Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2881

Search results for: soil texture

2881 Morphological Properties of Soil Profile of Vineyard of Bangalore North (GKVK Farm), Karnataka, India

Authors: Harsha B. R., K. S. Anil Kumar


A profile was dug at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, where grapes were intensively cultivated for 25 years on the dimension of 1.5 × 1.5 × 1.5 m. Demarcation was done on the basis of texture, structure, colour, and the details like depth, texture, colour, consistency, rock fragments, presence of mottles, and structure were recorded and studied according to standard performa of soil profile description. Horizons noticed were Ap, Bt1, Bt2, Bt3, Bt4C, Bt5C and BC with respective depths of 0-13, 13-37, 37-60, 60-78, 78-104, 104-130 and 130-151+ cm. The reddish-brown colour was noticed in Ap, Bt1, and Bt2 horizons. The sub-angular blocky structure was observed in all the layers with slightly acid in reaction. Clear and abrupt smooth boundaries were present between two respective layers with clayey texture in all the horizons except the Ap horizon, which was clay loam in texture. Variegated soil colours and iron concretions were observed in Bt4, Bt5, and BC horizons. Clay skins were observed in Bt and BC horizons. Soils were of highly friable consistency for grapes cultivation.

Keywords: soil morphology, horizons, clay skins, consistency, vineyards

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2880 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı


The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp. soil, organochlorine pesticide

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
2879 Soil Quality Response to Long-Term Intensive Resources Management and Soil Texture

Authors: Dalia Feiziene, Virginijus Feiza, Agne Putramentaite, Jonas Volungevicius, Kristina Amaleviciute, Sarunas Antanaitis


The investigations on soil conservation are one of the most important topics in modern agronomy. Soil management practices have great influence on soil physico-chemical quality and GHG emission. Research objective: To reveal the sensitivity and vitality of soils with different texture to long-term antropogenisation on Cambisol in Central Lithuania and to compare them with not antropogenised soil resources. Methods: Two long-term field experiments (loam on loam; sandy loam on loam) with different management intensity were estimated. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from 5-10, 15-20 and 30-35 cm depths. Soil available P and K contents were determined by ammonium lactate extraction, total N by the dry combustion method, SOC content by Tyurin titrimetric (classical) method, texture by pipette method. In undisturbed core samples soil pore volume distribution, plant available water (PAW) content were determined. A closed chamber method was applied to quantify soil respiration (SR). Results: Long-term resources management changed soil quality. In soil with loam texture, within 0-10, 10-20 and 30-35 cm soil layers, significantly higher PAW, SOC and mesoporosity (MsP) were under no-tillage (NT) than under conventional tillage (CT). However, total porosity (TP) under NT was significantly higher only in 0-10 cm layer. MsP acted as dominant factor for N, P and K accumulation in adequate layers. P content in all soil layers was higher under NT than in CT. N and K contents were significantly higher than under CT only in 0-10 cm layer. In soil with sandy loam texture, significant increase in SOC, PAW, MsP, N, P and K under NT was only in 0-10 cm layer. TP under NT was significantly lower in all layers. PAW acted as strong dominant factor for N, P, K accumulation. The higher PAW the higher NPK contents were determined. NT did not secure chemical quality within deeper layers than CT. Long-term application of mineral fertilisers significantly increased SOC and soil NPK contents primarily in top-soil. Enlarged fertilization determined the significantly higher leaching of nutrients to deeper soil layers (CT) and increased hazards of top-soil pollution. Straw returning significantly increased SOC and NPK accumulation in top-soil. The SR on sandy loam was significantly higher than on loam. At dry weather conditions, on loam SR was higher in NT than in CT, on sandy loam SR was higher in CT than in NT. NPK fertilizers promoted significantly higher SR in both dry and wet year, but suppressed SR on sandy loam during usual year. Not antropogenised soil had similar SOC and NPK distribution within 0-35 cm layer and depended on genesis of soil profile horizons.

