Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 301

Search results for: elasticity

301 Selected Technological Factors Influencing the Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela

Abstract:

The topic of the article focuses on the evaluation of selected technological factors and their influence on resulting elasticity modulus of concrete. A series of various factors enter into the manufacturing process which, more or less, influences the elasticity modulus. This paper presents the results of concrete in which the influence of water coefficient and the size of maximum fraction of the aggregate on the static elasticity modulus were monitored. Part of selected results of the long-term programme was discussed in which a wide scope of various variants of proposals for the composition of concretes was evaluated.

Keywords: mix design, water-cement ratio, aggregate, modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
300 Impact of the Quality of Aggregate on the Elasticity Modulus of Concrete

Authors: K. Krizova

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This objective of this article is to present concrete that differs by the size of the aggregate used. The set of concrete contained six concrete recipes manufactured as traditional vibrated concrete containing identical basic components of concrete. The experiment focused on monitoring the resulting properties of hardened concrete, specifically the primary strength and modulus of the concrete elasticity and the developing parameters from 7 to 180 days were assessed.

Keywords: aggregate, cement, concrete, elasticity modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
299 A Timed and Colored Petri Nets for Modeling and Verify Cloud System Elasticity

Authors: Walid Louhichi, Mouhebeddine Berrima, Narjes Ben Rajed

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Elasticity is the essential property of cloud computing. As the name suggests, it constitutes the ability of a cloud system to adjust resource provisioning in relation to fluctuating workload. There are two types of elasticity operations, vertical and horizontal. In this work, we are interested in horizontal scaling, which is ensured by two mechanisms; scaling in and scaling out. Following the sizing of the system, we can adopt scaling in in the event of over-supply and scaling out in the event of under-supply. In this paper, we propose a formal model, based on colored and temporized Petri nets, for the modeling of the duplication and the removal of a virtual machine from a server. This model is based on formal Petri Nets modeling language. The proposed models are edited, verified, and simulated with two examples implemented in CPNtools, which is a modeling tool for colored and timed Petri nets.

Keywords: cloud computing, elasticity, elasticity controller, petri nets, scaling in, scaling out

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
298 Calcium Silicate Bricks – Ultrasonic Pulse Method: Effects of Natural Frequency of Transducers on Measurement Results

Authors: Jiri Brozovsky

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Modulus of elasticity is one of the important parameters of construction materials, which considerably influence their deformation properties and which can also be determined by means of non-destructive test methods like ultrasonic pulse method. However, measurement results of ultrasonic pulse methods are influenced by various factors, one of which is the natural frequency of the transducers. The paper states knowledge about influence of natural frequency of the transducers (54; 82 and 150kHz) on ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Young's Dynamic modulus of elasticity). Differences between ultrasonic pulse velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity were found with the same smallest dimension of test specimen in the direction of sounding and density their value decreases as the natural frequency of transducers grew.

Keywords: calcium silicate brick, ultrasonic pulse method, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
297 Non-linear Model of Elasticity of Compressive Strength of Concrete

