Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 333

Search results for: olive mill

333 Application of Phenol Degrading Microorganisms for the Treatment of Olive Mill Waste (OMW)

Authors: M. A. El-Khateeb

Abstract:

The growth of the olive oil production in Saudi Arabia peculiarly in Al Jouf region in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in the discharge of associated processing waste. Olive mill waste is produced throughout the extraction of oil from the olive fruit using the traditional mill and press process. Deterioration of the environment due to olive mill disposal wastes is a serious problem. When olive mill waste disposed into the soil, it affects soil quality, soil micro flora, and also toxic to plants. The aim of this work is to isolate microorganism (bacterial or fungal strains) from OMW capable of degrading phenols. Olive mill wastewater, olive mill waste and soil (beside oil production mill) contaminated with olive waste were used for isolation of phenol tolerant microorganisms. Four strains (two fungal and two bacterial) were isolated from olive mill waste. The isolated strains were Candida tropicalis and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (fungal strains) and Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. (bacterial strains). These strains were able to degrade phenols and could be used for bioremediation of olive mill waste.

Keywords: bioremediation, bacteria, fungi, Sakaka

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
332 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

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This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
331 Treatment of Olive Mill Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Processes and Water Resources Management

Authors: Walid K. M. Bani Salameh, Hesham Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Shannag

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In Jordan having deficit atmospheric precipitation, an increase in water demand during summer months . Jordan can be regarded with a relatively high potential for waste water recycling and reuse. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the removal of Total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) for olive mill waste water (OMW) by the electrocoagulation (EC) process. In the combination of electrocoagulation by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes the optimum working pH was found to be in range 6. The efficiency of the electrocoagulation process allowed removal of TSS and COD about 82.5% and 47.5% respectively at 45 mA/cm2 after 70 minutes by using coupled iron–aluminum electrodes. These results showed that the optimum TSS and COD removal was obtained at the optimum experimental parameters such as current density, pH, and reaction time.

Keywords: olive mill wastewater, electrode, electrocoagulation (EC), TSS, COD

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
330 Green Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Polyphenols from Solid Wastes of Olive Oil Industry

Authors: Theodora-Venetia Missirli, Konstantina Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini Krokida

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Olive mill solid waste is an olive oil mill industry by-product with high phenolic, lipid and organic acid concentrations that can be used as a low cost source of natural antioxidants. In this study, extracts of Olea europaea (olive tree) solid olive mill waste (SOMW) were evaluated in terms of their antiradical activity and total phenolic compounds concentrations, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol etc. SOMW samples were subjected to drying prior to extraction as a pretreatment step. Two drying processes, accelerated solar drying (ASD) and air-drying (AD) (at 35, 50, 70°C constant air velocity of 1 m/s), were applied. Subsequently, three different extraction methods were employed to recover extracts from untreated and dried SOMW samples. The methods include the green Microwave Assisted (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) and the conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE), using water and methanol as solvents. The efficiency and selectivity of the processes were evaluated in terms of extraction yield. The antioxidant activity (AAR) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts were evaluated using the DPPH assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results showed that bioactive content was significantly affected by the extraction technique and the solvent. Specifically, untreated SOMW samples showed higher performance in the yield for all solvents and higher antioxidant potential and phenolic content in the case of water. UAE extraction method showed greater extraction yields than the MAE method for both untreated and dried leaves regardless of the solvent used. The use of ultrasound and microwave assisted extraction in combination with industrially applied drying methods, such as air and solar drying, was feasible and effective for the recovery of bioactive compounds.

