Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2792

Search results for: computational duration

2792 The Effect of Arms Embargoes on Ongoing Armed Conflict: Are They Really Reducing Conflict Duration?

Authors: Mustafa Kirisci


Arms embargoes have not been adequately examined in terms of their effects on conflict duration. Prior research on arms embargoes has generally investigated the effect of arms embargoes on arms import/export practices and violations in arms embargoes, but it says little about the effect on conflict duration. This paper attempts to fill this gap and aims to investigate the effect of arms embargoes on conflict duration throughout the world. More precisely, the purpose of the paper is to understand how arms embargoes affect the duration of both internal and interstate conflicts. Given the theoretical framework, the main hypothesis of the paper is arms embargoes will have no reduction effect on conflict duration when arms transfer and region are controlled. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression. Results indicate that arms embargoes have no effect on both internal and interstate conflict duration. Another crucial result is that both small and major arms transfers made by the embargoed countries during the internal conflict increase the duration of the conflict, but no effect on interstate conflict duration. The final part concludes and provide explanations on what these results imply for finishing the conflict and bringing the peace.

Keywords: arms embargo, arms transfer, internal conflict, international conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
2791 Impact of Global Warming on the Total Flood Duration and Flood Recession Time in the Meghna Basin Using Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: Karan Gupta


The floods cause huge loos each year, and their impact gets manifold with the increase of total duration of flood as well as recession time. Moreover, floods have increased in recent years due to climate change in floodplains. In the context of global climate change, the agreement in Paris convention (2015) stated to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C and keep it at the limit of 1.5°C. Thus, this study investigates the impact of increasing temperature on the stage, discharge as well as total flood duration and recession time in the Meghna River basin in Bangladesh. This study considers the 100-year return period flood flows in the Meghna river under the specific warming levels (SWLs) of 1.5°C, 2°C, and 4°C. The results showed that the rate of increase of duration of flood is nearly 50% lesser at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C, whereas the rate of increase of duration of recession is 75% lower at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C. Understanding the change of total duration of flood as well as recession time of the flood gives a better insight to effectively plan for flood mitigation measures.

Keywords: flood, climate change, Paris convention, Bangladesh, inundation duration, recession duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
2790 Intrathecal Fentanyl with 0.5% Bupivacaine Heavy in Chronic Opium Abusers

Authors: Suneet Kathuria, Shikha Gupta, Kapil Dev, Sunil Katyal


Chronic use of opioids in opium abusers can cause poor pain control and increased analgaesic requirement. We compared the duration of spinal anaesthesia in chronic opium abusers and non-abusers. This prospective randomised study included 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Grade I or II adults undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia with 10 mg bupivacaine, and 25 μg fentanyl in non-opium abusers (Group A); and chronic opium abusers (Group B), and 40 μg fentanyl in chronic opium abusers (Group C). Patients were assessed for onset and duration of sensory and motor blockade and duration of effective analgesia. Mean time to onset of adequate analgesia in opium abusers was significantly longer in chronic opium abusers than in opium-naive patients. The duration of sensory block and motor block was significantly less in chronic opium abusers than in non-opium abusers. Duration of effective analgesia in groups A, B and C was 255.55 ± 26.84, 217.85 ± 15.15, and 268.20 ± 18.25 minutes, respectively; this difference was statistically significant. In chronic opium abusers, the duration of spinal anaesthesia is significantly shorter than that in opium nonabusers. The duration of spinal anaesthesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl in chronic opium abusers can be improved by increasing the intrathecal fentanyl dose from 25 μg to 40 μg.

Keywords: bupivacaine, chronic opium abusers, fentanyl, intrathecal

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
2789 The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: J. Nisar, S. Halim


The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

Keywords: construction management, critical path method, project scheduling network, precedence diagram method

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
2788 A Stochastic Model to Predict Earthquake Ground Motion Duration Recorded in Soft Soils Based on Nonlinear Regression

Authors: Issam Aouari, Abdelmalek Abdelhamid


For seismologists, the characterization of seismic demand should include the amplitude and duration of strong shaking in the system. The duration of ground shaking is one of the key parameters in earthquake resistant design of structures. This paper proposes a nonlinear statistical model to estimate earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils using multiple seismicity indicators. Three definitions of ground motion duration proposed by literature have been applied. With a comparative study, we select the most significant definition to use for predict the duration. A stochastic model is presented for the McCann and Shah Method using nonlinear regression analysis based on a data set for moment magnitude, source to site distance and site conditions. The data set applied is taken from PEER strong motion databank and contains shallow earthquakes from different regions in the world; America, Turkey, London, China, Italy, Chili, Mexico...etc. Main emphasis is placed on soft site condition. The predictive relationship has been developed based on 600 records and three input indicators. Results have been compared with others published models. It has been found that the proposed model can predict earthquake ground motion duration in soft soils for different regions and sites conditions.

