Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14651

Search results for: drip irrigation system

14651 Overcoming the Problems Affecting Drip Irrigation System through the Design of an Efficient Filtration and Flushing System

Authors: Stephen A. Akinlabi, Esther T. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The drip irrigation system is one of the important areas that affect the livelihood of farmers directly. The use of drip irrigation system has been the most efficient system compared to the other types of irrigations systems because the drip irrigation helps to save water and increase the productivity of crops. But like any other system, it can be considered inefficient when the filters and the emitters get clogged while in operation. The efficiency of the entire system is reduced when the emitters are clogged and blocked. This consequently impact and affect the farm operations which may result in scarcity of farm products and increase the demand. This design work focuses on how to overcome some of the challenges affecting drip irrigation system through the design of an efficient filtration and flushing system.

Keywords: drip irrigation system, filters, soil texture, mechanical engineering design, analysis

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14650 Significance of Water Saving through Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Date Palm Trees

Authors: Ahmed I. Al-Amoud

Abstract:

A laboratory and field study were conducted on subsurface drip irrigation systems. In the first laboratory study, eight subsurface drip irrigation lines available locally, were selected and a number of experiments were made to evaluate line hydraulic characteristics to insure it's suitability for drip irrigation design requirements and high performance to select the best for field experiments. The second study involves field trials on mature date palm trees to study the effect of subsurface drip irrigation system on the yield and water consumption of date palms, and to compare that with the traditional surface drip irrigation system. Experiments were conducted in Alwatania Agricultural Project, on 50 mature palm trees (17 years old) of Helwa type with 10 meters spacing between rows and between trees. A high efficiency subsurface line (Techline) was used based on the results of the first study. Irrigation scheduling was made through a soil moisture sensing device to ensure enough soil water levels in the soil. Experiment layouts were installed during 2001 season, measurements continued till end of 2008 season. Results have indicated that there is an increase in the yield and a considerable saving in water compared to the conventional drip irrigation method. In addition there were high increases in water use efficiency using the subsurface system. The subsurface system proves to be durable and highly efficient for irrigating date palm trees.

Keywords: drip irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, date palm trees, date palm water use, date palm yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
14649 Effects of Saline Groundwater on Crop Yield of Bitter-Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) under Drip System of Irrigation

Authors: Kamran Baksh Soomro, Amin Talei, Sina Alaghmand

Abstract:

Water scarcity has exacerbated in the last couple of decades; it is incumbent on agriculture to maximize the use of water of all qualities. The drip irrigation system practice has shown a vast increase in profit and research interests in the last two decades. However, the application of this system is still limited. The two years field experiment was conducted with three replications at Malir, Karachi (a semi-arid region) in Pakistan. The aim was to evaluate the effects of two qualities of irrigation water IT1 (EC 0.56 dS.m⁻¹) and IT2 (EC 2.89 dS.m⁻¹) on water use efficiency. To achieve the aim, bitter gourd was grown under the drip irrigation system in 2016-17. The uniformity co-efficient (UC) ranged from 93 to 96%. Water use efficiency, of 1.60 and 1.21 kg.m⁻³ under IT1 was recorded higher in season 1 and 2. Using t-test at 5% significance level, the crop yield was higher in both seasons under IT1 compared to IT2. Using pairwise t-test at 5% significance level, the parameters related with the quality of fruit, like length, weight, and diameter, were higher in IT1 than IT2 in all plants; and in both seasons. A correlational study was also conducted to observe the trends in the variables associated with both irrigation treatments for the two seasons. Results showed that most of the parameters exhibited a similar linear trend in both the seasons. The study concluded that bitter gourd crop could be grown successfully in sandy loam using drip irrigation system, supplying saline ground-water. The sustainable use of saline irrigation water should be utilized for vegetable cultivation to meet the food demand in the rural areas of Pakistan.

Keywords: uniformity co-efficient, water use efficiency, drip irrigation, ground-water, t-test, correlation

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14648 Enhancement of Mulberry Leaf Yield and Water Productivity in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: Narayanappa Devakumar, Chengalappa Seenappa

Abstract:

The field experiments were conducted during Rabi 2013 and summer 2014 at College of Sericulture, Chintamani, Chickaballapur district, Karnataka, India to find out the response of mulberry to different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. The results showed that leaf yield and water productivity of mulberry were significantly influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. Subsurface drip with lower level of irrigation at 0.8 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) recorded higher leaf yield and water productivity (42857 kg ha-1 yr-1and 364.41 kg hacm-1) than surface drip with higher level of irrigation at 1.0 CPE (38809 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 264.10 kg hacm-1) and micro spray jet (39931 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 271.83 kg hacm-1). Further, subsurface drip recorded minimum water used to produce one kg of leaf and to earn one rupee of profit (283 L and 113 L) compared to surface drip (390 L and 156 L) and micro spray jet (379 L and 152 L) irrigation methods. Mulberry leaf yield increased and water productivity decreased with increased levels of irrigation. However, these results indicated that irrigation of mulberry with subsurface drip increased leaf yield and water productivity by saving 20% of irrigation water than surface drip and micro spray jet irrigation methods in Eastern Dry Zone (EDZ) of Karnataka.

