Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1594

Search results for: nanofiber layer

1594 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

Abstract:

For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 513
1593 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk

Abstract:

In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
1592 Using of TFC Polysulfone Electrospun Nanofiber Mats in Oil-Water Separation

Authors: Nasser A. M. Barakat

Abstract:

Membrane technology is the most promising process for oil-water separation operation if the hydrophilicity, fouling and reusability properties could be improved. In this study, novel effective and reusable membrane for oil-water separation process is introduced based on modification of polysulfone (PSF) electrospun nanofiber mats. The modification process was achieved by incorporation of NaOH nanoparticles inside the PSF nanofibers, and formation of a thin layer from a polyamide polymer on the surface of the electrospun mat. Typically, solutions composed of PSF and NaOH (twelve solutions were prepared based on different PSF concentrations; 15, 18 and 20 wt%, and various NaOH content; 1.5, 1.7 and 2.5 wt%) have been electrospun, then the dried nanofiber mats were treated by m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride to form polyamide thin layer on the surface of the mats. The results indicated that incorporation of NaOH and the formed polyamide could decrease the water contact angle from ~ 130˚ to 13˚ for the nanofiber mats obtained from 20 wt% PSF solutions containing 1.7 wt% sodium hydroxide powders. Interestingly, the membrane having the lowest contact angle could separate oil-water mixture for three successive cycles and 100% removal of the oil with relatively high water flux; 5.5 m3/m2.day. Overall, simplicity of the manufacturing technique, and effectiveness and reusability of the produced nanofiber mats open new avenue for the introduced as promising membranes for the oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-water separation, hydrophilic membrane, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1591 Using Nanofiber-Like Attapulgite Microfiltration Membranes to Treat Oily Wastewater

Authors: Shouyong Zhou, Meisheng Li, Yijiang Zhao

Abstract:

The environmentally acceptable disposal of oily wastewater is a current challenge to many industries. The membrane separation technologies, which is no phase change, without pharmaceutical dosing, reprocessing costs low, less energy consumption, etc., have been widely applied in oily wastewater treatment. In our lab, a kind of low cost ceramic microfiltration membranes with a separation layer of attapulgite nanofibers (attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membranes) has been prepared and applied in the purification of cellulase fermentation broth and TiO2 nanoparticles system successfully. In this paper, this new attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane was selected to try to separate water from oily wastewater. The oil-in water emulsion was obtained from mixing 1 g/L engine oil, 0.5 g/L Tween-80, 0.5 g/L Span-80 and distilled water at mild speed in blender for 2 min. The particle size distribution of the oil-in-water emulsion was controlled. The maximum steady flux and COD rejection for a 0.2 um attapulgite nanofiber-like microfiltration membrane can reach about 450 L. m-2. h-1 and 98% at 0.2 MPa. The results obtained in this work indicated that the attapulgite microfiltration membrane may represent a feasible pretreatment for oily wastewater.

Keywords: attapulgite, microfiltration membrane, oily wastewater, cross-flow filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1590 Nafion Nanofiber Mat in a Single Fuel Cell Test

Authors: Chijioke Okafor, Malik Maaza, Touhami Mokrani

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane, PEM was developed and tested for potential application in fuel cell. Nafion was electrospun to nanofiber network with the aid of poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, as a carrier polymer. The matrix polymer was crosslinked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV after compacting and annealing. The welded nanofiber mat was characterized for morphology, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability, then tested in a single cell test station. The results of the fabricated nanofiber membrane showed a proton conductivity of 0.1 S/cm at 25 oC and higher fiber volume fraction; methanol permeability of 3.6x10^-6 cm2/s and power density of 96.1 and 81.2 mW/cm2 for 5M and 1M methanol concentration respectively.