Keywords: duration, earthquake, prediction, regression, soft soil

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2787 Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Dietary Intake

Authors: Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Makan Cheraghpour, Saeed Shirali, Roya Rafie, Matin Ghanavati, Arezoo Amjadi, Meysam Alipour


Background: There is a mutual relationship between sleep duration and obesity. We studied the relationship between sleep duration with obesity and dietary Intake. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 444 male students in Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Science. Dietary intake was analyzed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometric indices were analyzed. Participants were being asked about their sleep duration and they were categorized into three groups according to their responses (less than six hours, between six and eight hours, and more than eight hours). Results: Macronutrient, micronutrient, and antioxidant intake did not show significant difference between three groups. Moreover, we did not observe any significant difference between anthropometric indices (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat). Conclusions: Our study results show no significant relationship between sleep duration, nutrition pattern, and obesity. Further study is recommended.

Keywords: sleep duration, obesity, dietary intake, cross-sectional

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2786 Analysis of Gait Characteristics Using Dynamic Foot Scanner in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: C. G. Shashi Kumar, G. Arun Maiya, H. Manjunath Hande, K. V. Rajagopal


Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder with involvement of neurovascular and muscular system. Studies have documented that the gait parameter is altered in type 2 diabetes mellitus with peripheral neuropathy. However, there is a dearth of literature regarding the gait characteristics in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, the present study is focused on identifying gait changes in early type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Objective: To analyze the gait characteristics in Type 2 diabetes mellitus without peripheral neuropathy. Methods: After obtaining ethical clearance from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), 36 T2DM without peripheral neuropathy and 32 matched healthy subjects were recruited. Gait characteristics (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, stride duration, step length, double stance duration) of all the subjects were analyzed using Windtrack dynamic foot scanner. Data were analyzed using Independent‘t’ test to find the difference between the groups (step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration) and Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the step length and double stance duration to find difference between the groups. Level of significance was kept at P<0.05. Results: Result analysis showed significant decrease in step duration, gait cycle length, gait cycle duration, step length, double stance duration in T2DM subjects as compared to healthy subjects. We also observed a mean increase in stride duration in T2DM subjects compared to healthy subjects.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, dynamic foot scan, gait characteristics, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
2785 Effect of Pulse Duration and Current to the EDM Process on Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel

Authors: S. Sulaiman, M. A. Razak, M. R. Ibrahim, A. A. Khan


An experimental work on the effect of different current and pulse duration on performance of EDM process of Allegheny Ludlum D2 Tool Steel (UNS T30402). The effect of varying the machining parameters on the machining responses such as material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) have been investigated. In this study, triangular shape and circular shape of copper was used as an electrode with surface area of 100 mm². The experiments were repeated for three different values of pulse duration (100 µs, 200 µs and 400 µs) with combination of three different values of discharge current (12 A, 16 A and 24 A). It was found that the pulse duration and current have significant effect on MRR, EWR and Ra. An increase in the pulse durations causes an increase in the MRR and Ra, but a decrease in the EWR. Meanwhile, the effect of currents on EDM performance shows that the increasing currents lead to an increase in the MRR, EWR and Ra.

Keywords: allegheny ludlum D2 tool steel, current, EDM, surface roughness, pulse duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
2784 Synthetic Daily Flow Duration Curves for the Çoruh River Basin, Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Can, Fatih Tosunoğlu


The flow duration curve (FDC) is an informative method that represents the flow regime’s properties for a river basin. Therefore, the FDC is widely used for water resource projects such as hydropower, water supply, irrigation and water quality management. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain synthetic daily flow duration curves for Çoruh Basin, Turkey. For this aim, we firstly developed univariate auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models for daily flows of 9 stations located in Çoruh basin and then these models were used to generate 100 synthetic flow series each having same size as historical series. Secondly, flow duration curves of each synthetic series were drawn and the flow values exceeded 10, 50 and 95 % of the time and 95% confidence limit of these flows were calculated. As a result, flood, mean and low flows potential of Çoruh basin will comprehensively be represented.