Keywords: cumulative pan evaporation, mulaberry, subsurface drip irrigation, water productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
14647 Sunflower Irrigation with Two Different Types of Soil Moisture Sensors

Authors: C. D. Papanikolaou, V. A. Giouvanis, E. A. Karatasiou, D. S. Dimakas, M. A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki

Abstract:

Irrigation is one of the most important cultivation practices for each crop, especially in areas where rainfall is enough to cover the crop water needs. In such areas, the farmers must irrigate in order to achieve high economical results. The precise irrigation scheduling contributes to irrigation water saving and thus a valuable natural resource is protected. Under this point of view, in the experimental field of the Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics of the University of Thessaly, a research was conducted during the growing season of 2012 in order to evaluate the growth, seed and oil production of sunflower as well as the water saving, by applying different methods of irrigation scheduling. Three treatments in four replications were organized. These were: a) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method (control); b) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil moisture sensor (SMS); and c) surface drip irrigation, where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil potential sensor (WM).

Keywords: irrigation, energy production, soil moisture sensor, sunflower, water saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
14646 Viability of Irrigation Water Conservation Practices in the Low Desert of California

Authors: Ali Montazar

Abstract:

California and the Colorado River Basin are facing increasing uncertainty concerning water supplies. The Colorado River is the main source of irrigation water in the low desert of California. Currently, due to an increasing water-use competition and long-term drought at the Colorado River Basin, efficient use of irrigation water is one of the highest conservation priorities in the region. This study aims to present some of current irrigation technologies and management approaches in the low desert and assess the viability and potential of these water management practices. The results of several field experiments are used to assess five water conservation practices of sub-surface drip irrigation, automated surface irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, tail-water recovery system, and deficit irrigation strategy. The preliminary results of several ongoing studies at commercial fields are presented, particularly researches in alfalfa, sugar beets, kliengrass, sunflower, and spinach fields. The findings indicate that all these practices have significant potential to conserve water (an average of 1 ac-ft/ac) and enhance the efficiency of water use (15-25%). Further work is needed to better understand the feasibility of each of these applications and to help maintain profitable and sustainable agricultural production system in the low desert as water and labor costs, and environmental issues increase.

Keywords: automated surface irrigation, deficit irrigation, low desert of California, sprinkler irrigation, sub-surface drip irrigation, tail-water recovery system

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14645 Drip Irrigation Timing and Its Effect on Tomato Yield for a Two-Day Schedule

Authors: T. Kizza, M. Muyinda

Abstract:

Irrigation schedules are normally given in terms of frequency (irrigation days). Specific timings within a given day are not usually included. This study examined the effect of irrigation timing for a two-day irrigation schedule of a surface drip-irrigated tomato field on yield. It was carried out for three dry seasons; July-Sept 2016, Jan-April 2017 and Jan-March 2018, at MuZARDI research station. Four irrigation treatments; T1 morning (8.00hrs), T2 noon (12:00hrs), T3 evening (17:00hr) and T4, a combination of morning and evening, were evaluated. The irrigation duration was one hour for T1-T3 and split into 30 minutes for T4. First season results indicated noon watering as having the best yield over other treatments at 51.59t/ha followed closely by morning watering at 50.6t/ha. Plants watered at noon had the highest number of fruits at 19/plant with an average weight of 94g/fruit. Plants watered in the morning had fruits with the highest average weight at 111.2g/fruit but they were the lowest number at 16 fruits/plant. The three-season data indicated the highest yield at 45.9t/ha for morning watering, followed by noon watering at 44.3t/ha and the least yield was for evening watering at 40.9t/ha. Watering tomatoes in the morning will give optimum yields for a two-day irrigation schedule.

Keywords: drip irrigation, irrigation schedule, irrigation timing, tomato yield

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14644 Effect of Saline Ground Water on Economics of Bitter-Gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Cultivation and Soil Characteristics in Semi Arid Region

Authors: Kamran Baksh Soomro, Amin Talei, Sina Alaghmand

Abstract:

Due to the declining freshwater availability to agriculture in many areas, the utilization of saline irrigation requires more consideration. For this purpose, the effects of saline irrigation on the economics of crop yield and soil salinity should be understood. A two-year field experiment was carried out during 2017-18 with three replications to investigate the effect of saline groundwater on the economics of bitter gourd production and soil salinity status after harvesting the crop. Two irrigation treatments, i.e., fresh quality irrigation water (IT₁ EC 0.56 dS.m⁻¹ (control) and other is saline groundwater ( IT₂ EC 2.56 dS.m⁻¹) were used under drip system of irrigation. Cost-benefit analysis is often used to assess adaptation approaches. In this study, it has been observed that the salts under IT₁ (fresh quality water) and IT₂ (saline groundwater) did not accumulate in the wetted zone. However, the salts were observed deposited at wetted periphery under both the treatments after the crop end at all the three sampling depths under drip system of irrigation. Moreover, the costs and benefits associated with different irrigation treatments for two consecutive seasons for bitter-gourd cultivation were also investigated, and it was found that the average gross returns per hectare in season 1 were USD 5008.22 and 4454.78 under irrigation treatment IT₁ and IT₂ respectively. Whereas in season 2 the average gross returns per hectare were 3713.47 and 3140.51 under IT₁ and IT₂ respectively.