Keywords: fertilizers, long-term experiments, soil texture, soil tillage, straw

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2878 Using Soil Texture Field Observations as Ordinal Qualitative Variables for Digital Soil Mapping

Authors: Anne C. Richer-De-Forges, Dominique Arrouays, Songchao Chen, Mercedes Roman Dobarco


Most of the digital soil mapping (DSM) products rely on machine learning (ML) prediction models and/or the use or pedotransfer functions (PTF) in which calibration data come from soil analyses performed in labs. However, many other observations (often qualitative, nominal, or ordinal) could be used as proxies of lab measurements or as input data for ML of PTF predictions. DSM and ML are briefly described with some examples taken from the literature. Then, we explore the potential of an ordinal qualitative variable, i.e., the hand-feel soil texture (HFST) estimating the mineral particle distribution (PSD): % of clay (0-2µm), silt (2-50µm) and sand (50-2000µm) in 15 classes. The PSD can also be measured by lab measurements (LAST) to determine the exact proportion of these particle-sizes. However, due to cost constraints, HFST are much more numerous and spatially dense than LAST. Soil texture (ST) is a very important soil parameter to map as it is controlling many of the soil properties and functions. Therefore, comes an essential question: is it possible to use HFST as a proxy of LAST for calibration and/or validation of DSM predictions of ST? To answer this question, the first step is to compare HFST with LAST on a representative set where both information are available. This comparison was made on ca 17,400 samples representative of a French region (34,000 km2). The accuracy of HFST was assessed, and each HFST class was characterized by a probability distribution function (PDF) of its LAST values. This enables to randomly replace HFST observations by LAST values while respecting the PDF previously calculated and results in a very large increase of observations available for the calibration or validation of PTF and ML predictions. Some preliminary results are shown. First, the comparison between HFST classes and LAST analyses showed that accuracies could be considered very good when compared to other studies. The causes of some inconsistencies were explored and most of them were well explained by other soil characteristics. Then we show some examples applying these relationships and the increase of data to several issues related to DSM. The first issue is: do the PDF functions that were established enable to use HSFT class observations to improve the LAST soil texture prediction? For this objective, we replaced all HFST for topsoil by values from the PDF 100 time replicates). Results were promising for the PTF we tested (a PTF predicting soil water holding capacity). For the question related to the ML prediction of LAST soil texture on the region, we did the same kind of replacement, but we implemented a 10-fold cross-validation using points where we had LAST values. We obtained only preliminary results but they were rather promising. Then we show another example illustrating the potential of using HFST as validation data. As in numerous countries, the HFST observations are very numerous; these promising results pave the way to an important improvement of DSM products in all the countries of the world.

Keywords: digital soil mapping, improvement of digital soil mapping predictions, potential of using hand-feel soil texture, soil texture prediction

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2877 Investigation the Effect of Quenching Media on Abrasive Wear in Grade Medium Carbon Steel

Authors: Abbas S. Alwan, Waleed K. Hussan


In this paper, a general verification of possible heat treatment of steel has been done with the view of conditions of real abrasive wear of rotivater with soil texture. This technique is found promising to improve the quality of agriculture components working with the soil in dry condition. Abrasive wear resistance is very important in many applications and in most cases it is directly correlated with the hardness of materials surface. Responded of heat treatments were carried out in various media (Still air, Cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %) and follow by low-temperature tempering (250°C) was applied on steel type (AISI 1030). After heat treatment was applied wear with soil texture by using tillage process to determine the (actual wear rate) of the specimens depending on weight loss method. It was found; the wear resistance Increases with increase hardness with varying quenching media as follows; 30 HRC, 45 HRC, 52 HRC, and 60 HRC for nontreated (as received) cooling media as still air, cottonseed oil, and Brine water 10 %, respectively. Martensitic structure with retained austenite can be obtained depending on the quenching medium. Wear was presented on the worn surfaces of the steels which were used in this work.

Keywords: microstructures, hardness, abrasive wear, heat treatment, soil texture

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2876 Texture and Twinning in Selective Laser Melting Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: N. Kazantseva, P. Krakhmalev, I. Yadroitsev, A. Fefelov, N. Vinogradova, I. Ezhov, T. Kurennykh


Martensitic texture-phase transition in Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Ti-6Al-4V (ELI) alloys was found. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed the initial cubic beta < 100 > (001) BCC texture. Such kind of texture is observed in BCC metals with flat rolling texture when axis is in the direction of rolling and the texture plane coincides with the plane of rolling. It was found that the texture of the parent BCC beta-phase determined the texture of low-temperature HCP alpha-phase limited the choice of its orientation variants. The {10-12} < -1011 > twinning system in titanium alloys after SLM was determined. Analysis of the oxygen contamination in SLM alloys was done. Comparison of the obtained results with the conventional titanium alloys is also provided.