Keywords: ARMA models, Çoruh basin, flow duration curve, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2783 Duration Patterns of English by Native British Speakers and Mandarin ESL Speakers

Authors: Chen Bingru


This study is intended to describe and analyze the effects of polysyllabic shortening and word or phrase boundary on the duration patterns of spoken utterances by Mandarin learners of English in comparison with native speakers of English. To investigate the relative contribution of these effects, two production experiments were conducted. The study included 11 native British English speakers and 20 Mandarin learners of English who were asked to produce four sets of tokens consisting of a mono-syllabic base form, disyllabic, and trisyllabic words derived from the base by the addition of suffixes, and a set of short sentences with a particular combination of phrase size, stress pattern, and boundary location. The duration of words and segments was measured, and results from the data analysis suggest that the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of word or phrase position are likely to affect a Chinese accent for Mandarin ESL speakers. This study sheds light on research on the duration patterns of language by demonstrating the effect of duration-related factors on the foreign accent of Mandarin ESL speakers. It can also benefit both L2 learners and language teachers by increasing their sensitivity to the duration differences and difficulties experienced by L2 learners of English. An understanding of the amount of polysyllabic shortening and the effect of position in words and phrase on syllable duration can also facilitate L2 teachers to establish priorities for teaching pronunciation to ESL learners.

Keywords: duration patterns, Chinese accent, Mandarin ESL speakers, polysyllabic shortening

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
2782 High-Intensity, Short-Duration Electric Pulses Induced Action Potential in Animal Nerves

Authors: Jiahui Song, Ravindra P. Joshi


The use of high-intensity, short-duration electric pulses is a promising development with many biomedical applications. The uses include irreversible electroporation for killing abnormal cells, reversible poration for drug and gene delivery, neuromuscular manipulation, and the shrinkage of tumors, etc. High intensity, short-duration electric pulses result in the creation of high-density, nanometer-sized pores in the cellular membrane. This electroporation amounts to localized modulation of the transverse membrane conductance, and effectively provides a voltage shunt. The electrically controlled changes in the trans-membrane conductivity could be used to affect neural traffic and action potential propagation. A rat was taken as the representative example in this research. The simulation study shows the pathway from the sensorimotor cortex down to the spinal motoneurons, and effector muscles could be reversibly blocked by using high-intensity, short-duration electrical pulses. Also, actual experimental observations were compared against simulation predictions.

Keywords: action potential, electroporation, high-intensity, short-duration

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
2781 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

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2780 Internet Use and Academic Procrastination Behavior in High School Students

Authors: Endah Mastuti, Prihastuti Sudaryono


The rapid development of Internet usage and technology influences the academic behavior of students in high schools. One of the consequences is the emergence of academic procrastination behavior. Academic procrastination behavior is students’ procrastinate behavior in completing assignments. This study aimed to see whether there are differences in the duration of using the internet with academic procrastinate behavior among high school students in Surabaya. The number of research subject is 498 high school students. Instruments of the research are academic procrastination scale and duration of the internet usage questionnaire. The results from One Way Anova shows F value 0.241 with a significance level of 0.868 This demonstrates that there is no difference between the duration of the use of the Internet with academic procrastination behavior in high school students.

Keywords: academic procrastination, duration of internet usage, students, senior high school

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
2779 Investigating the Impact of Task Demand and Duration on Passage of Time Judgements and Duration Estimates

