Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: polyphenol

85 Characterization of Nanoemulsion Incorporating Crude Cocoa Polyphenol

Authors: Suzannah Sharif, Aznie Aida Ahmad, Maznah Ismail

Abstract:

Cocoa bean is the raw material for products such as cocoa powder and chocolate. Cocoa bean contains polyphenol which has been shown in several clinical studies to confer beneficial health effects. However studies showed that cocoa polyphenol absorption in the human intestinal tracts are very low. Therefore nanoemulsion may be one way to increase the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenol. This study aim to characterize nanoemulsion incorporating crude cocoa polyphenol produced using high energy technique. Cocoa polyphenol was extracted from fresh freeze-dried cocoa beans from Malaysia. The particle distribution, particle size, and zeta potential were determined. The emulsion was also analysed using transmission electron microscope to visualize the particles. Solubilization study was conducted by titrating the nanoemulsion into distilled water or 1% surfactant solution. Result showed that the nanoemulsion contains particle which have narrow size distribution. The particles size average at 112nm with zeta potential of -45mV. The nanoemulsions behave differently in distilled water and surfactant solution.

Keywords: cocoa, nanoemulsion, cocoa polyphenol, solubilisation study

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84 Comparison of Polyphonic Profile of a Berry from Two Different Sources, Using an Optimized Extraction Method

Authors: G. Torabian, A. Fathi, P. Valtchev, F. Dehghani

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The superior polyphenol content of Sambucus nigra berries has high health potentials for the production of nutraceutical products. Numerous factors influence the polyphenol content of the final products including the berries’ source and the subsequent processing production steps. The aim of this study is to compare the polyphenol content of berries from two different sources and also to optimise the polyphenol extraction process from elderberries. Berries from source B obtained more acceptable physical properties than source A; a single berry from source B was double in size and weight (both wet and dry weight) compared with a source A berry. Despite the appropriate physical characteristics of source B berries, their polyphenolic profile was inferior; as source A berries had 2.3 fold higher total anthocyanin content, and nearly two times greater total phenolic content and total flavonoid content compared to source B. Moreover, the result of this study showed that almost 50 percent of the phenolic content of berries are entrapped within their skin and pulp that potentially cannot be extracted by press juicing. To address this challenge and to increase the total polyphenol yield of the extract, we used cold-shock blade grinding method to break the cell walls. The result of this study showed that using cultivars with higher phenolic content as well as using the whole fruit including juice, skin and pulp can increase polyphenol yield significantly; and thus, may boost the potential of using elderberries as therapeutic products.

Keywords: different sources, elderberry, grinding, juicing, polyphenols

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83 Effect of Two Cooking Methods on Kinetics of Polyphenol Content, Flavonoid Content and Color of a Tunisian Meal: Molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius)

Authors: S. Njoumi, L. Ben Haj Said, M. J. Amiot, S. Bellagha

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The main objective of this research was to establish the kinetics of variation of total polyphenol content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) in Tunisian Corchorus olitorius powder and in a traditional home cooked-meal (Molokheiya) when using stewing and stir-frying as cooking methods, but also to compare the effect of these two common cooking practices on water content, TPC, TFC and color. The L*, a* and b* coordinates values of the Molokheiya varied from 24.955±0.039 to 21.301±0.036, from -1.556±0.048 to 0.23±0.026 and from 5.675±0.052 to 6.313±0.103 when using stewing and from 21.328±0.025 to 20.56±0.021, from -1.093± 0.011to 0.121±0.007 and from 5.708±0.020 to 6.263±0.007 when using stir-frying, respectively. TPC and TFC increased during cooking. TPC of Molokheiya varied from 29.852±0.866 mg GAE/100 g to 220.416±0.519 mg GAE/100 g after 150 min of stewing and from 25.257±0.259 mg GAE/100 g to 208.897 ±0.173 mg GAE/100 g using stir-frying method during 150 min. TFC of Molokheiya varied from 48.229±1.47 mg QE/100 g to 843.802±1.841 mg QE/100 g when using stewing and from 37.031± 0.368 mg QE/100 g to 775.312±0.736 mg QE/100 g when using stir-frying. Kinetics followed similar curves in all cases but resulted in different final TPC and TFC. The shape of the kinetics curves suggests zero-order kinetics. The mathematical relations and the numerical approach used to model the kinetics of polyphenol and flavonoid contents in Molokheiya are described.

Keywords: Corchorus olitorius, Molokheiya, phenolic compounds, kinetic

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82 Polyphenol-Rich Aronia Melanocarpa Juice Consumption and Line-1 Dna Methylation in a Cohort at Cardiovascular Risk

Authors: Ljiljana Stojković, Manja Zec, Maja Zivkovic, Maja Bundalo, Marija Glibetić, Dragan Alavantić, Aleksandra Stankovic

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is associated with alterations in DNA methylation, the latter modulated by dietary polyphenols. The present pilot study (part of the original clinical study registered as NCT02800967 at www.clinicaltrials.gov) aimed to investigate the impact of 4-week daily consumption of polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa juice on Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 (LINE-1) methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes, in subjects (n=34, age of 41.1±6.6 years) at moderate CVD risk, including an increased body mass index, central obesity, high normal blood pressure and/or dyslipidemia. The goal was also to examine whether factors known to affect DNA methylation, such as folate intake levels, MTHFR C677T gene variant, as well as the anthropometric and metabolic parameters, modulated the LINE-1 methylation levels upon consumption of polyphenol-rich Aronia juice. The experimental analysis of LINE-1 methylation was done by the MethyLight method. MTHFR C677T genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Folate intake was assessed by processing the data from the food frequency questionnaire and repeated 24-hour dietary recalls. Serum lipid profile was determined by using Roche Diagnostics kits. The statistical analyses were performed using the Statistica software package. In women, after vs. before the treatment period, a significant decrease in LINE-1 methylation levels was observed (97.54±1.50% vs. 98.39±0.86%, respectively; P=0.01). The change (after vs. before treatment) in LINE-1 methylation correlated directly with MTHFR 677T allele presence, average daily folate intake and the change in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while inversely with the change in serum triacylglycerols (R=0.72, R2=0.52, adjusted R2=0.36, P=0.03). The current results imply potential cardioprotective effects of habitual polyphenol-rich Aronia juice consumption achieved through the modifications of DNA methylation pattern in subjects at CVD risk, which should be further confirmed. Hence, the precision nutrition-driven modulations of DNA methylation may become targets for new approaches in the prevention and treatment of CVD.

Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa, cardiovascular risk, LINE-1, methylation, peripheral blood leukocytes, polyphenol

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81 Mathematical Modeling of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Content of Faba Beans (Vicia faba L.) during Microwave Treatments

Authors: Ridha Fethi Mechlouch, Ahlem Ayadi, Ammar Ben Brahim

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Given the importance of the preservation of polyphenols and carotenoids during thermal processing, we attempted in this study to investigate the variation of these two parameters in faba beans during microwave treatment using different power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g), then to perform a mathematical modeling by using non-linear regression analysis to evaluate the models constants. The variation of the carotenoids and polyphenols ratio of faba beans and the models are tested to validate the experimental results. Exponential models were found to be suitable to describe the variation of caratenoid ratio (R²= 0.945, 0.927 and 0.946) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively, and polyphenol ratio (R²= 0.931, 0.989 and 0.982) for power densities (1; 2; and 3W/g) respectively. The effect of microwave power density Pd(W/g) on the coefficient k of models were also investigated. The coefficient is highly correlated (R² = 1) and can be expressed as a polynomial function.

Keywords: microwave treatment, power density, carotenoid, polyphenol, modeling

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80 Eco-Friendly Control of Bacterial Speck on Solanum lycopersicum by Azadirachta indica Extract

Authors: Navodit Goel, Prabir K. Paul

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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is attacked by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato causing speck lesions on the leaves leading to severe economic casualty. In the present study, aqueous fruit extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) were sprayed on a single node of tomato plants grown under controlled contamination-free conditions. The treatment of plants was performed with neem fruit extract either alone or along with the pathogen. The parameters of observation were activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and lysozyme, and isoform analysis of PPO; both at the treated leaves as well as untreated leaves away from the site of extract application. Polyphenol oxidase initiates phenylpropanoid pathway resulting in the synthesis of quinines from cytoplasmic phenols and production of reactive oxygen species toxic to broad spectrum microbes. Lysozyme is responsible for the breakdown of bacterial cell wall. The results indicate the upregulation of PPO and lysozyme activities in both the treated and untreated leaves along with de novo expression of newer PPO isoenzymes (which were absent in control samples). The appearance of additional PPO isoenzymes in bioelicitor-treated plants indicates that either the isoenzymes were expressed after bioelicitor application or the already expressed but inactive isoenzymes were activated by it. Lysozyme activity was significantly increased in the plants when treated with the bioelicitor or the pathogen alone. However, no new isoenzymes of lysozyme were expressed upon application of the extract. Induction of resistance by neem fruit extract could be a potent weapon in eco-friendly plant protection strategies.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica, lysozyme, polyphenol oxidase, Solanum lycopersicum

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79 The Increase in Functionalities of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) Mycelia Depending on the Increase in Nutritional Components

Authors: Hye-Sung Park, Eun-Ji Lee, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong

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This study was conducted to research king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) mycelia with reinforced functionalities. 0 to 4% of saccharide components, such as glucose (glu), lactose (lac), mannitol (man), xylose (xyl), and fructose (fru) and 0 to 0.04% of amino acid components, such as aspartic acid (asp). Cysteine (cys), threonine (thr), glutamine (gln), and serine (ser) were added to liquid media, and antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents of the cultured mycelia were measured. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had high antioxidant activities when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 73.9%, which was the highest value. In the amino acid-added group, the antioxidant activity of ASI 2839 was 66.3% that was the highest value when 0.2% of ser was added. But all the 5 strains had lower antioxidant activities than the saccharide-added group overall. In the saccharide-added group, 4 strains except ASI 2887 had higher nitrite scavenging activities than other group when 1% of xyl was added and especially, the nitrite scavenging activity of ASI 2824 was 57.8% that was the highest value. It was revealed that the saccharide-added group and the amino acid-added group had a similar efficiency of nitrite scavenging activity. Although the same component-added group did not show a certain increase or decrease in total polyphenol contents, ASI 2839 with the highest antioxidant activity had 6.8mg/g, which was the highest content when 1% of xyl was added. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that when 1% of xyl was added, functionalities of Pleurotus eryngii mycelia, including antioxidant activities, nitrite scavenging activities, and total polyphenol contents improved.