Keywords: fuel cell, nafion, nanofiber, permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
1589 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee

Abstract:

In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
1588 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan

Abstract:

PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1587 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga

Abstract:

The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: layer by layer assembly, electropolymerization, carbazole, optical thin film, electronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1586 Investigation of Astrocyte Physiology on Stiffness-Controlled Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber as a Tissue Scaffold

Authors: Sun Il Yu, Jung Hyun Joo, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Astrocytes are known as dominant cells in CNS and play a role as a supporter of CNS activity and regeneration. Recently, three-dimensional culture of astrocytes were actively applied to understand in vivo astrocyte works. Electrospun nanofibers are attractive for 3D cell culture system because they have a high surface to volume ratio and porous structure, and have already been used for 3D astrocyte cultures. In this research, the stiffness of cellulose acetate (CA) nanofiber was controlled by heat treatment. As stiffness increased, astrocyte cell viability and adhesion increased. Reactivity of astrocyte was also upregulated in stiffer CA nanofiber in terms of GFAP, an intermediate filament protein. Finally, we demonstrated that stiffness-controllable CA is attractive for astrocyte tissue engineering.

Keywords: astrocyte, cellulose acetate, nanofiber, tissue scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1585 Polymer Advancement with Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) Poly(S/DVB) Modified via Layer-by-Layer for CO2 Adsorption

Authors: Saifon Chongthub

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to synthesize adsorbent foam for CO2 adsorption. The polymer was prepared from poly High Internal Phase Emulsion (PolyHIPE) using styrene as monomer and divinylbenzene as comonomer. Its morphology was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). To further increased CO2 adsorption of the prepared polyHIPE, the layer by layer (LbL) technique was applied, which alternated polyelectrolyte injection between layers of Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and Poly(diallyldimetyl-ammonium chloride)(PDADMAC) as primary layer, and layers of PSS and polyetyleneimine (PEI) as secondary layer.

Keywords: high internal phase emulsion, polyHIPE, surface modification, layer by layer technique, CO2 adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1584 Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
1583 Study on Hysteresis in Sustainable Two-Layer Circular Tube under a Lateral Compression Load

Authors: Ami Nomura, Ken Imanishi, Yukinori Taniguchi, Etsuko Ueda, Tadahiro Wada, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Recently, there have been a lot of earthquakes in Japan. It is necessary to promote seismic isolation devices for buildings. The devices have been hardly diffused in attached houses, because the devices are very expensive. We should develop a low-cost seismic isolation device for detached houses. We suggested a new seismic isolation device which uses a two-layer circular tube as a unit. If hysteresis is produced in the two-layer circular tube under lateral compression load, we think that the two-layer circular tube can have energy absorbing capacity. It is necessary to contact the outer layer and the inner layer to produce hysteresis. We have previously reported how the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer from a perspective of analysis used mechanics of materials. We have clarified that the inner layer comes in contact with the outer layer under a lateral compression load. In this paper, we explored contact area between the outer layer and the inner layer under a lateral compression load by using FEA. We think that changing the inner layer’s thickness is effective in increase the contact area. In order to change the inner layer’s thickness, we changed the shape of the inner layer. As a result, the contact area changes depending on the inner layer’s thickness. Additionally, we experimented to check whether hysteresis occurs in fact. As a consequence, we can reveal hysteresis in the two-layer circular tube under the condition.

Keywords: contact area, energy absorbing capacity, hysteresis, seismic isolation device

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1582 Development of Single Layer of WO3 on Large Spatial Resolution by Atomic Layer Deposition Technique

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, Zh. Hai, H. Xu, C. Xue

Abstract:

Unique and distinctive properties could be obtained on such two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor as tungsten trioxide (WO3) when the reduction from multi-layer to one fundamental layer thickness takes place. This transition without damaging single-layer on a large spatial resolution remained elusive until the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized. Here we report the ALD-enabled atomic-layer-precision development of a single layer WO3 with thickness of 0.77±0.07 nm on a large spatial resolution by using (tBuN)2W(NMe2)2 as tungsten precursor and H2O as oxygen precursor, without affecting the underlying SiO2/Si substrate. Versatility of ALD is in tuning recipe in order to achieve the complete WO3 with desired number of WO3 layers including monolayer. Governed by self-limiting surface reactions, the ALD-enabled approach is versatile, scalable and applicable for a broader range of 2D semiconductors and various device applications.