Keywords: antioxidant potential, drying treatment, olive mill pomace, microwave assisted extraction, ultrasound assisted extraction

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329 Infestations of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Different Olive Cultivars in Çanakkale, Turkey

Authors: Hanife Genç

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The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an economically important and endemic pest in olive (Oleae europae) orchards in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine olive fruit fly infestation in different olive cultivars in the laboratory. Olive fly infested fruits were collected in Çanakkale province to establish wild fly population. After having reproductive olive fly colonies, 14 olive cultivars were tested in the controlled laboratory conditions, at 23±2 °C, 65% RH and 16:8 h (light: dark) photoperiod. The olive samples from 14 different olive cultivars were collected in October 2015, in Campus of Dardanos, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Observations were carried out detecting some biological parameters such as the number of oviposition stings, active infestation, total infestation, the number of pupae and the adult emergence. The results indicated that oviposition stings were not associated with pupal yield. A few pupae were found within olive fruits which were not able to exit. Screening of the varieties suggested that less susceptible cultivar to olive fruit fly attacks was Arbequin while Gemlik-2M 2/3 showed significant susceptibility. Ovipositional preference of olive fly females and the success of larval development in different olive varieties are crucial for establishing new olive orchards to prevent high olive fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: infestation, olive fruit fly, olive cultivars, oviposition sting

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
328 LCA of Waste Disposal from Olive Oil Production: Anaerobic Digestion and Conventional Disposal on Soil

Authors: T. Tommasi, E. Batuecas, G. Mancini, G. Saracco, D. Fino

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Extra virgin olive-oil (EVO) production is an important economic activity for several countries, especially in the Mediterranean area such as Spain, Italy, Greece and Tunisia. The two major by-products from olive oil production, solid-liquid Olive Pomace (OP) and the Olive Mill Waste Waters (OMWW), are still mainly disposed on soil, in spite of the existence of legislation which already limits this practice. The present study compares the environmental impacts associated with two different scenarios for the management of waste from olive oil production through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The two alternative scenarios are: (I) Anaerobic Digestion and (II) current Disposal on soil. The analysis was performed through SimaPro software and the assessment of the impact categories was based on International Life Cycle Data and Cumulative Energy Demand methods. Both the scenarios are mostly related to the cultivation and harvesting phase and are highly dependent on the irrigation practice and related energy demand. Results from the present study clearly show that as the waste disposal on soil causes the worst environmental performance of all the impact categories here considered. Important environmental benefits have been identified when anaerobic digestion is instead chosen as the final treatment. It was consequently demonstrated that anaerobic digestion should be considered a feasible alternative for olive mills, to produce biogas from common olive oil residues, reducing the environmental burden and adding value to the olive oil production chain.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, waste management, agro-food waste, biogas

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
327 Flocculation on the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater: Pre-Treatment

Authors: G. Hodaifa, J. A. Páez, C. Agabo, E. Ramos, J. C. Gutiérrez, A. Rosal

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Currently, the continuous two-phase decanter process used for olive oil production is the more internationally widespread. The wastewaters generated from this industry (OMW) is a real environmental problem because of its high organic load. Among proposed treatments for these wastewaters, the advanced oxidation technologies (Fenton process, ozone, photoFenton, etc.) are the most favourable. The direct application of these processes is somewhat expensive. Therefore, the application of a previous stage based on a flocculation-sedimentation operation is of high importance. In this research five commercial flocculants (three cationic, and two anionic) have been used to achieve the separation of phases (liquid clarified-sludge). For each flocculant, different concentrations (0-1000 mg/L) have been studied. In these experiments, sludge volume formed over time and the final water quality were determined. The final removal percentages of total phenols (11.3-25.1%), COD (5.6-20.4%), total carbon (2.3-26.5%), total organic carbon (1.50-23.8%), total nitrogen (1.45-24.8%), and turbidity (27.9-61.4%) were obtained. Also, the variation on the electric conductivity reduction percentage (1-8%) was determined. Finally, the best flocculants with highest removal percentages have been determined (QG2001 and Flocudex CS49).

Keywords: flocculants, flocculation, olive oil mill wastewater, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
326 Bio-Desalination and Bioremediation of Agroindustrial Wastewaters Using Yarrowia Lipolytica

Authors: Selma Hamimed, Abdelwaheb Chatti

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The current study deals with the biological treatment of saline wastewaters generated by various agro-food industries using Yarrowia lipolytica. The ability of this yeast was studied on the mixture of olive mill wastewater and tuna wash processing wastewater. Results showed that the high proportion of olive mill wastewater in the mixture about (75:25) is the suitable one for the highest Y. lipolytica biomass production, reaching 11.3 g L⁻¹ after seven days. In addition, results showed significant removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorous of 97.49 % and 98.90 %, respectively. On the other hand, Y. lipolytica was found to be effective to desalinate all mixtures reaching a removal of 92.21 %. Moreover, the analytical results using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the biosorption of NaCl on the surface of the yeast as nanocrystals form with a size of 47.3 nm.

