Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2810

Search results for: waste plastic bottles

2810 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

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2809 Recovery of Post-Consumer PET Bottles in a Composite Material Preparation

Authors: Rafenomananjara Tsinjo Nirina, Tomoo Sekito, Andrianaivoravelona Jaconnet Oliva

Abstract:

Manufacturing a composite material from post-consumer bottles is an interesting outlet since Madagascar is still facing the challenges of managing plastic waste on the one hand and appropriate waste treatment facilities are not yet developed on the other hand. New waste management options are needed to divert End-Of-Life (EOL) soft plastic wastes from landfills and incineration. Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles might be considered as a valuable resource and recovered into polymer concrete. The methodology is easy to implement and appropriate to the local context in Madagascar. This approach will contribute to the production of ecological building materials that might be profitable for the environment and the construction sector. This work aims to study the feasibility of using the post-consumer PET bottles as an alternative binding agent instead of the conventional Portland cement and water. Then, the mechanical and physical properties of the materials were evaluated.

Keywords: PET recycling, polymer concrete, ecological building materials, pollution mitigation

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2808 Valorisation of Polyethylene and Plastic Bottle Wastes as Pavement Blocks

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Fidelis Patrick Afangide

Abstract:

This research investigated the possibility of using waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles for the production of interlock pavement blocks. In many parts of the world, interlock pavement block is used widely as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications and the blocks have different shapes, sizes and colours suiting the imagination of landscape architects. Using suitable and conventional mould having a 220 x 135 x 50 mm³ shape, the interlock blocks were produced. The material constituents of the produced blocks were waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles mixed in varying, respective percentage-weight proportions of; 100%+0%, 75%+25%, 50%+50% and 25%+75%. The blocks were then tested for unconfined compressive strength and water absorption properties. The test results compared well with those of conventional concrete interlock blocks and the research demonstrates the possibility of value recovery from the waste streams which are currently dumped in open-spaces thereby affecting the environment.

Keywords: pavement blocks, polyethylene, plastic bottle, wastes, valorization

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2807 Possible Number of Dwelling Units Using Waste Plastic Bottle for Construction

Authors: Dibya Jivan Pati, Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma

Abstract:

Unlike other metro cities of India, Bhubaneswar–the capital city of Odisha, is expected to reach 1-million-mark population by now. The demands of dwelling unit requirement mostly among urban poor belonging to Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income groups (LIG) is becoming a challenge due to high housing cost and rents. As a matter of fact, it’s also noted that, with increase in population, the solid waste generation also increases subsequently affecting the environment due to inefficiency in collection of waste by local government bodies. Methods of utilizing Solid Waste - especially in form of Plastic bottles, Glass bottles and Metal cans (PGM) are now widely used as an alternative material for construction of low-cost building by Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in developing countries like India to help the urban poor afford a shelter. The application of disposed plastic bottle used in construction of single dwelling significantly reduces the overall cost of construction to as much as 14% compared to traditional construction material. Therefore, considering its cost-benefit result, it’s possible to provide housing to EWS and LIGs at an affordable price. In this paper, we estimated the quantity of plastic bottles generated in Bhubaneswar which further helped to estimate the possible number of single dwelling unit that can be constructed on yearly basis so as to refrain from further housing shortage. The estimation results will be practically used for planning and managing low-cost housing business by local government and NGOs.

Keywords: construction, dwelling unit, plastic bottle, solid waste generation, groups

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2806 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

Abstract:

This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

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2805 Gap between Knowledge and Behaviour in Recycling Domestic Solid Waste: Evidence from Manipal, India

Authors: Vidya Pratap, Seena Biju, Keshavdev A.

