Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 272

Search results for: filters

272 Experimenting with Error Performance of Systems Employing Pulse Shaping Filters on a Software-Defined-Radio Platform

Authors: Chia-Yu Yao


This paper presents experimental results on testing the symbol-error-rate (SER) performance of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems employing symmetric pulse-shaping square-root (SR) filters designed by minimizing the roughness function and by minimizing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAR). The device used in the experiments is the 'bladeRF' software-defined-radio platform. PAR is a well-known measurement, whereas the roughness function is a concept for measuring the jitter-induced interference. The experimental results show that the system employing minimum-roughness pulse-shaping SR filters outperforms the system employing minimum-PAR pulse-shaping SR filters in the sense of SER performance.

Keywords: pulse-shaping filters, FIR filters, jittering, QAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
271 Design of Active Power Filters for Harmonics on Power System and Reducing Harmonic Currents

Authors: Düzgün Akmaz, Hüseyin Erişti


In the last few years, harmonics have been occurred with the increasing use of nonlinear loads, and these harmonics have been an ever increasing problem for the line systems. This situation importantly affects the quality of power and gives large losses to the network. An efficient way to solve these problems is providing harmonic compensation through parallel active power filters. Many methods can be used in the control systems of the parallel active power filters which provide the compensation. These methods efficiently affect the performance of the active power filters. For this reason, the chosen control method is significant. In this study, Fourier analysis (FA) control method and synchronous reference frame (SRF) control method are discussed. These control methods are designed for both eliminate harmonics and perform reactive power compensation in MATLAB/Simulink pack program and are tested. The results have been compared for each two methods.

Keywords: parallel active power filters, harmonic compensation, power quality, harmonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
270 Design of Two-Channel Quincunx Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou


This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive two-channel quincunx quadrature mirror filter (QQMF) banks design. The analysis and synthesis filters of the 2-D recursive QQMF bank are composed of 2-D recursive digital allpass lattice filters (DALFs) with symmetric half-plane (SHP) support regions. Using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters, we facilitate the design of the proposed QQMF bank. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive SHP DALFs, we present a structure of 2-D recursive digital allpass filters by using 2-D SHP recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive QQMF bank is that the resulting 2-D recursive QQMF bank provides better performance than the existing 2-D recursive QQMF banks. Simulation results are also presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, lattice structure, quincunx QMF bank, symmetric half-plane digital filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
269 Electron Microscopical Analysis of Arterial Line Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass

Authors: Won-Gon Kim


Introduction: The clinical value of arterial line filters is still a controversial issue. Proponents of arterial line filtration argue that filters remove particulate matter and undissolved gas from circulation, while opponents argue the absence of conclusive clinical data. We conducted scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of arterial line filters used clinically in the CPB circuits during adult cardiac surgery and analyzed the types and characteristics of materials entrapped in the arterial line filters. Material and Methods: Twelve arterial line filters were obtained during routine hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in 12 adult cardiac patients. The arterial line filter was a screen type with a pore size of 40 ㎛ (Baxter Health care corporation Bentley division, Irvine, CA, U.S.A.). After opening the housing, the woven polyester strands were examined with SEM. Results and Conclusion: All segments examined(120 segments, each 2.5 X 2.5 cm in size) contained no embolic particles larger in their cross-sectional area than the pore size of the filter(40 ㎛). The origins of embolic particulates were mostly from environmental foreign bodies. This may suggest a possible need for more aggressive filtration of smaller particulates than is generally carried out at the present time.

Keywords: arterial line filter, tubing wear, scanning electron microscopy, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
268 Experimental Investigation of Powder Holding Capacities of H13 and H14 Class Activated Carbon Filters Based on En 779 Standard

Authors: Abdullah Işıktaş, Kevser Dincer


The use of HEPA filters for air conditioning systems in clean rooms tends to increase progressively in pharmaceutical, food stuff industries and in hospitals. There are two standards widely used for HEPA filters; the EN 1822 standards published by the European Union, CEN (European Committee for Standardization) and the US based IEST standard (Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology. Both standards exhibit some differences in the definitions of efficiency and its measurement methods. While IEST standard defines efficiency at the grit diameter of 0.3 µm, the EN 1822 standard takes MPPS (Most Penetrating Particle Size) as the basis of its definition. That is, the most difficult grit size to catch up. On the other hand, while IEST suggests that photometer and grit counters be used for filter testing, in EN 1822 standard, only the grit (grain) counters are recommended for that purpose. In this study, powder holding capacities of H13 and H14 grade materials under the EN 779 standard are investigated experimentally by using activated carbon. Measurements were taken on an experimental set up based on the TS 932 standard. Filter efficiency was measured by injecting test powder at amounts predetermined in the standards into the filters at certain intervals. The data obtained showed that the powder holding capacities of the activated carbon filter are high enough to yield efficiency of around 90% and that the H13 and H14 filters exhibit high efficiency suitable for the standard used.

