Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Bassam Alowaiesh

22 Reducing Environmental Impact of Olive Oil Production in Sakaka City Using Combined Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment

Authors: Abdullah Alhajoj, Bassam Alowaiesh

Abstract:

This work aims to reduce the risks of discharging olive mill waste directly to the environment without treatment in Sakaka City, KSA. The organic loads expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) of the produced wastewater (OMWW) as well as the solid waste (OMW) were evaluated. The wastes emitted from the three-phase centrifuge decanters was found to be higher than that emitted from the two-phase centrifuge decanters. The olive mill wastewater (OMWW) was treated using advanced oxidation combined with filtration treatment. The results indicated that the concentration of COD, BOD, TSS, oil and grease and phenol was reduced by using complex sand filtration from 72150, 21660 10256, 36430, and 1470 mg/l to 980, 421, 58, 68, and 0.35 mg/l for three-phase OMWW and from 150562, 17955, 15325, 19658 and 2153 mg/l to 1050, 501, 29, 0.75, and 0.29 mg/l, respectively. While, by using modified trickling filter (packed with the neck of waste plastic bottles the concentration of the previously mentioned parameters was reduced to 1190, 570, 55, 0.85, and 0.3 mg/l, respectively. This work supports the application of such treatment technique for reducing the environmental threats of olive mill waste effluents in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: two-phase, three-phase, olive mill, olive oil, waste treatment, filtration, advanced oxidation, waste plastic bottles

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21 Halophilic Bacterium: A Review of New Studies

Authors: Bassam Al Johny

Abstract:

Halophilic bacteria are organisms which thrive in salt-rich environments, such as salt lakes, solar salterns and salt mines which contain large populations of these organisms. In biotechnology, such salt-tolerant bacteria are widely used for the production of valuable enzymes, and more than a thousand years ago humans began using salt to cure and thereby preserve perishable foods and other materials, such as hides; halophiles can be detrimental to the preservation of salt brine cured hides. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the taxonomy of these organisms including novel isolates from rock salt, and also to discuss their current and future biotechnological and environmental uses.

Keywords: hypersaline environments, halophilic bacteria, environmental application, industrial application

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20 The Interactive Effect of Sodium Chloride and Diatomaceous Earth (DE) on Bacillus aquimaris

Authors: Bassam O AlJohny

Abstract:

The growth of Bacillus aquimaris was inhibited from 6 - 20 % of NaCl but it showed some tolerance when Diatomaceous earth (DE) added from 2 - 12% NaCl. Concerning the effect of NaCl on polyol production, we can conclude that, the test bacterium showed some tolerance to NaCl by producing glycerol up to 8 % of NaCl. Then decreased sharply. The addition of DE decrease the amount of polyol and glycerol remarkably and this due to the productive effect of DE to the bacterial cells. The SEM figures represented the presence of electron dense bodies due to the accumulation of small particles of DE as protective molecules.

Keywords: Bacillus aquimaris, Diatomaceous earth (DE), osmoticstress, sodium chloride

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19 Effect of Needle Diameter on the Morphological Structure of Electrospun n-Bi2O3/Epoxy-PVA Nanofiber Mats

Authors: Bassam M. Abunahel, Nurul Zahirah Noor Azman, Munirah Jamil

Abstract:

The effect of needle diameter on the morphological structure of electrospun n-Bi2O3/epoxy-PVA nanofibers has been investigated using three different types of needle diameters. The results were observed and investigated using two techniques of scanning electron microscope (SEM). The first technique is backscattered SEM while the second is secondary electron SEM. The results demonstrate that there is a correlation between the needle diameter and the morphology of electrospun nanofibers. As the internal needle diameter decreases, the average nanofiber diameter decreases and the fibers get thinner and smoother without agglomeration or beads formation. Moreover, with small needle diameter the nanofibrous porosity get larger compared with large needle diameter.