Authors: Charles Horace Ampong

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Non-linear models have been found to be useful in modeling the elasticity (measure of degree of responsiveness) of a dependent variable with respect to a set of independent variables ceteris paribus. This constant elasticity principle was applied to the dependent variable (Compressive Strength of Concrete in MPa) which was found to be non-linearly related to the independent variable (Water-Cement ratio in kg/m3) for given Ages of Concrete in days (3, 7, 28) at different levels of admixtures Superplasticizer (in kg/m3), Blast Furnace Slag (in kg/m3) and Fly Ash (in kg/m3). The levels of the admixtures were categorized as: S1=Some Plasticizer added & S0=No Plasticizer added; B1=some Blast Furnace Slag added & B0=No Blast Furnace Slag added; F1=Some Fly Ash added & F0=No Fly Ash added. The number of observations (samples) used for the research was one-hundred and thirty-two (132) in all. For Superplasticizer, it was found that Compressive Strength of Concrete was more elastic with regards to Water-Cement ratio at S1 level than at S0 level for the given ages of concrete 3, 7and 28 days. For Blast Furnace Slag, Compressive Strength with regards to Water-Cement ratio was more elastic at B0 level than at B1 level for concrete ages 3, 7 and 28 days. For Fly Ash, Compressive Strength with regards to Water-Cement ratio was more elastic at B0 level than at B1 level for Ages 3, 7 and 28 days. The research also tested for different combinations of the levels of Superplasticizer, Blast Furnace Slag and Fly Ash. It was found that Compressive Strength elasticity with regards to Water-Cement ratio was lowest (Elasticity=-1.746) with a combination of S0, B0 and F0 for concrete age of 3 days. This was followed by Elasticity of -1.611 with a combination of S0, B0 and F0 for a concrete of age 7 days. Next, the highest was an Elasticity of -1.414 with combination of S0, B0 and F0 for a concrete age of 28 days. Based on preceding outcomes, three (3) non-linear model equations for predicting the output elasticity of Compressive Strength of Concrete (in %) or the value of Compressive Strength of Concrete (in MPa) with regards to Water to Cement was formulated. The model equations were based on the three different ages of concrete namely 3, 7 and 28 days under investigation. The three models showed that higher elasticity translates into higher compressive strength. And the models revealed a trend of increasing concrete strength from 3 to 28 days for a given amount of water to cement ratio. Using the models, an increasing modulus of elasticity from 3 to 28 days was deduced.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, elasticity, water-cement

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296 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Free Vibration of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Seyyed Feisal Asbaghian Namin, Reza Pilafkan, Mahmood Kaffash Irzarahimi

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TThis paper considers vibration of single-layered graphene sheets using molecular dynamics (MD) and nonlocal elasticity theory. Based on the MD simulations, Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), an open source software, is used to obtain fundamental frequencies. On the other hand, governing equations are derived using nonlocal elasticity and first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and solved using generalized differential quadrature method (GDQ). The small-scale effect is applied in governing equations of motion by nonlocal parameter. The effect of different side lengths, boundary conditions and nonlocal parameter are inspected for aforementioned methods. Results are obtained from MD simulations is compared with those of the nonlocal elasticity theory to calculate appropriate values for the nonlocal parameter. The nonlocal parameter value is suggested for graphene sheets with various boundary conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlocal elasticity approach using classical plate theory (CLPT) assumptions overestimates the natural frequencies.

Keywords: graphene sheets, molecular dynamics simulations, fundamental frequencies, nonlocal elasticity theory, nonlocal parameter

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295 Portfolio Optimization under a Hybrid Stochastic Volatility and Constant Elasticity of Variance Model

Authors: Jai Heui Kim, Sotheara Veng

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This paper studies the portfolio optimization problem for a pension fund under a hybrid model of stochastic volatility and constant elasticity of variance (CEV) using asymptotic analysis method. When the volatility component is fast mean-reverting, it is able to derive asymptotic approximations for the value function and the optimal strategy for general utility functions. Explicit solutions are given for the exponential and hyperbolic absolute risk aversion (HARA) utility functions. The study also shows that using the leading order optimal strategy results in the value function, not only up to the leading order, but also up to first order correction term. A practical strategy that does not depend on the unobservable volatility level is suggested. The result is an extension of the Merton's solution when stochastic volatility and elasticity of variance are considered simultaneously.

Keywords: asymptotic analysis, constant elasticity of variance, portfolio optimization, stochastic optimal control, stochastic volatility

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294 Natural Interaction Game-Based Learning of Elasticity with Kinect

Authors: Maryam Savari, Mohamad Nizam Ayub, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab

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Game-based Learning (GBL) is an alternative that provides learners with an opportunity to experience a volatile environment in a safe and secure place. A volatile environment requires a different technique to facilitate learning and prevent injury and other hazards. Subjects involving elasticity are always considered hazardous and can cause injuries,for instance a bouncing ball. Elasticity is a topic that necessitates hands-on practicality for learners to experience the effects of elastic objects. In this paper the scope is to investigate the natural interaction between learners and elastic objects in a safe environment using GBL. During interaction, the potentials of natural contact in the process of learning were explored and gestures exhibited during the learning process were identified. GBL was developed using Kinect technology to teach elasticity to primary school children aged 7 to 12. The system detects body gestures and defines the meanings of motions exhibited during the learning process. The qualitative approach was deployed to constantly monitor the interaction between the student and the system. Based on the results, it was found that Natural Interaction GBL (Ni-GBL) is engaging for students to learn, making their learning experience more active and joyful.