Keywords: king oyster mushroom, saccharide, amino acid, mycelia

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78 Mycorrhizal Autochthonous Consortium Induced Defense-Related Mechanisms of Olive Trees against Verticillium dahliae

Authors: Hanane Boutaj, Abdelilah Meddich, Said Wahbi, Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi, Allal Douira, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Cherkaoui El Modafar

Abstract:

The present work aims to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in improving the olive tree resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Inoculated plants with a mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium 'Rhizolive consortium' and pure strain 'Glomus irregulare' were infected after three months with V. dahliae. The improving of olive tree resistance was determined through disease severity, incidence, and defoliation. On the other hand, the defense mechanisms of olive plants were evaluated through lignin content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and polyphenol content. The results revealed that both AMF significantly (p < 0.05) reduced disease development and the rate of defoliation in infected olive plants. Moreover, the contents of lignin were boosted after mycorrhizal inoculation in both the roots and the stems of olive plants, which remained significantly (p < 0.001) higher after the 90th days of V. dahliae inoculation. PAL activity was increased after V. dahliae inoculation in the stems of 'Rhizolive consortium' treatment that were 17 times higher than those in the roots of olive plants. The polyphenol content in the stems was about twice higher than those in the roots. The reduction of disease severity was accompanied by increased levels of lignin content, PAL activity, and polyphenol content, particularly in the stems of olive plants, indicating the strengthening of the olive plant immune system against V. dahliae.

Keywords: olive tree, Mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium, Glomus irregulare, Verticillium dahliae, defense mechanisms

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77 The Effect of the Variety and Harvesting Date on Polyphenol Composition of Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.) and Anti-diabetic Properties of Haskap Polyphenols

Authors: Aruma Baduge Kithma De Silva

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Haskap (Lonicera caerulea L.), also known as blue honeysuckle, is a newly commercialized berry crop in Canada. Haskap berries are rich in polyphenols, including, anthocyanins, which are known for potential health-promoting properties. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) is the most abundant anthocyanin of haskap berries. The compound C3G has the ability to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), which has become an increasingly common health issue around the world. The T2D is characterized as a metabolic disorder of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. It has been demonstrated that C3G has anti-diabetic effects through several ways, including inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), reduction of gluconeogenesis, improvement in insulin sensitivity, and inhibition of activities of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of variety and harvests maturity of haskap on C3G, other fruit quality characteristics and anti-diabetic activities of haskap berries using in vitro studies. The polyphenols present in four commercially grown haskap cultivars, Aurora, Rebecca, Larissa, and Evie harvested at five harvesting dates (H1-H5) apart from 2-3 days, were extracted separately. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyzes of polyphenols revealed that haskap berries contain predominantly anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids. The compound C3G was the most prominent anthocyanin, which is available in approximately 79% of total anthocyanin in four cultivars. The Larissa at H5 contained the highest C3G content. The antioxidant capacity of Evie at H5 was greater than other cultivars. Furthermore, Larissa H5 showed the greatest inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes including alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase. In conclusion, the haskap variety and harvesting date influenced the polyphenol composition and biological properties. The variety Larissa, at H5 harvesting date, contained the highest polyphenol content and the ability of inhibition of the carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme as well as DPP4 enzyme in order to reduce type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: anthocyanin, Haskap, type 2 diabetes, polyphenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
76 High Pressure Processing of Jackfruit Bulbs: Effect on Color, Nutrient Profile and Enzyme Inactivation

Authors: Jyoti Kumari, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao

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Jackfruit (ArtocarpusheterophyllusL.) is an underutilized yet highly nutritious fruit with unique flavour, known for its therapeutic and culinary properties. Fresh jackfruit bulb has a very short shelf life due to high moisture and sugar content leading to microbial and enzymatic browning, hindering its consumer acceptability and marketability. An attempt has been made for the preservation of the ripe jackfruit bulbs, by the application of high pressure (HP) over a range of 200-500 MPa at ambient temperature for dwell times ranging from 5 to 20 min. The physicochemical properties of jackfruit bulbs such as the pH, TSS, and titrable acidity were not affected by the pressurization process. The ripening index of the fruit bulb also decreased following HP treatment. While the ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity of jackfruit bulb were well retained by high pressure processing (HPP), the total phenols and carotenoids showed a slight increase. The HPP significantly affected the colour and textural properties of jackfruit bulb. High pressure processing was highly effective in reducing the browning index of jackfruit bulbs in comparison to untreated bulbs. The firmness of the bulbs improved upon the pressure treatment with longer dwelling time. The polyphenol oxidase has been identified as the most prominent oxidative enzyme in the jackfruit bulb. The enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase were significantly reduced by up to 40% following treatment at 400 MPa/15 min. HPP of jackfruit bulbs at ambient temperatures is shown to be highly beneficial in improving the shelf stability, retaining its nutrient profile, color, and appearance while ensuring the maximum inactivation of the spoilage enzymes.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, color, HPP-high pressure processing, jackfruit bulbs, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, total phenolic content

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75 Compositional Analysis and Antioxidant Activities of the Chocolate Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum CK10

Authors: Hye Rim Kang, So Yae Koh, Ji-Yeon Ryu, Chang Kyu Lee, Ji Hee Lim, Hyeon A. Kim, Geun Hyung Im, Somi Kim Cho

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In this study, antioxidant properties and compositional analysis of fermented chocolate were examined. Chocolate was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum CK10. As fermentation time went by, pH was decreased (5.26±0.02 to 3.98±0.06) while titratable acidity was increased (5.36±0.19 to 13.31±0.34). The total polyphenol contents were maintained through the fermentation. The contents of total polyphenol were slightly increased at 8 hr (6.34±0.12 mg GAE (Gallic acid equivalent)/g), and it reached to comparable levels of the control at 24 hr (control, 5.47±0.36 mg GAE/g); 24 hr, 5.19±0.23 mg GAE/g). Similarly, the total flavonoid contents were not significantly changed during fermentation. The pronounced radical scavenging activities of chocolate, against DPPH-, ABTS-, and Alkyl radical, were observed. The levels of antioxidant activities were not dramatically altered in the course of fermentation. By gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the increase in lactic acid was measured and four major compounds, HMF, xanthosine, caffeine, and theobromine, were identified. The relative peak area of caffeine and theobromine was considerably changed during fermentation. However, no significant difference in the levels of caffeine and theobromine were observed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