Abstract:

In the educational town of Manipal (located in southern India) households dispose their wastes without segregation. Mixed wastes (organic, inorganic and hazardous items) are collected either by private collectors or by the local municipal body in trucks and taken to dump yards. These collectors select certain recyclables from the collected trash and sell them to scrap merchants to earn some extra money. Rag pickers play a major role in picking up card board boxes, glass bottles and milk sachets from dump yards and public areas and scrap iron from construction sites for recycling. In keeping with the Indian Prime Minister’s mission of Swachh Bharat (A Clean India), the local municipal administration is taking efforts to ensure segregation of domestic waste at source. With this in mind, each household in a residential area in Manipal was given two buckets – for wet and dry wastes (wet waste referred to organic waste while dry waste included recyclable and hazardous items). A study was conducted in this locality covering a cluster of 145 households to assess the residents’ knowledge of recyclable, organic and hazardous items commonly disposed by households. Another objective of this research was to evaluate the extent to which the residents actually dispose their wastes appropriately. Questionnaires were self-administered to a member of each household with the assistance of individuals speaking the local language whenever needed. Respondents’ knowledge of whether an item was organic, inorganic or hazardous was captured through a questionnaire containing a list of 50 common items. Their behaviour was captured by asking how they disposed these items. Results show that more than 70% of respondents are aware that banana and orange peels, potato skin, egg shells and dried leaves are organic; similarly, more than 70% of them consider newspapers, notebook and printed paper are recyclable. Less than 65% of respondents are aware that plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are recyclable. However, the results of the respondents’ recycling behaviour is less impressive. Fewer than 35% of respondents recycle card board boxes, milk sachets and glass bottles. Unfortunately, since plastic items like plastic bags and covers and plastic bottles are not accepted by scrap merchants, they are not recycled. This study shows that the local municipal authorities must find ways to recycle plastic into products, alternate fuel etc.

Keywords: behaviour, knowledge, plastic waste management, recyclables

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2804 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite

Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan

Abstract:

This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.

Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite material

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2803 Suitable Die Shaping for a Rectangular Shape Bottle by Application of FEM and AI Technique

Authors: N. Ploysook, R. Rugsaj, C. Suvanjumrat

Abstract:

The characteristic requirement for producing rectangular shape bottles was a uniform thickness of the plastic bottle wall. Die shaping was a good technique which controlled the wall thickness of bottles. An advance technology which was the finite element method (FEM) for blowing parison to be a rectangular shape bottle was conducted to reduce waste plastic from a trial and error method of a die shaping and parison control method. The artificial intelligent (AI) comprised of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm was selected to optimize the die gap shape from the FEM results. The application of AI technique could optimize the suitable die gap shape for the parison blow molding which did not depend on the parison control method to produce rectangular bottles with the uniform wall. Particularly, this application can be used with cheap blow molding machines without a parison controller therefore it will reduce cost of production in the bottle blow molding process.

Keywords: AI, bottle, die shaping, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
2802 Experimental Investigation of Bituminous Roads with Waste Plastic

Authors: Arjita Biswas, Sandeep Potnis

Abstract:

Plastic roads (bituminous roads using waste plastic in the wearing course ) have now become familiar in the Road Construction Sector in India. With the Indian Road Congress Code (IRC SP: 98 -2013), many agencies are coming forward to implement Plastic Roads in India. This paper discuss and compare about the various properties of bituminous mix with 8% waste plastic and normal bituminous mix. This paper also signifies the performance of both the types of roads after 4 months of age under loading conditions. Experiments were carried out to evaluate its performance. The result shows improved performance of plastic roads.

Keywords: bituminous roads, experiments, performance, plastic roads

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2801 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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2800 Design Consideration of a Plastic Shredder in Recycling Processes

Authors: Tolulope A. Olukunle

Abstract:

Plastic waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing developing countries. This paper describes the design of various components of a plastic shredder. This machine is widely used in industries and recycling plants. The introduction of plastic shredder machine will promote reduction of post-consumer plastic waste accumulation and serves as a system for wealth creation and empowerment through conversion of waste into economically viable products. In this design research, a 10 kW electric motor with a rotational speed of 500 rpm was chosen to drive the shredder. A pulley size of 400 mm is mounted on the electric motor at a distance of 1000 mm away from the shredder pulley. The shredder rotational speed is 300 rpm.