Keywords: additive technology, texture, twins, Ti-6Al-4V, oxygen content

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
2875 Soil Quality Status under Dryland Vegetation of Yabello District, Southern Ethiopia

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli, Omer Kara


The current research has investigated the soil quality status under dryland vegetation of Yabello district, Southern Ethiopia in which we should identify the nature and extent of salinity problem of the area for further research bases. About 48 soil samples were taken from 0-30, 31-60, 61-90 and 91-120 cm soil depths by opening 12 representative soil profile pits at 1.5 m depth. Soil color, texture, bulk density, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), Na, K, Mg, Ca, CaCO3, gypsum (CaSO4), pH, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) were analyzed. The dominant soil texture was silty-clay-loam.  Bulk density varied from 1.1 to 1.31 g/cm3. High SOC content was observed in 0-30 cm. The soil pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.6. The electrical conductivity shows indirect relationship with soil depth while CaCO3 and CaSO4 concentrations were observed in a direct relationship with depth. About 41% are non-saline, 38.31% saline, 15.23% saline-sodic and 5.46% sodic soils. Na concentration in saline soils was greater than Ca and Mg in all the soil depths. Ca and Mg contents were higher above 60 cm soil depth in non-saline soils. The concentrations of SO2-4 and HCO-3 were observed to be higher at the most lower depth than upper. SAR value tends to be higher at lower depths in saline and saline-sodic soils, but decreases at lower depth of the non-saline soils. The distribution of ESP above 60 cm depth was in an increasing order in saline and saline-sodic soils. The result of the research has shown the direction to which extent of salinity we should consider for the Commiphora plant species we want to grow on the area. 

Keywords: commiphora species, dryland vegetation, ecological significance, soil quality, salinity problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
2874 Effects of Adding Gypsum in Agricultural Land on Mitigating Splash Erosion on Sandy Loam and Loam Soil Textures, Afghanistan

Authors: Abdul Malik Dawlatzai, Shafiqullah Rahmani


Splash erosion in field has affected by factors; slope, rain intensity, soil properties, and plant cover. And also, soil erosion affects not only farmland productivity but also water quality downstream. There are a number of potential soil conservation practices, but many of these are complicated and relatively expensive, such as buffer strips, agro-forestry, counter banking, catchment canal, terracing, surface mulching, reduced tillage, etc. However, mitigation soil and water loss in agricultural land, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions, is indispensable for environmental protection and agricultural production. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding gypsum mineral on mitigating splash erosion caused by rain drop. The research was conducted in soil laboratory Badam Bagh Agricultural Researching Farm, Kabul, Afghanistan. The stainless steel cores were used, and constant water pressure was controlled by a Mariotte’s bottle with kinetic energy of raindrops 2.36 x 10⁻⁵J. Gypsum mineral was applied at a rate of 5 and 10 t ha⁻¹ and using a sandy loam and loam soil textures. The result was showed an average soil loss from sandy loam soil texture; control was 8.22%, 4.31% and 4.06% similar from loam soil texture, control was 7.26%, 2.89%, and 2.72% respectively. The application of gypsum mineral significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dispersion of soil particles caused by the impact of raindrops compared to control. Therefore, it was concluded that the addition of gypsum was effective as a measure for mitigating splash erosion.

Keywords: gypsum, soil loss, splash erosion, Afghanistan

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2873 Contribution to the Study of the Rill Density Effects on Soil Erosion: Laboratory Experiments

Authors: L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef


Rills begin to be generated once overland flow shear capacity overcomes the soil surface resistance. This resistance depends on soil texture, the arrangement of soil particles and on chemical and physical properties. The rill density could affect soil erosion, especially when the distance between the rills (interrill) contributes to the variation of the rill characteristics, and consequently on sediment concentration. To investigate this point, agricultural sandy soil, a soil tray of 0.2x1x3m³ and a piece of hardwood rectangular in shape to build up rills were the base of this work. The results have shown that small lines have been developed between the rills and the flow acceleration increased in comparison to the flow on the flat surface (interrill). Sediment concentration increased with increasing rill number (density).

Keywords: artificial rainfall, experiments, rills, soil erosion, transport capacity

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2872 Soil Degradati̇on Mapping Using Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analysis in the Oum Er Rbia High Basin, Middle Atlas, Morocco

Authors: Aafaf El Jazouli, Ahmed Barakat, Rida Khellouk


Mapping of soil degradation is derived from field observations, laboratory measurements, and remote sensing data, integrated quantitative methods to map the spatial characteristics of soil properties at different spatial and temporal scales to provide up-to-date information on the field. Since soil salinity, texture and organic matter play a vital role in assessing topsoil characteristics and soil quality, remote sensing can be considered an effective method for studying these properties. The main objective of this research is to asses soil degradation by combining remote sensing data and laboratory analysis. In order to achieve this goal, the required study of soil samples was taken at 50 locations in the upper basin of Oum Er Rbia in the Middle Atlas in Morocco. These samples were dried, sieved to 2 mm and analyzed in the laboratory. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was analyzed using physical or empirical methods to derive soil properties. In addition, remote sensing can serve as a supporting data source. Deterministic potential (Spline and Inverse Distance weighting) and probabilistic interpolation methods (ordinary kriging and universal kriging) were used to produce maps of each grain size class and soil properties using GIS software. As a result, a correlation was found between soil texture and soil organic matter content. This approach developed in ongoing research will improve the prospects for the use of remote sensing data for mapping soil degradation in arid and semi-arid environments.