Keywords: activated carbon filters, HEPA filters, powder holding capacities, air conditioning systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
267 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC

Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder


The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.

Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shaping

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
266 Automation of Process Waste-Free Air Filtration in Production of Concrete, Reinforced with Basalt Fiber

Authors: Stanislav Perepechko


Industrial companies - one of the major sources of harmful substances to the atmosphere. The main cause of pollution on the concrete plants are cement dust emissions. All the cement silos, pneumatic transport, and ventilation systems equipped with filters, to avoid this. Today, many Russian companies have to decide on replacement morally and physically outdated filters and guided back to the electrostatic filters as usual equipment. The offered way of a cleaning of waste-free filtering of air differs in the fact that a filtering medium of the filter is used in concrete manufacture. Basalt is widespread and pollution-free material. In the course of cleaning, one part of basalt fiber and cement immediately goes to the mixer through flow-control units of initial basalt fiber and cement. Another part of basalt fiber goes to filters for purification of the air used in systems of an air lift, and ventilating emissions passes through them, and with trapped particles also goes to the mixer through flow-control units of the basalt fiber fulfilled in filters. At the same time, regulators are adjusted in such a way that total supply of basalt fiber and cement into the mixer remains invariable and corresponds to a given technological mode.

Keywords: waste-free air filtration, concrete, basalt fiber, building automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
265 Recursive Doubly Complementary Filter Design Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ding-Chen Chung


This paper deals with the optimal design of recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design using a metaheuristic based optimization technique. Based on the theory of DC digital filters using two recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs), the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an objective function which is a weighted sum of the phase response errors of the designed DAFs. To deal with the stability of the recursive DC filters during the design process, we can either impose some necessary constraints on the phases of the recursive DAFs. Through a frequency sampling and a weighted least squares approach, the optimization problem of the objective function can be solved by utilizing a population based stochastic optimization approach. The resulting DC digital filters can possess satisfactory frequency response. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: doubly complementary, digital all-pass filter, weighted least squares algorithm, particle swarm optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 606
264 Low-Voltage and Low-Power Bulk-Driven Continuous-Time Current-Mode Differentiator Filters

Authors: Ravi Kiran Jaladi, Ezz I. El-Masry


Emerging technologies such as ultra-wide band wireless access technology that operate at ultra-low power present several challenges due to their inherent design that limits the use of voltage-mode filters. Therefore, Continuous-time current-mode (CTCM) filters have become very popular in recent times due to the fact they have a wider dynamic range, improved linearity, and extended bandwidth compared to their voltage-mode counterparts. The goal of this research is to develop analog filters which are suitable for the current scaling CMOS technologies. Bulk-driven MOSFET is one of the most popular low power design technique for the existing challenges, while other techniques have obvious shortcomings. In this work, a CTCM Gate-driven (GD) differentiator has been presented with a frequency range from dc to 100MHz which operates at very low supply voltage of 0.7 volts. A novel CTCM Bulk-driven (BD) differentiator has been designed for the first time which reduces the power consumption multiple times that of GD differentiator. These GD and BD differentiator has been simulated using CADENCE TSMC 65nm technology for all the bilinear and biquadratic band-pass frequency responses. These basic building blocks can be used to implement the higher order filters. A 6th order cascade CTCM Chebyshev band-pass filter has been designed using the GD and BD techniques. As a conclusion, a low power GD and BD 6th order chebyshev stagger-tuned band-pass filter was simulated and all the parameters obtained from all the resulting realizations are analyzed and compared. Monte Carlo analysis is performed for both the 6th order filters and the results of sensitivity analysis are presented.