Keywords: design, machine, plastic waste, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2799 Assessing Water Bottle Consumption on College Campus in Abu Dhabi: Towards a Sustainable Future

Authors: Ludmilla Wikkeling-Scott, Amira Karim

Abstract:

Background: In a rapidly developing environment, concerns for pollution and depletion of natural resources are challenges facing global communities. A major source of waste on university campuses is the use of plastic bottles, while cost of production and processing is high. Consumer demand stimulates popularity of plastic bottle production, but researchers agree this is not a sustainable solution. This pilot study assesses plastic water bottle used and attitude towards alternatives among Emirati college students. Methods: This study was conducted in December 2016, using an anonymous self-administered survey of 17 questions. The survey included personal characteristics, plastic water bottle used, attitude towards alternative replacement and sustainability. For statistical analysis, STATA 14C was used to determine significance of association. Results: A total of 500 Emirati students (94.6% female) completed the survey. Of the students, 82.6% preferred bottled water over tap water, and 44.6% reported disposable bottled water use in their household, 42.6% purchased disposable bottled water more than twice a week, and 44.2% purchased bottled water at least once, while on campus. Students were willing to consider switching to alternative water bottle use if it was more convenient (22.54%), cost less (55.13%) or improved the taste (22.54%), while only 7.85% students would not consider any alternatives. There was a significant difference in attitude towards alternatives to water bottle use by area of study (p < 0.005). Conclusion: The UAE strives to be at the forefront of sustainable development and protecting biodiversity. However, a major challenge is the increasing amount of waste, exacerbated by the increasing consumer demand for convenience as seen in this billion-dollar industry. Plastic bottles, for all purposes, pose a serious threat to the environment and sustainable campus initiatives can help reduce the ecological footprint, improve awareness of safe alternatives and benefits to the environment.

Keywords: ecological foot print, emirati students, plastic bottle consumption, sustainable campus

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2798 A Review on the Use of Plastic Waste with Viable Materials in Composite Construction Block

Authors: Mohan T. Harish, Masson Lauriane, Sreevalsa Kolathayar

Abstract:

Environmental issues raise alarm in the constructional field which implies a need for exploring new construction materials derived from the waste and residual products. This paper presents a detailed review of the alternatives approaches employed in the construction field using plastic waste in mixture with mixed with fillers. A detailed analysis of the plastic waste used in concrete, with soil, sand, clay and natural residues like sawdust, rice husk etc are presented. The different process carried forward was also discussed along with the scrutiny of the change in mechanical properties. The effect of coupling agents in the proposed mixture has been appraised in detail which gives implications for its future application in the field of plastic waste with viable materials in composite construction blocks.

Keywords: plastic waste, composite materials, construction block, concrete, natural residue, coupling agent

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2797 Behavior of Pet Packaging on Quality Characteristics of an Algerian Virgin Olive Oil Under Various Conditions of Storage

Authors: Hamitri-Guerfi Fatiha, Mekimene Lekhder, Madani Khodir, Youyou Ahcene

Abstract:

Virgin olive oil is appreciated by consumers, the quality of the oil is regulated by the international olive oil council depends on its chemical composition, so, the correct packing conditions are a prerequisite to preserve oil color, flavor, and nutriments, from production to consumption. The contact of food with various materials of packaging, since the production, until their consumption constitutes one of the essential aspects of food safety (directive 76/833/CEE). In Algeria, plastic bottles, although, they are economic and light are largely used at packaging olive oil but not used in other countries. This is due to migration phenomena that can occur from these materials. Thus, the goal of this work is to examine the physicochemical behavior of the couple packaging plastic-oil during their exposure to three temperatures corresponding to the conditions of storage applied in Algeria. Like, it is difficult to compare blowers of bottles which are heavy engineering, it comes out from this study that the effect of heat, the absorption of water, the constraints of storage of acidity, as well as the composition of oil, the PET bottles showed a remarkable structural instability, this defect of quality was confirmed by the analysis of morphology by electronic scan microscopy. These bottles present a total migration significantly higher than the threshold of acceptance. Moreover, a metal contamination of oil by its packaging was confirmed by the spectroscopy of atomic absorption and a microanalysis. The differences observed between the results of the microanalysis applied and the mechanical characterizations of the various bottles are reported, showing the reality of the container-contents exchanges.