Keywords: Soil degradation, GIS, interpolation methods (spline, IDW, kriging), Landsat 8 OLI, Oum Er Rbia high basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
2871 Evaluation of Robust Feature Descriptors for Texture Classification

Authors: Jia-Hong Lee, Mei-Yi Wu, Hsien-Tsung Kuo


Texture is an important characteristic in real and synthetic scenes. Texture analysis plays a critical role in inspecting surfaces and provides important techniques in a variety of applications. Although several descriptors have been presented to extract texture features, the development of object recognition is still a difficult task due to the complex aspects of texture. Recently, many robust and scaling-invariant image features such as SIFT, SURF and ORB have been successfully used in image retrieval and object recognition. In this paper, we have tried to compare the performance for texture classification using these feature descriptors with k-means clustering. Different classifiers including K-NN, Naive Bayes, Back Propagation Neural Network , Decision Tree and Kstar were applied in three texture image sets - UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and Brodatz, respectively. Experimental results reveal SIFTS as the best average accuracy rate holder in UIUCTex, KTH-TIPS and SURF is advantaged in Brodatz texture set. BP neuro network works best in the test set classification among all used classifiers.

Keywords: texture classification, texture descriptor, SIFT, SURF, ORB

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
2870 Review on Effective Texture Classification Techniques

Authors: Sujata S. Kulkarni


Effective and efficient texture feature extraction and classification is an important problem in image understanding and recognition. This paper gives a review on effective texture classification method. The objective of the problem of texture representation is to reduce the amount of raw data presented by the image, while preserving the information needed for the task. Texture analysis is important in many applications of computer image analysis for classification include industrial and biomedical surface inspection, for example for defects and disease, ground classification of satellite or aerial imagery and content-based access to image databases.

Keywords: compressed sensing, feature extraction, image classification, texture analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
2869 Physical Properties of Rice Field Receiving Irrigation Polluted by Gold Mine Tailing: Case Study in Dharmasraya, West Sumatra, Indonesia

Authors: Yulna Yulnafatmawita, Syafrimen Yasin, Lusi Maira


Irrigation source is one of the factors affecting physical properties of rice field. This research was aimed to determine the impact of polluted irrigation wáter on soil physical properties of rice field. The study site was located in Koto Nan IV, Dharmasraya Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia. The rice field was irrigated with wáter from Momongan river in which people do gold mining. The soil was sampled vertically from the top to 100 cm depth with 20 cm increment of soil profile from 2 year-fallowed rice field, as well as from the top 20 cm of cultivated rice field from the terrace-1 (the highest terrace) to terrace-5 (the lowest terrace) position. Soil samples were analysed in laboratory. For comparison, rice field receiving irrigation wáter from non-polluted source was also sampled at the top 20 cm and anaysed for the physical properties. The result showed that there was a change in soil physical properties of rice field after 9 years of getting irrigation from the river. Based on laboratory analyses, the total suspended solid (TSS) in the tailing reached 10,736 mg/L. The texture of rice field at polluted rice field (PRF) was dominated (>55%) by sand particles at the top 100 cm soil depth, and it tended to linearly decrease (R2=0.65) from the top 20 cm to 100 cm depth. Likewise, the sand particles also linearly decreased (R2=0.83), but clay particles linearly increased (R2=0.74) horizontally as the distance from the wáter input (terrace-1) was fartherst. Compared to nonpolluted rice field (NPRF), percentage of sand was higher, and clay was lower at PRF. This sandy texture of soil in PRF increased soil hydraulic conductivity (up to 19.1 times), soil bulk density (by 38%), and sharply decreased SOM (by 88.5 %), as well as soil total pore (by 22.1%) compared to the NPRF at the top 20 cm soil. The rice field was suggested to be reclaimed before reusing it. Otherwise the soil characteristics requirement, especially soil wáter retention, for rice field could not be fulfilled.