Authors: Jesika A. Walker, Mohammed Aswad, Guy Lacroix, Denis Cousineau


There is a fundamental disconnect between the experience of time passing and the chronometric units by which time is quantified. Specifically, there appears to be no relationship between the passage of time judgments (PoTJs) and verbal duration estimates at short durations (e.g., < 2000 milliseconds). When a duration is longer than several minutes, however, evidence suggests that a slower feeling of time passing is predictive of overestimation. Might the length of a task moderate the relation between PoTJs and duration estimates? Similarly, the estimation paradigm (prospective vs. retrospective) and the mental effort demanded of a task (task demand) have both been found to influence duration estimates. However, only a handful of experiments have investigated these effects for tasks of long durations, and the results have been mixed. Thus, might the length of a task also moderate the effects of the estimation paradigm and task demand on duration estimates? To investigate these questions, 273 participants performed either an easy or difficult visual and memory search task for either eight or 58 minutes, under prospective or retrospective instructions. Afterward, participants provided a duration estimate in minutes, followed by a PoTJ on a Likert scale (1 = very slow, 7 = very fast). A 2 (prospective vs. retrospective) × 2 (eight minutes vs. 58 minutes) × 2 (high vs. low difficulty) between-subjects ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between task demand and task duration on PoTJs, p = .02. Specifically, time felt faster in the more challenging task, but only in the eight-minute condition, p < .01. Duration estimates were transformed into RATIOs (estimate/actual duration) to standardize estimates across durations. An ANOVA revealed a two-way interaction between estimation paradigm and task duration, p = .03. Specifically, participants overestimated the task more if they were given prospective instructions, but only in the eight-minute task. Surprisingly, there was no effect of task difficulty on duration estimates. Thus, the demands of a task may influence ‘feeling of time’ and ‘estimation time’ differently, contributing to the existing theory that these two forms of time judgement rely on separate underlying cognitive mechanisms. Finally, a significant main effect of task duration was found for both PoTJs and duration estimates (ps < .001). Participants underestimated the 58-minute task (m = 42.5 minutes) and overestimated the eight-minute task (m = 10.7 minutes). Yet, they reported the 58-minute task as passing significantly slower on a Likert scale (m = 2.5) compared to the eight-minute task (m = 4.1). In fact, a significant correlation was found between PoTJ and duration estimation (r = .27, p <.001). This experiment thus provides evidence for a compensatory effect at longer durations, in which people underestimate a ‘slow feeling condition and overestimate a ‘fast feeling condition. The results are discussed in relation to heuristics that might alter the relationship between these two variables when conditions range from several minutes up to almost an hour.

Keywords: duration estimates, long durations, passage of time judgements, task demands

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2778 Effects of the Different Recovery Durations on Some Physiological Parameters during 3 X 3 Small-Sided Games in Soccer

Authors: Samet Aktaş, Nurtekin Erkmen, Faruk Guven, Halil Taskin


This study aimed to determine the effects of 3 versus 3 small-sided games (SSG) with different recovery times on soma physiological parameters in soccer players. Twelve soccer players from Regional Amateur League volunteered for this study (mean±SD age, 20.50±2.43 years; height, 177.73±4.13 cm; weight, 70.83±8.38 kg). Subjects were performing soccer training for five days per week. The protocol of the study was approved by the local ethic committee in School of Physical Education and Sport, Selcuk University. The subjects were divided into teams with 3 players according to Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test. The field dimension was 26 m wide and 34 m in length. Subjects performed two times in a random order a series of 3 bouts of 3-a-side SSGs with 3 min and 5 min recovery durations. In SSGs, each set were performed with 6 min duration. The percent of maximal heart rate (% HRmax), blood lactate concentration (LA) and Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale points were collected before the SSGs and at the end of each set. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Significant differences were found between %HRmax in before SSG and 1st set, 2nd set, and 3rd set in both SSG with 3 min recovery duration and SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). Means of %HRmax in SSG with 3 min recovery duration at both 1st and 2nd sets were significantly higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between sets of either SSGs in terms of LA (p>0.05). LA in SSG with 3 min recovery duration was higher than SSG with 5 min recovery duration at 2nd sets (p<0.05). RPE in soccer players was not different between SSGs (p>0.05).In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exercise intensity in SSG with 3 min recovery durations is higher than SSG with 5 min recovery durations.

Keywords: small-sided games, soccer, heart rate, lactate

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2777 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana


Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2776 Construction Time - Cost Trade-Off Analysis Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, G. C. S. Reddy


Time and cost are the two critical objectives of construction project management and are not independent but intricately related. Trade-off between project duration and cost are extensively discussed during project scheduling because of practical relevance. Generally when the project duration is compressed, the project calls for an increase in labor and more productive equipments, which increases the cost. Thus, the construction time-cost optimization is defined as a process to identify suitable construction activities for speeding up to attain the best possible savings in both time and cost. As there is hidden tradeoff relationship between project time and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of compressing the schedule. Different combinations of duration and cost for the activities associated with the project determine the best set in the time-cost optimization. Therefore, the contractors need to select the best combination of time and cost to perform each activity, all of which will ultimately determine the project duration and cost. In this paper, the fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainties in the project environment for time-cost trade off analysis.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, qualitative factors, decision making