Keywords: interaction, stability, pet, virgin olive oil

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2796 Effect of Waste Bottle Chips on Strength Parameters of Silty Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Laboratory consolidated undrained triaxial (CU) tests were carried out to study the strength behavior of silty soil reinforced with randomly plastic waste bottle chips. Specimens mixed with plastic waste chips in triaxial compression tests with 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25% by dry weight of soil and tree different length including 4, 8, and 12 mm. In all of the samples, the width and thickness of plastic chips were kept constant. According to the results, the amount and size of plastic waste bottle chips played an important role in the increasing of the strength parameters of reinforced silt compared to the pure soil. Because of good results, the suggested method of soil improvement can be used in many engineering problems such as increasing the bearing capacity and settlement reduction in foundations.

Keywords: reinforcement, silt, soil improvement, triaxial test, waste bottle chips

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2795 Evaluation of Fracture Resistance and Moisture Damage of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Plastic Coated Aggregates

Authors: Malleshappa Japagal, Srinivas Chitragar

Abstract:

The use of waste plastic in pavement is becoming important alternative worldwide for disposal of plastic as well as to improve the stability of pavement and to meet out environmental issues. However, there are still concerns on fatigue and fracture resistance of Hot Mix Asphalt with the addition of plastic waste, (HMA-Plastic mixes) and moisture damage potential. The present study was undertaken to evaluate fracture resistance of HMA-Plastic mixes using semi-circular bending (SCB) test and moisture damage potential by Indirect Tensile strength (ITS) test using retained tensile strength (TSR). In this study, a dense graded asphalt mix with 19 mm nominal maximum aggregate size was designed in the laboratory using Marshall Mix design method. Aggregates were coated with different percentages of waste plastic (0%, 2%, 3% and 4%) by weight of aggregate and performance evaluation of fracture resistance and Moisture damage was carried out. The following parameters were estimated for the mixes: J-Integral or Jc, strain energy at failure, peak load at failure, and deformation at failure. It was found that the strain energy and peak load of all the mixes decrease with an increase in notch depth, indicating that increased percentage of plastic waste gave better fracture resistance. The moisture damage potential was evaluated by Tensile strength ratio (TSR). The experimental results shown increased TRS value up to 3% addition of waste plastic in HMA mix which gives better performance hence the use of waste plastic in road construction is favorable.

Keywords: hot mix asphalt, semi circular bending, marshall mix design, tensile strength ratio

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2794 Catalytic Depolymerisation of Waste Plastic Material into Hydrocarbon Liquid

Authors: Y. C. Bhattacharyulu, Amit J. Agrawal, Vikram S. Chatake, Ketan S. Desai

Abstract:

In recent years, the improper disposal of waste polymeric materials like plastics, rubber, liquid containers, daily household materials, etc. is posing a grave problem by polluting the environment. On the other hand fluctuations in the oil market and limited stocks of fossil fuels have diverted the interest of researchers to study the production of fuels and hydrocarbons from alternative sources. Hence, to study the production of fuels from waste plastic is the need of hour at present. Effect of alkali solutions of different concentrations with copper comprising catalyst on depolymerisation reactions was studied here. The present study may become a preliminary method for obtaining valuable hydrocarbons from waste plastics and an effective way for depolymerising or degrading waste plastics for their safe disposal without causing any environmental problems.