Keywords: elasticity, Game-Based Learning (GBL), kinect technology, natural interaction

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293 A Bayesian Multivariate Microeconometric Model for Estimation of Price Elasticity of Demand

Authors: Jefferson Hernandez, Juan Padilla

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Estimation of price elasticity of demand is a valuable tool for the task of price settling. Given its relevance, it is an active field for microeconomic and statistical research. Price elasticity in the industry of oil and gas, in particular for fuels sold in gas stations, has shown to be a challenging topic given the market and state restrictions, and underlying correlations structures between the types of fuels sold by the same gas station. This paper explores the Lotka-Volterra model for the problem for price elasticity estimation in the context of fuels; in addition, it is introduced multivariate random effects with the purpose of dealing with errors, e.g., measurement or missing data errors. In order to model the underlying correlation structures, the Inverse-Wishart, Hierarchical Half-t and LKJ distributions are studied. Here, the Bayesian paradigm through Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for model estimation is considered. Simulation studies covering a wide range of situations were performed in order to evaluate parameter recovery for the proposed models and algorithms. Results revealed that the proposed algorithms recovered quite well all model parameters. Also, a real data set analysis was performed in order to illustrate the proposed approach.

Keywords: price elasticity, volume, correlation structures, Bayesian models

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292 Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated Unprocessed Waste Fly Ash after Expose to the Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes, Salem Nehme

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The present study experimentally investigated the impact of incorporating unprocessed waste fly ash (UWFA) on the residual mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) after exposure to elevated temperature. Three mixtures of SCC have been produced by replacing the cement mass by 0%, 15% and 30% of UWFA. Generally, the fire resistance of SCC has been enhanced by replacing the cement up to 15% of UWFA, especially in case of residual modulus of elasticity which considers more sensitive than other mechanical properties at elevated temperature. However, a strong linear relationship has been observed between the residual flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, where both of them affected significantly by the cracks appearance and propagation as a result of elevated temperature. Sustainable products could be produced by incorporating unprocessed waste powder materials in the production of concrete, where the waste materials, CO2 emissions, and the energy needed for processing are reduced.

Keywords: self-compacting high-performance concrete, unprocessed waste fly ash, fire resistance, residual modulus of elasticity

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291 Elasticity Model for Easing Peak Hour Demand for Metrorail Transport System

Authors: P. K. Sarkar, Amit Kumar Jain

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The demand for Urban transportation is characterised by a large scale temporal and spatial variations which causes heavy congestion inside metro trains in peak hours near Centre Business District (CBD) of the city. The conventional approach to address peak hour congestion, metro trains has been to increase the supply by way of introduction of more trains, increasing the length of the trains, optimising the time table to increase the capacity of the system. However, there is a limitation of supply side measures determined by the design capacity of the systems beyond which any addition in the capacity requires huge capital investments. The demand side interventions are essentially required to actually spread the demand across the time and space. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the potential Transport Demand Management tools applicable to Urban Rail Transportation systems with a special focus on differential pricing. A conceptual price elasticity model has been developed to analyse the effect of various combinations of peak and nonpeak hoursfares on demands. The elasticity values for peak hour, nonpeak hour and cross elasticity have been assumed from the relevant literature available in the field. The conceptual price elasticity model so developed is based on assumptions which need to be validated with actual values of elasticities for different segments of passengers. Once validated, the model can be used to determine the peak and nonpeak hour fares with an objective to increase overall ridership, revenue, demand levelling and optimal utilisation of assets.

Keywords: urban transport, differential fares, congestion, transport demand management, elasticity

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290 Experimental Modal Analysis of a Suspended Composite Beam

Authors: First A. Lahmar Lahbib, Second B. Abdeldjebar Rabiâ, Third C. Moudden B, forth D. Missoum L

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Vibration tests are used to identify the elasticity modulus in two directions. This strategy is applied to composite materials glass / polyester. Experimental results made on a specimen in free vibration showed the efficiency of this method. Obtained results were validated by a comparison to results stemming from static tests.

Keywords: beam, characterization, composite, elasticity modulus, vibration.