Keywords: needle diameter, fiber diameter, porosity, agglomeration

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18 X-Ray Analysis and Grain Size of CuInx Ga1-X Se2 Solar Cells

Authors: A. I. Al-Bassam, A. M. El-Nggar

Abstract:

Polycrystalline Cu In I-x GaxSe2 thin films have been fabricated. Some physical properties such as lattice parameters, crystal structure and microstructure of Cu In I-x GaxSe2 were determined using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films with x ≥ 0.5 have a chalcopyrite structure and the films with x ≤ 0.5 have a zinc blende structure. The lattice parameters were found to vary linearly with composition over a wide range from x = 0 to x =1.0. The variation of lattice parameters with composition was found to obey Vegard's law. The variation of the c/a with composition was also linear. The quality of a wide range of Cu In I-xGaxSe2 thin film absorbers from CuInSe to CuGaSe was evaluated by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

Keywords: grain size, polycrystalline, solar cells, lattice parameters

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17 Grounded Theory of Consumer Loyalty: A Perspective through Video Game Addiction

Authors: Bassam Shaikh, R. S. A. Jumain

Abstract:

Game addiction has become an extremely important topic in psychology researchers, particularly in understanding and explaining why individuals become addicted (to video games). In previous studies, effect of online game addiction on social responsibilities, health problems, government action, and the behaviors of individuals to purchase and the causes of making individuals addicted on the video games has been discussed. Extending these concepts in marketing, it could be argued than the phenomenon could enlighten and extending our understanding on consumer loyalty. This study took the Grounded Theory approach, and found that motivation, satisfaction, fulfillments, exploration and achievements to be part of the important elements that builds consumer loyalty.

Keywords: grounded theory, consumer loyalty, video games, video game addiction

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16 Nematodes, Rotifers, Tardigrades and Diatoms as Vehicles for the Panspermic Transfer of Microbes

Authors: Sulamain Alharbi, Mohammad Khiyami, Reda Amasha, Bassam Al-Johny, Hesham Khalil, Milton Wainwrigh

Abstract:

Nematodes, Rotifers and Tardigrades (NRT) are extreme-tolerant invertebrates which can survive long periods of stasis brought about by extreme drying and cold. They can also resist the effects of UV radiation, and as a result could act as vehicles for the panspermic transfer of microorganisms. Here we show that NRT contain a variety of bacteria and fungi within their bodies in which environment they could be protected from the extremes of the space and released into new cosmic environments. Diatoms were also shown to contain viable alga and Escherichia coli and so could also act as panspermic vehicles for the transfer of these and perhaps other microbes through space. Although not studied here, NRT, and possibly diatoms, also carry protozoa and viruses within their bodies and could act as vehicles for the panspermic transfer of an even wider range of microbes than shown here.

Keywords: extromophiles, diatoms, panspermia, survival in space

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15 Bismuth-Inhibitory Effects on Bacteria and Stimulation of Fungal Growth In vitro

Authors: Sulaiman B. Ali Alharbi, Bassam H. Mashat, Naif Abdullah Al-Harbi, Milton Wainwright, Abeer S. Aloufi, Sulamain Alnaimat

Abstract:

Bismuth salicylate was found to inhibit the growth of a range of bacteria and yeast, Candida albican. In general the growth of bacteria did not result in the increase in bismuth solubilisation, in contrast, bismuth solubilisation increased following the growth of C. albicans. A significant increase in the biomass (dry weight) of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae occurred in vitro when these fungi were grown in the presence of bismuth salicylate. Biomass increase occurred over a range of bismuth compound additions, which in the case of A. oryzae was associated with the increase in the solubilisation of the insoluble bismuth compounds.