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2775 Effect of Interaction between Colchicine Concentrations and Treatment Time Duration on the Percentage of Chromosome Polyploidy of Crepis capillaris (with and without 2B Chromosome) in vitro Culture

Authors: Payman A. A. Zibari, Mosleh M. S. Duhoky


These experiments were conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory/ Faculty of Agriculture / University of Duhok during the period from January 2011 to May 2013. The objectives of this study were to study the effects of interaction between colchcine concentrations and treatment time duration of Creps capilaris (with and without 2B chromosome) on chromosome polyploidy during fifteen passages until regeneration of plants from the callus. Data showed that high percentage of chromosome polyploidy approximately can be obtained from high concentration of colchicin and long time of duration.

Keywords: polyploidy, Crepis capilaris, colchicine, B chromosome

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
2774 Project Time Prediction Model: A Case Study of Construction Projects in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Tauha Hussain Ali, Shabir Hussain Khahro, Nafees Ahmed Memon


Accurate prediction of project time for planning and bid preparation stage should contain realistic dates. Constructors use their experience to estimate the project duration for the new projects, which is based on intuitions. It has been a constant concern to both researchers and constructors to analyze the accurate prediction of project duration for bid preparation stage. In Pakistan, such study for time cost relationship has been lacked to predict duration performance for the construction projects. This study is an attempt to explore the time cost relationship that would conclude with a mathematical model to predict the time for the drainage rehabilitation projects in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. The data has been collected from National Engineering Services (NESPAK), Pakistan and regression analysis has been carried out for the analysis of results. Significant relationship has been found between time and cost of the construction projects in Sindh and the generated mathematical model can be used by the constructors to predict the project duration for the upcoming projects of same nature. This study also provides the professionals with a requisite knowledge to make decisions regarding project duration, which is significantly important to win the projects at the bid stage.

Keywords: BTC Model, project time, relationship of time cost, regression

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2773 The Effect of Action Potential Duration and Conduction Velocity on Cardiac Pumping Efficacy: Simulation Study

Authors: Ana Rahma Yuniarti, Ki Moo Lim


Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (CV) and shortened action potential duration (APD) due to some reason are associated with an increased risk of re-entrant excitation, predisposing to cardiac arrhythmia. That is because both of CV reduction and APD shortening induces shortening of wavelength. In this study, we investigated quantitatively the cardiac mechanical responses under various CV and APD using multi-scale computational model of the heart. The model consisted of electrical model coupled with the mechanical contraction model together with a lumped model of the circulatory system. The electrical model consisted of 149.344 numbers of nodes and 183.993 numbers of elements of tetrahedral mesh, whereas the mechanical model consisted of 356 numbers of nodes and 172 numbers of elements of hexahedral mesh with hermite basis. We performed the electrical simulation with two scenarios: 1) by varying the CV values with constant APD and 2) by varying the APD values with constant CV. Then, we compared the electrical and mechanical responses for both scenarios. Our simulation showed that faster CV and longer APD induced largest resultants wavelength and generated better cardiac pumping efficacy by increasing the cardiac output and consuming less energy. This is due to the long wave propagation and faster conduction generated more synchronous contraction of whole ventricle.

Keywords: conduction velocity, action potential duration, mechanical contraction model, circulatory model

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2772 Investigation of Some Sperm Quality Parameters of Farmed and Wild-Caught Meagre (Argyrosomus regius Asso, 1801)

Authors: Şefik Surhan Tabakoğlu, Hipolito Fernández-Palacios, Dominique Schuchardt, Mahmut Ali Gökçe, Celal Erbaş, Oğuz Taşbozan


This study aimed to clarify some sperm quality parameters such as volumetric sperm quantity, motility, motility duration, sperm density, total number of spermatozoa and pH of meagre (Argyrosomus regius ASSO, 1801) individuals kept in farming conditions and caught from wild (las palmas, gran canary). The sperm was collected in glass tubes graded in millimetres and sperm volume registered immediately following collection by abdominal massage. The sperm quality parameters including motility, total number of spermatozoa and spermatozoa density were determined with computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) program. The duration of spermatozoa movement was assessed using a sensitive chronometer (1/100s) that was started simultaneously with the addition of activation solution into the sample. Sperm pH was measured with standard pH electrodes within five minutes of sampling. At the end of the study, while amount of sperm (5.20±0.33 ml), duration of motility (7.23±0.7 m) and total number of spermatozoa (131.40±12.22 x10^9) were different statistically (p < 0,05), motility (% 81.03±6.59), pH (7.30±0.08), sperm density (25.27±9.42 x10^9/ml) and morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the two groups. According to our results, amount of sperm, duration of motility and total number of spermatozoa were better in farmed group than that of the other group.