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289 Economic Stability in a Small Open Economy with Income Effect on Leisure Demand

Authors: Yu-Shan Hsu

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This paper studies a two-sector growth model with a technology of social constant returns and with a utility that features either a zero or a positive income effect on the demand for leisure. The purpose is to investigate how the existence of aggregate instability or equilibrium indeterminacy depends on both the intensity of the income effect on the demand for leisure and the value of the labor supply elasticity. The main finding is that when there is a factor intensity reversal between the private perspective and the social perspective, indeterminacy arises even if the utility has a positive income effect on leisure demand. Moreover, we find that a smaller value of the labor supply elasticity increases the range of the income effect on leisure demand and thus increases the possibility of equilibrium indeterminacy. JEL classification: E3; O41

Keywords: indeterminacy, non-separable preferences, income effect, labor supply elasticity

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288 Using Atomic Force Microscope to Investigate the Influence of UVA Radiation and HA on Cell Behaviour and Elasticity of Dermal Fibroblasts

Authors: Pei-Hsiu Chiang, Ling Hong Huang, Hsin-I Chang

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In this research, we used UVA irradiation, which can penetrate into dermis and fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in dermis, to investigate the effect of UV light on dermis, such as inflammation, ECM degradation and elasticity loss. Moreover, this research is focused on the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) on UVA treated dermal fibroblasts. We aim to establish whether HA can effectively relief ECM degradation, and restore the elasticity of UVA-damaged fibroblasts. Prolonged exposure to UVA radiation can damage fibroblasts and led variation in cell morphology and reduction in cell viability. Besides, UVA radiation can induce IL-1β expression on fibroblasts and then promote MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression, which can accelerate ECM degradation. On the other hand, prolonged exposure to UVA radiation reduced collagen and elastin synthesis on fibroblasts. Due to the acceleration of ECM degradation and the reduction of ECM synthesis, Atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to analyze the elasticity reduction on UVA-damaged fibroblasts. UVA irradiation causes photoaging on fibroblasts. UVA damaged fibroblasts with HA treatment can down-regulate the gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and then slow down ECM degradation. On the other hand, HA may restore elastin and collagen synthesis in UV-damaged fibroblasts. Based on the slowdown of ECM degradation, UVA-damaged fibroblast elasticity can be effectively restored by HA treatment. In summary, HA can relief the photoaging conditions on fibroblasts, but may not be able to return fibroblasts to normal, healthy state. Although HA cannot fully recover UVA-damaged fibroblasts, HA is still potential for repairing photoaging skin.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, hyaluronic acid, UVA radiation, dermal fibroblasts

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287 Measurement of the Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Used for the Cyclic Indirect Tensile Test

Authors: Paul G. Bolz, Paul G. Lindner, Frohmut Wellner, Christian Schulze, Joern Huebelt

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Concrete, as a result of its use as a construction material, is not only subject to static loads but is also exposed to variables, time-variant, and oscillating stresses. In order to ensure the suitability of construction materials for resisting these cyclic stresses, different test methods are used for the systematic fatiguing of specimens, like the cyclic indirect tensile test. A procedure is presented that allows the estimation of the degradation of cylindrical concrete specimens during the cyclic indirect tensile test by measuring the dynamic modulus of elasticity in different states of the specimens’ fatigue process. Two methods are used in addition to the cyclic indirect tensile test in order to examine the dynamic modulus of elasticity of cylindrical concrete specimens. One of the methods is based on the analysis of eigenfrequencies, whilst the other one uses ultrasonic pulse measurements to estimate the material properties. A comparison between the dynamic moduli obtained using the three methods that operate in different frequency ranges shows good agreement. The concrete specimens’ fatigue process can therefore be monitored effectively and reliably.

Keywords: concrete, cyclic indirect tensile test, degradation, dynamic modulus of elasticity, eigenfrequency, fatigue, natural frequency, ultrasonic, ultrasound, Young’s modulus

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286 Analysis of Contact Width and Contact Stress of Three-Layer Corrugated Metal Gasket

Authors: I. Made Gatot Karohika, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Oke Oktavianty, Didik Nurhadiyanto

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Contact width and contact stress are important parameters related to the leakage behavior of corrugated metal gasket. In this study, contact width and contact stress of three-layer corrugated metal gasket are investigated due to the modulus of elasticity and thickness of surface layer for 2 type gasket (0-MPa and 400-MPa mode). A finite element method was employed to develop simulation solution to analysis the effect of each parameter. The result indicated that lowering the modulus of elasticity ratio of surface layer will result in better contact width but the average contact stresses are smaller. When the modulus of elasticity ratio is held constant with thickness ratio increase, its contact width has an increscent trend otherwise the average contact stress has decreased trend.

