The average recorded to the potassium content is about 1070 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight; sodium is 60.7 mg / 100 g of the fresh weight and 80 mg / 100g for the calcium. According to the high value of this cactus, it was considered as a good nutrient and important pharmaceutical resource. It could be used as a natural additive or substituted food supplement in many foodstuffs production, to benefit from these benefits.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, DPPH, FRAP, nutritional properties, Opuntia ficus indica

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6 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti

Abstract:

This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: saponin, diabetes, metformin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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5 Hepatoprotective Effects of Parsley, Basil, and Chicory Aqueous Extracts against Dexamethasone-Induced in Experimental Rats

Authors: Hanan A. Soliman, Mohamed A. El-Desouky, Walaa G. Hozayen, Rasha R. Ahmed, Amal K . Khaliefa

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats.

Keywords: antioxidants, dexamethasone, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia

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4 Implications of Oxidative Stress for Monoterpenoid Oxindole Alkaloid Production in Uncaria tomentosa Cultures

Authors: Ana C. Ramos Valdivia, Ileana Vera-Reyes, Ariana A. Huerta-Heredia

Abstract:

The conditions of biotic and abiotic stress in plants can lead to the generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads through a signaling cascade and second messengers to different antioxidant defense responses including the production of secondary metabolites. A limited number of species of plants like Uncaria tomentosa (cat claw) typical of the Amazon region produce monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids (MOA) such as isopteropodine, mitraphylline, rhynchophylline and its isomers. Moreover, in cultivated roots, the glucoindole alkaloid 3α-dihydrocadambine (DHC) is also accumulated. Several studies have demonstrated that MAO has antioxidant properties and possess important pharmacological activities such as antitumor and immunostimulant while DHC, has hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects. In order the study the regulatory concerns operating in MAO production, the links between oxidative stress and antioxidant alkaloid production in U. tomentosa root cultures were examined. Different amount of hydrogen peroxide between 0.2 -1.0 mM was added to 12 days old roots cultures showing that, this substance had a differential effect on the production of DHC and MOA whereas the viability remained in 80% after six days. Addition of 0.2 mM hydrogen peroxide increased approximately 65% MAO and DHC production (0,540 ± 0.018 and 0.618 ± 0.029 mg per g dry weight, respectively) relative to the control. On contrast, after the addition of 0.6 mM and 1 mM hydrogen peroxide, DHC accumulation into the roots gradually decreased to 53% and 93% respectively, without changes in MAO concentration, which was in relation to a twice increase of the intracellular hydrogen peroxide content. On the other hand, concentrations of DHC (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM in methanol) demonstrated free-radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The calculated IC50 for all tested concentrations was 0.180 mg per ml (0.33 mM) while the calculated TE50 was 276 minutes. Our results suggest that U. tomentosa root cultures both MAO and DHC have antioxidant capacities and respond to oxidative stress with a stimulation of their production; however, in presence of a higher concentration of ROS into the roots, DHC could be oxidized.

Keywords: monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, oxidative stress, root cultures, uncaria tomentosa

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3 Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Mycelial Polysaccharides from Calocybe indica in Hyperlipidemic Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet

Authors: Govindan Sudha, Mathumitha Subramaniam, Alamelu Govindasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Hypsizygus ulmarius polysaccharides (HUP) on reducing oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and neurotoxicity in D-galactose induced aging mice. Mice were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose (150 mg/kg per day) for 6 weeks and were administered HUP simultaneously. Aged mice receiving vitamin E (100 mg/kg) served as positive control. Chronic administration of D-galactose significantly impaired cognitive performance oxidative defence and mitochondrial enzymes activities as compared to control group. The results showed that HUP (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatment significantly improved the learning and memory ability in Morris water maze test. Biochemical examination revealed that HUP significantly increased the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial enzymes-NADH dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), Na+K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ATPase activities, elevated the lowered total anti-oxidation capability (TAOC), glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and decreased the raised acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxide (HPO), protein carbonyls (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels in brain of aging mice induced by D-gal in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, present study highlights the potential role of HUP against D-galactose induced cognitive impairment, biochemical and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. In vitro studies on the effect of HUP on scavenging DPPH, ABTS, DMPD, OH radicals, reducing power, B-carotene bleaching and lipid peroxidation inhibition confirmed the free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of HUP. The results suggest that HUP possesses anti-aging efficacy and may have potential in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: aging, antioxidants, mushroom, neurotoxicity

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2 Antioxidant, Hypoglycemic and Hypotensive Effects Affected by Various Molecular Weights of Cold Water Extract from Pleurotus Citrinopileatus