Keywords: Seriola rivoliana, meagre, sperm quality, motility, motility duration

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2771 Effects of Hypoxic Duration at Different Growth Stages on Yield Potential of Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: S. Boonlertnirun, R. Suvannasara, K. Boonlertnirun


Hypoxia has negative effects on growth and crop yield, its severity is so varied depending on crop growth stages, duration of hypoxia and crop species. The objective was to evaluate the sensitive growth stage and the duration of hypoxia negatively affecting growth and yield of waxy corn. Pot experiment was conducted using a split plot in randomized complete block with 3 growth stages: V3 (3-4 true leaves), V7 (7-8 true leaves), and R1 (silking stage), and three hypoxic durations: 6, 9, and 12 days, in an open–ended outdoor greenhouse during January to March 2013. The results revealed that different growth stages had significantly (p < 0.5) different responses to hypoxia, seeing that the sensitive growth stage affecting plant height, yield and yield components was mostly detected in V7 growth stage whereas leaf greenness and days to silking were sensitive to hypoxia at R1 growth stage. Different hypoxic durations significantly affected the yield and yield components, hypoxic duration of twelve days showed the most negative effect greater than the others. In this present study, it can be concluded that waxy corn plants were waterlogged at V7 growth stage for twelve days had the most negative effect on yield and yield components.

Keywords: hypoxia duration, waxy corn, growth stage, Zea mays L.

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
2770 Mediterranean Diet, Duration of Admission and Mortality in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vicky Dradaki, Tamta Sirbilatze, Irini Dri, Christina Kordali, Vaggelis Lambas, Kostas Argyros, Georgios Mavras


Objectives: Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that Mediterranean diet may protect against mortality and reduce admission duration in elderly, hospitalized patients. Methods: Sample population included 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2). The following data were taken into account in analysis: anthropometric and laboratory data, dietary habits (MedDiet score), patients’ nutritional status [Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score], physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires, IPAQ), smoking status, cause and duration of current admission, medical history (co-morbidities, previous admissions). Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of admission, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Logistic regression and linear regression analysis were performed in order to identify independent predictors for mortality and admission duration difference respectively. Results: According to MNA, nutrition was normal in 54/150 (36%) of patients, 46/150 (30.7%) of them were at risk of malnutrition and the rest 50/150 (33.3%) were malnourished. After performing multivariate logistic regression analysis we found that the odds of death decreased 30% per each unit increase of MedDiet score (OR=0.7, 95% CI:0.6-0.8, p < 0.0001). Patients with cancer-related admission were 37.7 times more likely to die, compared to those with infection (OR=37.7, 95% CI:4.4-325, p=0.001). According to multivariate linear regression analysis, admission duration was inversely related to Mediterranean diet, since it is decreased 0.18 days on average for each unit increase of MedDiet score (b:-0.18, 95% CI:-0.33 - -0.035, p=0.02). Additionally, the duration of current admission increased on average 0.83 days for each previous hospital admission (b:0.83, 95% CI:0.5-1.16, p<0.0001). The admission duration of patients with cancer was on average 4.5 days higher than the patients who admitted due to infection (b:4.5, 95% CI:0.9-8, p=0.015). Conclusion: Mediterranean diet adequately protects elderly, hospitalized patients against mortality and reduces the duration of hospitalization.

Keywords: Mediterranean diet, malnutrition, nutritional status, prognostic factors for mortality

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2769 Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Koshi Suzuki


Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.