Keywords: gold mine tailing, polluted irrigation, rice field, soil physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2868 Automatic Moment-Based Texture Segmentation

Authors: Tudor Barbu


An automatic moment-based texture segmentation approach is proposed in this paper. First, we describe the related work in this computer vision domain. Our texture feature extraction, the first part of the texture recognition process, produces a set of moment-based feature vectors. For each image pixel, a texture feature vector is computed as a sequence of area moments. Second, an automatic pixel classification approach is proposed. The feature vectors are clustered using some unsupervised classification algorithm, the optimal number of clusters being determined using a measure based on validation indexes. From the resulted pixel classes one determines easily the desired texture regions of the image.

Keywords: image segmentation, moment-based, texture analysis, automatic classification, validation indexes

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2867 Nest-Site Selection of Crested Lark (Galerida cristata) in Yazd Province, Iran

Authors: Shirin Aghanajafizadeh


Nest site selection of Crested Lark was investigated in Boroyeh wildlife sanctuary of Harat during spring 2014. Habitat variables such as number of plant species, soil texture, distance to the nearest water resources, farms and roads were compared in the species presence plots with absence ones. Our analysis showed that the average number of Zygophyllum atriplicoidesand, Artemisia sieberi were higher while fine-textured soil percent cover (with very little and gravel) was lower in species presence plots than control plots. We resulted that the most affecting factor in the species nest site selection is the number of Z .atriplicoides and soil texture. Z. atriplicoides and A. sieberi can provide cover for nests and chickens against predators and environmental harsh events such as sunshine and wind. The stability of built nest forces the birds to select sites with not fine-textured soil. Some of the nests were detected in Alfalfa farms that can be related to its cover producing capability.

Keywords: habitat selection, Yazd Province, presence and absence plots, habitat variables

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2866 Computer Aided Classification of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Texture Features

Authors: Birmohan Singh, V.K.Jain


Computer aided diagnosis systems provide vital opinion to radiologists in the detection of early signs of breast cancer from mammogram images. Masses and microcalcifications, architectural distortions are the major abnormalities. In this paper, a computer aided diagnosis system has been proposed for distinguishing abnormal mammograms with architectural distortion from normal mammogram. Four types of texture features GLCM texture, GLRLM texture, fractal texture and spectral texture features for the regions of suspicion are extracted. Support Vector Machine has been used as classifier in this study. The proposed system yielded an overall sensitivity of 96.47% and accuracy of 96% for the detection of abnormalities with mammogram images collected from Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM) database.

Keywords: architecture distortion, mammograms, GLCM texture features, GLRLM texture features, support vector machine classifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
2865 Effect of Humic Acids on Agricultural Soil Structure and Stability and Its Implication on Soil Quality

Authors: Omkar Gaonkar, Indumathi Nambi, Suresh G. Kumar


The functional and morphological aspects of soil structure determine the soil quality. The dispersion of colloidal soil particles, especially the clay fraction and rupture of soil aggregates, both of which play an important role in soil structure development, lead to degradation of soil quality. The main objective of this work was to determine the effect of the behaviour of soil colloids on the agricultural soil structure and quality. The effect of commercial humic acid and soil natural organic matter on the electrical and structural properties of the soil colloids was also studied. Agricultural soil, belonging to the sandy loam texture class from northern part of India was considered in this study. In order to understand the changes in the soil quality in the presence and absence of humic acids, the soil fabric and structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Electrical properties of natural soil colloids in aqueous suspensions were assessed by zeta potential measurements at varying pH values with and without the presence of humic acids. The influence of natural organic matter was analyzed by oxidizing the natural soil organic matter with hydrogen peroxide. The zeta potential of the soil colloids was found to be negative in the pH range studied. The results indicated that hydrogen peroxide treatment leads to deflocculation of colloidal soil particles. In addition, the humic acids undergoes effective adsorption onto the soil surface imparting more negative zeta potential to the colloidal soil particles. The soil hydrophilicity decreased in the presence of humic acids which was confirmed by surface free energy determination. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of humic acids altered the soil fabric and structure, thereby affecting the soil quality. This study assumes significance in understanding soil aggregation and the interactions at soil solid-liquid interface.

Keywords: humic acids, natural organic matter, zeta potential, soil quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2864 Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications

Authors: Abdel Khalek Selim, Safaa Mahmoud


Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.

Keywords: alluvial soil, calcareous soil, elemental sulfur, nitrate leaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
2863 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui


In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
2862 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed


Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.