Keywords: contact width, contact stress, layer, metal gasket, corrugated, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
285 Dynamic Response of Nano Spherical Shell Subjected to Termo-Mechanical Shock Using Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

Authors: J. Ranjbarn, A. Alibeigloo

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In this paper, we present an analytical method for analysis of nano-scale spherical shell subjected to thermo-mechanical shocks based on nonlocal elasticity theory. Thermo-mechanical properties of nano shpere is assumed to be temperature dependent. Governing partial differential equation of motion is solved analytically by using Laplace transform for time domain and power series for spacial domain. The results in Laplace domain is transferred to time domain by employing the fast inverse Laplace transform (FLIT) method. Accuracy of present approach is assessed by comparing the the numerical results with the results of published work in literature. Furtheremore, the effects of non-local parameter and wall thickness on the dynamic characteristics of the nano-sphere are studied.

Keywords: nano-scale spherical shell, nonlocal elasticity theory, thermomechanical shock, dynamic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
284 Determination of Elasticity Constants of Isotropic Thin Films Using Impulse Excitation Technique

Authors: M. F. Slim, A. Alhussein, F. Sanchette, M. François

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Thin films are widely used in various applications to enhance the surface properties and characteristics of materials. They are used in many domains such as: biomedical, automotive, aeronautics, military, electronics and energy. Depending on the elaboration technique, the elastic behavior of thin films may be different from this of bulk materials. This dependence on the elaboration techniques and their parameters makes the control of the elasticity constants of coated components necessary. Our work is focused on the characterization of the elasticity constants of isotropic thin films by means of Impulse Excitation Techniques. The tests rely on the measurement of the sample resonance frequency before and after deposition. In this work, a finite element model was performed with ABAQUS software. This model was then compared with the analytical approaches used to determine the Young’s and shear moduli. The best model to determine the film Young’s modulus was identified and a relation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of thin films of any thickness was developed. In order to confirm the model experimentally, Tungsten films were deposited on glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% purity tungsten target. The choice of tungsten was done because it is well known that its elastic behavior at crystal scale is ideally isotropic. The macroscopic elasticity constants, Young’s and shear moduli and Poisson’s ratio of the deposited film were determined by means of Impulse Excitation Technique. The Young’s modulus obtained from IET was compared with measurements by the nano-indentation technique. We did not observe any significant difference and the value is in accordance with the one reported in the literature. This work presents a new methodology on the determination of the elasticity constants of thin films using Impulse Excitation Technique. A formulation allowing the determination of the shear modulus of a coating, whatever the thickness, was developed and used to determine the macroscopic elasticity constants of tungsten films. The developed model was validated numerically and experimentally.

Keywords: characterization, coating, dynamical resonant method, Poisson's ratio, PVD, shear modulus, Young's modulus

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283 Evaluation of Static Modulus of Elasticity Depending on Concrete Compressive Strength

Authors: Klara Krizova, Rudolf Hela

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The paper is focused on monitoring of dependencies of different composition concretes on elastic modulus values. To obtain a summary of elastic modulus development independence of concrete composition design variability was the objective of the experiment. Essential part of this work was initiated as a reaction to building practice when questions of elastic moduli arose at the same time and which mostly did not obtain the required and expected values from concrete constructions. With growing interest in this theme the elastic modulus questions have been developing further.

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, EuroCode 2

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282 Approximate Solution of Some Mixed Boundary Value Problems of the Generalized Theory of Couple-Stress Thermo-Elasticity

Authors: Manana Chumburidze, David Lekveishvili

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We have considered the harmonic oscillations and general dynamic (pseudo oscillations) systems of theory generalized Green-Lindsay of couple-stress thermo-elasticity for isotropic, homogeneous elastic media. Approximate solution of some mixed boundary value problems for finite domain, bounded by the some closed surface are constructed.