Keywords: construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method

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2768 Colour Characteristics of Dried Cocoa Using Shallow Box Fermentation Technique

Authors: Khairul Bariah Sulaiman, Tajul Aris Yang


Fermentation is well known as an essential process in cocoa beans. Besides to develop the precursor of cocoa flavour, it also induce the colour changes in the beans.The fermentation process is reported to be influenced by duration of pod storage and fermentation. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate colour of Malaysian cocoa beans and how the pods storage and fermentation duration using shallow box technique will effect on it characteristics. There are two factors being studied ie duration of cocoa pod storage (0, 2, 4, and 6 days) and duration of cocoa fermentation (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). The experiment is arranged in 4 x 6 factorial design with 24 treatments and arrangement is in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The produced beans is inspected for colour changes under artificial light during cut test and divided into four groups of colour namely fully brown, purple brown, fully purple and slaty. Cut tests indicated that cocoa beans which are directly dried without undergone fermentation has the highest slaty percentage. However, application of pods storage before fermentation process is found to decrease the slaty percentage. In contrast, the percentages of fully brown beans start to dominate after two days of fermentation, especially from four and six days of pods storage batch. Whereas, almost all batch have percentage of fully purple less than 20%. Interestingly, the percentage of purple brown beans are scattered in the entire beans batch regardless any specific trend. Meanwhile, statistical analysis using General Linear Model showed that the pods storage has a significant effect on the colour characteristic of the Malaysian dried beans compared to fermentation duration.

Keywords: cocoa beans, colour, fermentation, shallow box

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2767 Neural Network Models for Actual Cost and Actual Duration Estimation in Construction Projects: Findings from Greece

Authors: Panagiotis Karadimos, Leonidas Anthopoulos


Predicting the actual cost and duration in construction projects concern a continuous and existing problem for the construction sector. This paper addresses this problem with modern methods and data available from past public construction projects. 39 bridge projects, constructed in Greece, with a similar type of available data were examined. Considering each project’s attributes with the actual cost and the actual duration, correlation analysis is performed and the most appropriate predictive project variables are defined. Additionally, the most efficient subgroup of variables is selected with the use of the WEKA application, through its attribute selection function. The selected variables are used as input neurons for neural network models through correlation analysis. For constructing neural network models, the application FANN Tool is used. The optimum neural network model, for predicting the actual cost, produced a mean squared error with a value of 3.84886e-05 and it was based on the budgeted cost and the quantity of deck concrete. The optimum neural network model, for predicting the actual duration, produced a mean squared error with a value of 5.89463e-05 and it also was based on the budgeted cost and the amount of deck concrete.

Keywords: actual cost and duration, attribute selection, bridge construction, neural networks, predicting models, FANN TOOL, WEKA

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2766 Duration of Isolated Vowels in Infants with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Paris Binos


The present work investigates developmental aspects of the duration of isolated vowels in infants with normal hearing compared to those who received cochlear implants (CIs) before two years of age. Infants with normal hearing produced shorter vowel duration since this find related with more mature production abilities. First isolated vowels are transparent during the protophonic stage as evidence of an increased motor and linguistic control. Vowel duration is a crucial factor for the transition of prelexical speech to normal adult speech. Despite current knowledge of data for infants with normal hearing more research is needed to unravel productions skills in early implanted children. Thus, isolated vowel productions by two congenitally hearing-impaired Greek infants (implantation ages 1:4-1:11; post-implant ages 0:6-1:3) were recorded and sampled for six months after implantation with a Nucleus-24. The results compared with the productions of three normal hearing infants (chronological ages 0:8-1:1). Vegetative data and vocalizations masked by external noise or sounds were excluded. Participants had no other disabilities and had unknown deafness etiology. Prior to implantation the infants had an average unaided hearing loss of 95-110 dB HL while the post-implantation PTA decreased to 10-38 dB HL. The current research offers a methodology for the processing of the prelinguistic productions based on a combination of acoustical and auditory analyses. Based on the current methodological framework, duration measured through spectrograms based on wideband analysis, from the voicing onset to the end of the vowel. The end marked by two co-occurring events: 1) The onset of aperiodicity with a rapid change in amplitude in the waveform and 2) a loss in formant’s energy. Cut-off levels of significance were set at 0.05 for all tests. Bonferroni post hoc tests indicated that difference was significant between the mean duration of vowels of infants wearing CIs and their normal hearing peers. Thus, the mean vowel duration of CIs measured longer compared to the normal hearing peers (0.000). The current longitudinal findings contribute to the existing data for the performance of children wearing CIs at a very young age and enrich also the data of the Greek language. The above described weakness for CI’s performance is a challenge for future work in speech processing and CI’s processing strategies.