Keywords: ground-water, soil salinity, drip irrigation, wetted zone, wetted periphery, cost benefit analysis

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14643 Quantity, Quality and Water Productivity of Mulberry Leaf Influenced by Different Methods, Levels of Irrigation and Mulching in Eastern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: Chengalappa Seenappa, Narayanappa Devkumar, Narayanappa Nagaraja

Abstract:

Mulberry leaf is the major economic component in sericulture and quality of leaf produced per unit area has a direct effect on quality of cocoon. Among all the agronomical inputs, irrigation water has highest impact on mulberry leaf quantity and quality. The water productivity in sericulture in the country is inadequate and inefficient though India has the largest irrigated area. There is a need of proper irrigation methods and conservation practices to ensure efficiency and economy in water use. Hence, this field experiment was conducted at College of Sericulture, Chintamani, Chickaballapur district, Karnataka, India during 2013 and 2014 to know the quantity, quality and water productivity of mulberry influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching in Eastern Dry Zone (EDZ) of Karnataka, India. The results revealed that the mulberry leaf quantity, quality and water productivity were significantly influenced by different methods, levels of irrigation and mulching. Subsurface drip irrigation at 0.8 CPE (Cumulative Pan Evaporation) recorded higher leaf yield, chlorophyll, relative water, protein content and water productivity (42857 kg ha-1 yr-1, 8.54, 65.80%, 22.27% and 364.41 kg hacm-1, respectively) than surface drip at 1.0 CPE (38809 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.34, 62.76%, 17.75% and 264 10 kg hacm-1, respectively) and micro spray jet at 1.0 CPE (39931 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.96, 63.50%, 19.00%, 35617 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 271.83 kg hacm-1, respectively). Mulching treatment recorded maximum leaf yield, chlorophyll, relative water, protein content and water productivity (38035 kg ha-1 yr-1, 7.12, 62.11%, 16.14% and 330 kg hacm-1, respectively) compared to without mulching. These results clearly indicated that subsurface drip irrigation at lower level of irrigation (0.8 CPE) and mulching increased the quantity, quality and water productivity of mulberry leaf than surface drip and micro spray jet irrigation at higher level of irrigation (1.0 CPE) by saving 20 per cent of water. Therefore, in the coming days subsurface drip irrigation in mulberry cultivation may be more appropriate to realise higher yield, quality and water productivity in EDZ of Karnataka, India.

Keywords: subsurface drip irrigation, mulching, water productivity, mulberry

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14642 Studies on Irrigation and Nutrient Interactions in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)

Authors: S. M. Jogdand, D. D. Jagtap, N. R. Dalal

Abstract:

Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is one of the most important commercially cultivated fruit crop in India. It stands on second position amongst citrus group after mandarin. Irrigation and fertigation are vital importance of sweet orange orchard and considered to be the most critical cultural operations. The soil acts as the reservoir of water and applied nutrients, the interaction between irrigation and fertigation leads to the ultimate quality and production of fruits. The increasing cost of fertilizers and scarcity of irrigation water forced the farmers for optimum use of irrigation and nutrients. The experiment was conducted with object to find out irrigation and nutrient interaction in sweet orange to optimize the use of both the factors. The experiment was conducted in medium to deep soil. The irrigation level I3,drip irrigation at 90% ER (effective rainfall) and fertigation level F3 80% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) recorded significantly maximum plant height, plant spread, canopy volume, number of fruits, weight of fruit, fruit yield kg/plant and t/ha followed by F2 , fertigation with 70% RDF. The interaction effect of irrigation and fertigation on growth was also significant and the maximum plant height, E-W spread, N-S spread, canopy volume, highest number of fruits, weight of fruit and yield kg/plant and t/ha was recorded in T9 i.e. I3F3 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 80% of RDF followed by I3F2 drip irrigation at 90% ER and fertigation with 70% of RDF.

Keywords: sweet orange, fertigation, irrigation, interactions

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14641 Conservation Agriculture and Precision Water Management in Alkaline Soils under Rice-Wheat Cropping System: Effect on Wheat Productivity and Irrigation Water Use-a Case Study from India

Authors: S. K. Kakraliya, H. S. Jat, Manish Kakraliya, P. C. Sharma, M. L. Jat

Abstract:

The biggest challenge in agriculture is to produce more food for the continually increasing world population with in the limited land and water resources. Serious water deficits and reducing natural resources are some of the major threats to the agricultural sustainability in many regions of South Asia. Food and water security may be gained by bringing improvement in the crop water productivity and the amount produced per unit of water consumed. Improvement in the crop water productivity may be achieved by pursuing alternative modern agronomics approaches, which are more friendly and efficient in utilizing natural resources. Therefore, a research trial on conservation agriculture (CA) and precision water management (PWM) was conducted in 2018-19 at Karnal, India to evaluate the effect on crop productivity and irrigation in sodic soils under rice-wheat (RW) systems of Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). Eight scenarios were compared varied in the tillage, crop establishment, residue and irrigarion management i.e., {First four scenarios irrigated with flood irrigation method;Sc1-Conventional tillage (CT) without residue, Sc2-CT with residue, Sc3- Zero tillage (ZT) without residue, Sc4-ZT with residue}, and {last four scenarios irrigated with sub-surface drip irrigation method; Sc5-ZT without residue, Sc6- ZT with residue, Sc7-ZT inclusion legume without residue and Sc8- ZT inclusion legume with residue}. Results revealed that CA-flood irrigation (S3, Sc4) and CA-PWM system (Sc5, Sc6, Sc7 and Sc8) recorded about ~5% and ~15% higher wheat yield, respectively compared to Sc1. Similar, CA-PWM saved ~40% irrigation water compared to Sc1. Rice yield was not different under different scenarios in the first year (kharif 2019) but almost half irrigation water saved under CA-PWM system. Therefore, results of our study on modern agronomic practices including CA and precision water management (subsurface drip irrigation) for RW rotation would be addressed the existing and future challenges in the RW system.