Keywords: the couple-stress thermoelasticity, boundary value problems, dynamic problems, approximate solution

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281 The Effects of Topically-Applied Skin Moisturizer on Striae Gravidarum in East Indian Women

Authors: Dipanshu Sur, Ratnabali Chakravorty

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Background: Striae result from rapid expansion of the underlying tissue, e.g. during puberty, pregnancy or rapid weight gain. Prior data indicate that the incidence of stretch marks in Indian women is 77%.The hormonal and genetic factors are associated with their appearance. Recently that has been found skin extensibility, elasticity and rupture were strongly influenced by the water content of dermis and epidermis cells. Objective: The objectives were to assess the effects of topical treatments applied during pregnancy on the later development of stretch marks. Materials and methods: An open, prospective, randomized study was done on 120 pregnant women in whom skin elasticity and hydration as well as striae presence or apparition were measured at baseline and periodically until delivery. Patients were randomly assigned to application in wet skin cream, or in dry skin conditions. Results: The average basal hydration was 42 ±13 IU and the final was 46 ± 6 IU (P = 0.0325; 95% CI: -7.66 to -0.34), which difference was statistically significant. By measuring the moisture in the control region (forearm) a basal reading of 40 ± 9 IU and end of study of 38 ± 6; (p = 0.1547; 95% CI: -0.77 to 4.77) and this difference was considered to be not statistically significant. It was observed that at the end of the study, 55% women without ridges; mild ridges 5%; 36% moderate, and 4%, severe ridges. The proportion of women without grooves was 54% when the cream was applied studied wet skin and 45% when the cream was applied on dry skin. Conclusion: It was shown that cream under study increased hydration and elasticity of abdominal skin consequently in all subjects. This effect is more significant (54%) when the cream is applied to damp skin.

Keywords: striae gravidarum, skin moisturizer, skin hydration, skin elasticity

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280 Bulk/Hull Cavitation Induced by Underwater Explosion: Effect of Material Elasticity and Surface Curvature

Authors: Wenfeng Xie

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Bulk/hull cavitation evolution induced by an underwater explosion (UNDEX) near a free surface (bulk) or a deformable structure (hull) is numerically investigated using a multiphase compressible fluid solver coupled with a one-fluid cavitation model. A series of two-dimensional computations is conducted with varying material elasticity and surface curvature. Results suggest that material elasticity and surface curvature influence the peak pressures generated from UNDEX shock and cavitation collapse, as well as the bulk/hull cavitation regions near the surface. Results also show that such effects can be different for bulk cavitation generated from UNDEX-free surface interaction and for hull cavitation generated from UNDEX-structure interaction. More importantly, results demonstrate that shock wave focusing caused by a concave solid surface can lead to a larger cavitation region and thus intensify the cavitation reload. The findings can be linked to the strength and the direction of reflected waves from the structural surface and reflected waves from the expanding bubble surface, which are functions of material elasticity and surface curvature. Shockwave focusing effects are also observed for axisymmetric simulations, but the strength of the pressure contours for the axisymmetric simulations is less than those for the 2D simulations due to the difference between the initial shock energy. The current method is limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric applications. Moreover, the thermal effects are neglected and the liquid is not allowed to sustain tension in the cavitation model.

Keywords: cavitation, UNDEX, fluid-structure interaction, multiphase

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279 Modeling Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacted Concrete Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Ahmed M. Ashteyat

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Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models have been widely used in material modeling, inter-correlations, as well as behavior and trend predictions when the nonlinear relationship between system parameters cannot be quantified explicitly and mathematically. In this paper, ANN was used to predict the residual modulus of elasticity (RME) of self compacted concrete (SCC) damaged by heat. The ANN model was built, trained, tested and validated using a total of 112 experimental data sets, gathered from available literature. The data used in model development included temperature, relative humidity conditions, mix proportions, filler types, and fiber type. The result of ANN training, testing, and validation indicated that the RME of SCC, exposed to different temperature and relative humidity levels, could be predicted accurately with ANN techniques. The reliability between the predicated outputs and the actual experimental data was 99%. This show that ANN has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting residual elastic modulus of SCC damaged by heat within the range of input parameter. The ANN model could be used to estimate the RME of SCC, as a rapid inexpensive substitute for the much more complicated and time consuming direct measurement of the RME of SCC.