Keywords: Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), tungsten oxide, WO₃, two-dimensional semiconductors, single fundamental layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
1581 Design of Ternary Coatings System to Minimize the Residual Solvent in Polymeric Coatings

Authors: Jyoti Sharma, Raj Kumar Arya

Abstract:

The coatings of homogeneous ternary solution of Poly(styrene)(PS)-Poly(ethyleneglycol)-6000(PEG) Chlorobenzene (CLB) of two different concentrations (5.05%-4.98%-89.97% and 10.05%-5.12%-84.82%) were studied and dried under quiescent conditions. Residual solvent percentage and coatings thickness were calculated by gravimetric weight loss data. Residual solvent remained lower in case of the single thick layer as compared to layer-by-layer assembly technique. The Results suggests the effectiveness of the single thick layer for minimizing the residual solvent. A single thick layer had an initial coating thickness of 1098 µm and the final thickness of 106 µm which is lower as compared to the dried coatings of nearly the same final thickness by layer-by-layer assembly technique.

Keywords: films, layer-by-layer assembly, polymeric coatings, ternary system

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1580 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factor Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shield

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh, Daeseong Jo

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields of three-layers or more is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme was implemented on the new 'three-layer' shield configuration. The results of such manipulation for water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence with the introduced changes.

Keywords: build-up factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, radiation protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
1579 Chitosan Doped Curcumin Gold Clusters Flexible Nanofiber for Wound Dressing and Anticancer Activities

Authors: Saravanan Govindaraju, Kyusik Yun

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop the chitosan doped curcumin gold cluster nanofiber for wound healing and skin cancer drug delivery applications. Chitosan is a typical marine polysaccharide composed of glucosamine and n-acetyl glucosamine biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. Curcumin is a natural bioactive molecule obtained from Curcuma longo, it mostly occurs in some Asian countries like India and China. It has naturally antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing and anticancer property. Due to this advantage, we prepared a combination of natural polymer chitosan with Curcumin and gold nanocluster nanofiber (CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers). The prepared nanofiber was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antibacterial studies were performed with E.coli and S.aureus. Antioxidant assay, drug release test, and cytotoxicity will be evaluated. Prepared nanofiber emits low intensity of red fluorescent. The FTIR confirm the presence of chitosan and Curcumin in the nanofiber. In vitro study clearly shows the antibacterial activity against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Particularly, synthesised nanofibers provide better antibacterial activity against gram negative than gram positive. Cytotoxicity study also provides better killing rate in cancer cell, biocompatible with normal cell. Prepared CH-CUR-AuNCs nanofibers provide the better killing rate to bacterial strains and cancer cells. Finally, prepared nanofiber can be possible to use for wound healing dressing, patch for skin cancer and other biomedical applications.

Keywords: curcumin, chitosan, gold clusters, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
1578 Electrospun TiO2/Nylon-6 Nanofiber Mat: Improved Hydrophilicity Properties

Authors: Roshank Haghighat, Laleh Maleknia

Abstract:

In this study, electrospun TiO2/nylon-6 nanofiber mats were successfully prepared. The nanofiber mats were characterized by SEM, FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, WCA, and EDX analyses. The results revealed that fibers in different distinct sizes (nano and subnano scale) were obtained with the electrospinning parameters. The presence of a small amount of TiO2 in nylon-6 solution was found to improve the hydrophilicity (antifouling effect), mechanical strength, antimicrobial and UV protecting ability of electrospun mats. The resultant nylon-6/TiO2 antimicrobial spider-net like composite mat with antifouling effect may be a potential candidate for future water filter applications, and its improved UV blocking ability will also make it a potential candidate for protective clothing.