Keywords: catalyst, depolymerisation, disposal, hydrocarbon liquids, waste plastic

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2793 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Minimizing Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Cement Based Mortar

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy

Abstract:

The development of new construction materials using recycled plastic is important to both the construction and the plastic recycling industries. Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or post-consumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of ordinary cement based mortar. Parameters investigated include: Fiber length ranging from 20 to 50 mm, and fiber volume fraction ranging from 0% to 1.5% by volume. The test results showed significant improvement in crack arresting mechanism and substantial reduction in the surface area of cracks for the mortar reinforced with recycled plastic fibers compared to plain mortar. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was a slight decrease in compressive strength of mortar reinforced with different lengths and contents of recycled fibers compared to plain mortar. This study suggests that adding more than 1% of RP fibers to mortar, can be used effectively for controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of cement based mortar, and thus results in waste reduction and resources conservation.

Keywords: mortar, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, RF recycled fibers

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2792 Testing Plastic-Sand Construction Blocks Made from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (rPET)

Authors: Cassi Henderson, Lucia Corsini, Shiv Kapila, Egle Augustaityte, Tsemaye Uwejamomere Zinzan Gurney, Aleyna Yildirim

Abstract:

Plastic pollution is a major threat to human and planetary health. In Low- and Middle-Income Countries, plastic waste poses a major problem for marginalized populations who lack access to formal waste management systems. This study explores the potential for converting waste plastic into construction blocks. It is the first study to analyze the use of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a binder in plastic-sand bricks. Unlike previous studies of plastic sand-bricks, this research tests the properties of bricks that were made using a low-cost kiln technology that was co-designed with a rural, coastal community in Kenya.  The mechanical strength, resistance to fire and water absorption properties of the bricks are tested in this study. The findings show that the bricks meet structural standards for mechanical performance, fire resistance and water absorption. It was found that 30:70 PET to sand demonstrated the best overall performance.

Keywords: recycling, PET, plastic, sustainable construction, sustainable development

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2791 Joint Modeling of Bottle Use, Daily Milk Intake from Bottles, and Daily Energy Intake in Toddlers

Authors: Yungtai Lo

Abstract:

The current study follows an educational intervention on bottle-weaning to simultaneously evaluate the effect of the bottle-weaning intervention on reducing bottle use, daily milk intake from bottles, and daily energy intake in toddlers aged 11 to 13 months. A shared parameter model and a random effects model are used to jointly model bottle use, daily milk intake from bottles, and daily energy intake. We show in the two joint models that the bottle-weaning intervention promotes bottleweaning, and reduces daily milk intake from bottles in toddlers not off bottles and daily energy intake. We also show that the odds of drinking from a bottle were positively associated with the amount of milk intake from bottles and increased daily milk intake from bottles was associated with increased daily energy intake. The effect of bottle use on daily energy intake is through its effect on increasing daily milk intake from bottles that in turn increases daily energy intake.

Keywords: two-part model, semi-continuous variable, joint model, gamma regression, shared parameter model, random effects model

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2790 Recycled Plastic Fibers for Controlling the Plastic Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete

Authors: B. S. Al-Tulaian, M. J. Al-Shannag, A. M. Al-Hozaimy

Abstract:

Manufacturing of fibers from industrial or postconsumer plastic waste is an attractive approach with such benefits as concrete performance enhancement, and reduced needs for land filling. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Plastic fibers obtained locally from recycled waste on plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete. The results indicate that recycled plastic RP fiber of 50 mm length is capable of controlling plastic shrinkage cracking of concrete to some extent, but are not as effective as polypropylene PP fibers when added at the same volume fraction. Furthermore, test results indicated that there was The increase in flexural strength of RP fibers and PP fibers concrete were 12.34% and 40.30%, respectively in comparison to plain concrete. RP fiber showed a substantial increase in toughness and a slight decrease in flexural strength of concrete at a fiber volume fraction of 1.00% compared to PP fibers at fiber volume fraction of 0.50%. RP fibers caused a significant increase in compressive strengths up to 13.02% compared to concrete without fiber reinforcement.