Keywords: nanocrystallization of NaCl, desalination, wastewater treatment, yarrowia lipolytica

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
325 Strategies and Perceptions of Small Olive Oil Farmers of By-Product Valorization

Authors: Judit Manuel-i-Martin, Mechthild Donner, Ivana Radic, Yamna Erraach, Fatima Elhadad, Taoufik Yatribi, Feliu Lopez-i-Gelats

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This paper investigates how small olive farmers and olive oil producers implement circular economy practices to manage olive related waste and how such strategies are perceived by the farmers themselves. While there is a lot of data and research about possible uses of olive oil by-products, the perceptions and related practices of olive oil farmers is a much less investigated domain. A total of 60 semi-structured interviews were conducted in one of the most relevant olive oil producing regions in the Iberian Peninsula -the region of Terres de Ponent (Catalonia – Spain) - to examine the different by-product valorization strategies the olive oil farms develop. We test the hypothesis that the strategies conducted depend on the nature and amount of resources available by the farm. The results obtained point that access to milling infrastructure is a determining factor. We also found that olive tree pruning biomass and olive pomace are the most common by-products valorized by farmers, the first one on-farm and the latter in mills. Results indicate that high value uses for olive oil by-products are rarely implemented by farmers. We conclude that olive farmers tend to perceive by-product valorization strategies as waste management practices rather than as additional sources of value for their farm.

Keywords: circular economy, discourses, Mediterranean region, olive oil by-products, farmers’ strategies, olive pomace

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
324 Environmental Performance of Olive Oil Production in Greece

Authors: P. Tsarouhas, Ch. Achillas, D. Aidonis, D. Folinas, V. Maslis, N. Moussiopoulos

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Agricultural production is a sector with high socioeconomic significance and key implications on employment and nutritional security. However, the impacts of agrifood production and consumption patterns on the environment are considerable, mainly due to the demand of large inputs of resources. This paper presents a case study of olive oil production in Greece, an important agri-product especially for countries in the Mediterranean basin. Life Cycle Analysis has been used to quantify the environmental performance of olive oil production. All key parameters that are associated with the life cycle of olive oil production are studied and environmental “hotspots” are diagnosed.

Keywords: LCA, olive oil production, environmental impact, case study, Greece

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
323 Olive-Mill Wastewater and Organo-Mineral Fertlizers Application for the Control of Parasitic Weed Phelipanche ramosa L. Pomel in Tomato

Authors: Grazia Disciglio, Francesco Lops, Annalisa Tarantino, Emanuele Tarantino

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The parasitic weed specie Phelipanche ramosa (L) Pomel is one of the major constraints in tomato crop in Apulia region (southern Italy). The experimental was considered to investigate the effect of six organic compounds (Olive miller wastewater, Allil isothiocyanate®, Alfa plus K®, Radicon®, Rizosum Max®, Kendal Nem®) on the naturally infested field of tomato growing season in 2016. The randomized block design with 3 replicates was adopted. Tomato seedling were transplant on 19 May 2016. During the growing cycle of the tomato at 74, 81, 93 and 103 days after transplantation (DAT), the number of parasitic shoots (branched plants) that had emerged in each plot was determined. At harvesting on 13 September 2016 the major quanti-qualitative yield parameters were determined, including marketable yield, mean weight, dry matter, soluble solids, fruit colour, pH and titratable acidity. The treatments provided the results show that none of treatments provided complete control against P. ramosa. However, among the products tested Olive miller wastewater, Alfa plus K®, Rizosum Max® and Kendal Nem® products applied to the soil show the number of emerged shoots significantly lower than Radicon® and especially than the Allil isothiocyanate® treatment and the untreated control. Regarding the effect of different treatments on the tomato productive parameters, the marketable yield resulted significantly higher in the same mentioned treatments which gave the lower P. ramosa infestation. No significative differences for the other fruit characteristics were observed.

