Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: hemocompatibility

4 Functionalization of Polypropylene with Chiral Monomer for Improving Hemocompatibility

Authors: Xiaodong Xu, Dan Zhao, Xiujuan Chang, Chunming Li, Huiyun Zhou, Xin Li, Qiang Shi, Shifang Luan, Jinghua Yin

Abstract:

Polypropylene (PP) is one of the most commonly used plastics because of its low density, outstanding mechanical properties, and low cost. However, its drawbacks such as low surface energy, poor dyeability, lack of chemical functionalities, and poor compatibility with polar polymers and inorganic materials, have restricted the application of PP. To expand its application in biomedical materials, functionalization is considered to be the most effective way. In this study, PP was functionalized with a chiral monomer, (S)-1-acryloylpyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid ((S)-APCA), by free-radical grafting in the solid phase. The grafting degree of PP-g-APCA was determined by chemical titration method, and the chemical structure of functionalized PP was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, which confirmed that the chiral monomer (S)-APCA was successfully grafted onto PP. Static water contact angle results suggested that the surface hydrophilicity of PP was significantly improved by solid phase grafting and assistance of surface water treatment. Protein adsorption and platelet adhesion results showed that hemocompatibility of PP was greatly improved by grafting the chiral monomer.

Keywords: functionalization, polypropylene, chiral monomer, hemocompatibility

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3 Evaluation of Human Amnion Hemocompatibility as a Substitute for Vessels

Authors: Ghasem Yazdanpanah, Mona Kakavand, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Objectives: An important issue in tissue engineering (TE) is hemocompatibility. The current engineered vessels are seriously at risk of thrombus formation and stenosis. Amnion (AM) is the innermost layer of fetal membranes that consists of epithelial and mesenchymal sides. It has the advantages of low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties as well as good mechanical properties. We recently introduced the amnion as a natural biomaterial for tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated hemocompatibility of amnion as potential biomaterial for tissue engineering. Materials and Methods: Amnions were derived from placentas of elective caesarean deliveries which were in the gestational ages 36 to 38 weeks. Extracted amnions were washed by cold PBS to remove blood remnants. Blood samples were obtained from healthy adult volunteers who had not previously taken anti-coagulants. The blood samples were maintained in sterile tubes containing sodium citrate. Plasma or platelet rich plasma (PRP) were collected by blood sample centrifuging at 600 g for 10 min. Hemocompatibility of the AM samples (n=7) were evaluated by measuring of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), hemolysis, and platelet aggregation tests. P-selectin was also assessed by ELISA. Both epithelial and mesenchymal sides of amnion were evaluated. Glass slide and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) samples were defined as control. Results: In comparison with glass as control (13.3 ± 0.7 s), prothrombin time was increased significantly while each side of amnion was in contact with plasma (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in PT between epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces (17.4 ± 0.7 s vs. 15.8 ± 0.7 s, respectively). However, aPPT was not significantly changed after incubation of plasma with amnion epithelial and mesenchymal surfaces or glass (28.61 ± 1.39 s, 31.4 ± 2.66 s, glass, 30.76 ± 2.53 s, respectively, p>0.05). Amnion surfaces, ePTFE and glass samples have less hemolysis induction than water considerably (p<0.001), in which no differences were detected. Platelet aggregation measurements showed that platelets were less stimulated by the amnion epithelial and mesenchymal sides, in comparison with ePTFE and glass. In addition, reduction in amount of p-selectin, as platelet activation factor, after incubation of samples with PRP indicated that amnion has less stimulatory effects on platelets than ePTFE and glass. Conclusion: Amnion as a natural biomaterial has the potential to be used in tissue engineering. Our results suggest that amnion has appropriate hemocompatibility to be employed as a vascular substitute.