Keywords: bulk-driven (BD), continuous-time current-mode filters (CTCM), gate-driven (GD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
263 The Cleaning Equipment to Prevents Dust Diffusion of Bus Air Filters

Authors: Jiraphorn Satechan, Thanaphon Khamthieng, Warunee Phanwong


This action research aimed at designing and developing the cleaning equipment to preventing dust diffusion of bus air filter. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to conduct data from October 1st, 2018 to September 30th, 2019. All of participants were male (100.0%) with aged 40- 49 years and 57.15%, of them finish bachelor degree. 71.43% of them was a driver and 57.15% of them had the working experience between 10 and 15 years. Research revealed that the participants assessed the quality of the bus air filter cleaning equipment for preventing dust diffusion at a moderate level (σ= 0.29), and 71.43 of them also suggested the development methods in order to improve the quality of bus air filters cleaning equipment as follows: 1) to install the circuit breaker for cutting the electricity and controlling the on-off of the equipment and to change the motor to the DC system, 2) should install the display monitor for wind pressure and electricity system as well as to install the air pressure gauge, 3) should install the tank lid lock for preventing air leakage and dust diffusion by increasing the blowing force and sucking power, 4) to stabilize the holding points for preventing the filter shaking while rotating and blowing for cleaning and to reduce the rotation speed in order to allow the filters to move slowly for the air system to blow for cleaning more thoroughly, 5) the amount of dust should be measured before and after cleaning and should be designed the cleaning equipment to be able to clean with a variety of filters, and sizes. Moreover, the light-weight materials should be used to build the cleaning equipment and the wheels should be installed at the base of the equipment in order to make it easier to move.

Keywords: Cleaning Equipment, Bus Air Filters, Preventing Dust Diffusion, Innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
262 Optimal Harmonic Filters Design of Taiwan High Speed Rail Traction System

Authors: Ying-Pin Chang


This paper presents a method for combining a particle swarm optimization with nonlinear time-varying evolution and orthogonal arrays (PSO-NTVEOA) in the planning of harmonic filters for the high speed railway traction system with specially connected transformers in unbalanced three-phase power systems. The objective is to minimize the cost of the filter, the filters loss, the total harmonic distortion of currents and voltages at each bus simultaneously. An orthogonal array is first conducted to obtain the initial solution set. The set is then treated as the initial training sample. Next, the PSO-NTVEOA method parameters are determined by using matrix experiments with an orthogonal array, in which a minimal number of experiments would have an effect that approximates the full factorial experiments. This PSO-NTVEOA method is then applied to design optimal harmonic filters in Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR) traction system, where both rectifiers and inverters with IGBT are used. From the results of the illustrative examples, the feasibility of the PSO-NTVEOA to design an optimal passive harmonic filter of THSR system is verified and the design approach can greatly reduce the harmonic distortion. Three design schemes are compared that V-V connection suppressing the 3rd order harmonic, and Scott and Le Blanc connection for the harmonic improvement is better than the V-V connection.

Keywords: harmonic filters, particle swarm optimization, nonlinear time-varying evolution, orthogonal arrays, specially connected transformers

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
261 Investigating Activity Recognition Using 9-Axis Sensors and Filters in Wearable Devices

Authors: Jun Gil Ahn, Jong Kang Park, Jong Tae Kim


In this paper, we analyze major components of activity recognition (AR) in wearable device with 9-axis sensors and sensor fusion filters. 9-axis sensors commonly include 3-axis accelerometer, 3-axis gyroscope and 3-axis magnetometer. We chose sensor fusion filters as Kalman filter and Direction Cosine Matrix (DCM) filter. We also construct sensor fusion data from each activity sensor data and perform classification by accuracy of AR using Naïve Bayes and SVM. According to the classification results, we observed that the DCM filter and the specific combination of the sensing axes are more effective for AR in wearable devices while classifying walking, running, ascending and descending.