Keywords: antioxidant, chocolate, compositional analysis, fermentation, Lactobaillus plantarum

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74 Sensory Acceptability of Novel Sorrel/Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)

Authors: Tamara Anderson, Neela Badrie

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Plant phenolics which are found in red grape wine, have received considerable attention due to their potential antioxidant activity. Grape by-products contain large amounts of phenolic compounds, mostly flavonoids at high concentrations of 1000-1800 mg/L. Plant phenolics contribute to the flavor, and nutritional value. Sorrel or roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) belongs to the family Malvaceae. The brilliant red pigments in sorrel calyces contain anthocyanins which are the major sources of antioxidant capacity. Consumers are demanding novel beverages that are healthier, convenient and have appealing consumer acceptance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of adding grape polyphenols and the influence of presenting health claims on the sensory acceptability of the wines. Fresh red sorrel calyces were fermented into wines. The total soluble solids of the pectinase-treated sorrel puree were from 4°Brix to 23.8°Brix. Polyphenol in the form of grape pomace extract was added to sorrel wines (w/v) in specified levels to give 0. 25. 50 and 75 ppm. A focus group comprising of 12 panelists was use to select the level of polyphenol to be added to sorrel wines for sensory preference The sensory attributed of the wines which were evaluated were colour, clarity, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall preference. The sorrel wine which was most preferred from focus group evaluation was presented for hedonic rating. In the first stage of hedonic testing, the sorrel wine was served chilled at 7°C for 24 h prior to sensory evaluation. Each panelist was provided with a questionnaire and was asked to rate the wines on colour, aroma, flavor, mouth-feel, sweetness, astringency and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. In the second stage of hedonic testing, the panelist were instructed to read a health abstract on the health benefits of polyphenolic compounds and again to rate sorrel wine with added 25 ppm polyphenol. Paired t-test was used for the analysis of the influence of presenting health information on polyphenols on hedonic scoring of sorrel wines. Focus groups found that the addition of polyphenol addition had no significant effect on sensory color and aroma but affected clarity and flavor. A 25 ppm wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability. The presentation of information on the health benefit of polyphenols in sorrel wines to panelists had no significant influence on the sensory acceptance of wine. More than half of panelists would drink this wine now and then. This wine had color L 19.86±0.68, chroma 2.10±0.12, hue° 16.90 ±3.10 and alcohol content of 13.0%. The sorrel wine was liked moderately in overall acceptability with the added polyphenols.

Keywords: sorrel wines, Roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa L, novel wine, polyphenols, health benefits, physicochemical properties

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73 Extraction and Identification of Natural Antioxidants from Liquorices (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) and Its Application in El-Mewled El-Nabawy Sweets (Sesames and Folia)

Authors: Mervet A. El-sherif, Ginat M El-sherif, Kadry H Tolba

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The objective of this study was to determine, identify and investigate the effects of natural antioxidants of licorice and carob. Besides, their effects as powder and antioxidant extracts addition on refined sunflower oil stability as natural antioxidants were evaluated. Total polyphenol contents as total phenols, total carotenoids and total tannins were 353.93mg/100g (gallic acid), 10.62mg/100g (carotenoids) and 83.33mg/100g (tannic acid), respectively in licorice, while in carob, it was 186.07, 18.66 and 106.67, respectively. Polyphenol compounds of the studied licorice and carob extracts were determined and identified by HPLC. The stability of refined sunflower oil (which determined by peroxide value and Rancimat) was increased with increasing the level of polyphenols extracts addition. Also, our study shows the effect of addition of these polyphenols extracts to El-mewled El-nabawy sweets fortified by full cream milk powder (sesames and folia). We found that, licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts were delayed the rancidity of sesame and peanut significantly. That encourages using licorice and carob as powder and polyphenols extracts as a good natural antioxidants source instead of synthetic antioxidants.

Keywords: licorice, carob, natural antioxidants, antioxidant activity, applications

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72 Development of a Dairy Drink Made of Cocoa, Coffee and Orange By-Products with Antioxidant Activity

Authors: Gianella Franco, Karen Suarez, María Quijano, Patricia Manzano

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Agro-industries generate large amounts of waste, which are mostly untapped. This research was carried out to use cocoa, coffee and orange industrial by-products to develop a dairy drink. The product was prepared by making a 10% aqueous extract of the mixture of cocoa and coffee beans shells and orange peel. Extreme Vertices Mixture Design was applied to vary the proportions of the ingredients of the aqueous extract, getting 13 formulations. Each formulation was mixed with skim milk and pasteurized. The attributes of taste, smell, color and appearance were evaluated by a semi-trained panel by multiple comparisons test, comparing the formulations against a standard marked as "R", which consisted of a coffee commercial drink. The formulations with the highest scores were selected to maximize the Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) through a process of linear optimization resulting in the formulation 80.5%: 18.37%: 1.13% of cocoa bean shell, coffee bean shell and orange peel, respectively. The Total Polyphenol Content was 4.99 ± 0.34 mg GAE/g of drink, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%) was 80.14 ± 0.05 and caffeine concentration of 114.78 mg / L, while the coffee commercial drink presented 3.93 ± 0.84 mg GAE / g drink, 55.54 ± 0.03 % and 47.44 mg / L of TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity and caffeine content, respectively. The results show that it is possible to prepare an antioxidant - rich drink with good sensorial attributes made of industrial by-products.