Keywords: processing tomato crop, Phelipanche ramosa, olive-mill wastewater, organic fertilizers

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322 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura

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Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: squalene, extraction, crystallization, Soxhlet

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
321 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

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Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
320 Utilization and Characterizations of Olive Oil Industry By-Products

Authors: Sawsan Dacrory, Hussein Abou-Yousef, Samir Kamel, Ragab E. Abou-Zeid, Mohamed S. Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed Elbadry

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A considerable amount of lignocellulosic by-product could be obtained from olive pulp during olive oil extraction industry. The major constituents of the olive pulp are husks and seeds. The separation of each portion of olive pulp (seeds and husks) was carried out by water flotation where seeds were sediment in the bottom. Both seeds and husks were dignified by 15% NaOH followed by complete lignin removal by using sodium chlorite in acidic medium. The isolated holocellulose, α-cellulose, hydrogel and CMC which prepared from cellulose of both seeds and husk fractions were characterized by FTIR and SEM. The present study focused on the investigation of the chemical components of the lignocellulosic fraction of olive pulp. Biofunctionlization of hydrogel was achieved through loading of silver nanoparticles AgNPs in to the prepared hydrogel. The antimicrobial activity of the loaded silver hydrogel against G-ve, and G+ve, and candida was demonstrated.

Keywords: cellulose, carboxymethyle cellulose, olive pulp, hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
319 Olive Seed Tannins as Bioadhesives for Manufacturing Wood-Based Panels

Authors: Ajith K. A. Gedara, Iva Chianella, Jose L. Endrino, Qi Zhang

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The olive seed is a by-product of the olive oil production industry. Biuret test and ferric chloride test revealed that water or alkali NaOH extractions of olive seed flour are rich in proteins and tannins. Both protein and tannins are well-known bio-based wood adhesives in the wood-based panel industry. In general, tannins-based adhesives show better mechanical and physical properties than protein wood adhesives. This paper explores different methods of extracting tannins from olive seed flour against the tannins yield and their applications as bio-based adhesives in wood-based panels. Once investigated, the physical and the mechanical properties of wood-based panels made using bio-adhesives based tannins extracted from olive seed flour revealed that the resulting products seemed to satisfy the Japanese Industrial Standards JIS A 5908:2015.

Keywords: bio-adhesives, olive seed flour, tannins, wood-based panels

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
318 Modeling the Moment of Resistance Generated by an Ore-Grinding Mill

Authors: Marinka Baghdasaryan, Tigran Mnoyan

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The pertinence of modeling the moment of resistance generated by the ore-grinding mill is substantiated. Based on the ranking of technological indices obtained in the result of the survey among the specialists of several beneficiating plants, the factors determining the level of the moment of resistance generated by the mill are revealed. A priori diagram of the ranks is obtained in which the factors are arranged in the descending order of the impact degree on the level of the moment. The obtained model of the moment of resistance shows the technological character of the operation modes of the ore-grinding mill and can be used for improving the operation modes of the system motor-mill and preventing the abnormal mode of the drive synchronous motor.

Keywords: model, abnormal mode, mill, correlation, moment of resistance, rotational speed

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317 Autohydrolysis Treatment of Olive Cake to Extract Fructose and Sucrose

Authors: G. Blázquez, A. Gálvez-Pérez, M. Calero, I. Iáñez-Rodríguez, M. A. Martín-Lara, A. Pérez

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The production of olive oil is considered as one of the most important agri-food industries. However, some of the by-products generated in the process are potential pollutants and cause environmental problems. Consequently, the management of these by-products is currently considered as a challenge for the olive oil industry. In this context, several technologies have been developed and tested. In this sense, the autohydrolysis of these by-products could be considered as a promising technique. Therefore, this study focused on autohydrolysis treatments of a solid residue from the olive oil industry denominated olive cake. This one comes from the olive pomace extraction with hexane. Firstly, a water washing was carried out to eliminate the water soluble compounds. Then, an experimental design was developed for the autohydrolysis experiments carried out in the hydrothermal pressure reactor. The studied variables were temperature (30, 60 and 90 ºC) and time (30, 60, 90 min). On the other hand, aliquots of liquid obtained fractions were analysed by HPLC to determine the fructose and sucrose contents present in the liquid fraction. Finally, the obtained results of sugars contents and the yields of the different experiments were fitted to a neuro-fuzzy and to a polynomial model.