Keywords: amnion, hemocompatibility, tissue engineering, biomaterial

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2 Cryotopic Macroporous Polymeric Matrices for Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Archana Sharma, Vijayashree Nayak, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Three-dimensional matrices were fabricated from blend of natural-natural polymers like carrageenan-gelatin and synthetic -natural polymers such as PEG- gelatin (PEG of different molecular weights (2,000 and 6,000) using two different crosslinkers; glutaraldehyde and EDC-NHS by cryogelation technique. Blends represented a feasible approach to design 3-D scaffolds with controllable mechanical, physical and biochemical properties without compromising biocompatibility and biodegradability. These matrices possessed interconnected porous structure, good mechanical strength, biodegradable nature, constant swelling kinetics, ability to withstand high temperature and visco-elastic behavior. Hemocompatibility of cryogel matrices was determined by coagulation assays and hemolytic activity assay which demonstrated that these cryogels have negligible effects on coagulation time and have excellent blood compatibility. In vitro biocompatibility (cell-matrix interaction) inferred good cell adhesion, proliferation, and secretion of ECM on matrices. These matrices provide a microenvironment for the growth, proliferation, differentiation and secretion of ECM of different cell types such as IMR-32, C2C12, Cos-7, rat bone marrow derived MSCs and human bone marrow MSCs. Hoechst 33342 and PI staining also confirmed that the cells were uniformly distributed, adhered and proliferated properly on the cryogel matrix. An ideal scaffold used for tissue engineering application should allow the cells to adhere, proliferate and maintain their functionality. Neurotransmitter analysis has been done which indicated that IMR-32 cells adhered, proliferated and secreted neurotransmitters when they interacted with these matrices which showed restoration of their functionality. The cell-matrix interaction up to molecular level was also evaluated so to check genotoxicity and protein expression profile which indicated that these cryogel matrices are non-genotoxic and maintained biofunctionality of cells growing on these matrices. All these cryogels, when implanted subcutaneously in balb/c mice, showed no adverse systemic or local toxicity effects at implantation site. There was no significant increase in inflammatory cell count has otherwise been observed after scaffold implantation. These cryogels are supermacroporous and this porous structure allows cell infiltration and proliferation of host cells. This showed the integration and presence of infiltrated cells into the cryogel implants. Histological analysis confirmed that the implanted cryogels do not have any adverse effect in spite of host immune system recognition at the site of implantation, on its surrounding tissues and other vital host organs. In vivo biocompatibility study after in vitro biocompatibility analysis has also concluded that these synthesized cryogels act as important biological substitutes, more adaptable and appropriate for transplantation. Thus, these cryogels showed their potential for soft tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: cryogelation, hemocompatibility, in vitro biocompatibility, in vivo biocompatibility, soft tissue engineering applications

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1 Stent Surface Functionalisation via Plasma Treatment to Promote Fast Endothelialisation

Authors: Irene Carmagnola, Valeria Chiono, Sandra Pacharra, Jochen Salber, Sean McMahon, Chris Lovell, Pooja Basnett, Barbara Lukasiewicz, Ipsita Roy, Xiang Zhang, Gianluca Ciardelli

Abstract:

Thrombosis and restenosis after stenting procedure can be prevented by promoting fast stent wall endothelialisation. It is well known that surface functionalisation with antifouling molecules combining with extracellular matrix proteins is a promising strategy to design biomimetic surfaces able to promote fast endothelialization. In particular, REDV has gained much attention for the ability to enhance rapid endothelialization due to its specific affinity with endothelial cells (ECs). In this work, a two-step plasma treatment was performed to polymerize a thin layer of acrylic acid, used to subsequently graft PEGylated-REDV and polyethylene glycol (PEG) at different molar ratio with the aim to selectively promote endothelial cell adhesion avoiding platelet activation. PEGylate-REDV was provided by Biomatik and it is formed by 6 PEG monomer repetitions (Chempep Inc.), with an NH2 terminal group. PEG polymers were purchased from Chempep Inc. with two different chain lengths: m-PEG6-NH2 (295.4 Da) with 6 monomer repetitions and m-PEG12-NH2 (559.7 Da) with 12 monomer repetitions. Plasma activation was obtained by operating at 50W power, 5 min of treatment and at an Ar flow rate of 20 sccm. Pure acrylic acid (99%, AAc) vapors were diluted in Ar (flow = 20 sccm) and polymerized by a pulsed plasma discharge applying a discharge RF power of 200 W, a duty cycle of 10% (on time = 10 ms, off time = 90 ms) for 10 min. After plasma treatment, samples were dipped into an 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3- ethylcarbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) solution (ratio 4:1, pH 5.5) for 1 h at 4°C and subsequently dipped in PEGylate-REDV and PEGylate-REDV:PEG solutions at different molar ratio (100 μg/mL in PBS) for 20 h at room temperature. Surface modification was characterized through physico-chemical analyses and in vitro cell tests. PEGylated-REDV peptide and PEG were successfully bound to the carboxylic groups that are formed on the polymer surface after plasma reaction. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, X -ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement gave a clear indication of the presence of the grafted molecules. The use of PEG as a spacer allowed for an increase in wettability of the surface, and the effect was more evident by increasing the amount of PEG. Endothelial cells adhered and spread well on the surfaces functionalized with the REDV sequence. In conclusion, a selective coating able to promote a new endothelial cell layer on polymeric stent surface was developed. In particular, a thin AAc film was polymerised on the polymeric surface in order to expose –COOH groups, and PEGylate-REDV and PEG were successful grafted on the polymeric substrates. The REDV peptide demonstrated to encourage cell adhesion with a consequent, expected improvement of the hemocompatibility of these polymeric surfaces in vivo. Acknowledgements— This work was funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme under grant agreement number 604251- ReBioStent (Reinforced Bioresorbable Biomaterials for Therapeutic Drug Eluting Stents). The authors thank all the ReBioStent partners for their support in this work.

Keywords: endothelialisation, plasma treatment, stent, surface functionalisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228