Keywords: residual modulus of elasticity, artificial neural networks, self compacted-concrete, material modeling

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278 Vibration Analysis of Magnetostrictive Nano-Plate by Using Modified Couple Stress and Nonlocal Elasticity Theories

Authors: Hamed Khani Arani, Mohammad Shariyat, Armaghan Mohammadian

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In the present study, the free vibration of magnetostrictive nano-plate (MsNP) resting on the Pasternak foundation is investigated. Firstly, the modified couple stress (MCS) and nonlocal elasticity theories are compared together and taken into account to consider the small scale effects; in this paper not only two theories are analyzed but also it improves the MCS theory is more accurate than nonlocal elasticity theory in such problems. A feedback control system is utilized to investigate the effects of a magnetic field. First-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), Hamilton’s principle and energy method are utilized in order to drive the equations of motion and these equations are solved by differential quadrature method (DQM) for simply supported boundary conditions. The MsNP undergoes in-plane forces in x and y directions. In this regard, the dimensionless frequency is plotted to study the effects of small scale parameter, magnetic field, aspect ratio, thickness ratio and compression and tension loads. Results indicate that these parameters play a key role on the natural frequency. According to the above results, MsNP can be used in the communications equipment, smart control vibration of nanostructure especially in sensor and actuators such as wireless linear micro motor and smart nano valves in injectors.

Keywords: feedback control system, magnetostrictive nano-plate, modified couple stress theory, nonlocal elasticity theory, vibration analysis

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277 Effect of Rubber Treatment on Compressive Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Rubberized Concrete

Authors: I. Miličević, M. Hadzima Nyarko, R. Bušić, J. Simonović Radosavljević, M. Prokopijević, K. Vojisavljević

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effects of different treatment methods of rubber aggregates for self-compacting concrete (SCC) on compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. SCC mixtures with 10% replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber by total aggregate volume and with different aggregate treatment methods were investigated. The rubber aggregate was treated in three different methods: dry process, water-soaking, and NaOH treatment plus water soaking. Properties of SCC in a fresh and hardened state were tested and evaluated. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of three different SCC patches were made and discussed. It was observed that applying the proposed NaOH plus water soaking method resulted in the improvement of fresh and hardened concrete properties. It resulted in a more uniform distribution of rubber particles in the cement matrix, a better bond between rubber particles and the cement matrix, and higher compressive strength of SCC rubberized concrete.

Keywords: compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, NaOH treatment, rubber aggregate, self-compacting rubberized concrete, scanning electron microscope analysis

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276 Accessibility of the Labor Market in Indonesian Cities

Authors: Hananto Prakoso, Jean-Pierre Orfeuil

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The relationship between city size, urban transport efficiency (speed), employment proximity (distance) and accessibility of labour market is rarely examined especially in developing countries. This paper reveals the relationship using 2 points of views (active population and company). Then the analysis is divided according to 3 transport modes (car, public transport and motorcycle) and takes into account the vehicle ownership rate. We employ data across 111 districts in 4 big cities of Indonesia. In our result, speed indicator contributed positively to accessibility of labour market while distance elasticity is negative. In absolute value, elasticity of speed indicator is higher than that of distance.

Keywords: labour market, travel time, travel cost threshold, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
275 Influence of Chemical Treatment on Elastic Properties of the Band Cotton Crepe 100%

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui, Madani Maalem

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The manufacturing technology of band cotton is very delicate and depends to choice of certain parameters such as torsion of warp yarn. The fabric elasticity is achieved without the use of any elastic material, chemical expansion, artificial or synthetic and it’s capable of creating pressures useful for therapeutic treatments.Before use, the band is subjected to treatments of specific preparation for obtaining certain elasticity, however, during its treatment, there are some regression parameters. The dependence of manufacturing parameters on the quality of the chemical treatment was confirmed. The aim of this work is to improve the properties of the fabric through the development of manufacturing technology appropriately. Finally for the treatment of the strip pancake 100% cotton, a treatment method is recommended.