Keywords: concrete, plastic, shrinkage cracking, compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, RF recycled fibers, polypropylene PP fibers

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2789 Investigating the Systematic Implications of Plastic Waste Additions to Concrete Taking a Circular Approach

Authors: Christina Cheong, Naomi Keena

Abstract:

In the face of growing urbanization the construction of new buildings is inevitable and with current construction methods leading to environmental degradation much questioning is needed around reducing the environmental impact of buildings. This paper explores the global environmental issue of concrete production in parallel with the problem of plastic waste, and questions if new solutions into plastic waste additions in concrete is a viable sustainable solution with positive systematic implications to living systems, both human and non-human. We investigate how certification programs can be used to access the sustainability of the new concrete composition. With this classification we look to the health impacts as well as reusability of such concrete in a second or third life cycle. We conclude that such an approach has benefits to the environment and that taking a circular approach to its development, in terms of the overall life cycle of the new concrete product, can help understand the nuances in terms of the material’s environmental and human health impacts.

Keywords: Concrete, Plastic waste additions to concrete, sustainability ratings, sustainable materials

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2788 Hazardous Waste Management at Chemistry Section in Dubai Police Forensic Lab

Authors: Adnan Lanjawi

Abstract:

This paper is carried out to investigate the management of hazardous waste in the chemistry section which belongs to Dubai Police forensic laboratory. The chemicals are the main contributor toward the accumulation of hazardous waste in the section. This is due to the requirement to use it in analysis, such as of explosives, drugs, inorganic and fire debris cases. This leads to negative effects on the environment and to the employees’ health and safety. The research investigates the quantity of chemicals there, the labels, the storage room and equipment used. The target is to reduce the need for disposal by looking at alternative options, such as elimination, substitution and recycling. The data was collected by interviewing the top managers there who have been working in the lab more than 20 years. Also, data was collected by observing employees and how they carry out experiments. Therefore, a survey was made to assess their knowledge about the hazardous waste. The management of hazardous chemicals in the chemistry section needs to be improved. The main findings illustrate that about 110 bottles of reference substances were going to be disposed of in 2014. These bottles were bought for about 100,000 UAE Dirhams (£17,600). This means that the management of substances purchase is not organised. There is no categorisation programme in place, which makes the waste control very difficult. In addition, the findings show that chemical are segregated according to alphabetical order, whereas the efficient way is to separate them according to their nature and property. In addition, the research suggested technology and experiments to follow to reduce the need for using solvents and chemicals in the sample preparation.

Keywords: control, hazard, laboratories, waste,

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2787 Construction of Green Aggregates from Waste Processing

Authors: Fahad K. Alqahtani

Abstract:

Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic, waste which acts as binder, together with by-product waste which acts as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has the same mixture of binder and filler.

Keywords: fly ash, plastic waste, quarry fine, red sand, synthetic aggregate

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2786 A Prototype for Biological Breakdown of Plastic Bags in Desert Areas

Authors: Yassets Egaña, Patricio Núñez, Juan C. Rios, Ivan Balic, Alex Manquez, Yarela Flores, Maria C. Gatica, Sergio Diez De Medina, Rocio Tijaro-Rojas

Abstract:

Globally, humans produce millions of tons of waste per year. An important percentage of this waste is plastic, which frequently ends up in landfills and oceans. During the last decades, the greatest plastics production in history have been made, a few amount of this plastic is recycled, the rest ending up as plastic pollution in soils and seas. Plastic pollution is disastrous for the environment, affecting essential species, quality of consumption water, and some economic activities such as tourism, in different parts of the world. Due to its durability and decomposition on micro-plastics, animals and humans are accumulating a variety of plastic components without having clear their effects on human health, economy, and wildlife. In dry regions as the Atacama Desert, up to 95% of the water consumption comes from underground reservoirs, therefore preventing the soil pollution is an urgent need. This contribution focused on isolating, genotyping and optimizing microorganisms that use plastic waste as the only source of food to construct a batch-type bioreactor able to degrade in a faster way the plastic waste before it gets the desert soils and groundwater consumed by people living in this areas. Preliminary results, under laboratory conditions, has shown an improved degradation of polyethylene when three species of bacteria and three of fungi act on a selected plastic material. These microorganisms have been inoculated in dry soils, initially lacking organic matter, under environmental conditions in the laboratory. Our team designed and constructed a prototype using the natural conditions of the region and the best experimental results.