Keywords: bacterial inhibition, fungal growth stimulation, medical uses of bismuth, yeast inhibition

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14 Physicochemical Parameters of Tap-Water in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ahmed Abdi Hassana, Bassam Tawabini

Abstract:

In this study, the physicochemical parameters of Dhahran tap water were assessed to determine its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 45 water samples were collected from different locations. The results indicate temperature ranges of (19.76 to 22.86 °C), pH (6.5 to 8.23), dissolved oxygen (4.21 to 8.32 mg/L, conductivity (232 to 2586 uS/cm), turbidity (0.17 to 0.37 NTU), total dissolved solids (93 to 1671 mg/L), total alkalinity (4.11 to 24.04 mg/L), calcium (0.02 to 164 mg/L), magnesium (0.6 to 77.9 mg/L), chloride (32.7 to 568.7 mg/L), nitrate (0.02 to 3 mg/L), fluoride (0.001 to 0.591 mg/L), sodium (18.4 to 232 mg/L), potassium (0.5 to 26.4 mg/L), and sulphate (2.39 to 258 mg/L). The results were compared with the drinking water standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The study determined that though the levels of most of the physicochemical parameters comply with the standards, however, slight deviations exist. This is evident in the physical parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids) and the chemical parameters (sulphate, chloride, and sodium) values recorded at a few sample sites.

Keywords: physicochemical parameters, tap-water, water quality, Dhahran

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13 The Effect on Lead Times When Normalizing a Supply Chain Process

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli

Abstract:

Organizations are living in a very competitive and dynamic environment which is constantly changing. In order to achieve a high level of service, the products and processes of these organizations need to be flexible and evolvable. If the supply chains are not modular and well designed, changes can bring combinatorial effects to most areas of a company from its management, financial, documentation, logistics and its information structure. Applying the normalized system’s concept to segments of the supply chain may help in reducing those ripple effects, but it may also increase lead times. Lead times are important and can become a decisive element in gaining customers. Industries are always under the pressure in providing good quality products, at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them. Most of the time, the customers want their orders now, if not yesterday. The above concept will be proven by examining lead times in a manufacturing example before and after applying normalized systems concept to that segment of the chain. We will then show that although we can minimize the combinatorial effects when changes occur, the lead times will be increased.

Keywords: supply chain, lead time, normalization, modular

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12 Persistence of DNA on Clothes Contaminated by Semen Stains after Washing

Authors: Ashraf Shebl, Bassam Garah, Radah Youssef

Abstract:

Sexual assault is usually a hidden crime where the only witnesses are the victim and the assailant. For a variety of reasons, even the victim may be unable to provide a detailed account of the assault or the identity of the perpetrator. Often the case history deteriorates into one person’s word against another. With such limited initial information, the physical and biological evidence collected from the victim, from the crime scene, and from the suspect will play a pivotal role in the objective and scientific reconstruction of the events in question. The aim of work is to examine whether DNA profiles could be recovered from repeated washed clothes after contaminated by semen stains. Fresh semen about 1ml. ( <1 h old) taken from donor was deposited on four types of clothes (cotton, silk, polyester, and jeans). Then leave to dry in room temperature and washed by washing machine at temperature (30°C-60°C) and by hand washing. Some items of clothing were washed once, some twice and others three times. DNA could be extracted from some of these samples even after multiple washing. This study demonstrates that complete DNA profiles can be obtained from washed semen stains on different types of clothes, even after many repeated washing. These results indicated that clothes of the victims must be examined even if they were washed many times.

Keywords: sexual assault, DNA, persistence, clothes

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11 Crack Initiation Assessment during Fracture of Heat Treated Duplex Stainless Steels

Authors: Faraj Ahmed E. Alhegagi, Anagia M. Khamkam Mohamed, Bassam F. Alhajaji

Abstract:

Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are widely employed in industry for apparatus working with sea water in petroleum, refineries and in chemical plants. Fracture of DSS takes place by cleavage of the ferrite phase and the austenite phase ductile tear off. Pop-in is an important feature takes place during fracture of DSS. The procedure of Pop-ins assessment plays an important role in fracture toughness studies. In present work, Zeron100 DSS specimens were heat treated at different temperatures, cooled and pulled to failure to assess the pop-ins criterion in crack initiation prediction. The outcome results were compared to the British Standard (BS 7448) and the ASTEM standard (E1290) for Crack-Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement. Pop-in took place during specimens loading specially for those specimens heat treated at higher temperatures. The standard BS7448 was followed to check specimen validity for fractured toughness assessment by direct determination of KIC. In most cases, specimens were invalid for KIC measurement. The two procedures were equivalent only when single pop-ins were assessed. A considerable contrast in fracture toughness value between was observed where multiple pop-ins were assessed.