Keywords: rain, surface runoff water, soil, water erosion, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
2861 Effect of Different Contact Rollers on the Surface Texture during the Belt Grinding Process

Authors: Amine Hamdi, Sidi Mohammed Merghache, Brahim Fernini


During abrasive machining of hard steels by belt grinding, the finished surface texture is influenced by the pressure between the abrasive belt and the workpiece; this pressure is the force applied by the contact roller on the workpiece. Therefore, the contact roller has an important role and has a direct impact on process efficiency. The objective of this article is to study and compare the influence of different contact rollers on the belt ground surface texture. The quality of the surface texture is characterized by eight roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rp, Rv, Rsk, Rku, Rsm, and Rdq) and five parameters of the bearing area curve (Rpk, Rk, Rvk, Mr1, and Mr2). The results of the experimental tests indicate a better surface texture obtained by the PA 6 polyamide roller (hardness 60 Shore D) compared to that obtained with other rollers of the same hardness or of different hardness. Simultaneously, optimum medium pressure between the belt and the workpiece allows chip removal without fracturing the abrasive grains. This generates a good surface texture.

Keywords: belt grinding, contact roller, pressure, abrasive belt, surface texture

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2860 Stabilization of Clay Soil Using A-3 Soil

Authors: Mohammed Mustapha Alhaji, Sadiku Salawu


A clay soil which classified under A-7-6 soil according to AASHTO soil classification system and CH according to the unified soil classification system was stabilized using A-3 soil (AASHTO soil classification system). The clay soil was replaced with 0%, 10%, 20% to 100% A-3 soil, compacted at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy level and using unconfined compressive strength as evaluation criteria. The MDD of the compactions at both the BSL and BSH compaction energy levels showed increase in MDD from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The trend of the OMC with varied A-3 soil replacement is similar to that of MDD but in a reversed order. The OMC reduced from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the values increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. This trend was attributed to the observed reduction in the void ratio from 0% A-3 soil replacement to 40% A-3 soil replacement after which the void ratio increased to 100% A-3 soil replacement. The maximum UCS for clay at varied A-3 soil replacement increased from 272 and 770kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level at 0% A-3 soil replacement to 295 and 795kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 10% A-3 soil replacement after which the values reduced to 22 and 60kN/m2 for BSL and BSH compaction energy level respectively at 70% A-3 soil replacement. Beyond 70% A-3 soil replacement, the mixture cannot be moulded for UCS test.

Keywords: A-3 soil, clay minerals, pozzolanic action, stabilization

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2859 Study of Cathodic Protection for Trunk Pipeline of Al-Garraf Oil Field

Authors: Maysoon Khalil Askar


The delineation of possible areas of corrosion along the external face of an underground oil pipeline in Trunk line of Al- Garraf oil field was investigated using the horizontal electrical resistivity profiling technique and study the contribution of pH, Moisture Content in Soil and Presence chlorides, sulfates and total dissolve salts in soil and water. The test sites represent a physical and chemical properties of soils. The hydrogen-ion concentration of soil and groundwater range from 7.2 to 9.6, and the resistivity values of the soil along the pipeline were obtained using the YH302B model resistivity meter having values between 1588 and 720 Ohm-cm. the chloride concentration in soil and groundwater is high (more than 1000 ppm), total soulable salt is more than 5000 ppm, and sulphate range from 0.17% and 0.98% in soil and more than 600 ppm in groundwater. The soil is poor aeration, the soil texture is fine (clay and silt soil), the water content is high (the groundwater is close to surface), the chloride and sulphate is high in the soil and groundwater, the total soulable salt is high in ground water and finally the soil electric resistivity is low that the soil is very corrosive and there is the possibility of the pipeline failure. These methods applied in the study are quick, economic and efficient for detecting along buried pipelines which need to be protected. Routine electrical geophysical investigations along buried oil pipelines should be undertaken for the early detection and prevention of pipeline failure with its attendant environmental, human and economic consequences.

Keywords: soil resistivity, corrosion, cathodic protection, chloride concentration, water content

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2858 Mathematical Model for Flow and Sediment Yield Estimation on Tel River Basin, India

Authors: Santosh Kumar Biswal, Ramakar Jha


Soil erosion is a slow and continuous process and one of the prominent problems across the world leading to many serious problems like loss of soil fertility, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, sedimentation deposits etc. In this paper remote sensing and GIS based methods have been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield. Tel River basin which is the second largest tributary of the river Mahanadi laying between latitude 19° 15' 32.4"N and, 20° 45' 0"N and longitude 82° 3' 36"E and 84° 18' 18"E chosen for the present study. The catchment was discretized into approximately homogeneous sub-areas (grid cells) to overcome the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was computed using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). Various parameters for USLE was determined as a function of land topography, soil texture, land use/land cover, rainfall, erosivity and crop management and practice in the watershed. The concept of transport limited accumulation was formulated and the transport capacity maps were generated. The gross soil erosion was routed to the catchment outlet. This study can help in recognizing critical erosion prone areas of the study basin so that suitable control measures can be implemented.