Keywords: electrospinning, hydrophilicity, antimicrobial, nanocomposite, nylon-6/TiO2

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
1577 Inter-Filling of CaO and MgO Mixed Layer in Surface Behavior of Al-Mg Alloys Containing Al2Ca

Authors: Seong-Ho Ha, Young-Ok Yoon, Shae K. Kim

Abstract:

Oxide layer of normal Al-Mg alloy can be characterized by upper MgO and lower MgAl2O4 spinel. The formation of the MgO outmost layer occurs by the surface segregation of Mg in the initial oxidation. After then, the oxidation is proceeded with the formation of MgA12O4 spinel beneath the MgO. Growth of the oxide layer is accelerated by constant formation of MgA12O4 spinel. On the other hand, the oxidation resistance of Al-Mg alloys can be significantly improved simply by Mg+Al2Ca master alloy use as the Mg alloying element and such an improvement is attributed to the CaO/MgO mixed layer. Al-Mg alloy containing Al2Ca shows CaO as the upper layer and MgO as the lower one without MgA12O4 spinel. Such a dense oxide film acts as a protective layer. However, the CaO/MgO scale has the outmost MgO, partly, after a long time exposure to a harsh oxidation condition. The aim of this study is to investigate the inter-filling behaviour of CaO and MgO mixed layer in oxidation resistance mechanism of Al-Mg alloys containing Al2Ca. The process of outmost MgO layer formation will be clarified.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloy, Al2Ca, oxidation, MgO

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
1576 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman

Abstract:

Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
1575 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup Factors Using Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shields

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh

Abstract:

The iterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique. A simple suggested formalism for the scheme based on the Kalos’ formula is introduced, based on which the implementation of the testing technique is carried out. The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme (with the suggested formalism) was implemented on the new “three-layer” shield configuration. The results of such manipulation on water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1 MeV photons. It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor value. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the overall performance of the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence even with the introduced changes. The introduced layer-splitting testing technique shows the capability to be implemented in test the iterative scheme with a wide range of formalisms.

Keywords: buildup factor, iterative scheme, stratified shields, layer-splitting tecnique

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
1574 Electrospun Alginate Nanofibers Containing Spirulina Extract Double-Layered with Polycaprolactone Nanofibers

Authors: Seon Yeong Byeon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Nanofibrous sheets are of interest in the beauty industries due to the properties of moisturizing, adhesion to skin and delivery of nutrient materials. The benefit and function of the cosmetic products should not be considered without safety thus a non-toxic manufacturing process is ideal when fabricating the products. In this study, we have developed cosmetic patches consisting of alginate and Spirulina extract, a marine resource which has antibacterial and antioxidant effects, without addition of harmful cross-linkers. The patches obtained their structural stabilities by layer-upon-layer electrospinning of an alginate layer on a formerly spread polycaprolactone (PCL) layer instead of crosslinking method. The morphological characteristics, release of Spirulina extract, water absorption, skin adhesiveness and cytotoxicity of the double-layered patches were assessed. The image of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the addition of Spirulina extract has made the fiber diameter of alginate layers thinner. Impregnation of Spirulina extract increased their hydrophilicity, moisture absorption ability and skin adhesive ability. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patches resulted in releasing the Spirulina extract within 30 min. The patches were detected to have no cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell-based MTT assay, but rather showed increased cell viability. All the results indicate the bioactive and hydro-adhesive double-layered patches have an excellent applicability to bioproducts for personal skin care in the trend of ‘A mask pack a day’.

Keywords: alginate, cosmetic patch, electrospun nanofiber, polycaprolactone, Spirulina extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
1573 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.

Keywords: phase formation, binary systems, interfacial reaction, diffusion, compound layers, growth kinetics

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1572 Strength Analysis of RCC Dams Subject to the Layer-by-Layer Construction Method

Authors: Archil Motsonelidze, Vitaly Dvalishvili

Abstract:

Existing roller compacted concrete (RCC) dams indicate that the layer-by-layer construction method gives considerable economies as compared with the conventional methods. RCC dams have also gained acceptance in the regions of high seismic activity. Earthquake resistance analysis of RCC gravity dams based on nonlinear finite element technique is presented. An elastic-plastic approach is used to describe the material of a dam while it is under static conditions (period of construction). Seismic force, as an acceleration equivalent to that produced by a real earthquake, is supposed to act when the dam is completed. The materials of the dam and foundation may be nonhomogeneous and anisotropic. The “dam-foundation” system is idealized as a plain strain problem.