Keywords: fracture toughness, stainless steels, pop ins, crack assessment

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10 Management of Facial Nerve Palsy Following Physiotherapy

Authors: Bassam Band, Simon Freeman, Rohan Munir, Hisham Band

Abstract:

Objective: To determine efficacy of facial physiotherapy provided for patients with facial nerve palsy. Design: Retrospective study Subjects: 54 patients diagnosed with Facial nerve palsy were included in the study after they met the selection criteria including unilateral facial paralysis and start of therapy twelve months after the onset of facial nerve palsy. Interventions: Patients received the treatment offered at a facial physiotherapy clinic consisting of: Trophic electrical stimulation, surface electromyography with biofeedback, neuromuscular re-education and myofascial release. Main measures: The Sunnybrook facial grading scale was used to evaluate the severity of facial paralysis. Results: This study demonstrated the positive impact of physiotherapy for patient with facial nerve palsy with improvement of 24.2% on the Sunnybrook facial grading score from a mean baseline of 34.2% to 58.2%. The greatest improvement looking at different causes was seen in patient who had reconstructive surgery post Acoustic Neuroma at 31.3%. Conclusion: The therapy shows significant improvement for patients with facial nerve palsy even when started 12 months post onset of paralysis across different causes. This highlights the benefit of this non-invasive technique in managing facial nerve paralysis and possibly preventing the need for surgery.

Keywords: facial nerve palsy, treatment, physiotherapy, bells palsy, acoustic neuroma, ramsey-hunt syndrome

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9 Experimental Study on Strengthening Systems of Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Slabs

Authors: Aymen H. Khalil, Ashraf M. Heniegal, Bassam A. Abdelsalam

Abstract:

There are many problems related to cantilever slabs such as the time-dependent deformation, corrosion problems of steel reinforcement, and lack of experimental studies on the strength of strengthened cantilever slabs. This paper presents an investigation to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete cantilever slabs after strengthening with different techniques. Six medium scale specimens, divided into three groups, were tested along with a control slab. The first group consists of two specimens which were repaired and strengthened using reinforced concrete jacket above with and without shear connector bars, whereas the second group contained two slabs which were strengthened using two strips of two layers of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) covering 60% and 90% from the cantilever length. The last group involves two specimens strengthened with two steel plates. In one specimen, the steel plates were glued to the surface using epoxy resin. The second specimen, the steel plates were affixed to the concrete surface using expansion bolts. The loading was conducted in two phases. Firstly, the samples were subjected to 40% of the ultimate load of the control slab. Secondly, the specimens reloaded after being strengthened up to failure. The load-deflection, steel strain, concrete strain, failure mode, toughness, and ductility index are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: repair, strengthened, GFRP layers, reloaded, jacketing, cantilever slabs

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8 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, speech recognition, artificial neural network, electroencephalography, EEG, wernicke area

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7 Blueprinting of a Normalized Supply Chain Processes: Results in Implementing Normalized Software Systems

Authors: Bassam Istanbouli

Abstract:

With the technology evolving every day and with the increase in global competition, industries are always under the pressure to be the best. They need to provide good quality products at competitive prices, when and how the customer wants them.  In order to achieve this level of service, products and their respective supply chain processes need to be flexible and evolvable; otherwise changes will be extremely expensive, slow and with many combinatorial effects. Those combinatorial effects impact the whole organizational structure, from a management, financial, documentation, logistics and specially the information system Enterprise Requirement Planning (ERP) perspective. By applying the normalized system concept/theory to segments of the supply chain, we believe minimal effects, especially at the time of launching an organization global software project. The purpose of this paper is to point out that if an organization wants to develop a software from scratch or implement an existing ERP software for their business needs and if their business processes are normalized and modular then most probably this will yield to a normalized and modular software system that can be easily modified when the business evolves. Another important goal of this paper is to increase the awareness regarding the design of the business processes in a software implementation project. If the blueprints created are normalized then the software developers and configurators will use those modular blueprints to map them into modular software. This paper only prepares the ground for further studies;  the above concept will be supported by going through the steps of developing, configuring and/or implementing a software system for an organization by using two methods: The Software Development Lifecycle method (SDLC) and the Accelerated SAP implementation method (ASAP). Both methods start with the customer requirements, then blue printing of its business processes and finally mapping those processes into a software system.  Since those requirements and processes are the starting point of the implementation process, then normalizing those processes will end up in a normalizing software.