Keywords: ANFIS, olive cake, polyols, saccharides

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
316 Phylogenetic Analysis of the Myxosporea Detected from Emaciated Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Korea

Authors: Seung Min Kim, Lyu Jin Jun, Joon Bum Jeong

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The Myxosporea to cause emaciation disease in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a pathogen to cause severe losses in the aquafarming industry in Korea. The 3,362 bp of DNA nucleotide sequences of four myxosporean strains (EM-HM-12, EM-MA-13, EM-JJ-14, and EM-MS-15) detected by PCR method from olive flounder suffering from emaciation disease in Korea during 2012-2015 were sequenced and deposited in GenBank database (GenBank accession numbers: KU377574, KT321705, KU377575 and KU377573, respectively). The homologies of DNA nucleotide sequences of four strains were compared to each other and were more than 99.7% homologous between the four strains. All of the strains were identified as Parvicapsula petunia based on the results of phylogenetic analysis. The results in this study would be useful for the research of emaciation disease in olive flounder of Korea.

Keywords: disease, emaciation, olive flounder, phylogenetic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
315 Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production of Fish Spoilage Bacteria: Affected by Olive Leaf, Olive Cake and Black Water

Authors: E. Kuley, M. Durmuş, E. Balikci, G. Ozyurt, Y. Uçar, F. Kuley, F. Ozogul, Y. Ozogul

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Ammonia and biogenic amine production of fish spoilage bacteria in sardine infusion decarboxylase broth and antimicrobial effect of olive by products (olive leaf extract:OL, olive cake: OC and black water:BW) was monitored using HPLC method. Fish spoilage bacteria produced all biogenic amine tested, mainly histamine and serotonin. Ammonia was accumulated more than 13.60 mg/L. Histamine production was in range 37.50 mg/L by Ser. liquefaciens and 86.71 mg/L by Ent. cloacae. The highest putrescine and cadaverine production was observed by Ent. cloacae (17.80 vs. 17.69 mg/L). The presence of OL, OC and BW in the broth significantly affected biogenic amine accumulation by bacteria. The antibacterial effect of olive by products depended on bacterial strains. OL and OC resulted in significant inhibition effect on HIS accumulation by bacteria apart from Ser. liquefaciens and Prot. mirabilis. The study result revealed that usefulness of OL and OC to prevent the accumulation of this amine which may affect human health.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, biogenic amine, fish spoilage bacteria, olive-by products

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314 Prediction of Product Size Distribution of a Vertical Stirred Mill Based on Breakage Kinetics

Authors: C. R. Danielle, S. Erik, T. Patrick, M. Hugh

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In the last decade there has been an increase in demand for fine grinding due to the depletion of coarse-grained orebodies and an increase of processing fine disseminated minerals and complex orebodies. These ores have provided new challenges in concentrator design because fine and ultra-fine grinding is required to achieve acceptable recovery rates. Therefore, the correct design of a grinding circuit is important for minimizing unit costs and increasing product quality. The use of ball mills for grinding in fine size ranges is inefficient and, therefore, vertical stirred grinding mills are becoming increasingly popular in the mineral processing industry due to its already known high energy efficiency. This work presents a hypothesis of a methodology to predict the product size distribution of a vertical stirred mill using a Bond ball mill. The Population Balance Model (PBM) was used to empirically analyze the performance of a vertical mill and a Bond ball mill. The breakage parameters obtained for both grinding mills are compared to determine the possibility of predicting the product size distribution of a vertical mill based on the results obtained from the Bond ball mill. The biggest advantage of this methodology is that most of the minerals processing laboratories already have a Bond ball mill to perform the tests suggested in this study. Preliminary results show the possibility of predicting the performance of a laboratory vertical stirred mill using a Bond ball mill.