Keywords: DPPH, polyphenols, waste, food science

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71 Investigations of Metals and Metal-Antibrowning Agent Effects on Polyphenol Oxidase Activity from Red Poppy Leaf

Authors: Gulnur Arabaci

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Heavy metals are one of the major groups of contaminants in the environment and many of them are toxic even at very low concentration in plants and animals. However, some metals play important roles in the biological function of many enzymes in living organisms. Metals such as zinc, iron, and cooper are important for survival and activity of enzymes in plants, however heavy metals can inhibit enzyme which is responsible for defense system of plants. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper-containing metalloenzyme which is responsible for enzymatic browning reaction of plants. Enzymatic browning is a major problem for the handling of vegetables and fruits in food industry. It can be increased and effected with many different futures such as metals in the nature and ground. In the present work, PPO was isolated and characterized from green leaves of red poppy plant (Papaver rhoeas). Then, the effect of some known antibrowning agents which can form complexes with metals and metals were investigated on the red poppy PPO activity. The results showed that glutathione was the most potent inhibitory effect on PPO activity. Cu(II) and Fe(II) metals increased the enzyme activities however, Sn(II) had the maximum inhibitory effect and Zn(II) and Pb(II) had no significant effect on the enzyme activity. In order to reduce the effect of heavy metals, the effects of metal-antibrowning agent complexes on the PPO activity were determined. EDTA and metal complexes had no significant effect on the enzyme. L-ascorbic acid and metal complexes decreased but L-ascorbic acid-Cu(II)-complex had no effect. Glutathione–metal complexes had the best inhibitory effect on Red poppy leaf PPO activity.

Keywords: inhibition, metal, red poppy, poly phenol oxidase (PPO)

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70 Biochemical and Pomological Variability among 14 Moroccan and Foreign Cultivars of Prunus dulcis

Authors: H. Hanine, H. H'ssaini, M. Ibno Alaoui, A. Nablousi, H. Zahir, S. Ennahli, H. Latrache, H. Zine Abidine

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Biochemical and pomological variability among 14 cultivars of Prunus dulcis planted in a germoplasm collection site in Morocco were evaluated. Almond samples from six local and eight foreign cultivars (France, Italy, Spain, and USA) were characterized. Biochemical and pomological data revealed significant genetic variability among the 14 cultivars; local cultivars exhibited higher total polyphenol content. Oil content ranged from 35 to 57% among cultivars; both Texas and Toundout genotypes recorded the highest oil content. Total protein concentration from select cultivars ranged from 50 mg/g in Ferraduel to 105 mg/g in Rizlane1 cultivars. Antioxidant activity of almond samples was examined by a DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging assay; the antioxidant activity varied significantly within the cultivars, with IC50 (the half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values ranging from 2.25 to 20 mg/ml. Autochthonous cultivars originated from the Oujda region exhibited higher tegument total polyphenol and amino acid content compared to others. The genotype Rizlane2 recorded the highest flavonoid content. Pomological traits revealed a large variability within the almond germplasms. The hierarchical clustering analysis of all the data regarding pomological traits distinguished two groups with some particular genotypes as distinct cultivars, and groups of cultivars as polyclone varieties. These results strongly exhibit a potential use of Moroccan-originated almonds as potential clones for future selection due to their nutritional values and pomological traits compared to well-established cultivars.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, DDPH, Moroccan almonds, Prunus dulcis

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69 Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Efficacy of the Endocarps Fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae) in Mostaganem

Authors: Sebaa H., Cherifi F., Djabeur Abderrezak M.

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Argania spinosa, Sapotaceae sole representative in Algeria and Morocco; hence it is endemic in these regions. However, it is a recognised oil, forage, and timber tree highly adapted to aridity. The exploitation of the argan fruits produces considerable amounts of under or related products. These products, such as the endocarps of a fruit, recuperated after the use of kernels to extract oil. This research studies in detail the contents of total phenolic content was determined by Folin Ciocalteu reagent and Flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric assay). Antioxidant activity of extracts was expressed as the percentage of DPPH radical inhibition and IC50 values (μg/mL). Antimicrobial activity evaluated using agar disk diffusion method against reference Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27453, Escherichia coli ATCC 23922. Immature endocarps showed a higher polyphenol content than mature endocarps. The total phenolic content in immature endocarps was found to vary from 983,75+ /- 0.45 to 980,1 +/- 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, whereas in mature endocarps, the polyphenol content ranged from 100,58 mg/g +/- 0.42 to 105 +/- 0.55% mg gallic acid equivalent / g dry weight. The flavonoid content was 16.5 mg equivalent catechin/g dry weight and 9.81mg equivalent catechin /g dry weight for immature and mature endocarp fruits, respectively. DPPH assay of the endocarps extract yielded a half-maximal effective concentration (IC50) value in the immature endocarps (549.33 μg/mL) than in mature endocarps (322 μg/mL). This result can be attributed to the higher phenolics and flavonoid compounds in the immature endocarps. Methanol extract of immature endocarps exhibited antibacterial activity against E.colie (inhibition zone, 11mm).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, total phenolic content, DPPH assay

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68 Inhibition of the Activity of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme Present in Annona muricata and Musa acuminata by the Experimentally Identified Natural Anti-Browning Agents

Authors: Michelle Belinda S. Weerawardana, Gobika Thiripuranathar, Priyani A. Paranagama