Keywords: accelerometer, activity recognition, directiona cosine matrix filter, gyroscope, Kalman filter, magnetometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
260 Investigation Particle Behavior in Gas-Solid Filtration with Electrostatic Discharge in a Hybrid System

Authors: Flávia M. Oliveira, Marcos V. Rodrigues, Mônica L. Aguiar


Synthetic fibers are widely used in gas filtration. Previous attempts to optimize the filtration process have employed mixed fibers as the filter medium in gas-solid separation. Some of the materials most frequently used this purpose are composed of polyester, polypropylene, and glass fibers. In order to improve the retention of cement particles in bag filters, the present study investigates the use of synthetic glass fiber filters and polypropylene fiber for particle filtration, with electrostatic discharge of 0 to -2 kV in cement particles. The filtration curves obtained showed that charging increased the particle collection efficiency and lowered the pressure drop. Particle diameter had a direct influence on the formation of the dust cake, and the application of electrostatic discharge to the particles resulted in the retention of more particles, hence increasing the lifetime of fabric filters.

Keywords: glass fiber filter, particle, electrostatic discharge, cement

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
259 Low-Power Digital Filters Design Using a Bypassing Technique

Authors: Thiago Brito Bezerra


This paper presents a novel approach to reduce power consumption of digital filters based on dynamic bypassing of partial products in their multipliers. The bypassing elements incorporated into the multiplier hardware eliminate redundant signal transitions, which appear within the carry-save adders when the partial product is zero. This technique reduces the power consumption by around 20%. The circuit implementation was made using the AMS 0.18 um technology. The bypassing technique applied to the circuits is outlined.

Keywords: digital filter, low-power, bypassing technique, low-pass filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
258 Noise Removal Techniques in Medical Images

Authors: Amhimmid Mohammed Saffour, Abdelkader Salama


Filtering is a part of image enhancement techniques, it is used to enhance certain details such as edges in the image that are relevant to the application. Additionally, filtering can even be used to eliminate unwanted components of noise. Medical images typically contain salt and pepper noise and Poisson noise. This noise appears to the presence of minute grey scale variations within the image. In this paper, different filters techniques namely (Median, Wiener, Rank order3, Rank order5, and Average) were applied on CT medical images (Brain and chest). We using all these filters to remove salt and pepper noise from these images. This type of noise consists of random pixels being set to black or white. Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error r(MSE) and Histogram were used to evaluated the quality of filtered images. The results, which we have achieved shows that, these filters, are more useful and they prove to be helpful for general medical practitioners to analyze the symptoms of the patients with no difficulty.

Keywords: CT imaging, median filter, adaptive filter and average filter, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
257 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares, Natalia A. Cano


This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: cytotoxic, genotoxic, microbiological analysis, PM10, PM2.5

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
256 Evolving Convolutional Filter Using Genetic Algorithm for Image Classification

Authors: Rujia Chen, Ajit Narayanan


Convolutional neural networks (CNN), as typically applied in deep learning, use layer-wise backpropagation (BP) to construct filters and kernels for feature extraction. Such filters are 2D or 3D groups of weights for constructing feature maps at subsequent layers of the CNN and are shared across the entire input. BP as a gradient descent algorithm has well-known problems of getting stuck at local optima. The use of genetic algorithms (GAs) for evolving weights between layers of standard artificial neural networks (ANNs) is a well-established area of neuroevolution. In particular, the use of crossover techniques when optimizing weights can help to overcome problems of local optima. However, the application of GAs for evolving the weights of filters and kernels in CNNs is not yet an established area of neuroevolution. In this paper, a GA-based filter development algorithm is proposed. The results of the proof-of-concept experiments described in this paper show the proposed GA algorithm can find filter weights through evolutionary techniques rather than BP learning. For some simple classification tasks like geometric shape recognition, the proposed algorithm can achieve 100% accuracy. The results for MNIST classification, while not as good as possible through standard filter learning through BP, show that filter and kernel evolution warrants further investigation as a new subarea of neuroevolution for deep architectures.

Keywords: neuroevolution, convolutional neural network, genetic algorithm, filters, kernels

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
255 Compact Microstrip Ultra Wideband Bandstop Filter with Quasi Elliptic Function Response

Authors: Faris H. Almansour, Hussein N. Shaman


This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband.