Keywords: blueprint, ERP, modular, normalized

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6 Determination of the CCR5Δ32 Frequency in Emiratis and Tunisians and Screening of the CCR5 Gene for Novel Alleles in Emiratis

Authors: Sara A. Al-Jaberi, Salma Ben-Salem, Meriam Messedi, Fatma Ayadi, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Bassam R. Ali

Abstract:

Background: The chemokine receptor components play crucial roles in the immune system and some of them serve as co-receptors for the HIV virus. Several studies have documented those variants in chemokine receptors are correlated with susceptibility and resistance to infection with HIV virus. For example, mutations in the chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5) resulting in loss-of-function (such as the homozygous CCR5Δ32) confer high degree of resistance to HIV infection. Heterozygotes for these variants exhibit slow progression to AIDS. The prevalence of CCR5 polymorphisms varies among ethnic and geographical groups. For example, the CCR5 Δ32 variant is present in 10–15% of north Europeans but is rarely encountered among Africans. This study aims to identify the prevalence of some CCR5 variants in two geographically distant Arab populations (namely Emiratis and Tunisians). Methodology: The prevalence of CCR5 gene variants including CCR5Δ32, FS299, C101X, A29S and C178R has been determined using PCR and direct DNA sequencing. A total of 403 unrelated healthy individuals (253 Emiratis and 150 Tunisians) were genotyped for the CCR5Δ32 variant using PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. In addition, 200 Emiratis have been screened for other SNPs using Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Among Emiratis, the allele frequency of the CCR5Δ32 variant has been found to be 0.002. In addition, two variants L55Q and A159 were found at a frequency of 0.002.Moreover, the prevalence of the CCR5Δ32 variant in Tunisians was estimated to be 0.013 which is relatively higher than its frequency in Emiratis but lower than Europeans. Conclusion: We conclude that the allele frequency of the most critical CCR5 polymorphism (Δ32) is extremely low among Emiratis compared to other Arabs and North Europeans. In addition, very low allele frequencies of other CCR5 polymorphisms have been detected among Emiratis.

Keywords: chemokine receptors, CCR5Δ32, CCR5 polymorphisms, Emiratis, Arab populations

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5 Modeling the Effects of Temperature on Air Pollutant Concentration

Authors: Mustapha Babatunde, Bassam Tawabini, Ole John Nielson

Abstract:

Air dispersion (AD) models such as AERMOD are important tools for estimating the environmental impacts of air pollutant emissions into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources. The outcome of these models is significantly linked to the climate condition like air temperature, which is expected to differ in the future due to the global warming phenomenon. With projections from scientific sources of impending changes to the future climate of Saudi Arabia, especially anticipated temperature rise, there is a potential direct impact on the dispersion patterns of air pollutants results from AD models. To our knowledge, no similar studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia to investigate such impact. Therefore, this research investigates the effects of climate temperature change on air quality in the Dammam Metropolitan area, Saudi Arabia, using AERMOD coupled with Station data using Sulphur dioxide (SO2) – as a model air pollutant. The research uses AERMOD model to predict the SO2 dispersion trends on the surrounding area. Emissions from five (5) industrial stacks, on twenty-eight (28) receptors in the study area were considered for the climate period (2010-2019) and future period of mid-century (2040-2060) under different scenarios of elevated temperature profiles (+1oC, + 3oC and + 5oC) across averaging time periods of 1hr, 4hr and 8hr. Results showed that levels of SO2 at the receiving sites under current and simulated future climactic condition fall within the allowable limit of WHO and KSA air quality standards. Results also revealed that the projected rise in temperature would only have mild increment on the SO2 concentration levels. The average increase of SO2 levels were 0.04%, 0.14%, and 0.23% due to the temperature increase of 1, 3, and 5 degrees respectively. In conclusion, the outcome of this work elucidates the degree of the effects of global warming and climate changes phenomena on air quality and can help the policymakers in their decision-making, given the significant health challenges associated with ambient air pollution in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: air quality, sulphur dioxide, global warming, air dispersion model