Keywords: Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), GIS, land use, sediment yield,

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2857 Significant Influence of Land Use Type on Earthworm Communities but Not on Soil Microbial Respiration in Selected Soils of Hungary

Authors: Tsedekech Gebremeskel Weldmichael, Tamas Szegi, Lubangakene Denish, Ravi Kumar Gangwar, Erika Micheli, Barbara Simon


Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, soil biodiversity has been recognized globally as a crucial player in guaranteeing the functioning of soil and a provider of several ecosystem services essential for human well-being. The microbial fraction of the soil is a vital component of soil fertility as soil microbes play key roles in soil aggregate formation, nutrient cycling, humification, and degradation of pollutants. Soil fauna, such as earthworms, have huge impacts on soil organic matter dynamics, nutrient cycling, and infiltration and distribution of water in the soil. Currently, land-use change has been a global concern as evidence accumulates that it adversely affects soil biodiversity and the associated ecosystem goods and services. In this study, we examined the patterns of soil microbial respiration (SMR) and earthworm (abundance, biomass, and species richness) across three land-use types (grassland, arable land, and forest) in Hungary. The objectives were i) to investigate whether there is a significant difference in SMR and earthworm (abundance, biomass, and species richness) among land-use types. ii) to determine the key soil properties that best predict the variation in SMR and earthworm communities. Soil samples, to a depth of 25 cm, were collected from the surrounding areas of seven soil profiles. For physicochemical parameters, soil organic matter (SOM), pH, CaCO₃, E₄/E₆, available nitrogen (NH₄⁺-N and NO₃⁻-N), potassium (K₂O), phosphorus (P₂O₅), exchangeable Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, soil moisture content (MC) and bulk density were measured. The analysis of SMR was determined by basal respiration method, and the extraction of earthworms was carried out by hand sorting method as described by ISO guideline. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference among land-use types in SMR (p > 0.05). However, the highest SMR was observed in grassland soils (11.77 mgCO₂ 50g⁻¹ soil 10 days⁻¹) and lowest in forest soils (8.61 mgCO₂ 50g⁻¹ soil 10 days⁻¹). SMR had strong positive correlations with exchangeable Ca²⁺ (r = 0.80), MC (r = 0.72), and exchangeable Mg²⁺(r = 0.69). We found a pronounced variation in SMR among soil texture classes (p < 0.001), where the highest value in silty clay loam soils and the lowest in sandy soils. This study provides evidence that agricultural activities can negatively influence earthworm communities, in which the arable land had significantly lower earthworm communities compared to forest and grassland respectively. Overall, in our study, land use type had minimal effects on SMR whereas, earthworm communities were profoundly influenced by land-use type particularly agricultural activities related to tillage. Exchangeable Ca²⁺, MC, and texture were found to be the key drivers of the variation in SMR.

Keywords: earthworm community, land use, soil biodiversity, soil microbial respiration, soil property

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2856 Effects of the Type of Soil on the Efficiency of a Bioremediation Dispositive by Using Bacterium Hydrocarbonoclastes

Authors: Amel Bouderhem, Aminata Ould El Hadj Khelil, Amina N. Djrarbaoui, Aroussi Aroussi


The present work aims to find the influence of the nature of the soil on the effectiveness of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons by a mixture of bacterial strains hydrocarbonoclastes. Processes of bioaugmentation and biostimulation trial are applied to samples of soils polluted voluntarily by the crude oil. For the evaluation of the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, the bacterial load, the pH and organic carbon total are followed in the different experimental batches. He bacterial load of the sandy soil varies among the witnesses of 45,2 .108 CFU/ml at the beginning of the experimentation to 214,07.108 CFU/ml at the end of the experiment. Of the soil silty-clay varies between 103,31 .108 CFU/ml and 614,86.108 CFU/ml . It was found a strong increase in the bacterial biomass during the processing of all samples. This increase is more important in the samples of sand bioaugmente or biomass increased from 63.16 .108 CFU/ml to 309.68 .108 CFU/ml than in soil samples silty clay- bioaugmente whose content in bacteria evolved of 73,01 .108 CFU/ml to 631.80 . 108CFU/ml