Keywords: ultra-wideband bandstop filters, microstrip filters, transmission line filters

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
254 Segmentation of the Liver and Spleen From Abdominal CT Images Using Watershed Approach

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


The phase of segmentation is an important step in the processing and interpretation of medical images. In this paper, we focus on the segmentation of liver and spleen from the abdomen computed tomography (CT) images. The importance of our study comes from the fact that the segmentation of ROI from CT images is usually a difficult task. This difficulty is the gray’s level of which is similar to the other organ also the ROI are connected to the ribs, heart, kidneys, etc. Our proposed method is based on the anatomical information and mathematical morphology tools used in the image processing field. At first, we try to remove the surrounding and connected organs and tissues by applying morphological filters. This first step makes the extraction of interest regions easier. The second step consists of improving the quality of the image gradient. In this step, we propose a method for improving the image gradient to reduce these deficiencies by applying the spatial filters followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the segmentation of the liver, spleen. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.The system has been evaluated by computing the sensitivity and specificity between the semi-automatically segmented (liver and spleen) contour and the manually contour traced by radiological experts.

Keywords: CT images, liver and spleen segmentation, anisotropic diffusion filter, morphological filters, watershed algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
253 Application of Single Tuned Passive Filters in Distribution Networks at the Point of Common Coupling

Authors: M. Almutairi, S. Hadjiloucas


The harmonic distortion of voltage is important in relation to power quality due to the interaction between the large diffusion of non-linear and time-varying single-phase and three-phase loads with power supply systems. However, harmonic distortion levels can be reduced by improving the design of polluting loads or by applying arrangements and adding filters. The application of passive filters is an effective solution that can be used to achieve harmonic mitigation mainly because filters offer high efficiency, simplicity, and are economical. Additionally, possible different frequency response characteristics can work to achieve certain required harmonic filtering targets. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this paper is to determine what size single tuned passive filters work in distribution networks best, in order to economically limit violations caused at a given point of common coupling (PCC). This article suggests that a single tuned passive filter could be employed in typical industrial power systems. Furthermore, constrained optimization can be used to find the optimal sizing of the passive filter in order to reduce both harmonic voltage and harmonic currents in the power system to an acceptable level, and, thus, improve the load power factor. The optimization technique works to minimize voltage total harmonic distortions (VTHD) and current total harmonic distortions (ITHD), where maintaining a given power factor at a specified range is desired. According to the IEEE Standard 519, both indices are viewed as constraints for the optimal passive filter design problem. The performance of this technique will be discussed using numerical examples taken from previous publications.

Keywords: harmonics, passive filter, power factor, power quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
252 Integral Image-Based Differential Filters

Authors: Kohei Inoue, Kenji Hara, Kiichi Urahama


We describe a relationship between integral images and differential images. First, we derive a simple difference filter from conventional integral image. In the derivation, we show that an integral image and the corresponding differential image are related to each other by simultaneous linear equations, where the numbers of unknowns and equations are the same, and therefore, we can execute the integration and differentiation by solving the simultaneous equations. We applied the relationship to an image fusion problem, and experimentally verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: integral images, differential images, differential filters, image fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
251 Characterization of Candlenut Shells and Its Application to Remove Oil and Fine Solids of Produced Water in Nutshell Filters of Water Cleaning Plant

Authors: Annur Suhadi, Haris B. Harahap, Zaim Arrosyidi, Epan, Darmapala


Oilfields under waterflood often face the problem of plugging injectors either by internal filtration or external filter cake built up inside pore throats. The content of suspended solids shall be reduced to required level of filtration since corrective action of plugging is costly expensive. The performance of nutshell filters, where filtration takes place, is good using pecan and walnut shells. Candlenut shells were used instead of pecan and walnut shells since they were abundant in Indonesia, Malaysia, and East Africa. Physical and chemical properties of walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells were tested and the results were compared. Testing, using full-scale nutshell filters, was conducted to determine the oil content, turbidity, and suspended solid removal, which was based on designed flux rate. The performance of candlenut shells, which were deeply bedded in nutshell filters for filtration process, was monitored. Cleaned water outgoing nutshell filters had total suspended solids of 17 ppm, while oil content could be reduced to 15.1 ppm. Turbidity, using candlenut shells, was below the specification for injection water, which was less than 10 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU). Turbidity of water, outgoing nutshell filter, was ranged from 1.7-5.0 NTU at various dates of operation. Walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells had moisture content of 8.98 wt%, 10.95 wt%, and 9.95 wt%, respectively. The porosity of walnut, pecan, and candlenut shells was significantly affected by moisture content. Candlenut shells had property of toluene solubility of 7.68 wt%, which was much higher than walnut shells, reflecting more crude oil adsorption. The hardness of candlenut shells was 2.5-3 Mohs, which was close to walnut shells’ hardness. It was advantage to guarantee the cleaning filter cake by fluidization process during backwashing.