Keywords: bond ball mill, population balance model, product size distribution, vertical stirred mill

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313 Entomological Study of Pests of Olive Trees in the Region of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Smail Chafaa, Abdelkrim Si Bachir

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Our work aims to study the insect diversity based on bioclimatic levels of pests in olive cultures (Olea europea L.) in the area of Batna (arid and semi arid north eastern Algeria) during the period from January 2011 to May 2011. Several sampling techniques were used, those of hunting on sight, visual inspection, hatches traps, colored traps, Japanese umbrella and sweep net. We have identified in total, 2311 individuals with results in inventory 206 species divided to 74 families and 11 orders, including Coleoptera order is quantitatively the most represented with 47.1%. The most dominant diet in our inventory is the phytophagous. Between the herbivorous insects that we have listed and which are the main olive pest of olive cultivation; we quote the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), cochineal purple olive (Parlatoria oleae) the psyllid olive (Euphyllura olivina) and olive Trips (Liothrips oleae). The distribution of species between stations shows that Boumia resort with the most number of species (113) compared to other resorts and beetles are also better represented in three groves. Total wealth is high in Boumia station compared with the others stations. The values of (H') exceeding 3.9 bits for all the stations studied indicate a specific wealth and diversity of ecological nests in insect species. The values of equitability are near the unit; that suggests a balance between the numbers of insect populations sampled in the various stations.

Keywords: entomology, olive, grove, batna, Algeria

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312 Olive Oils from Algeria: Phenolic Compounds Composition and Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Firdaousse Laincer, Rahima Laribi, Abderazak Tamendjari, Rovellini Venturini

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Phenolic compounds present in olive oil have received much attention in recent years due to their beneficial functional and nutritional effects. Phenolic composition, antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts of olive oil varieties from Algeria were investigated. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by Folin-Ciocalteu and HPLC. As a result, many phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by using HPLC; derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, flavonoids, and lignans reporting unique and characteristic phenolic profile. These phenolic fractions also differentiate the total antibacterial activity. Among the bacteria tested, S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, B. subtilis showed the highest sensitivity; the MIC varied from 0.6 to 1.6 mg•mL-1 and 1.2 to 1.8 mg•mL-1, respectively. The results obtained denote that Algerian olive oils may constitute a good source of healthy compounds, phenolics compounds, in the diet, suggesting that their consumption could be useful in the prevention of diseases.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, olive oil, phenols, HPLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
311 Mycorrhizal Autochthonous Consortium Induced Defense-Related Mechanisms of Olive Trees against Verticillium dahliae

Authors: Hanane Boutaj, Abdelilah Meddich, Said Wahbi, Zainab El Alaoui-Talibi, Allal Douira, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf, Cherkaoui El Modafar

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The present work aims to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in improving the olive tree resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Inoculated plants with a mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium 'Rhizolive consortium' and pure strain 'Glomus irregulare' were infected after three months with V. dahliae. The improving of olive tree resistance was determined through disease severity, incidence, and defoliation. On the other hand, the defense mechanisms of olive plants were evaluated through lignin content, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, and polyphenol content. The results revealed that both AMF significantly (p < 0.05) reduced disease development and the rate of defoliation in infected olive plants. Moreover, the contents of lignin were boosted after mycorrhizal inoculation in both the roots and the stems of olive plants, which remained significantly (p < 0.001) higher after the 90th days of V. dahliae inoculation. PAL activity was increased after V. dahliae inoculation in the stems of 'Rhizolive consortium' treatment that were 17 times higher than those in the roots of olive plants. The polyphenol content in the stems was about twice higher than those in the roots. The reduction of disease severity was accompanied by increased levels of lignin content, PAL activity, and polyphenol content, particularly in the stems of olive plants, indicating the strengthening of the olive plant immune system against V. dahliae.