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Most of fresh vegetables and fruits available in the retail markets undergo a physiological disorder in its appearance and coloration, which indeed discourages consumer purchase. A loss of millions of dollars yearly to the food industry had been due to this pronounced color reaction called Enzymatic Browning which is driven due to the catalytic activity by an oxidoreductase enzyme, polyphenol oxidase (PPO). The enzyme oxidizes the phenolic compounds which are abundantly available in fruits and vegetables as substrates into quinones, which could react with proteins in its surrounding to generate black pigments, called melanins, which are highly UV-active compounds. Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains) is a fruit and a vegetable consumed by Sri Lankans widely due to their high nutritional values, medicinal properties and economical importance. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and determine the effective natural anti-browning inhibitors that could prevent PPO activity in the selected fruit and vegetable. Enzyme extracts from Annona muricata (Katu anoda) and Musa acuminata (Ash plantains), were prepared by homogenizing with analytical grade acetone, and pH of each enzyme extract was maintained at 7.0 using a phosphate buffer. The extracts of inhibitors were prepared using powdered ginger rhizomes and essential oil from the bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Water extracts of ginger were prepared and the essential oil from Ceylon cinnamon bark was extracted using steam distillation method. Since the essential oil is not soluble in water, 0.1µl of cinnamon bark oil was mixed with 0.1µl of Triton X-100 emulsifier and 5.00 ml of water. The effect of each inhibitor on the PPO activity was investigated using catechol (0.1 mol dm-3) as the substrate and two samples of enzyme extracts prepared. The dosages of the prepared Cinnamon bark oil, and ginger (2 samples) which were used to measure the activity were 0.0035 g/ml, 0.091 g/ml and 0.087 g/ml respectively. The measurements of the inhibitory activity were obtained at a wavelength of 525 nm using the UV-visible spectrophotometer. The results evaluated thus revealed that % inhibition observed with cinnamon bark oil, and ginger for Annona muricata was 51.97%, and 60.90% respectively. The effects of cinnamon bark oil, and ginger extract on PPO activity of Musa acuminata were 49.51%, and 48.10%. The experimental findings thus revealed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark oil was a more effective inhibitor for PPO enzyme present in Musa acuminata and ginger was effective for PPO enzyme present in Annona muricata. Overall both the inhibitors were proven to be more effective towards the activities of PPO enzyme present in both samples. These inhibitors can thus be corroborated as effective, natural, non-toxic, anti-browning extracts, which when added to the above fruit and vegetable will increase the shelf life and also the acceptance of the product by the consumers.

Keywords: anti-browning agent, enzymatic browning, inhibitory activity, polyphenol oxidase

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67 Physiological Insight into an Age Old Biocontrol Practice in Banana Cultivation

Authors: Susmita Goswami, Joyeeta Mitra, Indu Gaur, Neha Bhadauria, Shilpi Shilpi, Prabir K. Paul

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'Malbhog’, an indigenous banana variety, much prized for its flavour and delicacy suffers production losses due to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The pathogen enters young plants through feeder roots causing wilting of plants ultimately leading to death of plants. The pathogen spreads rapidly to other plants in the field. In eastern part of India, this variety escapes the onslaught of the pathogen when either co-cultivated or rotated with Amorphophallus campanulatus (yam). The present study provides an insight into the physiological aspect of the biocontrol by yam. In vitro application of sterile aqueous extract of yam tuber (100gm/100ml distilled water and its 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions) were mixed with PDA media which was substantially inoculated with spores of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The extract could significantly reduce germination of pathogen spores. Banana variety susceptible to Fusarium sp was raised in soil rite under aseptic conditions. Spores of the pathogen (106 spores/ml) were inoculated into the soil rite. The plants were spread with aqueous extract of yam. The control plants were treated with sterilized distilled water. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were estimated in leaves and roots at interval of 24 hours for 5 days after treatment. The incidence of wilt disease was recorded after two weeks. The results demonstrated that yam extract could induce significant activity of PAL, PPO and POX along with accumulation of phenols in both roots and leaves of banana plants. However, significantly high activity of enzymes and phenol accumulation was observed in roots. The disease incidence was significantly low in yam treated plants. The results clearly demonstrated the control of the pathogen due to induction of defense mechanism in the host by the extract. The observed control of the pathogen in the field could possibly be due to induction of such defense responses in host by exudates leached into the soil from yam tubers. Yam extract could be a potential source of environment-friendly biocide against Panama wilt of banana.

Keywords: Amorphophallus campanulatus, banana, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX)

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66 Comparison of Phytochemicals in Grapes and Wine from Shenton Park Winery

Authors: Amanda Sheard, Garry Lee, Katherine Stockham

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Introduction: Health benefits associated with wine consumption have been well documented; these include anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection. The majority of these health benefits have been linked to polyphenols found within wine and grapes. Once consumed polyphenols exhibit free radical quenching capabilities. Environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, CO2 levels and sunlight exposure have been shown to affect the polyphenol content of grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of growing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of grapes obtained from a single plot vineyard in Perth. This was achieved through the analysis of samples using; oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) in human red blood cells, ICP-MS and ICP-OES, total polyphenols (PP’s), and total flavonoid’s (FLa). The data obtained was compared to observed climate data. The 14 Selected Vitis Vinefera L. cultivars included Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carnelian, Chardonnay, Grenache, Melbec, Merlot, Orange muscat, Rousanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Shiraz, Tempernillo, Verdelho, and Voignier. Results: Notable variation’s between cultivars included results ranging from 125 mg/100 g-350 mg/100 g for PP’s, 93 mg/100 g–300 mg/100 g for FLa, 13 mM T.E/kg–33 mM T.E/kg for ORAC and 0.3 mM Q.E/kg–27 mM Q.E/kg CAA were found between red and white grape cultivars. No correlation was found between CAA and the ORAC obtained in this study; except that white cultivars were consistently lower than red. ICP analysis showed that seeds contained the highest concentration of copper followed by skins and flesh of the grape. A positive correlation between copper and ORAC was found. The ORAC, PP’s, and FLa in red grapes were consistently higher than white grape cultivars; these findings were supported by literature values. Significance: The cellular antioxidant activities of white and red wine cultivars were used to compare the bioactivity of these grapes against the chemical ORAC measurement. The common method of antioxidant activity measurement is the chemical value from ORAC analysis; however this may not reflect the activity within the human body. Hence, the measurements were also carried out using the cellular antioxidant activity to perform a comparison. Additionally, the study explored the influence of weather systems such as El Niño and La Niña on the polyphenol content of Australian wine cultivars grown in Perth.