Keywords: candlenut shells, filtration, nutshell filter, pecan shells, walnut shells

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
250 Fused Deposition Modelling as the Manufacturing Method of Fully Bio-Based Water Purification Filters

Authors: Natalia Fijol, Aji P. Mathew


We present the processing and characterisation of three-dimensional (3D) monolith filters based on polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced with various nature-derived nanospecies such as hydroxyapatite, modified cellulose fibers and chitin fibers. The nanospecies of choice were dispersed in PLA through Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) method. The biocomposites were developed via solvent-assisted blending and the obtained pellets were further single-screw extruded into 3D-printing filaments and processed into various geometries using Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. The printed prototypes included cubic, cylindrical and hour-glass shapes with diverse patterns of printing infill as well as varying pore structure including uniform and multiple level gradual pore structure. The pores and channel structure as well as overall shape of the prototypes were designed in attempt to optimize the flux and maximize the adsorption-active time. FDM is a cost and energy-efficient method, which does not require expensive tools and elaborated post-processing maintenance. Therefore, FDM offers the possibility to produce customized, highly functional water purification filters with tuned porous structures suitable for removal of wide range of common water pollutants. Moreover, as 3D printing becomes more and more available worldwide, it allows producing portable filters at the place and time where they are most needed. The study demonstrates preparation route for the PLA-based, fully biobased composite and their processing via FDM technique into water purification filters, addressing water treatment challenges on an industrial scale.

Keywords: fused deposition modelling, water treatment, biomaterials, 3D printing, nanocellulose, nanochitin, polylactic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
249 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Half-Plane Recursive Doubly Complementary Digital Lattice Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou, Yuan-Hau Yang


This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design. We present a structure of 2-D recursive DC filters by using 2-D symmetric half-plane (SHP) recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive DC digital lattice filter is that the resulting 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter provides better performance than the existing 2-D SHP recursive DC digital filter. Moreover, the proposed structure possesses a favorable 2-D DC half-band (DC-HB) property that allows about half of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF’s coefficients to be zero. This leads to considerable savings in computational burden for implementation. To ensure the stability of a designed 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter, some necessary constraints on the phase of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF during the design process are presented. Design of a 2-D diamond-shape decimation/interpolation filter is presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: all-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, sampling rate conversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
248 Improvement of Brain Tumors Detection Using Markers and Boundaries Transform

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Mommen A. Alkhir, Amel S. Algaddal


This was experimental study conducted to study segmentation of brain in MRI images using edge detection and morphology filters. For brain MRI images each film scanned using digitizer scanner then treated by using image processing program (MatLab), where the segmentation was studied. The scanned image was saved in a TIFF file format to preserve the quality of the image. Brain tissue can be easily detected in MRI image if the object has sufficient contrast from the background. We use edge detection and basic morphology tools to detect a brain. The segmentation of MRI images steps using detection and morphology filters were image reading, detection entire brain, dilation of the image, filling interior gaps inside the image, removal connected objects on borders and smoothen the object (brain). The results of this study were that it showed an alternate method for displaying the segmented object would be to place an outline around the segmented brain. Those filters approaches can help in removal of unwanted background information and increase diagnostic information of Brain MRI.

Keywords: improvement, brain, matlab, markers, boundaries

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
247 Detection of Image Blur and Its Restoration for Image Enhancement

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Image restoration in the process of communication is one of the emerging fields in the image processing. The motion analysis processing is the simplest case to detect motion in an image. Applications of motion analysis widely spread in many areas such as surveillance, remote sensing, film industry, navigation of autonomous vehicles, etc. The scene may contain multiple moving objects, by using motion analysis techniques the blur caused by the movement of the objects can be enhanced by filling-in occluded regions and reconstruction of transparent objects, and it also removes the motion blurring. This paper presents the design and comparison of various motion detection and enhancement filters. Median filter, Linear image deconvolution, Inverse filter, Pseudoinverse filter, Wiener filter, Lucy Richardson filter and Blind deconvolution filters are used to remove the blur. In this work, we have considered different types and different amount of blur for the analysis. Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ration (PSNR) are used to evaluate the performance of the filters. The designed system has been implemented in Matlab software and tested for synthetic and real-time images.