Keywords: biological breakdown, plastic bags, prototype, desert regions

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2785 Pyrolysis of Mixed Plastic Fractions with PP, PET and PA

Authors: Rudi P. Nielsen, Karina H. Hansen, Morten E. Simonsen

Abstract:

To improve the possibility of the chemical recycling of mixed plastic waste, such as municipal plastic waste, work has been conducted to gain an understanding of the effect of typical polymers from waste (PP, PET, and PA) on the quality of the pyrolysis oil produced. Plastic fractions were pyrolyzed in a lab-scale reactor system, with mixture compositions of up to 15 wt.% PET and five wt.% PA in a PP matrix and processing conditions from 400 to 450°C. The experiments were conducted as a full factorial design and in duplicates to provide reliable results and the possibility to determine any interactions between the parameters. The products were analyzed using FT-IR and GC-MS for compositional information as well as the determination of calorific value, ash content, acid number, density, viscosity, and elemental analysis to provide further data on the fuel quality of the pyrolysis oil. Oil yield was found to be between 61 and 84 wt.%, while char yield was below 2.6 wt.% in all cases. The calorific value of the produced oil was between 32 and 46 MJ/kg, averaging at approx. 41 MJ/kg, thus close to that of heavy fuel oil. The oil product was characterized to contain aliphatic and cyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and ethers with chain lengths between 10 and 25 carbon atoms. Overall, it was found that the addition of PET decreased oil yield, while the addition of both PA and PET decreased oil quality in general by increasing acid number (PET), decreasing calorific value (PA), and increasing nitrogen content (PA). Furthermore, it was identified that temperature increased ammonia production from PA during pyrolysis, while ammonia production was decreased by the addition of PET.

Keywords: PET, plastic waste, polyamide, polypropylene, pyrolysis

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2784 Optimization of Waste Plastic to Fuel Oil Plants' Deployment Using Mixed Integer Programming

Authors: David Muyise

Abstract:

Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) is an approach that involves the optimization of a range of decision variables in order to minimize or maximize a particular objective function. The main objective of this study was to apply the MIP approach to optimize the deployment of waste plastic to fuel oil processing plants in Uganda. The processing plants are meant to reduce plastic pollution by pyrolyzing the waste plastic into a cleaner fuel that can be used to power diesel/paraffin engines, so as (1) to reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with plastic pollution and also (2) to curb down the energy gap by utilizing the fuel oil. A programming model was established and tested in two case study applications that are, small-scale applications in rural towns and large-scale deployment across major cities in the country. In order to design the supply chain, optimal decisions on the types of waste plastic to be processed, size, location and number of plants, and downstream fuel applications were concurrently made based on the payback period, investor requirements for capital cost and production cost of fuel and electricity. The model comprises qualitative data gathered from waste plastic pickers at landfills and potential investors, and quantitative data obtained from primary research. It was found out from the study that a distributed system is suitable for small rural towns, whereas a decentralized system is only suitable for big cities. Small towns of Kalagi, Mukono, Ishaka, and Jinja were found to be the ideal locations for the deployment of distributed processing systems, whereas Kampala, Mbarara, and Gulu cities were found to be the ideal locations initially utilize the decentralized pyrolysis technology system. We conclude that the model findings will be most important to investors, engineers, plant developers, and municipalities interested in waste plastic to fuel processing in Uganda and elsewhere in developing economy.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, fuel oil plants, optimisation of waste plastics, plastic pollution, pyrolyzing

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2783 Production of Friendly Environmental Material as Building Element from Plastic Waste

Authors: Dheyaa Wajid Abbood, Mohanad Salih Farhan, Awadh E. Ajeel

Abstract:

The basic goal of this study is the production of cheap building elements from plastic waste. environmentally friendly and of good thermal insulation. The study depends on the addition of plastic waste as aggregates to the mixes of concrete at different percentages by weight (12 percentages) to produce lightweight aggregate concrete the density (1095 - 1892) kg/m3.The experimental work includes 120 specimens of concrete 72 cubes (150*150*150)mm, 48 cylinder (150*300) mm. The results obtained for concrete were for local raw materials without any additional materials or treatment. The mechanical and thermal properties determined were (compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity (k), specific heat capacity (Cp), thermal expansion (α) after (7) days of curing at 20 0C. The increase in amount of plastic waste decreases the density of concrete which leads to decrease in the mechanical and to improvement in thermal properties. The average measured static modulus of elasticity are found less than the predicted static modulus of elasticity and splitting tensile strength (ACI 318-2008 and ACI 213R-2003). All cubes specimens when exposed to heat at (200, 400, 600 0C), the compressive strength of all mixes decreases gradually at 600 0C, the strength of lightweight aggregate concrete were disintegrated. Lightweight aggregate concrete is about 25% lighter than normal concrete in dead load, and to the improve the properties of thermal insulation of building blocks.

Keywords: LWAC, plastic waste, thermal property, thermal insulation

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2782 Plastic Degradation Activity of Bacillus Sp. Isolated from the Gut of Plastic-Fed Yellow Mealworm

Authors: Najat El-Kurdi, Sherif Hammad, Mohamed Ghazi, Sahar El-Shatoury, Khaled Zakaria

Abstract:

The increasing number of plastic production and its importance to humanity in daily life made it a headache to the planet earth. The persistence of plastic wastes in the environment formed a serious problem. They are prominent with their capability to resist microbial degradation for decades. Thus, it was crucial to find ways to eliminate the plastics without depending on conventional recycling methods, which causes the formation of more hazardous compounds and doubles the problem. In this paper, mealworms were fed with a mixture of plastic wastes such as plastic bags, Styrofoam, PE foam, and plastic tarpaulins film as the sole food source for a month. Frass was collected at the end of the test and examined using FTIR analysis. Also, the gut bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA. The results show the mineralization of plastic in the frass of plastic-fed worms when compared to control. The 16S rRNA and the BLAST analysis showed that the obtained isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus Sp especially Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analysis showed their relatedness to the other Bacillus species in the NCBI database.

Keywords: mealworm, waste management, plastic-degrading bacteria, gut microbiome, Bacillus sp

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2781 Experimental Assessment of Polypropylene Plastic Aggregates(PPA) for Pavement Construction: Their Mechanical Properties via Marshall Test

Authors: Samiullah Bhatti, Safdar Abbas Zaidi, Syed Murtaza Ali Jafri

Abstract:

This research paper presents the results of using plastic aggregate in flexible pavement. Plastic aggregates have been prepared with polypropylene (PP) recycled products and have been tested with Marshall apparatus. Grade 60/70 bitumen has been chosen for this research with a total content of 2.5 %, 3 % and 3.5 %. Plastic aggregates are mixed with natural aggregates with different proportions and it ranges from 10 % to 100 % with an increment of 10 %. Therefore, a total of 10 Marshall cakes were prepared with plastic aggregates in addition to a standard pavement sample. In total 33 samples have been tested for Marshall stability, flow and voids in mineral aggregates. The results show an increase in the value when it changes from 2.5 % bitumen to 3 % and after then it goes again toward declination. Thus, 3 % bitumen content has been found as the most optimum value for flexible pavements. Among all the samples, 20 % PP aggregates sample has been found satisfactory with respect to all the standards provided by ASTM. Therefore, it is suggested to use 20 plastic aggregates in flexible pavement construction. A comparison of bearing capacity and skid resistance is also observed.

Keywords: marshall test, polypropylene plastic, plastic aggregates, flexible pavement alternative, recycling of plastic waste

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