Authors: Pao-Huei Chen, Shu-Mei Lin, Yih-Ming Weng, Zer-Ran Yu, Be-Jen Wang

Abstract:

Pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase are the critical enzymes for the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into di- or mono-saccharide, which play an important role in modulating postprandial blood sugars. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts inactive angiotensin-I into active angiotensin-II, which subsequently increase blood pressure through triggering vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion. Thus, inhibition of carbohydrate-digestion enzymes and ACE will help the management of blood glucose and blood pressure, respectively. Studies showed Pleurotus citrinopileatus (PC), an edible mushroom and commonly cultured in oriental countries, exerted anticancer, immune improving, antioxidative, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Previous studies also showed various molecular weights (MW) fractioned from extracts may affect biological activities due to varying contents of bioactive components. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypotenstive effects and distribution of active compounds of various MWs of cold water extract from P. citrinopileatus (CWEPC). CWEPC was fractioned into four various MW fractions, PC-I (<1 kDa), PC-II (1-3.5 kDa), PC-III (3.5-10 kDa), and PC-IV (>10 kDa), using an ultrafiltration system. The physiological activities, including antioxidant activities, the inhibition capabilities of pancreatic α-amylase, intestinal α-glucosidase, and hypertension-linked ACE, and the active components, including polysaccharides, protein, and phenolic contents, of CWEPC and four fractions were determined. The results showed that fractions with lower MW exerted a higher antioxidant activity (p<0.05), which was positively correlated to the levels of total phenols. In contrast, the inhibition effects on the activities of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE of PC-IV fraction were significantly higher than CWEPC and the other three low MW fractions (< 10 kDa), which was more related to protein contents. The inhibition capability of CWEPC and PC-IV on α-amylase activity was 1/13.4 to 1/2.7 relative to that of acarbose (positive control), respectively. However, the inhibitory ability of PC-IV on α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.5 mg/mL) was significantly higher than acarbose (IC50 = 1.7 mg/mL). Kinetic data revealed that PC-IV fraction followed a non-competitive inhibition on α-glucosidase activity. In conclusion, the distribution of various bioactive components contribute to the functions of different MW fractions on oxidative stress prevention, and blood pressure and glucose modulation.

Keywords: α-Amylase, angiotensin converting enzyme, α-Glucosidase, Pleurotus citrinopileatus

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1 Effects of Hypolipidemic Agents in Aminoglycoside-Induced Experimental Nephrotoxicity in Rats: Biochemical and Histopathological Evidence

Authors: Balakumar Pitchai, Xiang Llan Ang, Sunil Prajapati, Varatharajan Rajavel, Sundram Karupiah, Mohd Baidi Bahari

Abstract:

The study examined the pretreatment and post-treatment effects of low-doses of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin in gentamicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. Gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered to rats for 8 days. In the pretreatment protocol, low-dose fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or low-dose rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day, p.o.) treatments were started a day before the administration of gentamicin and continued for 8 days. In the post-treatment protocol, rats administered gentamicin were treated with low-dose fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or low-dose rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 6 days after the completion of 8 days protocol of gentamicin administration. Gentamicin-associated acute nephrotoxicity in rats was assessed in terms of biochemical analysis and renal histopathological studies. Gentamicin-administered rats showed marked renal functional changes as assessed in terms of a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels as compared to normal rats. The renal dysfunction noted in gentamicin administered rats was accompanied with elevated serum uric acid level as compared to normal rats while there was no significant change in lipid profile. Low-dose fenofibrate pretreatment in gentamicin-administered rats afforded a significant renal functional improvements and renoprotection while its post-treatment showed no significant renoprotection. On the other hand, pretreatment with low-dose rosuvastatin partially reduced gentamicin-induced increase in serum creatinine level, but its post-treatment did not afford renal functional improvements in gentamicin-administered rats. However, all pre and post-treatments with low-doses of fenofibrate or rosuvastatin significantly reduced the elevated serum uric acid concentration in gentamicin-administered rats. Renal histopathological analysis showed a discernible incidence of acute tubular necrosis in gentamicin-administered rats which were markedly reduced by low-dose fenofibrate or low-dose rosuvastatin pretreatments; but, not by their post-treatments. In conclusion, low-dose fenofibrate pretreatment considerably prevented gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis and renal functional abnormalities in rats while its post-treatment resulted in no significant renoprotective action. In spite of effective prevention of gentamicin-induced acute tubular necrosis, the pretreatment with low-dose rosuvastatin had only a partial and fractional protection on renal functional abnormalities. The post-treatment with low-dose rosuvastatin was ineffective in affording a renoprotection in gentamicin-administered rats.

Keywords: gentamicin-nephrotoxicity, low-dose fenofibrate, low-dose rosuvastatin, renoprotection

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