Keywords: Sub-surface drip, Crop residue, Crop yield , Zero tillage

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14640 Viability of Sub-Surface Drip Irrigation in Agronomic and Vegetable Crops Production

Authors: Ali Montazar

Abstract:

This study aims to assess the viability of sub-surface drip irrigation (SDI) using several ongoing and conducted researches in the low desert region of California. The experiments were carried out in the University of California Desert Research and Extension Center (UC DREC) and ten commercial fields at alfalfa, sugar beets, dehydrated onions, and spinach crops. The results demonstrated greater yields, actual crop water consumption, and water productivity of SDI as compared with conventional irrigation practices (border, furrow, and sprinkler irrigation) with an average increase of 21%, 7%, and 15%, respectively. The severity of plant disease, particularly root rot in sugar beet, and downy mildew in onions and spinach, were significantly lower in SDI than furrow and sprinkler irrigation (an average of 3-5 times). While utilizing this irrigation technology may have ability to achieve higher yields, conserve water, improve the efficiency of water and nutrient use, and manage food safety risks and plant disease, further work is required to better understand the impact of management practices and strategies on the viability of SDI application, and maintain its profitability in various agricultural production systems as water, labor costs, and environmental concerns increase.

Keywords: alfalfa, onions, spinach, sugar beets, subsurface drip irrigation

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14639 Impact of Wastewater Irrigation on Soil and Vegetable Quality in Peri Urban Cropping System

Authors: Neelam Patel

Abstract:

Farmers in peri-urban areas of developing countries depend on wastewater for Irrigation but with great environmental and health hazards. Since, irrigation with wastewater is growing in the developing countries but its suitability to environment and other health factors should be checked. Metal pollution is a very serious issue these days, various neuro, physical and mental disorders are prevailing due to the metal pollution. Waste water contaminated with heavy metals got accumulated in the soil and then bioaccumulated in the vegetables irrigated with waste water. A 3-year field experiment on cauliflower has been done by using wastewater with two different methods of irrigation i.e. Drip and Flood irrigation and checked the impact on the cauliflower and soil quality. Heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) have been studied in wastewater used for the irrigation and their accumulation in the soil and vegetable was studied. The study reveals that the concentration of heavy metals increases by 100 times from initial in soil. After 3 years, the concentration of Copper(41 ppm) Chromium(39.4 ppm) Lead(62.2ppm) Zinc(100.5 ppm) and Nickel(75.7 ppm) in Flood irrigated soil while in Drip irrigated soil , Copper (36.4 ppm) Chromium(36.8 ppm) Lead(53.7 ppm) Zinc(70.3 ppm) and Nickel (53.9 ppm). In vegetable, the wastewater irrigated shows an increase in the concentration of metals with the time and the accumulation of Nickel (6.98ppm), Lead (30.18 ppm) and Zinc (55.83 ppm) in drip irrigated while in flood irrigated, Nickel (30.58 ppm), Lead (73.95ppm) Zinc (93.50 ppm) and Copper (54.58 ppm) in edible part of cauliflower which is above the permissible limits suggested by different international agencies. On other hand, the nutrients content i.e. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in soil was increased in concentration with time. The study pointed out that the metal contaminated waste water consisting the nutrients in it but also heavy metals which causes health issues in human. While the increase in concentration of nutrients in the soil indirectly helpful to the farmers economically by restricting the use of fertilizers. But the metal pollution directly affects the health of human being. The different method of irrigation suggested that the drip irrigated vegetable acquired less metal then the flood one and is a better combo with the waste water for the irrigation.

Keywords: drip irrigation, heavy metals, metal contamination, waste water

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14638 Smart Irrigation System

Authors: Levent Seyfi, Ertan Akman, Tuğrul C. Topak

Abstract:

In this study, irrigation automation with electronic sensors and its control with smartphones were aimed. In this context, temperature and soil humidity measurements of the area irrigated were obtained by temperature and humidity sensors. A micro controller (Arduino) was utilized for accessing values of these parameters and controlling the proposed irrigation system. The irrigation system could automatically be worked according to obtained measurement values. Besides, a GSM module used together with Arduino provided that the irrigation system was in connection to smartphones. Thus, the irrigation system can be remotely controlled. Not only can we observe whether the irrigation system is working or not via developed special android application but also we can see temperature and humidity measurement values. In addition to this, if desired, the irrigation system can be remotely and manually started or stopped regardless of measured sensor vales thanks to the developed android application. In addition to smartphones, the irrigation system can be alternatively controlled via the designed website (www.sulamadenetim.com).