Keywords: oxygen radical antioxidant activity, cellular antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, wine grapes, climate

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65 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

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The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

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64 Effect of Aronia Juice on Cellular Redox Status in Women with Aerobic Training Activity

Authors: Ana Jelenkovic, Nevena Kardum, Vuk Stevanovic, Ivana Šarac, Kristina Dmitrovic, Stevan Stevanovic, Maria Glibetic

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Physical activity is well known for its beneficial health implications, however, excess oxygen consumption may impair oxidative status of the cell and affect membrane fatty acid (FA) composition. Polyphenols are well-established antioxidants, which can incorporate in cell membranes and protect them from oxidation. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how an 8-week aerobic training alters erythrocyte FA composition and activities of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase), and to what extent polyphenol-rich Aronia juice (AJ) counteracts these potential alterations. We included 28 healthy women aged 19-29, with mean body mass index (BMI) of 21.2±2.7kg/m² and assigned them into three groups. The first group performed 1 hour of aerobic training three times per week (T); the second group trained in the same way and received 100 ml/day AJ as a part of their regular diet (TAJ), while the third group was the control one (C). Study analyses were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention and included: anthropometric and biochemical measurements, determination of erythrocyte FA profile with gas-liquid chromatography and determination of enzymes’ activity with spectrophotometry. Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS 20.0, with p < 0.05 considered as significant. The paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the saturated FA content and in ω6/ω3 ratio in TAJ group. Furthermore, ω3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content increased, as well as the percentage of polyunsaturated FA and unsaturation index, which clearly pointed out that AJ supplementation with aerobic training protected cellular membranes from lipid peroxidation. No significant changes were observed in the two other groups. The between-group comparisons (ANCOVA) confirmed the synergistic effect of AJ supplementation and physical activity: DHA and ω3 contents were much higher, while ω6/ω3 ratio was significantly lower in the TAJ group compared with C. We also found that after the 8 weeks period, participants in TAJ group had a higher unsaturation index and lower saturated FA concentration than subjects from T group, suggesting that AJ polyphenols might be involved in that particular pathway. We found no significant changes in enzymes’ activities apart from a significantly higher superoxide dismutase activity in T group compared with the other two groups. Our results imply that supplementation with polyphenol-rich AJ may prevent membrane lipids from peroxidation in healthy subjects with regular aerobic activity.

Keywords: Aronia juice, aerobic training, fatty acids, oxidative status

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63 Optimization of a Method of Total RNA Extraction from Mentha piperita

Authors: Soheila Afkar

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Mentha piperita is a medicinal plant that contains a large amount of secondary metabolite that has adverse effect on RNA extraction. Since high quality of RNA is the first step to real time-PCR, in this study optimization of total RNA isolation from leaf tissues of Mentha piperita was evaluated. From this point of view, we researched two different total RNA extraction methods on leaves of Mentha piperita to find the best one that contributes the high quality. The methods tested are RNX-plus, modified RNX-plus (1-5 numbers). RNA quality was analyzed by agarose gel 1.5%. The RNA integrity was also assessed by visualization of ribosomal RNA bands on 1.5% agarose gels. In the modified RNX-plus method (number 2), the integrity of 28S and 18S rRNA was highly satisfactory when analyzed in agarose denaturing gel, so this method is suitable for RNA isolation from Mentha piperita.

Keywords: Mentha piperita, polyphenol, polysaccharide, RNA extraction

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62 Concentration of D-Pinitol from Carob Kibble Using Submerged Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Authors: Thi Huong Vu, Vijay Jayasena, Zhongxiang Fang, Gary Dykes

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D-pinitol (3-O-methyl ether of D-chiro-inosito) has been known to have health benefits for diabetic patients. Carob kibble has received attention due to the presence of high value D-pinitol and polyphenol antioxidants. D-pinitol was concentrated from carob kibble using submerged fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total carbohydrates and D-pinitol were determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method and HPLC, respectively. The content of D-pinitol increased from approximately 43 to 70 mg/g dry weight after fermentation. The yeast consumed over 70% of total carbohydrates in carob kibble without any negative effect on D-pinitol content. A range of substrate medium pH’s from 5.0 – 7.0 had no significant effect on the removal of carbohydrates and D-pinitol. This method may provide a practical solution for production of D-pinitol from carob in a cost effective manner.

Keywords: carob kibble, d-pinitol, saccharomyces cerevisiae, submerged fermentation, total carbohydrates

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61 Effect of Resveratrol and Ascorbic Acid on the Stability of Alfa-Tocopherol in Whey Protein Isolate Stabilized O/W Emulsions

Authors: Lei Wang, Yingzhou Ni, Amr M. Bakry, Hao Cheng, Li Liang

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Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials because of their multiple functional properties. In this study, alfa-tocopherol was encapsulated in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI). The influence of WPI concentration and resveratrol or ascorbic acid on the decomposition of alfa-tocopherol in the emulsion during storage is discussed. Decomposition decreased as WPI concentrations increased. Decomposition was delayed at ascorbic acid/WPI molar ratios lower than 5 but was promoted at higher ratios. Resveratrol partitioned into the oil-water interface by binding to WPI and its cis-isomer is believed to have contributed most of the protective effect of this polyphenol. These results suggest the possibility of using the emulsifying and ligand-binging properties of WPI to produce carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of alfa-tocopherol and resveratrol in a single emulsion system.