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4 Identifying a Drug Addict Person Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Mustafa Al Sukar, Azzam Sleit, Abdullatif Abu-Dalhoum, Bassam Al-Kasasbeh

Abstract:

Use and abuse of drugs by teens is very common and can have dangerous consequences. The drugs contribute to physical and sexual aggression such as assault or rape. Some teenagers regularly use drugs to compensate for depression, anxiety or a lack of positive social skills. Teen resort to smoking should not be minimized because it can be "gateway drugs" for other drugs (marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, and heroin). The combination of teenagers' curiosity, risk taking behavior, and social pressure make it very difficult to say no. This leads most teenagers to the questions: "Will it hurt to try once?" Nowadays, technological advances are changing our lives very rapidly and adding a lot of technologies that help us to track the risk of drug abuse such as smart phones, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Internet of Things (IoT), etc. This technique may help us to early discovery of drug abuse in order to prevent an aggravation of the influence of drugs on the abuser. In this paper, we have developed a Decision Support System (DSS) for detecting the drug abuse using Artificial Neural Network (ANN); we used a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) feed-forward neural network in developing the system. The input layer includes 50 variables while the output layer contains one neuron which indicates whether the person is a drug addict. An iterative process is used to determine the number of hidden layers and the number of neurons in each one. We used multiple experiment models that have been completed with Log-Sigmoid transfer function. Particularly, 10-fold cross validation schemes are used to access the generalization of the proposed system. The experiment results have obtained 98.42% classification accuracy for correct diagnosis in our system. The data had been taken from 184 cases in Jordan according to a set of questions compiled from Specialists, and data have been obtained through the families of drug abusers.

Keywords: drug addiction, artificial neural networks, multilayer perceptron (MLP), decision support system

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3 Cracking Mode and Path in Duplex Stainless Steels Failure

Authors: Faraj A. E. Alhegagi, Bassam F. A. Alhajaji

Abstract:

Ductile and brittle fractures are the two main modes for the failure of engineering components. Fractures are classified with respect to several characteristics, such as strain to fracture, ductile or brittle crystallographic mode, shear or cleavage, and the appearance of fracture, granular or transgranular. Cleavage is a brittle fracture involves transcrystalline fracture along specific crystallographic planes and in certain directions. Fracture of duplex stainless steels takes place transgranularly by cleavage of the ferrite phase. On the other hand, ductile fracture occurs after considerable plastic deformation prior to failure and takes place by void nucleation, growth, and coalescence to provide an easy fracture path. Twinning causes depassivation more readily than slip and appears at stress lower than the theoretical yield stress. Consequently, damage due to twinning can occur well before that due to slip. Stainless steels are clean materials with the low efficiency of second particles phases on the fracture mechanism. The ferrite cleavage and austenite tear off are the main mode by which duplex stainless steels fails. In this study, the cracking mode and path of specimens of duplex stainless steels were investigated. Zeron 100 specimens were heat treated to different times cooled down and pulled to failure. The fracture surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) concentrating on the cracking mechanism, path, and origin. Cracking mechanisms were studied for those grains either as ferrite or austenite grains identified according to fracture surface features. Cracks propagated through the ferrite and the austenite two phases were investigated. Cracks arrested at the grain boundary were studied as well. For specimens aged for 100h, the ferrite phase was noted to crack by cleavage along well-defined planes while austenite ridges were clearly observed within the ferrite grains. Some grains were observed to fail with topographic features that were not clearly identifiable as ferrite cleavage or austenite tearing. Transgranular cracking was observed taking place in the ferrite phase on well-defined planes. No intergranular cracks were observed for the tested material. The austenite phase was observed to serve as a crack bridge and crack arrester.