Keywords: smartphone, Android Operating System, sensors, irrigation System, arduino

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14637 Deficit Drip Irrigation in Organic Cultivation of Aromatic Plant

Authors: Vasileios A. Giouvanis, Christos D. Papanikolaou, Dimitrios S. Dimakas, Maria A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki

Abstract:

In countries with limited water resources, where the irrigation demands are higher than the 70% of the total water use, the demand for fresh water increases while the quality of this natural resource is downgraded. The aromatic and pharmaceutical plants hold a high position in the culture of the most civilizations through the centuries. The ‘Mountain Tea,’ species of the Greek flora, is part of a series of aromatic plants and herbs that are famous for their pharmaceutical properties as well as their byproducts and their essential oils. The aim of this research was to study the effects of full and deficit irrigation on the growing and productive characteristics of organically cultivated ‘Mountain Tea’ (Sideritis raeseri). The research took place at the University of Thessaly farm in Velestino, Magnesia - Central Greece, during the year 2017, which was the third growing season. The experiment consisted of three treatments in three replications. The experimental design was a fully randomized complete block. Surface drip irrigation was used to irrigate the experimental plots. In the first treatment, the 75% (deficit irrigation) of the daily water needs was applied. In the second treatment, the 100% (full irrigation) of the daily water needs was applied. The third treatment was not irrigated (rainfed). The crop water needs were calculated according to the daily measured evapotranspiration (ETc) using the Penman-Monteith method (FAO 56). The plants’ height, fresh and dry biomass production were measured. The results showed that only the irrigated ‘Mountain Tea’ can be cultivated at low altitude areas with satisfactory results. Moreover, there are no statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) at the growing and productive characteristics between full and deficit irrigation treatments, which proves that by deficit irrigation, an important amount of irrigation water can be saved.

Keywords: mountain tea, surface drip irrigation, deficit irrigation, water saving

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14636 Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower Genotypes Under Drip Irrigation

Authors: Adel M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This Investigation was conducted to determine the productivity and water use efficiency for new sunflower genotypes. Ten sunflower genotypes were evaluated under drip irrigation using two treatments of. Results indicate that decreasing the amount of irrigation water from 1500 to 1130 mm/hectar significantly reduced all studied traits. Mutation (M1-63) surpassed all the other one genotypes in seed yield and WUE. Lines which gave the highest yield of the seed have water use efficiency under drought conditions higher than water use efficiency under normal irrigation. The lowest depression in seed yield due to drought conditions has been registered for Line 20, Line M1-63 and Sakha 53 genotypes (11 , 18 and 16 %, respectively). Genotypes (Line 20 , Line M1-63 and Sakha 53) are more tolerant to drought than others and we can used its in breeding program to develop sunflower hybrids suitable for cultivation under drought condition.

Keywords: sunflower genotypes, water use efficiency, mutation, inbred lines

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14635 Improved Water Productivity by Deficit Irrigation: Implications for Water Saving in Orange, Olive and Vineyard Orchards in Arid Conditions of Tunisia

Authors: K. Nagaz, F. El Mokh, M. Masmoudi, N. Ben Mechlia, M. O. Baba Sy, G. Ghiglieri

Abstract:

Field experiments on deficit irrigation (DI) were performed in Médenine, Tunisia on drip-irrigated olive, orange and grapevine orchards during 2013 and 2014. Four irrigation treatments were compared: full irrigation (FI), which was irrigated at 100% of ETc for the whole season; two deficit irrigation (DI) strategies -DI75 and DI50- which received, respectively, 25 and 50% less water than FI; and traditional farming management (FM) - with water input much less than actually needed. The traditional farming (FM) applied 11, 18, 30 and 33% less water than the FI treatment, respectively, in orange, grapevine and table and oil olive orchards, indicating that the farmers practices represent a form of unintended deficit irrigation. Yield was reduced when deficit irrigation was applied and there were significant differences between DI75, DI50 and FM treatments. Significant differences were not observed between DI50 and FM treatments even though numerically smaller yield was observed in the former (DI50) as compared to the latter (FM). The irrigation water productivity (IWP) was significantly affected by irrigation treatments. The smallest IWP was recorded under the FI treatment, while the largest IWP was obtained under the deficit irrigation treatment (DI50). The DI50 and FM treatments reduced the economic return compared to the full treatment (FI), while the DI75 treatment resulted in a better economic return in respect to DI50 and FM. Full irrigation (FI) could be recommended for olive, orange and grapevine irrigation under the arid climate of Tunisia. Nevertheless, the treatment DI75 can be applied as a strategy under water scarcity conditions in commercial olive, orange and grapevine orchards allowing water savings up to 25% but with some reduction in yield and net return. The results would be helpful in adopting deficit irrigation in ways that enhance net financial returns.

Keywords: water productivity, deficit irrigation, drip irrigation, orchards

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14634 A Drop of Water for the Thirsty Ground: Implementing Drip-Irrigation System as an Alternative to the Existing System to Promote Sustainable Livelihoods in the Archipelagic Dryland East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Authors: F. L. Benu, I. W. Mudita, R. L. Natonis

Abstract:

East Nusa Tenggara, together with part of East Java, West Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku, has been included as part of global drylands defined according to the ratio of annual precipitation (P) and annual potential evaporation (PET) and major vegetation types of grassland and savannah ecosystems. These tropical drylands are unique because, whereas drylands in other countries are mostly continental, here they are archipelagic. These archipelagic drylands are also unique in terms of being included because of more on their major vegetation types than of their P/PET ratio. Slash-and-burn cultivation and free roaming animal husbandry are two major livelihoods being widely practiced, along with alternative seasonal livelihood such as traditional fishing. Such livelihoods are vulnerable in various respects, especially because of drought, which becomes more unpredictable in the face of climate changes. To cope with such vulnerability, semi-intensive farming using drip irrigation is implemented as an appropriate technology with the goal of promoting a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods. The implementation was started in 2016 with a pilot system at the university field laboratory in Kupang in which various designs of installation were tested. The modified system consisting of an uplifted water reservoir and solar-powered pump was tested in Papela, the District of Rote-Ndao, in 2017 to convince fishermen who had been involved in illegal fishing in Australia-Indonesia transboundary waters, to adopt small-scale farming as a more sustainable alternative to their existing livelihoods. The system was again tested in a larger coverage in Oesena, the District of Kupang, in 2018 to convince slash-and-burn cultivators to adopt an environmentally friendlier cultivation system. From the implementation of the modified system in both sites, the participating fishermen in Papela were able to manage the system under tight water supply to grow chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon and the slash-and-burn cultivators in Oesena to grow chili pepper in a more efficient water use than water use in a conventional irrigation system. The gross margin obtained from growing chili pepper, tomatoes, and watermelon in Papela and from growing chili pepper in Oesena showed that small-scale farming using drip irrigation system was a promising alternative to local people in generating cash income to support their livelihoods. However, before promoting this appropriate technology as a more sustainable alternative to the existing livelihoods elsewhere in the region, better understanding on social-related contexts of the implementation is needed.

Keywords: archipelagic drylands, drip irrigation system, East Nusa Tenggara, sustainable livelihoods

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14633 Pros and Cons of Different Types of Irrigation Systems for Date Palm Production in Sebha, Libya

Authors: Ahmad Aridah, Maria Fay Rola-Rubzen, Zora Singh

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This study investigated the effectiveness of various types of irrigation systems in regards to the impact that these have on the productivity of date palms in the semi-arid and arid region of Sebha, Southwest Libya. The date palm is an economically important crop in Libya and contributes to the agriculture industry, foreign exchange earnings, farmers’ income, and employment in the country. The date palm industry relies on large amounts of water for growing the crop. Farmers in Southwest Libya use a variety of irrigation systems, but the quality and quantity of water varies between systems and this affects the productivity and income of farmers. Using survey data from 210 farmers, this study estimated and assessed the pros and cons of different types of irrigation systems for date palm production under various irrigation systems currently used in Sebha, Libya. The number of years farmers have used irrigation, the area, irrigation water consumption, time of irrigation, number of farm workers (including family labour) and inputs used were measured for surface, sprinkler and drip irrigation methods. Findings from this research provide new insights into the advantages and disadvantages of the various irrigation systems, problems encountered by farmers and the factors that affect the quality and quantity of the irrigation system. The paper discussed proposed solutions to deal with the problems including timing of irrigation, canal maintenance, repair of wells and water control.

Keywords: Libya, factors, irrigation method, date palm

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14632 Plant Supporting Units (Ekobox) Application Project for Increasing Planting Success in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Authors: Gürcan D. Baysal, Ali Tanış

Abstract:

In this study, samples of plant types including rose hip (Rosa canina L.), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), elderberry (Sambucus nigra), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) were grown using plant supporting units called Ekobox and drip irrigation systems in the Karapınar, Konya region of Turkey to reveal the efficiency of Ekobox and drip irrigation compared against a control with no irrigation. The plant diameter, height, and survival rates were determined, compared with each other, and statistically analyzed. According to the statistical analysis of the results, Ekobox applications resulted in the highest values for survival rate, diameter, and height measurements whereas the lowest values were determined in the control groups. These results indicate that the cultivation of plants with Ekobox may help protect against the loss of fertile soils as an effective mechanism for combating erosion and desertification. These advantages may also lead to a lasting economic effect on the cultivation of plants by locals of the Karapınar, Konya province who suffer from an ever-decreasing underground water level as a result of agricultural consumption.

Keywords: drip irrigation, ekobox, plant diameter, plant height, plant survival rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
14631 Multi-Agent System for Irrigation Using Fuzzy Logic Algorithm and Open Platform Communication Data Access

Authors: T. Wanyama, B. Far

Abstract:

Automatic irrigation systems usually conveniently protect landscape investment. While conventional irrigation systems are known to be inefficient, automated ones have the potential to optimize water usage. In fact, there is a new generation of irrigation systems that are smart in the sense that they monitor the weather, soil conditions, evaporation and plant water use, and automatically adjust the irrigation schedule. In this paper, we present an agent based smart irrigation system. The agents are built using a mix of commercial off the shelf software, including MATLAB, Microsoft Excel and KEPServer Ex5 OPC server, and custom written code. The Irrigation Scheduler Agent uses fuzzy logic to integrate the information that affect the irrigation schedule. In addition, the Multi-Agent system uses Open Platform Connectivity (OPC) technology to share data. OPC technology enables the Irrigation Scheduler Agent to communicate over the Internet, making the system scalable to a municipal or regional agent based water monitoring, management, and optimization system. Finally, this paper presents simulation and pilot installation test result that show the operational effectiveness of our system.