Keywords: olive tree, Mycorrhizal autochthonous consortium, Glomus irregulare, Verticillium dahliae, defense mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
310 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy

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A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
309 An Analysis of Eco-efficiency and GHG Emission of Olive Oil Production in Northeast of Portugal

Authors: M. Feliciano, F. Maia, A. Gonçalves

Abstract:

Olive oil production sector plays an important role in Portuguese economy. It had a major growth over the last decade, increasing its weight in the overall national exports. International market penetration for Mediterranean traditional products is increasingly more demanding, especially in the Northern European markets, where consumers are looking for more sustainable products. Trying to support this growing demand this study addresses olive oil production under the environmental and eco-efficiency perspectives. The analysis considers two consecutive product life cycle stages: olive trees farming; and olive oil extraction in mills. Addressing olive farming, data collection covered two different organizations: a middle-size farm (~12ha) (F1) and a large-size farm (~100ha) (F2). Results from both farms show that olive collection activities are responsible for the largest amounts of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions. In this activities, estimate for the Carbon Footprint per olive was higher in F2 (188g CO2e/kgolive) than in F1 (148g CO2e/kgolive). Considering olive oil extraction, two different mills were considered: one using a two-phase system (2P) and other with a three-phase system (3P). Results from the study of two mills show that there is a much higher use of water in 3P. Energy intensity (EI) is similar in both mills. When evaluating the GHG generated, two conditions are evaluated: a biomass neutral condition resulting on a carbon footprint higher in 3P (184g CO2e/Lolive oil) than in 2P (92g CO2e/Lolive oil); and a non-neutral biomass condition in which 2P increase its carbon footprint to 273g CO2e/Lolive oil. When addressing the carbon footprint of possible combinations among studied subsystems, results suggest that olive harvesting is the major source for GHG.

Keywords: carbon footprint, environmental indicators, farming subsystem, industrial subsystem, olive oil

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308 Cardiac Protective Effect of Olive Oil against Ischemia Reperfusion- Induced Cardiac Arrhythmias in Isolated Diabetic Rat Hearts

Authors: Ishfaq A. Bukhari, Bassem Yousef Sheikh, Abdulrahman Almotrefi, Osama Yousaf, Amer Mahmood

Abstract:

Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet which is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has been reported for variety of beneficial cardiovascular effects including blood pressure lowering, anti-platelet, anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Growing number evidences from preclinical and clinical studies have shown that olive oil improves insulin resistance, decrease vessels stiffness and prevent thromboembolism. We evaluated the effects of olive against streptozotocin-induced physiological disorders in the animal models of diabetes and ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)- induced cardiac arrhythmias. Diabetes was induced in male rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg), rats were treated for two months with olive oil (1 ml/kg p.o). Control animals received saline. Blood glucose, body weight were monitored every 14 days. At the end of the treatment rats were sacrificed hearts were isolated for mounting on langedorff’s apparatus. The blood glucose and body weight was not significantly different in the control and olive treated animals. The control diabetic animals exhibited 100% incidence of I/R –induced ventricular fibrillation which was reduced to 0% with olive oil, treatment. The duration of ventricular fibrillation reduced from 98.8± 2.3 (control) to 0 seconds in the olive oil treated group. Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker (1 µm/L) showed similar results and protected the I/R-induced cardiac disorders. The biochemical analysis of the cardiac tissues showed that diabetes and I/R produce marked pathological changes in the cardiomyocytes including decreased glutathione (GSH) and increased oxidative stress (Malondialdehyde; MDA). Pretreatment of animals with olive oil (1 ml/kg p.o) increased GSH and MDA levels. Olive oil also improved the diabetic-induced histopathological changes in the cardiomyocytes. These finding indicates that olive possesses cardiac protective properties. Further studies are under way in our lab to explore the mechanism of the cardio-protective effect of olive oil.

Keywords: diabeties, ischemia-reperfusion, olive oil, rats heart

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307 Effect of Chilling Accumulation on Fruit Yield of Olive Trees in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed H. El-Sheikh, Hoda F. Zahran

Abstract:

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is considered as a Mediterranean tree which belongs to genus Olea that may comprise about 35 species. In fact, the crop requires mild to cool winters with a chilling accumulation from November to February with average temperatures varying between two groups of accumulated chilling hours (h1) of less than 7.2 °C (C1) and other group (h2) of less than 10 °C (C2) for flower bud differentiation. This work aims at studying the impact of chilling accumulation hours on the fruit yield of olive trees in Borg El Arab City, Alexandria Governorate, Egypt as a case study. Trees were aged around 7 years in 2010 and were exposed to chilling accumulation hours of h1, which was average of 280 hours under C1, and average h2 was around 150 hours under C2 the resulted fruit yield was around 0.5 kg/tree. On the hand, trees were aged around 7 years at 2016 showed that when average of h1 was around 390 hours under C1 and average h2 was around 220 hours under C2 then fruit yield was around 10 kg/tree. Increasing of fruit yield proved chilling accumulation effect on olive trees.