Keywords: stability, alfa-tocopherol, resveratrol, whey protein isolate

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
60 Future Trends in Sources of Natural Antioxidants from Indigenous Foods

Authors: Ahmed El-Ghorab

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Indigenous foods are promising sources of various chemical bioactive compounds such as vitamins, phenolic compounds and carotenoids. Therefore, the presence o different bioactive compounds in fruits could be used to retard or prevent various diseases such as cardiovascular and cancer. This is an update report on nutritional compositions and health promoting phytochemicals of different indigenous food . This different type of fruits and/ or other sources such as spices, aromatic plants, grains by-products, which containing bioactive compounds might be used as functional foods or for nutraceutical purposes. most common bioactive compounds are vitamin C, polyphenol, β- carotene and lycopene contents. In recent years, there has been a global trend toward the use of natural phytochemical as antioxidants and functional ingredients, which are present in natural resources such as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and herbs.. Our future trend the Use of Natural antioxidants as a promising alternative to use of synthetic antioxidants and the Production of natural antioxidant on commercial scale to maximize the value addition of indigenous food waste as a good source of bioactive compounds such as antioxidants.

Keywords: bioactive compounds, antioxidants, by-product, indigenous foods, phenolic compounds

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59 Enrichment of the Antioxidant Activity of Decaffeinated Assam Green Tea by Herbal Plant: A Synergistic Effect

Authors: Abhijit Das, Runu Chakraborty

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Tea is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water; it is grown in about 30 countries with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Green tea is of growing importance with its antioxidant contents associated with its health benefits. The various extraction methods can influence the polyphenol concentrations of green tea. The purpose of the study was to quantify the polyphenols, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of both caffeinated and decaffeinated form of tea manufactured commercially in Assam, North Eastern part of India. The results display that phenolic/flavonoid content well correlated with antioxidant activity which was performed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma) assay. After decaffeination there is a decrease in the polyphenols concentration which also affects the antioxidant activity of green tea. For the enrichment of antioxidant activity of decaffeinated tea a herbal plant extract is used which shows a synergistic effect between green tea and herbal plant phenolic compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, decaffeination, green tea, flavonoid content, phenolic content, plant extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
58 Starch-Based Systems for the Nano-Delivery of Quercetin

Authors: Fernando G. Torres, Omar P. Troncoso

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Quercetin is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in many vegetables, such as onion, with antioxidant properties. It is a dietary component with a documented role in reducing different human cancers. However, its low bioavailability, poor water solubility, and chemical instability limit its applications. Different nano-delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles, and nanohydrogels have been studied in order to improve the bioavailability of quercetin. Nanoparticles based on natural polymers such as starch have the advantage of being biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic. In this study, quercetin was loaded into starch nanoparticles using a nanoprecipitation method. Different routes, using sodium tripolyphosphate and Tween® 80 as tensioactive agents, were tested in order to obtain an optimized starch-based nano-delivery system. The characterization of the nanoparticles loaded with quercetin was assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential, and Differential scanning calorimetry. UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to evaluate the loading efficiency and capacity of the samples. The results showed that starch-based systems could be successfully used for the nano-delivery of quercetin.

Keywords: starch nanoparticles, nanoprecipitation, quercetin, biomedical applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
57 Study of the Antimicrobial Potential Of a Rich Polyphenolic Extract Obtained from Cytisus scoparius

Authors: Lorena G. Calvo, Marta Lores, Trinidad de Miguel

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Natural extracts containing high polyphenolic concentration possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. The present research characterizes a hydro-organic extract with a high polyphenolic content as an antimicrobial candidate. As a result of this composition, the extract showed pronounced bioactivities with potential uses in agricultural, veterinary, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Polyphenol compounds were extracted by using hydro-organic solvent mixtures from the shrub Cytisus scoparius. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of this extract was evaluated on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the fungus Candida albicans. Microbial species investigated, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are causing agents of several human and animal diseases. The extract showed activity against all tested species. So, it could be used for the development of biocides to control a wide range of pathogenic agents and contribute to the creation of economic and eco-friendly alternatives to antibiotics.

Keywords: antimicrobial properties, antioxidant properties, Cytisus scoparius, polyphenolic extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
56 Production of Ginseng Berry Wines and Analysis of Their Properties

Authors: Jae Hee Choi, Seung Il Ahn, Sae Kyul Kim, Byung Wook Yang, Bong Sun Park, Hwan Sup Kim, Young Tae Hahm

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The root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER, commonly known as Korean ginseng, has several physiologic effects as a cure-all or a panacea. Among the ginseng, ginseng berry can be obtained from 3 or 4-year-old ginseng plant. Ginseng berry contains the high amount of ginsenoside Re, compared with other ginsenosides. Ginseng berry wine was manufactured with berry extract. The concentration of ginsenoside in ginseng berry extract obtained from Anseong Ginseng Nonghyup was 3.6 mg/g. Ethanol content of ginseng berry wine was 15.00±1.00%. Total polyphenol content was 1.62±0.12 mg/ml. In analysis of organic acids, acetic acid was high in ginseng berry extract whereas malic acid in ginseng berry wine was high.Ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured with berry extract with traditional nuruk (yeast). When the ginseng berry rice wine was manufactured, ginseng berry extract was diluted into 5% of total volume of wine. pH values and total acidity were 3.30±0.03 and 1.28±0.0 %, respectively. Residual sugar content was 8.8 ± 0.0 °Brix and ethanol content was 14.00 %. Any residual pesticides were not detected over acceptable range. Overall, the ginseng berry extract were valuable food stuffs for the manufacture of new ginseng product.

Keywords: ginseng berry, ginseng berry wine, ginsenoside, panax ginseng

Procedia PDF Downloads 234