Keywords: community water usage, fuzzy logic, irrigation, multi-agent system

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14630 Comparing Performance of Irrigation System in Nepal by Collective Action and Decision-Making Capacity of the Farmers

Authors: Manita Ale, Ganesh P. Shivakoti, Ram C. Bastakoti

Abstract:

Irrigation system, a system for enhancing agricultural productivity, requires regular maintenance in order to avoid irregular allocation of water. For maintenance of the system in long run, farmers’ participation plays a key role increasing the performance of system. The performance of any irrigation system mainly relies on various factors which affect collective action plus decision making, as well as their shared impacts. The paper consists of system level information that were collected from 12 Irrigation Systems (IS) from three-sampled districts of Nepal and the household information that were collected from 160 irrigation water users. The results reveal that, out of 12 sampled irrigation systems, only 4 systems shows high performance levels. The high performance level of those systems was characterized on the basis of adequate availability of water, good maintenance of system infrastructure, and conformance to existing rules followed. In addition, the paper compares different irrigation systems based on trust, reciprocity, cropping intensity, command area and yield as tools to indicate the importance of collective action in performance of irrigation system.

Keywords: collective action, decision-making, farmers’ participation, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
14629 Numerical Study of a 6080HP Open Drip Proof (ODP) Motor

Authors: Feng-Hisang Lai

Abstract:

CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) is conducted to numerically study the flow and heat transfer features of a two-pole, 6,080HP, 60Hz, 3,150V open drip-proof (ODP) motor. The stator and rotor cores in this high voltage induction motor are segmented with the use of spacers for cooling purposes, which leads to difficulties in meshing when the entire system is to be simulated. The system is divided into 4 parts, meshed separately and then combined using interfaces. The deviation between the CFD and experimental results in temperature and flow rate is less than 10%. The internal flow is further examined and a final design is proposed to reduce the winding temperature by 10 degrees.

Keywords: CFD, open drip proof, induction motor, cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
14628 Effect on Yield and Yield Components of Different Irrigation Levels in Edible Seed Pumpkin Growing

Authors: Musa Seymen, Duran Yavuz, Nurcan Yavuz, Önder Türkmen

Abstract:

Edible seed pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) is one of the important edibles preferred by consumer in Turkey due to its higher nutrient contents. However, there is almost very few study on water consumption and irrigation water requirement of confectionary edible seed pumpkin in Turkey. Therefore, a 2-year study (2013-2014) was conducted to determine the effects of irrigation levels on the seed yield and yield components of drip-irrigated confectionary edible seed pumpkin under Turkey conditions. In the study, the experimental design was made in randomized blocks with three replications. Treatments consisted of five irrigation water levels that compensated for the 100% (I100, full irrigation), 75% (I75), 50% (I50), 25% (I25) and 0% (I0, no irrigation) of crop water requirements at 14-day irrigation intervals. Seasonal evapotranspiration of treatments varied from 194.2 to 625.2 mm in 2013 and from 208.6 to 556.6 mm in 2014. In both years, the highest seasonal evapotranspiration was obtained in I100 treatment. Average across years, the seed yields ranged between 1090 (I100) and 422 (I0) kg ha-1. The irrigation treatments were found to significantly affect the yield parameters such as the seed yield, oil seed yield number of seeds per fruit, seed size, seed width, fruit size, fruit width and fruit index.

Keywords: irrigation level, edible seed pumpkin, seed quality, seed yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
14627 Real-Time Optimisation and Minimal Energy Use for Water and Environment Efficient Irrigation

Authors: Kanya L. Khatri, Ashfaque A. Memon, Rod J. Smith, Shamas Bilal

Abstract:

The viability and sustainability of crop production is currently threatened by increasing water scarcity. Water scarcity problems can be addressed through improved water productivity and the options usually presumed in this context are efficient water use and conversion of surface irrigation to pressurized systems. By replacing furrow irrigation with drip or centre pivot systems, the water efficiency can be improved by up to 30 to 45%. However, the installation and application of pumps and pipes, and the associated fuels needed for these alternatives increase energy consumption and cause significant greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, a balance between the improvement in water use and the potential increase in energy consumption is required keeping in view adverse impact of increased carbon emissions on the environment. When surface water is used, pressurized systems increase energy consumption substantially, by between 65% to 75%, and produce greenhouse gas emissions around 1.75 times higher than that of gravity based irrigation. With gravity based surface irrigation methods the energy consumption is assumed to be negligible. This study has shown that a novel real-time infiltration model REIP has enabled implementation of real-time optimization and control of surface irrigation and surface irrigation with real-time optimization has potential to bring significant improvements in irrigation performance along with substantial water savings of 2.92 ML/ha which is almost equivalent to that given by pressurized systems. Thus real-time optimization and control offers a modern, environment friendly and water efficient system with close to zero increase in energy consumption and minimal greenhouse gas emissions.

Keywords: pressurised irrigation, carbon emissions, real-time, environmentally-friendly, REIP

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
14626 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman

Abstract:

Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
14625 The Use of a Geographical Information System in the Field of Irrigation (Moyen-Chéliff)

Authors: Benhenni Abdellaziz

Abstract:

Irrigation is a limiting factor for agricultural production and socio-economic development of many countries in arid and semiarid in the world. However, the sustainability of irrigation systems requires a rational management of the water resource that is becoming increasingly rare in these regions. The objective of this work is to apply a geographic information system (GIS) coupled to a model for calculating crop water requirements (CROPWATER) for the management of irrigation water in irrigated area and offer managers with an effective tool to better manage water resources in these areas. The application area of GIS is the irrigated perimeter of Western Middle Cheliff which is located in a semi-arid region (Middle Cheliff). The scope in question is a considerable agrarian dynamics and an increased need for irrigation of most crops.