Keywords: cochlear implant, duration, spectrogram, vowel

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2765 An Investigation of the Effects of Word Length on Amblyopic Eye Movement during Reading

Authors: Yahya Maeni


It is well established that amblyopic patients have a reduced reading performance and oculomotor deficits. Word length has a significant impact on reading performance and eye movement behaviour during reading. As there no previous attempts to assess whether amblyopic eyes would be affected by word length while reading. This study aims to assess the effect of word length on amblyopic eye movement behaviour during reading including fixation duration, number of fixation and gaze duration. 21 adults with amblyopia and 21 age-matched controls participated in the study (age ± SD) (23.80 ± 4.66) for amblyopes and (24.20 ± 3.58) for Controls. Eye movement was recorded during reading binocularly using Eyelink 1000. Study was designed as 2 x 2 (amblyopia vs. control) x 2 lengths (4 letters, and 8 letters). Compared to controls, the amblyopic participants report significant longer duration of fixation, higher number of fixation and longer gaze duration for short words with far higher significant difference for long words. It could be concluded that eye movement in amblyopia during reading might be accounted for by the length of a word within a text and this could possible explanation of reduced reading performance among amblyopes. By understanding the effect of word length on amblyopia will shed light on reading deficits in amblyopia and help to determine the reading needs of amplyopes in educational and clinical settings.

Keywords: amblyopia, eye movement, reading, fixation

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2764 The Role of QX-314 and Capsaicin in Producing Long-Lasting Local Anesthesia in the Animal Model of Trigeminal Neuralgia

Authors: Ezzati Givi M., Ezzatigivi N., Eimani H.


Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) consists of painful attacks often triggered with general activities, which cause impairment and disability. The first line of treatment consists of pharmacotherapy. However, the occurrence of many side-effects limits its application. Acute pain relief is crucial for titrating oral drugs and making time for neurosurgical intervention. This study aimed to examine the long-term anesthetic effect of QX-314 and capsaicin in trigeminal neuralgia using an animal model. TN was stimulated by surgical constriction of the infraorbital nerve in rats. After seven days, anesthesia infiltration was done, and the duration of mechanical allodynia was compared. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups as follows: control (normal saline); lidocaine (2%); QX314 (30 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (15 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (22 mM); lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (30 mM); and lidocaine (2%)+QX314 (30 mM) +capsaicin (1μg). QX314 in combination with lidocaine significantly increased the duration of anesthesia, which was dose-dependent. The combination of lidocaine+QX314+capsaicin could significantly increase the duration of anesthesia in trigeminal neuralgia. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combination of QX-314 with lidocaine and capsaicin produced a long-lasting, reversible local anesthesia and was superior to lidocaine alone in the fields of the duration of trigeminal neuropathic pain blockage.

Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, capsaicin, lidocaine, long-lasting

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2763 Development of IDF Curves for Precipitation in Western Watershed of Guwahati, Assam

Authors: Rajarshi Sharma, Rashidul Alam, Visavino Seleyi, Yuvila Sangtam


The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship of rainfall amounts is one of the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering for planning, design and operation of water resources project, or for various engineering projects against design floods. The establishment of such relationships was reported as early as in 1932 (Bernard). Since then many sets of relationships have been constructed for several parts of the globe. The objective of this research is to derive IDF relationship of rainfall for western watershed of Guwahati, Assam. These relationships are useful in the design of urban drainage works, e.g. storm sewers, culverts and other hydraulic structures. In the study, rainfall depth for 10 years viz. 2001 to 2010 has been collected from the Regional Meteorological Centre Borjhar, Guwahati. Firstly, the data has been used to construct the mass curve for duration of more than 7 hours rainfall to calculate the maximum intensity and to form the intensity duration curves. Gumbel’s frequency analysis technique has been used to calculate the probable maximum rainfall intensities for a period of 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, 50 yr, 100 yr from the maximum intensity. Finally, regression analysis has been used to develop the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. Thus, from the analysis the values for the constants ‘a’,‘b’ &‘c’ have been found out. The values of ‘a’ for which the sum of the squared deviation is minimum has been found out to be 40 and when the corresponding value of ‘c’ and ‘b’ for the minimum squared deviation of ‘a’ are 0.744 and 1981.527 respectively. The results obtained showed that in all the cases the correlation coefficient is very high indicating the goodness of fit of the formulae to estimate IDF curves in the region of interest.

Keywords: intensity-duration-frequency relationship, mass curve, regression analysis, correlation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 147