Keywords: finite element method, layer-by-layer construction, RCC dams, strength analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
1571 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani

Abstract:

A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
1570 Cellulose Acetate Nanofiber Modification for Regulating Astrocyte Activity via Simple Heat Treatment

Authors: Sang-Myung Jung, Jeong Hyun Ju, Gwang Heum Yoon, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

Central nervous system (CNS) consists of neuronal cell and supporting cells. Astrocytes are the most common supporting cells and play roles in metabolism between neurons and blood vessel. For this function, engineered astrocytes have been studied as a therapeutic source for CNS injury. In neural tissue engineering, nanofiber has been suggested as an effective scaffold for providing structure and mechanical properties influencing physiology. Cellulose acetate (CA) has been investigated for material to fabricate scaffold because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and fine thermal stability. In this research, CA nanofiber was modified via heat treatment and its effect on astrocyte activity was evaluated. Adhesion and viability of astrocyte were increased in proportion to stiffness. Additionally, expression of GFAP, a marker of astrocyte activation, was increased via stiffness of scaffold. This research suggests a simple modification method to change stiffness of CA nanofiber and shows cellular behavior affecting stiffness of three-dimensional scaffold independently. For the results, we highlight that the stiffness is a factor to regulate astrocyte activity.

Keywords: astrocyte, cellulose acetate, cell therapy, stiffness of scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
1569 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer

Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha

Abstract:

Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.

Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
1568 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak

Abstract:

The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1567 Development of Energy Management System Based on Internet of Things Technique

Authors: Wen-Jye Shyr, Chia-Ming Lin, Hung-Yun Feng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to develop an energy management system for university campuses based on the Internet of Things (IoT) technique. The proposed IoT technique based on WebAccess is used via network browser Internet Explore and applies TCP/IP protocol. The case study of IoT for lighting energy usage management system was proposed. Structure of proposed IoT technique included perception layer, equipment layer, control layer, application layer and network layer.

Keywords: energy management, IoT technique, sensor, WebAccess

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1566 Effect of Epoxy-ZrP Nanocomposite Top Coating on Inorganic Barrier Layer

Authors: Haesook Kim, Ha Na Ra, Mansu Kim, Hyun Gi Kim, Sung Soo Kim

Abstract:

Epoxy-ZrP (α-zirconium phosphate) nanocomposites were coated on inorganic barrier layer such as sputtering and atomic layer deposition (ALD) to improve the barrier properties and protect the layer. ZrP nanoplatelets were synthesized using a reflux method and exfoliated in the polymer matrix. The barrier properties of coating layer were characterized by measuring water vapor transmission rate (WVTR). The WVTR dramatically decreased after epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite coating, while maintaining the optical properties. It was also investigated the effect of epoxy-ZrP coating on inorganic layer after bending and reliability test. The optimal structure composed of inorganic and epoxy-ZrP nanocomposite layers was used in organic light emitting diodes (OLED) encapsulation.

Keywords: α-zirconium phosphate, barrier properties, epoxy nanocomposites, OLED encapsulation

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1565 Optimization of Parameters for Electrospinning of Pan Nanofibers by Taguchi Method

Authors: Gamze Karanfil Celep, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

The effects of polymer concentration and electrospinning process parameters on the average diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were experimentally investigated. Besides, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN nanofibers were examined by tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. For this purpose, the polymer concentration, solution feed rate, supply voltage and tip-to-collector distance were determined as the control factors. To succeed these aims, Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal design (4 parameters, 4 level) was employed for the experimental design. Optimal electrospinning conditions were defined using the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio that was calculated from diameters of the electrospun PAN nanofibers according to "the-smaller-the-better" approachment. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was evaluated to conclude the statistical significance of the process parameters. The smallest diameter of PAN nanofibers was observed. According to the S/N ratio response results, the most effective parameter on finding out of nanofiber diameter was determined. Finally, the Taguchi design of experiments method has been found to be an effective method to statistically optimize the critical electrospinning parameters used in nanofiber production. After determining the optimum process parameters of nanofiber production, electrical conductivity and fuel cell performance of electrospun PAN nanofibers on the carbon papers will be evaluated.

Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 98