Keywords: geographical information, irrigation, economical, use rational

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
14624 Intelligent Irrigation Control System Using Wireless Sensors and Android Application

Authors: Rajeshwari Madli, Santhosh Hebbar, Vishwanath Heddoori, G. V. Prasad

Abstract:

Agriculture is the major occupation in India and forms the backbone of Indian economy in which irrigation plays a crucial role for increasing the quality and quantity of crop yield. In spite of many revolutionary advancements in agriculture, there has not been a dramatic increase in agricultural performance. Lack of irrigation infrastructure and agricultural knowledge are the critical factors influencing agricultural performance. However, by using advanced agricultural equipment, the effect of these factors can be curtailed.  The presented system aims at increasing the yield of crops by using an intelligent irrigation controller that makes use of wireless sensors. Sensors are used to monitor primary parameters such as soil moisture, soil pH, temperature and humidity. Irrigation decisions are taken based on the sensed data and the type of crop being grown. The system provides a mobile application in which farmers can remotely monitor and control the irrigation system. Also, the water pump is protected against damages due to voltage variations and dry running.

Keywords: android application, Bluetooth, wireless sensors, irrigation, temperature, soil pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
14623 Automated Irrigation System with Programmable Logic Controller and Photovoltaic Energy

Authors: J. P. Reges, L. C. S. Mazza, E. J. Braga, J. A. Bessa, A. R. Alexandria

Abstract:

This paper proposes the development of control and automation of irrigation system located sunflower harvest in the Teaching Unit, Research and Extension (UEPE), the Apodi Plateau in Limoeiro do Norte. The sunflower extraction, which in turn serves to get the produced oil from its seeds, animal feed, and is widely used in human food. Its nutritional potential is quite high what makes of foods produced from vegetal, very rich and healthy. The focus of research is to make the autonomous irrigation system sunflower crop from programmable logic control energized with alternative energy sources, solar photovoltaics. The application of automated irrigation system becomes interesting when it provides convenience and implements new forms of managements of the implementation of irrigated cropping systems. The intended use of automated addition to irrigation quality and consequently brings enormous improvement for production of small samples. Addition to applying the necessary and sufficient features of water management in irrigation systems, the system (PLC + actuators + Renewable Energy) will enable to manage the quantitative water required for each crop, and at the same time, insert the use of sources alternative energy. The entry of the automated collection will bring a new format, and in previous years, used the process of irrigation water wastage base and being the whole manual irrigation process.

Keywords: automation, control, sunflower, irrigation, programming, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
14622 Freshwater Pinch Analysis for Optimal Design of the Photovoltaic Powered-Pumping System

Authors: Iman Janghorban Esfahani

Abstract:

Due to the increased use of irrigation in agriculture, the importance and need for highly reliable water pumping systems have significantly increased. The pumping of the groundwater is essential to provide water for both drip and furrow irrigation to increase the agricultural yield, especially in arid regions that suffer from scarcities of surface water. The most common irrigation pumping systems (IPS) consume conventional energies through the use of electric motors and generators or connecting to the electricity grid. Due to the shortage and transportation difficulties of fossil fuels, and unreliable access to the electricity grid, especially in the rural areas, and the adverse environmental impacts of fossil fuel usage, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the need for renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic systems (PVS) as an alternative way of powering irrigation pumping systems is urgent. Integration of the photovoltaic systems with irrigation pumping systems as the Photovoltaic Powered-Irrigation Pumping System (PVP-IPS) can avoid fossil fuel dependency and the subsequent greenhouse gas emissions, as well as ultimately lower energy costs and improve efficiency, which made PVP-IPS systems as an environmentally and economically efficient solution for agriculture irrigation in every region. The greatest problem faced by integration of PVP with IPS systems is matching the intermittence of the energy supply with the dynamic water demand. The best solution to overcome the intermittence is to incorporate a storage system into the PVP-IPS to provide water-on-demand as a highly reliable stand-alone irrigation pumping system. The water storage tank (WST) is the most common storage device for PVP-IPS systems. In the integrated PVP-IPS with a water storage tank (PVP-IPS-WST), a water storage tank stores the water pumped by the IPS in excess of the water demand and then delivers it when demands are high. The Freshwater pinch analysis (FWaPA) as an alternative to mathematical modeling was used by other researchers for retrofitting the off-grid battery less photovoltaic-powered reverse osmosis system. However, the Freshwater pinch analysis has not been used to integrate the photovoltaic systems with irrigation pumping system with water storage tanks. In this study, FWaPA graphical and numerical tools were used for retrofitting an existing PVP-IPS system located in Salahadin, Republic of Iraq. The plant includes a 5 kW submersible water pump and 7.5 kW solar PV system. The Freshwater Composite Curve as the graphical tool and Freashwater Storage Cascade Table as the numerical tool were constructed to determine the minimum required outsourced water during operation, optimal amount of delivered electricity to the water pump, and optimal size of the water storage tank for one-year operation data. The results of implementing the FWaPA on the case study show that the PVP-IPS system with a WST as the reliable system can reduce outsourced water by 95.41% compare to the PVP-IPS system without storage tank.

Keywords: irrigation, photovoltaic, pinch analysis, pumping, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 62