Keywords: pollution, hydrocarbons, bioremediation, bacteria hydrocarbonoclastes, ground, texture

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2855 Ecological Study of Habitat Conditions and Distribution of Cistanche tubulosa (Rare Plant Species) in Pakpattan District, Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Shakoor


C. tubulosa is a rare parasitic plant. It is found to be endangered and it acquires nutrition by penetrating roots deep in host roots. It has momentous potential to fulfill local and national health needs. This specie became endangered due to its parasitic mode of life and lack of awareness. Investigation of distribution and habitat conditions of C. tubulosa from District Pakpattan is the objective of this study. To explore its habitat conditions and community ecology phytosociological survey of C. tubulosa in different habitats i.e roadsides and graveyards was carried out. It was found that C. tubulosa occurs successfully in different habitats like graveyards and roadsides with specific neighboring species. Soil analysis was carried out by taking soil samples from seven sites. Soil was analyzed for pH, EC, soil texture, OM, N %age, Ca, Mg, P and K, which shows that soil of C. tubulosa is rich in all these nutrients.

Keywords: organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium

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2854 Assessment of Runway Micro Texture Using Surface Laser Scanners: An Explorative Study

Authors: Gerard Van Es


In this study, the use of a high resolution surface laser scanner to assess the micro texture of runway surfaces was investigated experimentally. Micro texture is one of the important surface components that helps to provide high braking friction between aircraft tires and a wet runway surface. Algorithms to derive different parameters that characterise micro texture was developed. Surface scans with a high resolution laser scanner were conducted on 40 different runway (like) surfaces. For each surface micro texture parameters were calculated from the laser scan data. These results were correlated with results obtained from a British pendulum tester that was used on the same surface. Results obtained with the British pendulum tester are generally considered to be indicative for the micro texture related friction characteristics. The results show that a meaningful correlation can be found between different parameters that characterise micro texture obtained with the laser scanner and the British pendulum tester results. Surface laser scanners are easier to operate and give more consistent results than a British pendulum tester. Therefore for airport operators surface laser scanners can be a useful tool to determine if their runway becomes slippery when wet due to a smooth micro texture.

Keywords: runway friction, micro texture, aircraft braking performance, slippery runways

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2853 Evaluation of Erodibility Status of Soils in Some Areas of Imo and Abia States of Nigeria

Authors: Andy Obinna Ibeje


In this study, the erodibility indices and some soil properties of some cassava farms in selected areas of Abia and Imo States were investigated. This study involves taking measurements of some soil parameters such as permeability, soil texture and particle size analysis from which the erodibility indices were compared. Results showed that soils of the areas are very sandy. The results showed that Isiukwuato with index of 72 has the highest erodibility index. The results also showed that Arondizuogu with index of 34 has the least erodibility index. The results revealed that soil erodibility (k) values varied from 34 to 72. Nkporo has the highest sand content; Inyishie has the least silt content. The result indicates that there were respectively strong inverse relationship between clay and silt contents and erodibility index. On the other hand, sand, organic matter and moisture contents as well as soil permeability has significantly high positive correlation with soil erodibility and it can be concluded that particle size distribution is a major finger print on the erodibility index of soil in the study area. It is recommended that safe cultural practices like crop rotation, matching and adoption of organic farming techniques be incorporated into farming communities of Abia and Imo States in order to stem the advances of erosion in the study area.

Keywords: erodibility, indices, soil, sand

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2852 Texture Identification Using Vision System: A Method to Predict Functionality of a Component

Authors: Varsha Singh, Shraddha Prajapati, M. B. Kiran


Texture identification is useful in predicting the functionality of a component. Many of the existing texture identification methods are of contact in nature, which limits its measuring speed. These contact measurement techniques use a diamond stylus and the diamond stylus being sharp going to damage the surface under inspection and hence these techniques can be used in statistical sampling. Though these contact methods are very accurate, they do not give complete information for full characterization of surface. In this context, the presented method assumes special significance. The method uses a relatively low cost vision system for image acquisition. Software is developed based on wavelet transform, for analyzing texture images. Specimens are made using different manufacturing process (shaping, grinding, milling etc.) During experimentation, the specimens are illuminated using proper lighting and texture images a capture using CCD camera connected to the vision system. The software installed in the vision system processes these images and subsequently identify the texture of manufacturing processes.

Keywords: diamond stylus, manufacturing process, texture identification, vision system

Procedia PDF Downloads 197