Keywords: elastic, cotton, processing, torsion

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
274 Effects of Sn and Al on Phase Stability and Mechanical Properties of Metastable Beta Ti Alloys

Authors: Yonosuke Murayama

Abstract:

We have developed and studied a metastable beta Ti alloy, which shows super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus according to the phase stability of its beta phase. The super-elasticity and low Young’s modulus are required in a wide range of applications in various industrial fields. For example, the metallic implant with low Young’s modulus and non-toxicity is desirable because the large difference of Young’s modulus between the human bone and the implant material may cause a stress-shielding phenomenon. We have investigated the role of Sn and Al in metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys. The metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys form during quenching from the beta field at high temperature. While Cr and V act as beta stabilizers, Sn and Al are considered as elements to suppress the athermal omega phase produced during quenching. The athermal omega phase degrades the properties of super-elasticity and Young’s modulus. Although Al and Sn as single elements are considered as an alpha stabilizer and neutral, respectively, Sn and Al acted also as beta stabilizers when added simultaneously with beta stabilized element of Cr or V in this experiment. The quenched microstructure of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys shifts from martensitic structure to beta single-phase structure with increasing Cr or V. The Young’s modulus of Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys decreased and then increased with increasing Cr or V, each showing its own minimum value of Young's modulus respectively. The composition of the alloy with the minimum Young’s modulus is a near border composition where the quenched microstructure shifts from martensite to beta. The border composition of Ti-Cr-Sn and Ti-V-Sn alloys required only less amount of each beta stabilizer, Cr or V, than Ti-Cr-Al and Ti-V-Al alloys. This indicates that the effect of Sn as a beta stabilizer is stronger than Al. Sn and Al influenced the competitive relation between stress-induced martensitic transformation and slip deformation. Thus, super-elastic properties of metastable beta Ti-Cr-Sn, Ti-Cr-Al, Ti-V-Sn, and Ti-V-Al alloys varied depending on the alloyed element, Sn or Al.

Keywords: metastable beta Ti alloy, super-elasticity, low Young’s modulus, stress-induced martensitic transformation, beta stabilized element

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
273 A Study on FWD Deflection Bowl Parameters for Condition Assessment of Flexible Pavement

Authors: Ujjval J. Solanki, Prof.(Dr.) P.J. Gundaliya, Prof.M.D. Barasara

Abstract:

The application of Falling Weight Deflectometer is to evaluate structural performance of the flexible pavement. The exercise of back calculation is required to know the modulus of elasticity of existing in-service pavement. The process of back calculation needs in-depth field experience for the input of range of modulus of elasticity of bituminous, granular and subgrade layer, and its required number of trial to find such matching moduli with the observed FWD deflection on the field. The study carried out at Barnala-Mansa State Highway Punjab-India using FWD before and after overlay; the deflections obtained at 0 on the load cell, 300, 600, 900,1200, 1500 and 1800 mm interval from the load cell these seven deflection results used to calculate Surface Curvature Index (SCI), Base damage Index (BDI), Base curvature index (BCI). This SCI, BCI and BDI indices are useful to predict the structural performance of in-service pavement and also useful to identify homogeneous section for condition assessment. The SCI, BCI and BDI range are determined for before and after overlay the range of SCI 520 to 51 BDI 294 to 63 BCI 83 to 0.27 for old pavement and SCI 272 to 23 BDI 228 to 28, BCI 25.85 to 4.60 for new pavement. It also shows good correlation with back calculated modulus of elasticity of all the three layer.

Keywords: back calculation, base damage index, base curvature index, FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer), surface curvature index

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
272 Structural Properties of RC Beam with Progression of Corrosion Induced Delamination Cracking

Authors: Anupam Saxena, Achin Agrawal, Rishabh Shukla, S. Mandal

Abstract:

It is quite important that the properties of structural elements do not change significantly before and after cracking, and if they do, it adversely affects the structure. Corrosion in rebars causes cracking in concrete which can lead to the change in properties of beam. In the present study, two RC beams with same flexural strength but with different reinforcement arrangements are considered and modelling of cracks of RC beams has been done at different degrees of corrosion in the case of delamination using boundary conditions of Three Point Bending Test. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been done at different degree of corrosion to observe the variation of different parameters like modal frequency, Elasticity and Flexural strength in case of delamination. Also, the comparison between two different RC arrangements is made to conclude which one of them is more suitable.

Keywords: delamination, elasticity, FEA, flexural strength, modal frequency, RC beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 225