Keywords: chilling accumulation, fruit yield, Olea europaea, olive

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
306 An Algorithm for Estimating the Stable Operation Conditions of the Synchronous Motor of the Ore Mill Electric Drive

Authors: M. Baghdasaryan, A. Sukiasyan

Abstract:

An algorithm for estimating the stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor of the ore mill electric drive is proposed. The stable operation conditions of the synchronous motor are revealed, taking into account the estimation of the q angle change and the technological factors. The stability condition obtained allows to ensure the stable operation of the motor in the synchronous mode, taking into account the nonlinear character of the mill loading. The developed algorithm gives an opportunity to present the undesirable phenomena, arising in the electric drive system. The obtained stability condition can be successfully applied for the optimal control of the electromechanical system of the mill.

Keywords: electric drive, synchronous motor, ore mill, stability, technological factors

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305 Biosynthesis of Healthy Secondary Metabolites in Olive Fruit in Response to Different Agronomic Treatments

Authors: Anna Perrone, Federico Martinelli

Abstract:

Olive fruit is well-known for the high content in secondary metabolites with high interest at nutritional, nutraceutical, antioxidant, and healthy levels. The content of secondary metabolites in olive at harvest may be affected by different water regimes, with significant effects on olive oil composition and quality and, consequently, on its healthy and nutritional features. In this work, a summary of several research studies dealing with the biosynthesis of healthy and nutraceutical metabolites of the secondary metabolism in olive fruit will be reported. The phytochemical findings have been correlated with the expression of key genes involved in polyphenol, terpenoid, and carotenoid biosynthesis and metabolism in response to different development stages and water regimes. Flavonoids were highest in immature fruits, while anthocyanins increased at ripening. In epicarp tissue, this was clearly associated with an up-regulation of the UFGT gene. Olive fruits cultivated under different water regimes were analyzed by metabolomics. This method identified several hundred metabolites in the ripe mesocarp. Among them, 46 were differentially accumulated in the comparison between rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Well-known healthy metabolites were more abundant at a higher level of water regimes. Increased content of polyphenols was observed in the rain-fed fruit; particularly, anthocyanin concentration was higher at ripening. Several secondary metabolites were differentially accumulated between different irrigation conditions. These results showed that these metabolic approaches could be efficiently used to determine the effects of agronomic treatments on olive fruit physiology and, consequently, on nutritional and healthy properties of the obtained extra-virgin olive oil.

Keywords: olea europea, anthocyanins, polyphenols, water regimes

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304 Optimal Path Motion of Positional Electric Drive

Authors: M. A. Grigoryev, A. N. Shishkov, N. V. Savosteenko

Abstract:

The article identifies optimal path motion of positional electric drive, for example, the feed of cold pilgering mill. It is shown that triangle is the optimum shape of the speed curve, and the ratio of its sides depends on the type of load diagram, in particular from the influence of the main drive of pilgering mill, and is not dependent on the presence of backlash and elasticity in the system. This thesis is proved analytically, and confirmed the results are obtained by a mathematical model that take into account the influence of the main drive-to-drive feed. By statistical analysis of oscillograph traces obtained on the real object allowed to give recommendations on the optimal control of the electric drive feed cold pilgering mill 450. Based on the data that the load torque depends on by hit the pipe in rolls of pilgering mill, occurs in the interval (0,6…0,75) tc, the recommended ratio of start time to the braking time is 2:1. Optimized path motion allowed get up to 25% more RMS torque for the cycle that allowed increased the productivity of the mill.

Keywords: optimal curve speed, positional electric drive, cold pilgering mill 450, optimal path motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 252