Keywords: austenite ductile tear off, cracking mode, ferrite cleavage, stainless steels failure

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2 Seasonal Variations, Environmental Parameters, and Standing Crop Assessment of Benthic Foraminifera in Western Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Arslan, Michael A. Kaminski, Bassam S. Tawabini, Fabrizio Frontalini

Abstract:

We conducted a survey of living benthic foraminifera in a relatively unpolluted site of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf, with the aim of determining the seasonal variability in their populations, as well as various environmental parameters that affect their distribution. The maximum standing crop was observed during winter, with highest population of rotaliids, followed by a peak in miliolids. The highest population is attributed to an increasing number juveniles observed along the depth transect. A strong correlation between sediment grain size and the foraminiferal population indicates that juveniles were most abundant on coarser sandy substrate and less abundant on fine substrate. In spring, the total living population decreased, and lowest values are observed in the summer. The population started to increase again in the autumn with highest juveniles/adult ratios. Moreover, results of relative abundance and species consistency show that Ammonia is found to be consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids start appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Peneroplis and Elphidium also increases along the depth transect. Environmental characterization reveals that although the site is subjected to eutrophication caused by nitrates and sulfates, pollution caused by hydrocarbons and heavy metals is not significant. The assessment of 63 heavy metals showed that none of the metals had concentrations that exceed internationally accepted norms [the devised level of Effect Range-Low], with the exception of strontium. The lack of a significant environmental effect of heavy metals is confirmed by a Foraminiferal Deformities Index value of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbon contamination was detected in the water or sediment samples. Lastly, observations of cytoplasmic streaming and pseudopodial activity in Petri dishes suggest that the foraminiferal population is not stressed. We conclude that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones of the Arabian Gulf.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, benthic foraminifera, standing crop, Western Bahrain

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1 Petrology and Finite Strain of the Al Amar Region, Northern Ar-Rayn Terrane, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Lami Mohammed, Hussain J. Al Faifi, Abdel Aziz Al Bassam, Osama M. K. Kassem

Abstract:

The Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Ar Rayn terrane have been identified as parts of the Eastern Arabian Shield. It focuses on the petrological and finite strain properties to display the tectonic setting of the Al Amar suture for high deformed volcanic and granitoids rocks. The volcanic rocks are classified into two major series: the eastern side cycle, which includes dacite, rhyodacite, rhyolite, and ignimbrites, and the western side cycle, which includes andesite and pyroclastics. Granitoids rocks also contain monzodiorite, tonalite, granodiorite, and alkali-feldspar granite. To evaluate the proportions of shear contributions in penetratively deformed rocks. Asymmetrical porphyroclast and sigmoidal structural markers along the suture's strike, namely the Al Amar, are expected to reveal strain factors. The Rf/phi and Fry techniques are used to characterize quartz and feldspar porphyroclast, biotite, and hornblende grains in Abt schist, high deformed volcanic rock, and granitoids. The findings exposed that these rocks had experienced shape flattening, finite strain accumulation, and overall volume loss. The magnitude of the strain appears to increase across the nappe contacts with neighboring lithologies. Subhorizontal foliation likely developed in tandem with thrusting and nappe stacking, almost parallel to tectonic contacts. The ductile strain accumulation that occurred during thrusting along the Al Amar suture mostly includes a considerable pure shear component. Progressive thrusting by overlaid transpression and oblique convergence is shown by stacked nappes and diagonal stretching lineations along the thrust axes. The subhorizontal lineation might be the result of the suture's most recent activity. The current study's findings contradict the widely accepted model that links orogen-scale structures in the Arabian Shield to oblique convergence with dominant simple shear deformation. A significant pure shear component/crustal thickening increment should have played a significant role in the evolution of the suture and thus in the Shield's overall deformation history. This foliation was primarily generated by thrusting nappes together, showing that nappe stacking was linked to substantial vertical shortening induced by the active Al Amar suture on a massive scale.

Keywords: petrology, finite strain analysis, al amar region, ar-rayn terrane, Arabian shield

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