Keywords: image enhancement, motion analysis, motion detection, motion estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
246 Backwash Optimization for Drinking Water Treatment Biological Filters

Authors: Sarra K. Ikhlef, Onita Basu


Natural organic matter (NOM) removal efficiency using drinking water treatment biological filters can be highly influenced by backwashing conditions. Backwashing has the ability to remove the accumulated biomass and particles in order to regenerate the biological filters' removal capacity and prevent excessive headloss buildup. A lab scale system consisting of 3 biological filters was used in this study to examine the implications of different backwash strategies on biological filtration performance. The backwash procedures were evaluated based on their impacts on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removals, biological filters’ biomass, backwash water volume usage, and particle removal. Results showed that under nutrient limited conditions, the simultaneous use of air and water under collapse pulsing conditions lead to a DOC removal of 22% which was significantly higher (p>0.05) than the 12% removal observed under water only backwash conditions. Employing a bed expansion of 20% under nutrient supplemented conditions compared to a 30% reference bed expansion while using the same amount of water volume lead to similar DOC removals. On the other hand, utilizing a higher bed expansion (40%) lead to significantly lower DOC removals (23%). Also, a backwash strategy that reduced the backwash water volume usage by about 20% resulted in similar DOC removals observed with the reference backwash. The backwash procedures investigated in this study showed no consistent impact on biological filters' biomass concentrations as measured by the phospholipids and the adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) methods. Moreover, none of these two analyses showed a direct correlation with DOC removal. On the other hand, dissolved oxygen (DO) uptake showed a direct correlation with DOC removals. The addition of the extended terminal subfluidization wash (ETSW) demonstrated no apparent impact on DOC removals. ETSW also successfully eliminated the filter ripening sequence (FRS). As a result, the additional water usage resulting from implementing ETSW was compensated by water savings after restart. Results from this study provide insight to researchers and water treatment utilities on how to better optimize the backwashing procedure for the goal of optimizing the overall biological filtration process.

Keywords: biological filtration, backwashing, collapse pulsing, ETSW

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245 Design of Digital IIR Filter Using Opposition Learning and Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: J. S. Dhillon, K. K. Dhaliwal


In almost all the digital filtering applications the digital infinite impulse response (IIR) filters are preferred over finite impulse response (FIR) filters because they provide much better performance, less computational cost and have smaller memory requirements for similar magnitude specifications. However, the digital IIR filters are generally multimodal with respect to the filter coefficients and therefore, reliable methods that can provide global optimal solutions are required. The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is one such recently introduced meta-heuristic optimization algorithm. But in some cases it shows insufficiency while searching the solution space resulting in a weak exchange of information and hence is not able to return better solutions. To overcome this deficiency, the opposition based learning strategy is incorporated in ABC and hence a modified version called oppositional artificial bee colony (OABC) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Duplication of members is avoided during the run which also augments the exploration ability. The developed algorithm is then applied for the design of optimal and stable digital IIR filter structure where design of low-pass (LP) and high-pass (HP) filters is carried out. Fuzzy theory is applied to achieve maximize satisfaction of minimum magnitude error and stability constraints. To check the effectiveness of OABC, the results are compared with some well established filter design techniques and it is observed that in most cases OABC returns better or atleast comparable results.

Keywords: digital infinite impulse response filter, artificial bee colony optimization, opposition based learning, digital filter design, multi-parameter optimization

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244 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters

Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman


This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.

Keywords: Sallen-Key, fractance, stability, low-pass filter, analog filter

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243 Denoising of Magnetotelluric Signals by Filtering

Authors: Rodrigo Montufar-Chaveznava, Fernando Brambila-Paz, Ivette Caldelas


In this paper, we present the advances corresponding to the denoising processing of magnetotelluric signals using several filters. In particular, we use the most common spatial domain filters such as median and mean, but we are also using the Fourier and wavelet transform for frequency domain filtering. We employ three datasets obtained at the different sampling rate (128, 4096 and 8192 bps) and evaluate the mean square error, signal-to-noise relation, and peak signal-to-noise relation to compare the kernels and determine the most suitable for each case. The magnetotelluric signals correspond to earth exploration when water is searched. The object is to find a denoising strategy different to the one included in the commercial equipment that is employed in this task.

Keywords: denoising, filtering, magnetotelluric signals, wavelet transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 283